Science.gov

Sample records for acid site characterization

  1. Luminescence and IR characterization of acid sites on alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan-Fei; Suib, S.L. ); Deeba, M.; Koermer, G.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Luminescence and infrared (IR) spectroscopies of pyridine and ammonia adsorption have been used to measure acidities of [gamma]-alumina. Neither luminescence nor IR spectra of pyridine adsorption show an Bronsted acidity on [gamma]-alumina pretreated to 400[degrees]C. However, luminescence emission data reveal four weak OH bands even when pretreatment is done at 600[degrees]C. Pyridine and subsequent water adsorption yield six luminescence emission bands. A red shift of the pyridine emission band is found when pretreatment or desorption temperature is increased. IR spectra of ammonia on alumina pretreated at 400[degrees]C show three deformation bands at 1452, 1465, and 1485 cm[sup [minus]1]. The first band is also observed together with a band at 1554 cm[sup [minus]1] even for pretreatment at 950[degrees]C, and it corresponds to NH[sup +][sub 4] formed from dissociative adsorption of ammonia, while the other two bands are assigned to ammonia adsorbed on Bronsted acid sites. These two bands disappear along with the appearance of a new band at 1429 cm[sup [minus]1], when deuterated alumina is pretreated at 400[degrees]C and subsequently subjected to ammonia. This new band at 1429 cm[sup [minus]1] is due to NH[sub 3]D[sup +] formed from ammonia adsorbed on acidic OD sites. Consequently, ammonia IR results demonstrate the existence of Bronsted acid sites on alumina pretreated at 400[degrees]C. 38 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Identification and Pharmacological Characterization of Multiple Allosteric Binding Sites on the Free Fatty Acid 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel C.-H.; Guo, Qi; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jane; Nguyen, Kathy; Chen, Michael; Tran, Thanh; Dransfield, Paul J.; Brown, Sean P.; Houze, Jonathan; Vimolratana, Marc; Jiao, Xian Yun; Wang, Yingcai; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes. It was assumed previously that there is a single binding site for fatty acids and synthetic FFA1 agonists. However, using members of two chemical series of partial and full agonists that have been identified, radioligand binding interaction studies revealed that the full agonists do not bind to the same site as the partial agonists but exhibit positive heterotropic cooperativity. Analysis of functional data reveals positive functional cooperativity between the full agonists and partial agonists in various functional assays (in vitro and ex vivo) and also in vivo. Furthermore, the endogenous fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows negative or neutral cooperativity with members of both series of agonists in binding assays but displays positive cooperativity in functional assays. Another synthetic agonist is allosteric with members of both agonist series, but apparently competitive with DHA. Therefore, there appear to be three allosterically linked binding sites on FFA1 with agonists specific for each of these sites. Activation of free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR1) by each of these agonists is differentially affected by mutations of two arginine residues, previously found to be important for FFAR1 binding and activation. These ligands with their high potencies and strong positive functional cooperativity with endogenous fatty acids, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, have the potential to deliver therapeutic benefits. PMID:22859723

  3. Identification and pharmacological characterization of multiple allosteric binding sites on the free fatty acid 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daniel C-H; Guo, Qi; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jane; Nguyen, Kathy; Chen, Michael; Tran, Thanh; Dransfield, Paul J; Brown, Sean P; Houze, Jonathan; Vimolratana, Marc; Jiao, Xian Yun; Wang, Yingcai; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Swaminath, Gayathri

    2012-11-01

    Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes. It was assumed previously that there is a single binding site for fatty acids and synthetic FFA1 agonists. However, using members of two chemical series of partial and full agonists that have been identified, radioligand binding interaction studies revealed that the full agonists do not bind to the same site as the partial agonists but exhibit positive heterotropic cooperativity. Analysis of functional data reveals positive functional cooperativity between the full agonists and partial agonists in various functional assays (in vitro and ex vivo) and also in vivo. Furthermore, the endogenous fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows negative or neutral cooperativity with members of both series of agonists in binding assays but displays positive cooperativity in functional assays. Another synthetic agonist is allosteric with members of both agonist series, but apparently competitive with DHA. Therefore, there appear to be three allosterically linked binding sites on FFA1 with agonists specific for each of these sites. Activation of free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR1) by each of these agonists is differentially affected by mutations of two arginine residues, previously found to be important for FFAR1 binding and activation. These ligands with their high potencies and strong positive functional cooperativity with endogenous fatty acids, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, have the potential to deliver therapeutic benefits. PMID:22859723

  4. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  5. Site-Specific Characterization of d-Amino Acid Containing Peptide Epimers by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the d-amino acid containing peptide (DAACP) candidate can be discovered by observing the differences of biological activity and chromatographic retention time between the synthetic peptides and naturally occurring peptides. However, it is difficult to determine the exact position of d-amino acid in the DAACP candidates. Herein, we developed a novel site-specific strategy to rapidly and precisely localize d-amino acids in peptides by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) analysis of mass spectrometry (MS)-generated epimeric fragment ions. Briefly, the d/l-peptide epimers were separated by online reversed-phase liquid chromatography and fragmented by collision-induced dissociation (CID), followed by IMS analysis. The epimeric fragment ions resulting from d/l-peptide epimers exhibit conformational differences, thus showing different mobilities in IMS. The arrival time shift between the epimeric fragment ions was used as criteria to localize the d-amino acid substitution. The utility of this strategy was demonstrated by analysis of peptide epimers with different molecular sizes, [d-Trp]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, [d-Ala]-deltorphin, [d-Phe]-achatin-I, and their counterparts that contain all-l amino acids. Furthermore, the crustacean hyperglycemia hormones (CHHs, 8.5 kDa) were isolated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and identified by integration of MS-based bottom-up and top-down sequencing approaches. The IMS data acquired using our novel site-specific strategy localized the site of isomerization of l- to d-Phe at the third residue of the CHHs from the N-terminus. Collectively, this study demonstrates a new method for discovery of DAACPs using IMS technique with the ability to localize d-amino acid residues. PMID:24328107

  6. FT-IR characterization of the acidic and basic sites on a nanostructured aluminum nitride surface

    SciTech Connect

    Baraton, M.I.; Chen, X.; Gonsalves, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    A nanostructured aluminum nitride powder prepared by sol-gel type chemical synthesis is analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The surface acidic and basic sites are probed out by adsorption of several organic molecules. Resulting from the unavoidable presence of oxygen, the aluminum nitride surface is an oxinitride layer in fact, and its surface chemistry should present some analogies with alumina. Therefore, a thorough comparison between the acido-basicity of aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide is discussed. The remaining nitrogen atoms in the first atomic layer modify the acidity-basicity relative balance and reveals the specificity of the aluminum nitride surface.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  8. Site characterization and containment/remediation of acid mine drainage at an abandoned mine waste dump

    SciTech Connect

    Djahanguiri, F.; Snodgrass, J.; Koerth, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the preliminary results of laboratory tests to evaluate a new suspension grout consisting of a mixture of a naturally occurring lignite coal based wax {open_quotes}montan wax{close_quotes}, sodium bentonite {open_quotes}pure gold grout{close_quotes}, and water. The test program assesses the suitability of the grout for creating subsurface containment barriers in coal waste dump sites for acid mine seepage control to surface and ground waters. The laboratory activities evaluated the reduction in permeability that could be achieved in a coal waste dump site under optimum conditions and the compatibility of the grout with representative waste from the test site. Information on geological, geochemical and geophysical about the test site is presented. Laboratory formulation of the grout is complete and simulation of field condition is in progress. Pregrout geophysical surveys for determination of hydrogeologic conditions at the site are also completed. Based on geophysical surveys, a grout curtain is proposed which will consist of two rows of grout placement holes in an array across the seepage area toward Belt Creek in Montana, Post-grout geophysical survey will be carried out immediately after grouting work. Performance of the grout curtain will be monitored by collection of water samples from monitoring wells in the Belt Creek and seepage area.

  9. Characterization of Fe(II) oxidizing bacterial activities and communities at two acidic Appalachian coalmine drainage-impacted sites

    SciTech Connect

    Senko, John M.; Wanjugi, Pauline; Lucas, Melanie; Bruns, Mary Ann; Burgos, William D.

    2008-06-12

    We characterized the microbiologically mediated oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) from coalminederived acidic mine drainage (AMD) along flow-paths at two sites in northern Pennsylvania. At the Gum Boot site, dissolved Fe(II) was efficiently removed from AMD whereas minimal Fe(II) removal occurred at the Fridays-2 site. Neither site received human intervention to treat the AMD. Culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were most abundant at sampling locations along the AMD flow path corresponding to greatest Fe(II) removal and where overlying water contained abundant dissolved O2. Rates of Fe(II) oxidation determined in laboratory-based sediment incubations were also greatest at these sampling locations. Ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes recovered from sediment bacterial communities revealed similarities among populations at points receiving regular inputs of Fe(II)-rich AMD and provided evidence for the presence of bacterial lineages capable of Fe(II) oxidation. A notable difference between bacterial communities at the two sites was the abundance of Chloroflexi-affiliated 16S rRNA gene sequences in clone libraries derived from the Gum Boot sediments. Our results suggest that inexpensive and reliable AMD treatment strategies can be implemented by mimicking the conditions present at the Gum Boot field site.

  10. Characterization of cyclo-Acetoacetyl-L-Tryptophan Dimethylallyltransferase in Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis: Substrate Promiscuity and Site Directed Mutagenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2009-01-01

    The fungal neurotoxin α-cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a nanomolar inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase with a unique pentacyclic indole tetramic acid scaffold is assembled by a three enzyme pathway CpaS, CpaD and CpaO in Aspergillus sp. We recently characterized the first pathway-specific enzyme CpaS, a hybrid two module polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) that generates cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan (cAATrp). Here we report the characterization of the second pathway-specific enzyme CpaD that regiospecifically dimethylallylates cAATrp to form β-cyclopiazonic acid. By exploring the tryptophan and tetramate moieties of cAATrp, we demonstrate that CpaD discriminates against free Trp but accepts tryptophan-containing thiohydantoins, diketopiperazines and linear peptides as substrates for C4-prenylation and also acts as regiospecific O-dimethylallyltransferase (DMAT) on a tyrosine-derived tetramic acid. Comparative evaluation of CpaDs from A. oryzae RIB40 and A. flavus NRRL3357 indicated the importance of the N-terminal region for its activity. Sequence alignment of CpaD with eleven homologous fungal Trp-DMATs revealed five regions of conservation suggesting the presense of critical motifs that could be diagonostic for discovering additional Trp-DMATs. Subsequent site-directed mutagenesis studies identified five polar/charged residues and five tyrosine residues within these motifs that are critical for CpaD activity. This motif characerization will enable a gene probe-based approach to discover additional biosynthetic Trp-DMATs. PMID:19877600

  11. Site characterization handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This Handbook discusses both management and technical elements that should be considered in developing a comprehensive site characterization program. Management elements typical of any project of a comparable magnitude and complexity are combined with a discussion of strategies specific to site characterization. Information specific to the technical elements involved in site characterization is based on guidance published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with respect to licensing requirements for LLW disposal facilities. The objective of this Handbook is to provide a reference for both NRC Agreement States and non-Agreement States for use in developing a comprehensive site characterization program that meets the specific objectives of the State and/or site developer/licensee. Each site characterization program will vary depending on the objectives, licensing requirements, schedules/budgets, physical characteristics of the site, proposed facility design, and the specific concerns raised by government agencies and the public. Therefore, the Handbook is not a prescriptive guide to site characterization. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Expedited site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, I.; Booth, S.R.

    1997-03-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) is being offered as a new, more cost-effective way to perform DOE environmental site characterizations. Site characterization of environmental cleanup sites can be costly and time consuming. {open_quotes}Traditional techniques,{close_quotes} though effective, are the outgrowth of cautious and often restrictive regulatory control. At some sites up to 40% of the funds and 70% of the time spent on cleanup operations have been devoted to characterization. More realistically, the DOE`s Ten Year Plan (TYP) Cost Rollup by Category (high budgetary version) budgets $1.34 billion to remedial action assessments out of a total of $9.7 billion in remedial actions - about 14% of the total TYP expenditures for this type of cleanup work. The expenditure percentage for characterization drops to a much lower 3% of total expenditures during outyears, after 2006, as most of the assessments will have been completed during the early TYP years. (The sampling and monitoring costs, however, rise from 7% of the budget during the TYP to 30% during the outyears as this activity continues and others decline. Improved characterizations could have the potential to reduce the need for some of these ongoing monitoring costs.) Fortunately, regulatory agencies have begun to relax many of the constraints on site characterization allowing more efficient and innovative approaches to be applied. Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Site Characterization is perhaps the best defined of these new approaches. ESC is founded on the premise that it is cheaper, faster, and more efficient to develop and test a conceptual model (or {open_quotes}hypothesis{close_quotes}) of contamination at a site than it is to collect data on a statistical basis and then attempt to model a site from those data. The difference between these two approaches has been described as a {open_quotes}scientific versus an engineering approach{close_quotes}.

  13. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Yong; Hu, Mary Y.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-18

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS {sup 15}N NMR, static {sup 2}H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these Broensted acid sites is confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In contrast, terminal W-OH sites are very stable and only weakly acidic as are terminal Si-OH sites. Furthermore, molecular interactions between pyridine molecules and the dimer Broensted and terminal W-OH sites for dispersed tungsten oxide species is strong. This results in restricted molecular motion for the interacting pyridine molecules even at room temperature, i.e., a reorientation mainly about the molecular 2-fold axis. This restricted reorientation makes it possible to estimate the relative ratio of the Broensted (tungsten dimer) to the weakly acidic terminal W-OH sites in the catalyst using the slow-MAS {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N CP PASS method.

  14. Characterization of an intracellular hyaluronic acid binding site in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, S.J.; Raja, R.H.; Weigel, P.H. )

    1990-11-13

    125I-HA, prepared by chemical modification at the reducing sugar, specifically binds to rat hepatocytes in suspension or culture. Intact hepatocytes have relatively few surface 125I-HA binding sites and show low specific binding. However, permeabilization of hepatocytes with the nonionic detergent digitonin results in increased specific 125I-HA binding (45-65%) and a very large increase in the number of specific 125I-HA binding sites. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium 125I-HA binding to permeabilized hepatocytes in suspension at 4 degrees C indicates a Kd = 1.8 x 10(-7) M and 1.3 x 10(6) molecules of HA (Mr approximately 30,000) bound per cell at saturation. Hepatocytes in primary culture for 24 h show the same affinity but the total number of HA molecules bound per cell at saturation decreases to approximately 6.2 x 10(5). Increasing the ionic strength above physiologic concentrations decreases 125I-HA binding to permeable cells, whereas decreasing the ionic strength above causes an approximately 4-fold increase. The divalent cation chelator EGTA does not prevent binding nor does it release 125I-HA bound in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2, although higher divalent cation concentrations stimulate 125I-HA binding. Ten millimolar CaCl2 or MnCl2 increases HA binding 3-6-fold compared to EGTA-treated cells. Ten millimolar MgCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2 increased HA binding by 2-fold. The specific binding of 125I-HA to digitonin-treated hepatocytes at 4{degrees}C increased greater than 10-fold at pH 5.0 as compared to pH 7.

  15. Site characterization rover missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley

    1990-01-01

    Concepts for site characterization rovers capable of efficient operation on Mars with human supervision from earth are discussed. In particular, attention is given to strategies for developing and evaluating the necessary technology for implementing the roving vehicles and process technologies required for a systematic and integrated implementation of technologically advanced rovers. A vehicle testbed program is also described.

  16. Site characterization techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  17. Characterization of thermally stable Brønsted acid sites on alumina-supported niobium oxide after calcination at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Tomoyuki; Shishido, Tetsuya; Teramura, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tsunehiro

    2013-08-01

    Thermally stable Brønsted acid sites were generated on alumina-supported niobium oxide (Nb2O5/Al2O3) by calcination at high temperatures, such as 1123 K. The results of structural characterization by using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, TEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that the Nb2O5 monolayer domains were highly dispersed over alumina at low Nb2O5 loadings, such as 5 wt%, and no Brønsted acid sites were presents. The coverage of Nb2O5 monolayer domains over Al2O3 increased with increasing Nb2O5 loading and almost-full coverage was obtained at a loading of 16 wt%. A sharp increase in the number of hydroxy groups, which acted as Brønsted acid sites, was observed at this loading level. The relationship between the acidic properties and the structure of the material suggested that the bridging hydroxy groups (Nb-O(H)-Nb), which were formed at the boundaries between the domains of the Nb2O5 monolayer, acted as thermally stable Brønsted acid sites. PMID:23784806

  18. Characterization of the N-Acetyl-5-neuraminic Acid-binding Site of the Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor (SiaP) of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain 2019

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jason W.; Coussens, Nathan P.; Allen, Simon; Houtman, Jon C.D.; Turner, Keith H.; Zaleski, Anthony; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-11-14

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic human pathogen causing otitis media in children and chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The outer membrane of nontypeable H. influenzae is dominated by lipooligosaccharides (LOS), many of which incorporate sialic acid as a terminal nonreducing sugar. Sialic acid has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the survival of the bacteria within the host environment. H. influenzae is incapable of synthesizing sialic acid and is dependent on scavenging free sialic acid from the host environment. To achieve this, H. influenzae utilizes a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter. In this study, we characterize the binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) from nontypeable H. influenzae strain 2019. A crystal structure of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-bound SiaP was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Thermodynamic characterization of Neu5Ac binding shows this interaction is enthalpically driven with a substantial unfavorable contribution from entropy. This is expected because the binding of SiaP to Neu5Ac is mediated by numerous hydrogen bonds and has several buried water molecules. Point mutations targeting specific amino acids were introduced in the putative binding site. Complementation with the mutated siaP constructs resulted either in full, partial, or no complementation, depending on the role of specific residues. Mass spectrometry analysis of the O-deacylated LOS of the R127K point mutation confirmed the observation of reduced incorporation of Neu5Ac into the LOS. The decreased ability of H. influenzae to import sialic acid had negative effects on resistance to complement-mediated killing and viability of biofilms in vitro, confirming the importance of sialic acid transport to the bacterium.

  19. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeologic characterization is crucial to evaluations of the performance of natural attenuation processes when monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is considered for remedy implementation. Stratigraphic and lithologic data define the framework for ground-water flow and contam...

  20. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  1. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  2. SITE CHARACTERIZATION LIBRARY VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Characterization Library is a CD that provides a centralized, field-portable source for site characterization information. Version 3 of the Site Characterization Library contains additional (from earlier versions) electronic documents and computer programs related to th...

  3. Lunar site characterization and mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

  4. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich, (Edited By); King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  5. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  6. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  7. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  8. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  9. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  10. Molecular characterization of the body site-specific human epidermal cytokeratin 9: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Langbein, L; Heid, H W; Moll, I; Franke, W W

    1993-12-01

    Differentiation of human plantar and palmar epidermis is characterized by the suprabasal synthesis of a major special intermediate-sized filament (IF) protein, the type I (acidic) cytokeratin 9 (CK 9). Using partial amino acid (aa) sequence information obtained by direct Edman sequencing of peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of purified CK 9, we synthesized several redundant primers by 'back-translation'. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription of mRNAs from human foot sole epidermis, including 5'-primer extension, resulted in multiple overlapping cDNA clones, from which the complete cDNA (2353 bp) could be constructed. This cDNA encoded the CK 9 polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 61,987 and an isoelectric point at about pH 5.0. The aa sequence deduced from cDNA was verified in several parts by comparison with the peptide sequences and showed the typical structure of type I CKs, with a head (153 aa), and alpha-helical coiled-coil-forming rod (306 aa), and a tail (163 aa) domain. The protein displayed the highest homology to human CK 10, not only in the highly conserved rod domain but also in large parts of the head and the tail domains. On the other hand, the aa sequence revealed some remarkable differences from CK 10 and other CKs, even in the most conserved segments of the rod domain. The nuclease digestion pattern seen on Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA indicated the existence of a unique CK 9 gene. Using CK 9-specific riboprobes for hybridization on Northern blots of RNAs from various epithelia, a mRNA of about 2.4 kb in length could be identified only in foot sole epidermis, and a weaker cross-hybridization signal was seen in RNA from bovine heel pad epidermis at about 2.0 kb. A large number of tissues and cell cultures were examined by PCR of mRNA-derived cDNAs, using CK 9-specific primers. But even with this very sensitive signal amplification, only palmar

  11. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  12. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  13. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO2 in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity = 1000 mg/l CaCO3). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to 6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). The ???30% of the residual grains in the pulsed flow reactor that are armored have thicker (50- to 100-??m), more aluminous coatings and lack the gypsum rind that develops in the constant flow experiment. Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Double tracks test site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  15. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.15 Site characterization. (a) Prior to submittal of an application for a license to...

  16. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.15 Site characterization. (a) Prior to submittal of an application for a license to...

  17. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.15 Site characterization. (a) Prior to submittal of an application for a license to...

  18. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.15 Site characterization. (a) Prior to submittal of an application for a license to...

  19. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.15 Site characterization. (a) Prior to submittal of an application for a license to...

  20. Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

  1. CANTON CAFO FIELD SITE STUDY - SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTAMINANT IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation of CAFO research concerning the Canton CAFO field site study, including its characterization and contaminant impacts, was given at a NRMRL program review discussion of the CAFO Research Program.

  2. Characterization of GNSS site stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, GNSS data have been and are still being collected that allow position determinations of relatively close sites. Some of these sites installed near GGOS reference sites are deployed to provide stability measurements to the nearby VLBI and/or SLR sites. Other deployments have been aimed assessing the stability of different monuments. One such experiment is being performed by UNAVCO as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory and seeks to compare drilled braced monuments will pillar type monuments. Tests have also been carried out radomes being removed and replaced. In this paper we examine these data and assess the magnitudes of the variations seen in the position estimates and thus provide a lower bound on the stability of monuments and the effects of some radomes. We will also apply different analysis methods to these data to assess the impacts of processing methods. For radomes, site multipath effects and antenna problems, comparing dual frequency analyses, the method always needed for site separations of more than 1 km, with single frequency solutions can yield bounds on the frequency dependent errors that can arise from multipath and possibly radomes. The best of the short baseline results have root-mean-square (RMS) scatters of 80 microns horizontally and 200 microns vertically over a 12-month period. Some monument types show much greater variations. Radome effects can be several millimeters and in some cases the largest effect of removing radomes can be horizontal.

  3. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio. PMID:27514871

  4. Criteria pollutant and acid aerosol characterization study, Catano, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, E.S.; Harlos, D.P.; Sune, J.M.; Akland, G.G.; Vallero, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The primary objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization Study (CPAACS) was to measure criteria pollutant concentrations and acid aerosol concentrations in and around the Ward of Catano, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 1994. Continuous air sampling for criteria pollutants was performed at three fixed stations and one moobile station that was deployed to four locations. Air samples for acid aerosol analyses and particulate matter measurements were collected at three sites. Semicontinuous sulfate analysis was performed at the primary site. Continuous measurements of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity were also made at each site. The study was conducted from June 1 through September 30, 1994.

  5. Acid-site characterization of water-oxidized alumina films by near-edge x-ray absorption and soft x-ray photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hagan, P.J.; Merrill, R.P.; Rhodin, T.N.; Woronick, S.W.; Shinn, N.D.; Woolery, G.L.; Chester, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hydroxylated alumina films have been synthesized by water oxidation of single crystal Al(110) surfaces. Thermal dehydroxylation results in anion vacancies which produce an Al(3s) defect state 3.5 eV below the conduction band edge. A maximum in the defect-DOS occurs for oxides heated to 350 to 400C, which is where the materials exhibit maximum Lewis acidity with respect to C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Adsorbed C{sub 2}H{sub 4} produces thermally active C{sub 2} species which interact covalently with the defect-DOS and nonbonding O(2p) from the top of the valence band. C(1s) binding energies suggest significant charge transfer which is consistent with a carbenium ion. Ni evaporated onto the surface, however, transfers charge directly to Al species and does not interact with O atoms at the defect site. The defect-DOS is regenerated when the C{sub 2} species decomposes or when Ni migrates thermally through the oxide layer.

  6. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  7. Astronomical Site Characterization at the Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Varela, A. M.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma) and Teide Observatory (Tenerife) are prime astronomical sites, as confirmed by more than 30 years of intensive site-testing campaigns. The IAC has long been aware of the importance of promoting initiatives for the characterization and protection of the Canarian Observatories. For this purpose, in the late ’80s a Sky Team was created to measure the atmospheric parameters relating to astronomical observations, to design and develop new instruments and techniques for astronomical site testing, and to improve and maintain a high level of instrumentation in site characterization. New instruments and techniques are welcomed by the Observatories.

  8. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  9. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (WORKSHOP MSA PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  10. Characterizing Site Hydrology (Region 10, Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 8 WORKSHOP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  12. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL. PMID:26820485

  13. Plans for characterization of salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, G.E.; Matthews, S.C.; Kircher, J.F.; Kennedy, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    This basic salt site characterization program has been designed to provide the data required to support the design, performance assessment, and licensing of each of the principal project elements: the repository, the shafts, and the surface facilities. The work has been sequenced to meet the design and licensing schedule. It is anticipated that additional characterization activities will be performed to address site-specific considerations and to provide additional information to address questions which arise during the evaluation of characterization data. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Site atlas 1997. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for an underground repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Atlas is a tool used to cartographically display some of the Geographic Information System (GIS) data in the form of thematic map products. Essentially, the Site Atlas is a compilation of map products that are designed to illustrate the location and extent of site characterization studies. Additionally, the Site Atlas provides maps showing project administrative boundaries and basemaps in the vicinity of the project. The data are current through September 1997. The Atlas is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains GIS maps and supporting characteristic data for geology; stratigraphy; tectonics; volcanism; hydrology; geochemistry; environmental issues; paleontology; repository design; YMP boreholes, trenches, pits, pavements, and exposures; basemap features; and surface-based testing activities, and Part 2 contains 1:6,000- and 1:12,000-scale orthophotography basemaps and orthophotography-based hypsography maps (topographic data). This data is shown at a 50% reduction. The maps and orthophotographs in this Site Atlas are provided to YMP participants as an informational source only and are not for making precise measurements. The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description statement on each map identifies the quality status of the thematic data presented. The Site Atlas is not a comprehensive guide; it does not include all scientific features or studies undertaken for the YMP. The features presented are a small subset of the total work being conducted for the project.

  15. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for acidic, basic, and neutral amino acid olfactory receptor sites in the catfish.

    PubMed

    Caprio, J; Byrd, R P

    1984-09-01

    Electrophysiological experiments indicate that olfactory receptors of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, contain different receptor sites for the acidic (A), basic (B), and neutral amino acids; further, at least two partially interacting neutral sites exist, one for the hydrophilic neutral amino acids containing short side chains (SCN), and the second for the hydrophobic amino acids containing long side chains (LCN). The extent of cross-adaptation was determined by comparing the electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses to 20 "test" amino acids during continuous bathing of the olfactory mucosa with water only (control) to those during each of the eight "adapting" amino acid regimes. Both the adapting and test amino acids were adjusted in concentrations to provide approximately equal response magnitudes in the unadapted state. Under all eight adapting regimes, the test EOG responses were reduced from those obtained in the unadapted state, but substantial quantitative differences resulted, depending upon the molecular structure of the adapting stimulus. Analyses of the patterns of EOG responses to the test stimuli identified and characterized the respective "transduction processes," a term used to describe membrane events initiated by a particular subset of amino acid stimuli that are intricately linked to the origin of the olfactory receptor potential. Only when the stimulus compounds interact with different transduction processes are the stimuli assumed to bind to different membrane "sites." Four relatively independent L-alpha-amino acid transduction processes (and thus at least four binding sites) identified in this report include: (a) the A process for aspartic and glutamic acids; (b) the B process for arginine and lysine; (c) the SCN process for glycine, alanine, serine, glutamine, and possibly cysteine; (d) the LCN process for methionine, ethionine, valine, norvaline, leucine, norleucine, glutamic acid-gamma-methyl ester, histidine, phenylalanine, and also

  17. E-ELT site characterization status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernin, J.; Muñoz-Tuñon, C.; Sarazin, M.

    2008-07-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the EC, within the "ELT Design Study" proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 "Site Characterization" important use has been done of previous works in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: To characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore 3 other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izana in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer.

  18. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-07-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH{sub 3}). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear.

  19. MOLA-Based Landing Site Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.; Ivanov, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data provide the basis for site characterization and selection never before possible. The basic MOLA information includes absolute radii, elevation and 1 micrometer albedo with derived datasets including digital image models (DIM's illuminated elevation data), slopes maps and slope statistics and small scale surface roughness maps and statistics. These quantities are useful in downsizing potential sites from descent engineering constraints and landing/roving hazard and mobility assessments. Slope baselines at the few hundred meter level and surface roughness at the 10 meter level are possible. Additionally, the MOLA-derived Mars surface offers the possibility to precisely register and map project other instrument datasets (images, ultraviolet, infrared, radar, etc.) taken at different resolution, viewing and lighting geometry, building multiple layers of an information cube for site characterization and selection. Examples of direct MOLA data, data derived from MOLA and other instruments data registered to MOLA arc given for the Hematite area.

  20. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper. PMID:24213742

  1. Characterization of anthropogenic and natural sources of acid rock drainage at the Cinnamon Gulch abandoned mine land inventory site, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colorado's Cinnamon Gulch releases acid rock drainage (ARD) from anthropogenic and natural sources. In 2001, the total discharge from Cinnamon Gulch was measured at 1.02 cfs (29 L/s) at base flow and 4.3 cfs (122 L/s) at high flow (spring runoff). At base flow, natural sources account for 98% of the discharge from the watershed, and about 96% of the chemical loading. At high flow, natural sources contribute 96% of discharge and 92 to 95% of chemical loading. The pH is acidic throughout the Cinnamon Gulch watershed, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4. At baseflow, nearly all of the trace metals analyzed in the 18 samples exceeded state hardness-dependent water quality standards for aquatic life. Maximum dissolved concentrations of selected constituents included 16 mg/ L aluminum, 15 mg/L manganese, 40 mg/L iron, 2 mg/L copper, 560 ??g/L lead, 8.4 mg/L zinc, and 300 mg/L sulfate. Average dissolved concentrations of selected metals at baseflow were 5.5 mg/L aluminum, 5.5 mg/L manganese, 14 ??g/L cadmium, 260 ??g/L copper, 82 ??g/L lead, and 2.8 mg/L zinc.

  2. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  3. Toxicological Characterization of Phthalic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Du Yeon; Lee, In Kyung

    2011-01-01

    There has been growing concern about the toxicity of phthalate esters. Phthalate esters are being used widely for the production of perfume, nail varnish, hairsprays and other personal/cosmetic uses. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. The parent phthalate is rapidly metabolized to its monoester (the active metabolite) and also glucuronidated, then excreted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of phthalic acid (PA), which is the final common metabolic form of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). The individual PA isomers are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents, for example isophthalic acid (IPA), and terephthalic acid (TPA), which have very broad applications in the preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items. There is a broad potential for exposure by industrial workers during the manufacturing process and by the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). This review suggests that PA shows in vitro and in vivo toxicity (mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc.). In addition, PA seems to be a useful biomarker for multiple exposure to PAEs in humans. PMID:24278572

  4. Toxicological characterization of phthalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bang, Du Yeon; Lee, In Kyung; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2011-12-01

    There has been growing concern about the toxicity of phthalate esters. Phthalate esters are being used widely for the production of perfume, nail varnish, hairsprays and other personal/cosmetic uses. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. The parent phthalate is rapidly metabolized to its monoester (the active metabolite) and also glucuronidated, then excreted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of phthalic acid (PA), which is the final common metabolic form of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). The individual PA isomers are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents, for example isophthalic acid (IPA), and terephthalic acid (TPA), which have very broad applications in the preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items. There is a broad potential for exposure by industrial workers during the manufacturing process and by the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). This review suggests that PA shows in vitro and in vivo toxicity (mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc.). In addition, PA seems to be a useful biomarker for multiple exposure to PAEs in humans. PMID:24278572

  5. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  6. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  7. Characterization of the Functional Roles of Amino Acid Residues in Acceptor-binding Subsite +1 in the Active Site of the Glucansucrase GTF180 from Lactobacillus reuteri 180.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Pijning, Tjaard; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-12-11

    α-Glucans produced by glucansucrase enzymes hold strong potential for industrial applications. The exact determinants of the linkage specificity of glucansucrase enzymes have remained largely unknown, even with the recent elucidation of glucansucrase crystal structures. Guided by the crystal structure of glucansucrase GTF180-ΔN from Lactobacillus reuteri 180 in complex with the acceptor substrate maltose, we identified several residues (Asp-1028 and Asn-1029 from domain A, as well as Leu-938, Ala-978, and Leu-981 from domain B) near subsite +1 that may be critical for linkage specificity determination, and we investigated these by random site-directed mutagenesis. First, mutants of Ala-978 (to Leu, Pro, Phe, or Tyr) and Asp-1028 (to Tyr or Trp) with larger side chains showed reduced degrees of branching, likely due to the steric hindrance by these bulky residues. Second, Leu-938 mutants (except L938F) and Asp-1028 mutants showed altered linkage specificity, mostly with increased (α1 → 6) linkage synthesis. Third, mutation of Leu-981 and Asn-1029 significantly affected the transglycosylation reaction, indicating their essential roles in acceptor substrate binding. In conclusion, glucansucrase product specificity is determined by an interplay of domain A and B residues surrounding the acceptor substrate binding groove. Residues surrounding the +1 subsite thus are critical for activity and specificity of the GTF180 enzyme and play different roles in the enzyme functions. This study provides novel insights into the structure-function relationships of glucansucrase enzymes and clearly shows the potential of enzyme engineering to produce tailor-made α-glucans. PMID:26507662

  8. Comprehensive Characterization a Tidal Energy Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polagye, B. L.; Thomson, J. M.; Bassett, C. S.; Epler, J.; Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2010-12-01

    Northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington is the proposed location of a pilot tidal energy project. Site-specific characterization of the physical and biological environment is required for device engineering and environmental analysis. However, the deep water and strong currents which make the site attractive for tidal energy development also pose unique challenges to collecting comprehensive information. This talk focuses on efforts to optimally site hydrokinetic turbines and estimate their acoustic impact, based on 18 months of field data collected to date. Additional characterization efforts being undertaken by the University of Washington branch of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center and its partners include marine mammal presence and behavior, water quality, seabed geology, and biofouling potential. Because kinetic power density varies with the cube of horizontal current velocity, an accurate map of spatial current variations is required to optimally site hydrokinetic turbines. Acoustic Doppler profilers deployed on the seabed show operationally meaningful variations in flow characteristics (e.g., power density, directionality, vertical shear) and tidal harmonic constituents over length scales of less than 100m. This is, in part, attributed to the proximity of this site to a headland. Because of these variations, interpolation between stationary measurement locations introduces potentially high uncertainty. The use of shipboard acoustic Doppler profilers is shown to be an effective tool for mapping peak currents and, combined with information from seabed profilers, may be able to resolve power density variations in the project area. Because noise levels from operating turbines are expected to exceed regulatory thresholds for incidental harassment of marine mammals known to be present in the project area, an estimate of the acoustic footprint is required to permit the pilot project. This requires site-specific descriptions of pre

  9. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  10. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  11. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Richardson, B.S.; Pence, J.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. To address the need to minimize the exposure of on-site personnel to the hazards associated with such sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by an radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS). The sensors are environmentally protected, internally cooled, and interchangeable based on mission requirements. To date, the RCS has been successfully tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  12. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  13. Miscellaneous chemical basin expedited site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.; Pemberton, B.E.; Rossabi, J.

    1996-12-01

    A total of twenty nine cone penetrometer test (CPT) pushes in three weeks were conducted for vadose zone characterization of the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin (MCB) waste unit at the Savannah River Site. The shallow, unlined basin received liquid chemical wastes over an 18 year period beginning in 1956. This characterization was initiated to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination in the vadose zone and to install vadose zone wells for remediation by barometric pumping or active vapor extraction to help prevent further contamination of groundwater. The CPT locations within the waste site were selected based on results from previous shallow soil gas surveys, groundwater contamination data, and the suspected basin center. Geophysical data and soil gas samples were collected at twenty five locations and twenty five vadose zone wells were installed. The wells were screened to target the clay zones and areas of higher soil gas concentrations. The well construction diagrams are provided in Appendix B. Baro-Ball{trademark} valves for enhanced barometric pumping were installed on each well upon completion to immediately begin the remediation treatability study at the site.

  14. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandness, Gerald A.; Richardson, Bradley S.; Pence, Jon

    1994-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. By performing these tasks with remotely controlled sensors, it is possible to obtain improved data quality and consistency as well as enhanced safety for on-site workers. Therefore, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by a radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS).

  15. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  16. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  17. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Garza, J.C. de la

    1994-12-31

    Because performance standards are not established for the Yucca Mountain Site (the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been remanded), it is necessary to define surrogate or derived criteria to evaluate performance. The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) in 1988 attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish repository performance. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. This paper reports on a two month effort undertaken to reevaluate the SCP thermal goals using an expert Working Group. Fifteen thermal goals identified in various sections of the SCP were evaluated by the Working Group. It was recommended that two goals be deleted: (1) to keep borehole wall temperature < 275 degrees C and keep the mid-drift temperature < 100 degrees C. It was also recommended that one goal be added to establish a thermal loading that would not degrade the Upper Paintbrush Tuff Formation (Lowermost Tiva Canyon; Yucca Mountain; Pah Canyon; and Uppermost Topopah Spring Members) (Vitric nonwelded) (PTn) barrier. Two other thermal goals and a process statement were reworded to afford compatibility with any emplacement mode, not just the vertical borehole. A recommendation was made to increase the conservatism of a goal to limit potential impact on the surface environment by limiting temperature rise to < 2 degrees C rather than < 6 degrees C. This revised set of goals was used in the Thermal Loading Systems Study.

  18. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-04

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

  19. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  20. Structural and electronic features of a Broensted acid site in H-ZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.J.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Bell, A.T.; Theodorou, D.N. Univ. of California, Berkeley )

    1993-06-24

    The authors report the results of local density functional theory calculations on a Broensted acid site of the zeolite H-ZSM-5. They have investigated the structural and electronic properties of the site. Comparison is made between their results and existing experimental data. It is shown that structural relaxation around an acid site must be performed to obtain accurate energetics for substitution of aluminum into the zeolite framework. The effects of cluster termination are studied by comparing results obtained for both isolated clusters and clusters embedded in a Madelung field generated by the zeolite framework. The properties of the electron density distribution in the region around an acidic proton indicate that the acidic moiety may be characterized as a rather soft acid. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid base titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Bhowmik, P.; Zhao, B.; Hamon, M. A.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C.

    2001-09-01

    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) - by simple acid-base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO 3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The total percentage of acidic sites in full length purified SWNTs from TAR, CLI and CSI are about 1-3%.

  2. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. 40 CFR 280.63 - Initial site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial site characterization. 280.63... Hazardous Substances § 280.63 Initial site characterization. (a) Unless directed to do otherwise by the implementing agency, owners and operators must assemble information about the site and the nature of...

  4. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.

  5. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  6. Diffractaic acid: Crystalline structure and physicochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Fonseca, Jéssica; de Oliveira, Yara Santiago; Bezerra, Beatriz P.; Ellena, Javier; Honda, Neli Kika; Silva, Camilla V. N. S.; da Silva Santos, Noemia Pereira; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Diffractaic acid (DA) is a secondary metabolite of lichens that belongs to the chemical class of depsides, and some relevant pharmacological properties are associated with this natural product, such as antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and gastroprotective effects. Considering the relevant biological activities and taking into account that the activities are intrinsically related to the structure, the main goal of this study was to elucidate the structure of diffractaic acid by single crystal X-ray diffraction as well to characterize its physicochemical properties by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and vibrational spectroscopy. It was observed that DA belongs to the monoclinic crystal system, crystallizing in the space group P21/c with the following cell parameters: a = 18.535(7) Å, b = 4.0439(18) Å, c = 23.964(6) Å, β = 91.55(3)°. The crystal packing is characterized by difractaic acid dimers, which are reflected in the vibrational spectrum. These observations were supported by quantum mechanical calculations.

  7. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  8. Brønsted acid sites in gmelinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benco, Łubomír; Demuth, Thomas; Hafner, Jürgen; Hutschka, François

    1999-10-01

    The structural properties of purely siliceous and Al-substituted protonated gmelinite, a zeolite with a medium-sized unit cell, are investigated by means of first-principles local-density functional calculations. For acid sites introduced into an Al-free structure, optimized geometries are compared with experimental data. The substitution of a Si-O fragment by Al-O-H induces a pronounced local deformation of the structure. Four symmetrically distinct O sites (O1-O4) are classified, according to the pattern of the deformation, into two categories showing rather localized (sites 2 and 3), and mostly delocalized (sites 1 and 4) distortions. Relative stabilities of protonated structures are shown to depend on the initial geometry of the site. Larger Si-O-Si angles lead to a higher stability of the acid site. Two approaches, a static and a dynamical one, are used to derive OH stretching frequencies. Both of them prove a rather complex relation between the infrared (IR) frequency, the acidity, and the local environment of the Bro/nsted acid site. The lowest OH stretching frequency is assigned to the O2 site as distinguished in the dynamical calculations. The shift occurs due to attractive interactions of H to the framework oxygen atoms.

  9. Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

    2012-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show

  10. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R H; Huff, D D

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables.

  11. SITE CHARACTERIZATION LIBRARY: VOLUMN 1 (RELEASE 2.5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This CD-ROM, Volume 1, Release 2.5, of EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL - Las Vegas) Site Characterization Library, contains additional electronic documents and computer programs related to the characterization of hazardous waste sites. EPA has produced this libr...

  12. 40 CFR 280.63 - Initial site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial site characterization. 280.63 Section 280.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Hazardous Substances § 280.63 Initial site characterization. (a) Unless directed to do otherwise by...

  13. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  14. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  15. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  16. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  17. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  18. A Sialic Acid Binding Site in a Human Picornavirus

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Martin; Hähnlein-Schick, Irmgard; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Arnberg, Niklas; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The picornaviruses coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and enterovirus 70 (EV70) cause continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease against which neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are currently available. Moreover, these viruses can cause symptoms in the cornea, upper respiratory tract, and neurological impairments such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. We report the structures of an intact human picornavirus in complex with a range of glycans terminating in Neu5Ac. We determined the structure of the CVA24v to 1.40 Å resolution, screened different glycans bearing Neu5Ac for CVA24v binding, and structurally characterized interactions with candidate glycan receptors. Biochemical studies verified the relevance of the binding site and demonstrated a preference of CVA24v for α2,6-linked glycans. This preference can be rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations that show that α2,6-linked glycans can establish more contacts with the viral capsid. Our results form an excellent platform for the design of antiviral compounds to prevent AHC. PMID:25329320

  19. Site characterization studies in high plateau of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongshuai; Liu, Liyong; Wang, Yiping; Qian, Xuan; Yin, Jia

    2012-09-01

    The site survey in western China has been carried out since 2003. Remote studies and local surveys are performed, and Oma site, Ali area in southwest Tibet, has been selected in 2005 to make site testing measurements. The monitoring results show that Ali area can be the best choice for astronomical observations over the East Asian regions. A new site in Ali has been identified and begun construction in 2010 for small telescopes and detailed site characterization. This paper reviews the long term site survey, presents site characteristics in Tibet, and introduces current status of the new Ali observatory.

  20. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE LEVIATHAN MINE SITE, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA SITE Program is conducting a detailed sampling and evaluation of several innovative acid mine drainage treatment technologies at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site in California. Technologies include BiPhasic Lime Treatment Plant, an alkaline lagoon, and an innovative bio...

  1. QuickSite{sup SM}, the Argonne expedited site characterization methodology,

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Meyer, W.T.

    1997-09-01

    Expedited site characterization (ESC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data of sufficient quality, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The Argonne ESC is the basis for the provisional ESC standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). QuickSite{sup SM} is the implementation package developed by Argonne to facilitate ESC of sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. At various sites, Argonne has successfully implemented QuickSite{sup SM} and demonstrated the technical superiority of the ESC process over traditional methodologies guided by statistics and random-sampling approaches. For example, in a QuickSite{sup SM} characterization of a perched aquifer at the Pantex Plant in Texas, past data and geochemical analyses of existing wells were used to develop a model for recharge and contaminant movement. With the model as a guide, closure was achieved with minimal field work.

  2. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  3. Yucca Mountain Project Site characterization and exploratory shaft program

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project site characterization phase officially began May 28, 1986, when President Reagan recommended Yucca Mountain be studied as a potential site for a high-level nuclear repository. Site characterization activities are defined in the NWPA as those research activities, whether in the field or in the laboratory, that are undertaken to establish the geologic condition and the range of parameters relevant to an evaluation of the suitability of a candidate site. In December 1988, a major program milestone was achieved when the statutory site characterization plan (SCP) was released on schedule to the NRC, State of Nevada, and the public. The SCP describes the studies necessary to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for isolating high-level nuclear waste. The site characterization testing program includes activities to establish the geologic conditions and history of the site. New site characterization activities include surface-based tests and exploratory shaft tests. Tests conducted in the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will study the processes and phenomena contributing to waste isolation performance and the effects of ESF construction and underground conditions at the ESF location. The surface-based tests will extend the results of the ESF test to the entire site area.

  4. Branched-chain-amino-acid biosynthesis in plants: molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (ketol-acid reductoisomerase) from Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress).

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, R; Curien, G; DeRose, R T; Douce, R

    1993-01-01

    Towards the goal of gaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling branched-chain-amino-acid biosynthesis in plants, we have isolated, sequenced and characterized a gene encoding acetohydroxy acid isomero-reductase (ketol-acid reductoisomerase) from Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress). Comparison between the acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase cDNA and the genomic sequence has allowed us to determine the exon structure of the coding region. The isolated acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase gene is distributed over approx. 4.5 kbp and contains nine introns (79-347 bp). The transcriptional start site was found to be 52 bp upstream of the translational initiation site. Southern-blot analysis of A. thaliana genomic DNA shows that the acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase is encoded by a single-copy gene. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8379936

  5. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  6. Characterization of Undermethylated Sites in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dalia, Ankur B.; Lazinski, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The activities of DNA methyltransferases are important for a variety of cellular functions in bacteria. In this study, we developed a modified high-throughput technique called methyl homopolymer tail mediated sequencing (methyl HTM-seq) to identify the undermethylated sites in the Vibrio cholerae genome for the two DNA methyltransferases, Dam, an adenine methyltransferase, and VchM, a cytosine methyltransferase, during growth in rich medium in vitro. Many of the undermethylated sites occurred in intergenic regions, and for most of these sites, we identified the transcription factors responsible for undermethylation. This confirmed the presence of previously hypothesized DNA-protein interactions for these transcription factors and provided insight into the biological state of these cells during growth in vitro. DNA adenine methylation has previously been shown to mediate heritable epigenetic switches in gene regulation. However, none of the undermethylated Dam sites tested showed evidence of regulation by this mechanism. This study is the first to identify undermethylated adenines and cytosines genomewide in a bacterium using second-generation sequencing technology. PMID:23504020

  7. Groundwater Site Characterization: A Systems Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater remedial actions are highly complex projects. During the past 10 years, many remedial actions have begun, but very few have been successfully completed. This paper describes the complexity of groundwater remediation and offers an alternative management approach involving systems movement successfully utilized at a site in the…

  8. CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZAROUDS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers (RPM) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSC) concerning soil characterization data types required for decision-making in the CERCLA RI/FS process related to risk assessment and remedial alternative evaluation ...

  9. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Consultation Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The consultation draft of the site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site-characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site-characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the disposal system -- the site, the repository, and the waste package -- preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE`s repository program -- staff who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 22 figs., 1 tab.

  10. OSSY (On Site Seismic Yield) source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1990-09-01

    The On Site Seismic Yield (OSSY) experiment was performed during September 1989. It was a collaborative effort between scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Seismographic Stations at UC Berkeley. It was performed in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The general objective of the OSSY experiment was to investigate techniques for using seismic measurements to estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. The basic idea is to use chemical explosions of known size to calibrate source coupling and wave propagation effects near the site of a nuclear explosion. Once calibrated in this way, seismic measurements, obtained at locations sufficiently far from the source to be in the region of linear elastic response but sufficiently close to provide accurate registration, can be used to estimate the yield of the nuclear explosion. If such a technique can be shown to be sufficiently accurate, it has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, flexible in experimental design, and applicable to either large or small yields. This investigation has proceeded in a two-stage process. The first stage is to develop and test the calibration procedure. The second stage is to apply the method to actual nuclear explosions. Partly because it was considered desirable to preform a complete analysis of the calibration procedure before applying it to a nuclear explosion and partly because no convenient nuclear explosion tests were available at the time, the OSSY experiment was concentrated on the calibration stage of the process. 9 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. SH-wave refraction/reflection and site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Street, R.L.; Woolery, E.W.; Madin, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, nonintrusive techniques used to characterize soils have been based on P-wave refraction/reflection methods. However, near-surface unconsolidated soils are oftentimes water-saturated, and when groundwater is present at a site, the velocity of the P-waves is more related to the compressibility of the pore water than to the matrix of the unconsolidated soils. Conversely, SH-waves are directly relatable to the soil matrix. This makes SH-wave refraction/reflection methods effective in site characterizations where groundwater is present. SH-wave methods have been used extensively in site characterization and subsurface imaging for earthquake hazard assessments in the central United States and western Oregon. Comparison of SH-wave investigations with geotechnical investigations shows that SH-wave refraction/reflection techniques are viable and cost-effective for engineering site characterization.

  12. Correct implementation of the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) process for preremedial site investigations.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J. C.; Cook, S.; Sedivy, R.; Walker, J. L.

    1997-12-12

    The Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ANL ESC) methodology, developed by Argonne National Laboratory and popularly known as ESC, is an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for technically successful preremedial site characterizations. The major objective of the ANL ESC is to determine whether a site containing contamination requires remediation. The methodology is equivalent to a CERCLA RI/FS or a RCRA RFI/CMS investigation. The ANL ESC methodology is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The ANL ESC is the basis for the expedited site characterization standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). The methodology has been registered under the service mark QuickSite{trademark} to offer both clients and providers a mechanism for ensuring that they receive the ANL ESC methodology developed by Argonne. The ANL ESC is a flexible process and is neither site nor contaminant dependent. It can be tailored to fit the unique characteristics that distinguish one site from the next, in contrast to the traditional approach of making all sites conform to the same rigid, inflexible investigation regimen. The ANL ESC has been applied successfully to remedial site investigations of landfills with multiple contaminants in the southwestern US for the Department of Interior (DOI), to former grain storage facilities in the Midwest for the Commodity Credit Corporation of the Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), to weapons production facilities in Texas for the Department of Energy (DOE), and to closing and active military bases in several locations for the Department of Defense (DOD). The process can be applied both at sites that have seen little investigation and at sites that have undergone numerous previous site characterizations without reaching closure. In the latter case (e.g., at many DOE and DOD sites

  13. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  14. Site characterization and its role in repository licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (the Acts) specify a schedule and a process for the siting of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A key step is the collection of geotechnical information as described in a site characterization plan (SCP). The information to be secured should fully support the technical data needs for a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for authorization to construct a repository. Although the Acts only require a general plan for site characterization, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has, as a matter of policy, prepared a comprehensive and detailed draft SCP that includes available geotechnical information about the site, a description of the conceptual design of the repository, a description of the waste package, and a detailed discussion of the plans for characterizing the site.

  15. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  16. Characterization of the Hanford Site and environs

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to site, construct, and operate a new production reactor (NPR) intended to produce materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The DOE has determined that this proposed action constitutes an action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment; therefore, the DOE is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives on the human and natural environment. The NPR-EIS is being prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented in regulations (40 CFR 1500--1508) promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Information on the potentially affected environment at the Hanford Site and its environs was provided to ANL by PNL in various submissions during CY-1989, and some of that information was consolidated into this report, which is considered to be supporting documentation for the NPR-EIS. 93 refs., 35 figs., 46 tabs.

  17. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  18. Minimally invasive three-dimensional site characterization system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ``ground truth`` data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization.

  19. CRITERIA POLLUTANT AND ACID AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY - CATANO, PUERTO RICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization study was to characterize criteria pollutant and acid aerosol concentrations in the Ward of Catano and adjacent residential areas in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. on-Governmental organizations (NG...

  20. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  1. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1993-10-01

    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ``real-time`` data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection.

  3. ANSS Backbone Station Installation and Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meremonte, M.; Leeds, A.; Overturf, D.; McMillian, J.; Allen, J.; McNamara, D.

    2004-12-01

    During 2004 several new broadband seismic stations have been deployed as a part of the USGS's Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone and regional networks. New stations include: ERPA, MNTX, OGLA, AMTX, NATX, KCCO, BMO, MARC, TZTN, LAO, DGMT, REDW, KSU1, MOOW, TPAW, LOHW, RAMW. Permanent station locations were chosen to minimize the local noise conditions by recording continuous data and using a quantitative analysis of the statistical distribution of noise power estimates. For each one-hour segment of continuous data, a power spectral density (PSD) is estimated and smoothed in full octave averages at 1/8 octave intervals. Powers for each 1/8 period interval were then accumulated in one dB power bins. A statistical analysis of power bins yields probability density functions (PDFs) as a function of noise power for each of the octave bands at each station and component. Examination of earthquake signal, artifacts related to station operation and episodic cultural noise in the PDFs allow us to estimate both the overall station quality and the level of earth noise at each potential backbone site. The main function of a seismic network, such as the ANSS, is to provide high quality data for earthquake monitoring, source studies, and Earth structure research. The utility of seismic data is greatly increased when noise levels are reduced. A good quantification and understanding of seismic noise is a first step at reducing noise levels in seismic data and improving overall data quality from the ANSS backbone network.

  4. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

  5. Computational studies of Bronsted acid sites in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, L.A.; Iton, L.E.; Zygmunt, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have performed high-level ab initio calculations using both Hartree-Fock (HF) and Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) to study the geometry and energetics of the adsorption complex involving H{sub 2}O and the Bronsted acid site in the zeolite H-ZSM-5. In these calculations, which use aluminosilicate cluster models for the zeolite framework with as many a 28 T atoms (T = Si, Al), we included geometry optimization in the local vicinity of the acid site at the HF/6-31G(d) level of theory, and have calculated corrections for zero-point energies, extensions for zero-point energies, extensions to higher basis sets, and the influence of electron correlation. Results for the adsorption energy and geometry of this complex are reported and compared with previous theoretical and experimental values.

  6. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Exploration soil gas methods that reduce site characterization costs

    SciTech Connect

    Pyron, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    Initial site characterization of impacted or suspected sites is the most important portion of an integrated environmental remediation program. By use of passive soil gas (PSG) characterization methods, the author has saved his clients significant sums of money by expediting the characterization phase of a project, thus eliminating unnecessary drilling and sampling. He has also been able to advance remedial response by allowing better design of the characterization program. Several commercial products are available which incorporate the principals of the PSG methodology described herein. Using a decidedly low tech approach, the PSG methodology described herein can be used to identify impacted areas on a given site prior to installation of soil borings and monitorings wells. The method is low impact and does not attract unwanted attention to a potentially impacted site. Given the passive nature of the method; it allows a more accurate evaluation of subsurface soil gas conditions, and allows placement of subsequent subsurface tests (whether soil borings or monitoring wells) in optium positions for accurate characterization. This approach minimizes the number of wells needed to characterize a site, eliminates over-characterization and unnecessary drilling, and provides lateral data which in turn allows a client to determine the extent of any liability on a select property. By identifying the extent of his problem, the client can more realistically evaluate his liability and project a budget for completion of remediation. It also allows him to more easily identify the most effective remediation approach. The PSG method allows rapid characterization and priortization of multiple sites, thus allowing a more effective use of environmental budgets.

  8. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for site: Draft characterization of the Yucca Mountain site:Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the EMMP is to document compliance with the NWPA. To do so, a summary description of site characterization activites is provided, based on the consultation draft of the SCP. Subsequent chpaters identify those technical areas having the potential to be impacted by site characterization activities and the monitoring plans proposed to identify whether those impacts acutally occur. Should monitoring confirm the potential for significant adverse impact, mitigative measures will be developed. In the context of site characterization, mitigation is defined as those changes in site characterization activities that serve to avoid or minimize, to the maximum extent practicle, any significant adverse environmental impacts. Although site characterization activies involve both surface and subsurface activities, it is the surface-based aspect of site characterization that is addressed in detailed by the EMMP. The schedule and duration of these activities is given in the consultation draft of the SCP. A breif summary of all proposed activities is given in the EMMP. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  10. Efficient solid acid catalyst containing Lewis and Brønsted Acid sites for the production of furfurals.

    PubMed

    Mazzotta, Michael G; Gupta, Dinesh; Saha, Basudeb; Patra, Astam K; Bhaumik, Asim; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2014-08-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticulates of porous sulfonated carbonaceous TiO2 material that contain Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites were prepared by a one-pot synthesis method. The material was characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, pyridine FTIR spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 -sorption, atomic absorbance spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The carbonaceous heterogeneous catalyst (Glu-TsOH-Ti) with a Brønsted-to-Lewis acid density ratio of 1.2 and more accessible acid sites was effective to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural from biomass-derived mono- and disaccharides and xylose in a biphasic solvent that comprised water and biorenewable methyltetrahydrofuran. The catalyst was recycled in four consecutive cycles with a total loss of only 3 % activity. Thus, Glu-TsOH-Ti, which contains isomerization and dehydration catalytic sites and is based on a cheap and biorenewable carbon support, is a sustainable catalyst for the production of furfurals, platform chemicals for biofuels and chemicals. PMID:24807741

  11. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  12. CryptoSite: Expanding the Druggable Proteome by Characterization and Prediction of Cryptic Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Cimermancic, Peter; Weinkam, Patrick; Rettenmaier, T Justin; Bichmann, Leon; Keedy, Daniel A; Woldeyes, Rahel A; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Demerdash, Omar N; Mitchell, Julie C; Wells, James A; Fraser, James S; Sali, Andrej

    2016-02-22

    Many proteins have small-molecule binding pockets that are not easily detectable in the ligand-free structures. These cryptic sites require a conformational change to become apparent; a cryptic site can therefore be defined as a site that forms a pocket in a holo structure, but not in the apo structure. Because many proteins appear to lack druggable pockets, understanding and accurately identifying cryptic sites could expand the set of drug targets. Previously, cryptic sites were identified experimentally by fragment-based ligand discovery and computationally by long molecular dynamics simulations and fragment docking. Here, we begin by constructing a set of structurally defined apo-holo pairs with cryptic sites. Next, we comprehensively characterize the cryptic sites in terms of their sequence, structure, and dynamics attributes. We find that cryptic sites tend to be as conserved in evolution as traditional binding pockets but are less hydrophobic and more flexible. Relying on this characterization, we use machine learning to predict cryptic sites with relatively high accuracy (for our benchmark, the true positive and false positive rates are 73% and 29%, respectively). We then predict cryptic sites in the entire structurally characterized human proteome (11,201 structures, covering 23% of all residues in the proteome). CryptoSite increases the size of the potentially "druggable" human proteome from ~40% to ~78% of disease-associated proteins. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of our approach in practice, we experimentally validate a cryptic site in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using a covalent ligand and NMR spectroscopy. The CryptoSite Web server is available at http://salilab.org/cryptosite. PMID:26854760

  13. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-05-24

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

  14. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  15. An alternative approach to characterize nonlinear site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Hartzell, S.; Liang, J.; Hu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale of a method of nonstationary processing and analysis, referred to as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for its application to a recording-based approach in quantifying influences of soil nonlinearity in site response. In particular, this paper first summarizes symptoms of soil nonlinearity shown in earthquake recordings, reviews the Fourier-based approach to characterizing nonlinearity, and offers justifications for the HHT in addressing nonlinearity issues. This study then uses the HHT method to analyze synthetic data and recordings from the 1964 Niigata and 2001 Nisqually earthquakes. In doing so, the HHT-based site response is defined as the ratio of marginal Hilbert amplitude spectra, alternative to the Fourier-based response that is the ratio of Fourier amplitude spectra. With the Fourier-based approach in studies of site response as a reference, this study shows that the alternative HHT-based approach is effective in characterizing soil nonlinearity and nonlinear site response.

  16. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  17. Tomographic Site Characterization Using CPT, ERT, and GPR

    SciTech Connect

    Rexford M. Morey

    1997-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system fix site characterization. Applied Research Associates is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: . Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and . Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the Cone Penetrometer Technique (CPT). The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used in both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and environmental remediation monitoring. Technologies used for site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site clean-up and waste management operations.

  18. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  19. Inorganic Nitrogen Cycling in an Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnejais, L. H.; Smith, R. L.; Nordstrom, D. K.; Banfield, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of the massive sulfide ore body at Iron Mountain, northern California has generated sulfuric acid solutions with pH values ranging from 0.5 to 1, temperatures up to 50°C and high concentrations of toxic metals. Communities of microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of iron and sulfur that generates this extreme environment. The nitrogen requirements of these organisms and the nitrogen cycling within these waters are not understood. By adapting the chemiluminescence detection method of Baeseman (2004) we have constrained the stability of nitrate and nitrite species in acidic, high ferrous iron solutions and have measured a time series of the nitrate concentrations at sites within Iron Mountain. The half-life of nitrite is less than an hour due to reactions with ferrous ions, while nitrate is found at concentrations of up to 10 μM within the mine. By coupling this information with geochemical and microbial community information at each site together with culture enrichment studies using various nitrogen sources we hope to gain insight into the pathways of nitrogen utilization in this extreme environment. References Baeseman, J.L. (2004) Denitrification in acid-impacted mountain stream sediments. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering.

  20. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-12-14

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  1. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  2. A Task-oriented Approach for Hydrogeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Y.; Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization is a challenging task from several reasons: (1) the large spatial variability and scarcity of prior information render the outcome of any planned sampling campaign uncertain; (2) there are no simple tools for comparing between the many alternative measurement techniques and data acquisition strategies, and (3) physical and budgetary constraints associated with data acquisition. This paper presents several ideas on how to plan sampling campaigns in a rational manner while addressing these challenges. The first idea is to recognize that different sites and different problems require different characterization strategies. Hence the idea is to plan data acquisition according to its capability for meeting site-specific goals. For example, the characterization needs at a “research problem” site (e.g., a site intended to investigate the transport of uranium in the subsurface such as in Hanford) are different from those of a “problem” site (e.g., contaminated site associated with a health risk to human such as Camp Lejeune, or determining the safe yield of an aquifer). This distinction requires planners to define the characterization goal(s) in a quantitative manner. The second idea is to define metrics that could link specific data types and data acquisition strategies with the site-specific goals in a way that would allow planners to compare between strongly different, alternatives strategies at the design stage (even prior to data acquisition) and to modify the strategies as more data become available. To meet this goal, we developed the concept of the (comparative) information yield curve. Finally, we propose to look at site characterization from the perspective of statistical hypothesis testing, whereby data acquisition strategies could be evaluated in terms of their ability to support or refute various hypotheses made with regard to the characterization goals, and the strategies could be modified once the test is

  3. Acidic sulfate aerosols: characterization and exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J; Waldman, J M

    1989-01-01

    Exposures to acidic aerosol in the atmosphere are calculated from data reported in the scientific literature. The majority of date was not derived from studies necessarily designed to examine human exposures. Most of the studies were designed to investigate the characteristics of the atmosphere. However, the measurements were useful in defining two potential exposure situations: regional stagnation and transport conditions and local plume impacts. Levels of acidic aerosol in excess of 20 to 40 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) have been observed for time durations ranging from 1 to 12 hr. These were associated with high, but not necessarily the highest, atmospheric SO4(2)- levels. Exposures of 100 to 900 micrograms/m3/hr were calculated for the acid events that were monitored. In contrast, earlier London studies indicated that apparent acidity in excess of 100 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) was present in the atmosphere, and exposures less than 2000 micrograms/m3/hr were possible. Our present knowledge about the frequency, magnitude, and duration of acidic sulfate aerosol events and episodes is insufficient. Efforts must be made to gather more data, but these should be done in such a way that evaluation of human exposure is the focus of the research. In addition, further data are required on the mechanisms of formation of H2SO4 and on what factors can be used to predict acidic sulfate episodes. PMID:2651103

  4. Characterization of acidic polysaccharides from the mollusks through acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiuling; Wen, Chengrong; Lu, Jiaojiao; Teng, Nan; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-01

    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exist widely in nature. Herein we propose an elegant methodology to identify UACPs by analyzing their disaccharides produced from the acid hydrolysis using HPLC-MS(n) upon 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Based on the optimization of experimental conditions by the single factor experiment and orthogonal test design, the combination of 1.3M TFA at 105°C for 3h is found to be the optimum. Subsequently, these conditions were applied to investigate the distribution of UACPs in 20 selected species of edible Bivalvia and Gastropoda. PMP-disaccharides derived from UACPs in mollusks were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of the reference PMP-disaccharides from hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), and AGSP with →4)-GlcA(1→2)-Man(1→ repeating units. The analysis reveals the prevalence of CS in the shellfishes as well as the HP, and existence of three non-GAG UACPs in 7 mollusks. PMID:26076626

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  7. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Terreic Acid Pathway in Aspergillus terreus

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2014-09-29

    Terreic acid is a natural product derived from 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA). A compact gene cluster for its biosynthesis was characterized. Isolation of the intermediates and shunt products from the mutant strains, in combined with bioinformatic analyses, allowed us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for terreic acid. Defining the pathway and the genes involved will facilitate the engineering of this molecule with interesting antimicrobial and antitumor bioactivities.

  8. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Terreic Acid Pathway in Aspergillus terreus

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2014-09-29

    Terreic acid is a natural product derived from 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA). A compact gene cluster for its biosynthesis was characterized. Isolation of the intermediates and shunt products from the mutant strains, in combined with bioinformatic analyses, allowed us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for terreic acid. Lastly, defining the pathway and the genes involved will facilitate the engineering of this molecule with interesting antimicrobial and antitumor bioactivities.

  9. A CASE STUDY ILLUSTRATING THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Too frequently, researchers rely on incomplete site characterization data to determine the placement of the sampling wells. They forget that it is these sampling wells that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of their research efforts. This case study illustrates the eff...

  10. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: PROGRESS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) has been engaged in verification activities since the fall of 1994 (U.S. EPA, 1997). The purpose of the ETV is to promote th...

  11. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  12. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  13. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  14. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  15. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  16. An object-oriented approach to site characterization decision support

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Effective decision support for site characterization is key to determining the nature and extent of contamination and the associated human and environmental risks. Site characterization data, however, present particular problems to technical analysts and decision-makers. Such data are four dimensional, incorporating temporal and spatial components. Their sheer volume can be daunting -- sites with hundreds of monitoring wells and thousands of samples sent for laboratory analyses are not uncommon. Data are derived from a variety of sources including laboratory analyses, non-intrusive geophysical surveys, historical information, bore logs, in-field estimates of key physical parameters such as aquifer transmissivity, soil moisture content, depth-to-water table, etc. Ultimately, decisions have to be made based on data that are always incomplete, often confusing, inaccurate, or inappropriate, and occasionally wrong. In response to this challenge, two approaches to environmental decision support have arisen, Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) and the Observational Approach (OA). DQOs establish criteria for data collection by clearly defining the decisions that need to be made, the uncertainty that can be tolerated, and the type and amount of data that needs to be collected to satisfy the uncertainty requirements. In practice, DQOs are typically based on statistical measures. The OA accepts the fact that the process of characterizing and remediating contaminated sites is always uncertain. Decision-making with the OA is based on what is known about a site, with contingencies developed for potential future deviations from the original assumptions about contamination nature, extent, and risks posed.

  17. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  18. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  19. Acidic sulfate aerosols: characterization and exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    Exposures to acidic aerosol in the atmosphere are calculated from data reported in the scientific literature. The majority of date was not derived from studies necessarily designed to examine human exposures. Most of the studies were designed to investigate the characteristics of the atmosphere. However, the measurements were useful in defining two potential exposure situations: regional stagnation and transport conditions and local plume impacts. Levels of acidicaerosol in excess of 20 to 40 micrograms/m/sup 3/ (as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) have been observed for time durations ranging from 1 to 12 hr. These were associated with high, but not necessarily the highest, atmospheric SO/sub 4/(2)- levels. Exposures of 100 to 900 micrograms/m/sup 3//hr were calculated for the acid events that were monitored. In contrast, earlier London studies indicated that apparent acidity in excess of 100 micrograms/m/sup 3/ (as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was present in the atmosphere, and exposures less than 2000 micrograms/m/sup 3//hr were possible. Our present knowledge about the frequency, magnitude, and duration of acidic sulfate aerosol events and episodes is insufficient. Efforts must be made to gather more data, but these should be done in such a way that evaluation of human exposure is the focus of the research. In addition, further data are required on the mechanisms of formation of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and on what factors can be used to predict acidic sulfate episodes. 96 references.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  1. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  4. The effect of the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid on the activity in catalyzing aldol condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaobo; Wu, Shujie; Liu, Bo; Liu, Heng; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2011-02-01

    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts containing carboxylic and amine groups, which were immobilized at defined distance from one another on the mesoporous solid were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), elemental analysis, and back titration. Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance was more active than maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. It appears that the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid should be an essential factor for catalysis optimization.

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  6. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  8. Geoscientific Characterization of the Bruce Site, Tiverton, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, K.; Jackson, R.; Avis, J.; Clark, I.; Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) within a Paleozoic-age sedimentary sequence beneath the Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The concept envisions that the DGR would be excavated at a depth of approximately 680 m within the Ordovician Cobourg Formation, a massive, dense, low- permeability, argillaceous limestone. Characterization of the Bruce site for waste disposal is being conducted in accordance with a four year multi-phase Geoscientific Site Characterization Plan (GSCP). The GSCP, initially developed in 2006 and later revised in 2008 to account for acquired site knowledge based on successful completion of Phase I investigations, describes the tools and methods selected for geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical site characterization. The GSCP was developed, in part, on an assessment of geoscience data needs and collection methods, review of the results of detailed geoscientific studies completed in the same bedrock formations found off the Bruce site, and recent international experience in geoscientific characterization of similar sedimentary rocks for long-term radioactive waste management purposes. Field and laboratory work related to Phase 1 and Phase 2A are nearing completion and have focused on the drilling, testing and monitoring of four continuously cored vertical boreholes through Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian bedrock to depths of about 860 mBGS. Work in 2009 will focus on drilling and testing of inclined boreholes to assess presence of vertical structure. The available geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data indicate the presence of remarkably uniform and predictable geology, physical hydrogeologic and geochemical properties over well separation distances exceeding 1 km. The current data set including 2-D seismic reflection surveys, field and lab hydraulic testing, lab petrophysical and

  9. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-06-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

  10. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Motion Monitor (MASS-DIMM)). We investigate the statistical distributions of annual and monthly meteorological conditions for day and night separately. This is the third paper in a series discussing the E-ELT FP6 site characterization project.

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel high affinity metal-binding site in the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M R; Simorre, J P; Hanson, P; Mokler, V; Bellon, L; Beigelman, L; Pardi, A

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal-binding site has been identified in the hammerhead ribozyme by 31P NMR. The metal-binding site is associated with the A13 phosphate in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme and is distinct from any previously identified metal-binding sites. 31P NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the metal-binding affinity for this site and leads to an apparent dissociation constant of 250-570 microM at 25 degrees C for binding of a single Mg2+ ion. The NMR data also show evidence of a structural change at this site upon metal binding and these results are compared with previous data on metal-induced structural changes in the core of the hammerhead ribozyme. These NMR data were combined with the X-ray structure of the hammerhead ribozyme (Pley HW, Flaherty KM, McKay DB. 1994. Nature 372:68-74) to model RNA ligands involved in binding the metal at this A13 site. In this model, the A13 metal-binding site is structurally similar to the previously identified A(g) metal-binding site and illustrates the symmetrical nature of the tandem G x A base pairs in domain 2 of the hammerhead ribozyme. These results demonstrate that 31P NMR represents an important method for both identification and characterization of metal-binding sites in nucleic acids. PMID:10445883

  12. New parameters for characterizing turbulence at a potential wind site

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, L.L.; Barnard, J.C.; Morris, V.R.

    1993-07-01

    The most widely used parameter for characterizing turbulence at a potential wind turbine site has been the quantity called ``Turbulence Intensity`` (TI). Analyses of data from several sites in the US Department of Energy`s Turbulence Characterization Project show that this parameter can sometimes be seriously misleading. This project has produced a data base of three-component wind turbulence at four strategic locations over a rotor disk in different types of complex terrain. The 0.2-s sampling interval of the data from the four anemometers makes it possible to compute a composite wind over the rotor disk, as well as the wind experienced at a point on a rotating wind turbine blade. From considerations of specialized plots of these wind data, the authors have introduced engulfing gust (TEG) and fluctuating shear (TFS) turbulence parameters and compared their behavior with TI over a range of wind speeds at sites with different terrain configurations. The comparisons showed TEG and TFS to be somewhat more discriminating than TI of the nature of the turbulence at different sites. To obtain a more complete understanding of the nature of the turbulence and its relationship to upwind terrain features, shaded relief and cross-section analyses were applied to provide an overview of the upwind fetch. Using these analyses, along with the time-series plots of wind speed, allowed us to detect eddies being shed from an upwind feature at one site, and to detect a subtle difference in ridge configuration between two sites that resulted in flow separation at one site, but not at the other.

  13. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an {open_quotes}analogue{close_quotes} site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL.

  14. Specific Initiation Site for Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Replication

    PubMed Central

    Thoren, Marilyn M.; Sebring, Edwin D.; Salzman, Norman P.

    1972-01-01

    Replicating simian virus 40 (SV40) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules have been isolated under conditions in which the newly synthesized DNA is uniformly labeled with 3H-thymidine. These newly synthesized strands are released from the replicative intermediate molecules by alkaline treatment, and it has been possible to isolate single-stranded SV40 DNA which varies in size from 157,000 daltons (from molecules that are 10% replicated) to 1,360,000 daltons (85% replicated). The rates of duplex formation of newly synthesized DNA have been used to relate their genetic complexity to the extent of DNA replication. As DNA replication proceeds, the time required to effect 50% renaturation of the newly synthesized DNA increases at a proportional rate. The data establish that DNA replication is not initiated at random, but rather that there is a single specific initiation site for DNA replication. PMID:4342054

  15. Expedited site characterization for remedial investigations at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Side Characterization (ESC) methodology gives federal agencies a process for producing high-quality CERCLA and RCRA site characterizations and remedial investigations in a cost- and time-efficient manner. The ESC process has been successfully tested and applied at numerous federal facilities. Examples include expanded site investigations for the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Land Management and remedial investigations for the Commodity Credit Corporation/US Dept. of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). In particular, the CCC/USDA has been the major sponsor in the development of the ESC process at Argonne. The technical successes and the cost and time savings of the ESC process for these programs have been detailed in previous papers. The Argonne ESC is currently being implemented at a Department of Energy facility (Pantex) and is schedules for implementation in the Department of Defense base closure program in order to meet accelerated schedules for remedial actions by these agencies.

  16. Characterization of a potential radiation-sensitive fragile site

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.; Oroskar, A.A.; Sedita, B.A.

    1995-11-01

    We have been characterizing a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, CHO-K1 10T5, into which a gpt-containing retroviral shuttle vector has been stably integrated. This normally stable locus in CHO-K1 10T5 cells is very sensitive to deletion mutation following ionizing radiation exposure and shows an LET response with an RBE of 3 for {alpha} particles. Almost all of the gpt mutants are total gene deletions. The gpt gene has been localized to chromosome 5q15, within 100-1000 kb of a large region of interstitial telomere repeats. In addition, sequences showing homology to telomere repeat sequences have been identified at the integration site both 5` and 3` to the gpt gene locus. The integration site has been cloned and is presently being sequenced. Preliminary data suggest that there is a hotspot for breakage and/or recombination 5` of the integration site. We hypothesize that (1) the gpt vector has integrated into a region containing telomere repeat sequences, (2) this region of the genome is a radiation-sensitive fragile site, and (3) the radiation sensitivity of this site is due to the telomere sequences, which act by either serving as a site for further telomerase action and chromosome terminilization, or by providing repeat structures to facilitate radiation-induced recombination.

  17. Field analytical technology verification: The ETV Site Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Jenkins, R.A.; Dindal, A.B.

    1998-06-01

    Innovative field characterization and monitoring technologies are often slow to be adopted by the environmental engineering/consulting community because of concerns that their performance has not been proven by an independent testing body, and/or they have not received the EPA`s blessing on a regional or national level. The purpose of the EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Site Characterization Pilot, a joint effort between EPA and DOE, is to accelerate the acceptance of technologies that reduce the cost and increase the speed of environmental clean-up and monitoring. Technology verifications that have been completed or are underway include: in situ technologies for the characterization of sub-surface hydrocarbon plumes, field-portable GC/MS systems, field-portable X-ray fluorescence analyzers, soil sampling technologies, field-portable PCB analyzers, analyzers for VOC analysis at the wellhead, and decision support software systems to aid site sample collection and contaminant plume definition. The verification process follows a somewhat generic pathway. A user-community need is identified, the vendor community is canvassed, and relevant, interested companies are selected. A demonstration plan is prepared by the verification organization and circulated to participants prior to the field activities. Field trials are normally held at two geologically or environmentally different sites and typically require one week at each site. Samples (soil, soil gas, water, surface wipe etc.) provided to the vendor at the demonstration include site-specific samples and standards or performance evaluation samples. Sample splits are sent to a pre-selected laboratory for analysis using a reference method. Laboratory data are used for comparison with field technology results during the data analysis phase of the demonstration.

  18. Technical data management at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, J.; Newbury, C.M.; Heitland, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    The Department of Energy/Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) is responsible for the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine its potential as a site of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The characterization of Yucca Mountain encompasses many diverse investigations, both onsite and in laboratories across the country. Investigations are being conducted of the geology, hydrology, mineralogy, paleoclimate, geotechnical properties, and archeology of the area, to name a few. Effective program management requires that data from site investigations be processed, interpreted and disseminated in a timely manner to support model development and validation, repository design, and performance assessment. The Program must also meet regulatory requirements for making the technical data accessible to a variety of external users throughout the life of the Project. Finally, the DOE/OCRWM must make available the data or its description and access location available for use in support of the license application and supporting documentation. To accomplish these objectives, scientific and engineering data, generated by site characterization activities, and technical data, generated by environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment activities, must be systematically identified, cataloged, stored and disseminated in a controlled manner.

  19. Site characterization in densely fractured dolomite: Comparison of methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muldoon, M.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges in characterizing fractured-rock aquifers is determining whether the equivalent porous medium approximation is valid at the problem scale. Detailed hydrogeologic characterization completed at a small study site in a densely fractured dolomite has yielded an extensive data set that was used to evaluate the utility of the continuum and discrete-fracture approaches to aquifer characterization. There are two near-vertical sets of fractures at the site; near-horizontal bedding-plane partings constitute a third fracture set. Eighteen boreholes, including five coreholes, were drilled to a depth of ???10.6 m. Borehole geophysical logs revealed several laterally extensive horizontal fractures and dissolution zones. Flowmeter and short-interval packer testing identified which of these features were hydraulically important. A monitoring system, consisting of short-interval piezometers and multilevel samplers, was designed to monitor four horizontal fractures and two dissolution zones. The resulting network consisted of >70 sampling points and allowed detailed monitoring of head distributions in three dimensions. Comparison of distributions of hydraulic head - and hydraulic conductivity determined by these two approaches suggests that even in a densely fractured-carbonate aquifer, a characterization approach using traditional long-interval monitoring wells is inadequate to characterize ground water movement for the purposes of regulatory monitoring or site remediation. In addition, traditional multiwell pumping tests yield an average or bulk hydraulic conductivity that is not adequate for predicting rapid ground water travel times through the fracture network, and the pumping test response does not appear to be an adequate tool for assessing whether the porous medium approximation is valid. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Site characterization in densely fractured dolomite: comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Maureen; Bradbury, Ken R

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges in characterizing fractured-rock aquifers is determining whether the equivalent porous medium approximation is valid at the problem scale. Detailed hydrogeologic characterization completed at a small study site in a densely fractured dolomite has yielded an extensive data set that was used to evaluate the utility of the continuum and discrete-fracture approaches to aquifer characterization. There are two near-vertical sets of fractures at the site; near-horizontal bedding-plane partings constitute a third fracture set. Eighteen boreholes, including five coreholes, were drilled to a depth of approximately 10.6 m. Borehole geophysical logs revealed several laterally extensive horizontal fractures and dissolution zones. Flowmeter and short-interval packer testing identified which of these features were hydraulically important. A monitoring system, consisting of short-interval piezometers and multilevel samplers, was designed to monitor four horizontal fractures and two dissolution zones. The resulting network consisted of >70 sampling points and allowed detailed monitoring of head distributions in three dimensions. Comparison of distributions of hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity determined by these two approaches suggests that even in a densely fractured-carbonate aquifer, a characterization approach using traditional long-interval monitoring wells is inadequate to characterize ground water movement for the purposes of regulatory monitoring or site remediation. In addition, traditional multiwell pumping tests yield an average or bulk hydraulic conductivity that is not adequate for predicting rapid ground water travel times through the fracture network, and the pumping test response does not appear to be an adequate tool for assessing whether the porous medium approximation is valid. PMID:16324008

  1. Demonstration of using crossed dipole GPR antennae for site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Erich D.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Vendl, Mark A.

    Crossed dipole (cross-pole) and parallel dipole (co-pole) GPR data were acquired at an industrial site that formerly operated as a creosote wood treating facility in order to locate buried pipes and tanks or other possible contaminant-filled subsurface structures. Cross-pole data are not typically considered during GPR field studies, but proved essential for accurate site characterization at this location, as images produced using co-pole data had a poor signal to noise ratio. Data interpretations were confirmed through exploratory trenching conducted subsequent to this study. The GPR data proved successful in locating back-filled trenches that contained creosote-filled drainage tile, as well as vaults and a pit filled with pure creosote product at the site.

  2. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Jeffrey S; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A; Golden, Barbara L

    2010-06-01

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions. PMID:20410239

  3. Characterization and Solubilization of Kaurenoic Acid Hydroxylase from Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, J. C.; Coolbaugh, R. C.; Nakata, D. A.; West, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    A key step in gibberellin biosynthesis is the conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaurenoic acid, mediated by the enzyme kaurenoic acid hydroxylase. A cell-free system obtained from Gibberella fujikuroi (Saw.) Wr. was used to characterize kaurenoic acid hydroxylase activity. Microsomal preparations from disrupted fungal cells, in the presence of O2 and NADPH, converted [17-14C]ent-kaurenoic acid to oxidation products that were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaurenoic acid and gibberellin A14 by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Flavin adenine dinucleotide and the chloride salts of several monovalent cations stimulated the conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to these products, whereas CO and a number of known inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including paclobutrazol, tetcyclacis, BAS 111.W, flurprimidol, triarimol, metyrapone, and 1-phenylimida-zole, significantly reduced kaurenoic acid hydroxylase activity. Kaurenoic acid hydroxylase was solubilized from fungal microsomes by treatment with 1 M KCl. The properties of the enzyme noted above suggest that kaurenoic acid hydroxylase from G. fujikuroi is a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase. PMID:12231743

  4. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  5. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with t requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to@ previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  6. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  7. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (Quarterly supplement)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  8. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (quarterly supplement)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated December 31, 1992, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1993.

  9. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-10-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  10. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-01-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  11. Phosphoproteomic Approach to Characterize Protein Mono- and Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Sites from Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose), or PAR, is a cellular polymer implicated in DNA/RNA metabolism, cell death, and cellular stress response via its role as a post-translational modification, signaling molecule, and scaffolding element. PAR is synthesized by a family of proteins known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, or PARPs, which attach PAR polymers to various amino acids of substrate proteins. The nature of these polymers (large, charged, heterogeneous, base-labile) has made these attachment sites difficult to study by mass spectrometry. Here we propose a new pipeline that allows for the identification of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites via the enzymatic product of phosphodiesterase-treated ADP-ribose, or phospho(ribose). The power of this method lies in the enrichment potential of phospho(ribose), which we show to be enriched by phosphoproteomic techniques when a neutral buffer, which allows for retention of the base-labile attachment site, is used for elution. Through the identification of PARP-1 in vitro automodification sites as well as endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites from whole cells, we have shown that ADP-ribose can exist on adjacent amino acid residues as well as both lysine and arginine in addition to known acidic modification sites. The universality of this technique has allowed us to show that enrichment of ADP-ribosylated proteins by macrodomain leads to a bias against ADP-ribose modifications conjugated to glutamic acids, suggesting that the macrodomain is either removing or selecting against these distinct protein attachments. Ultimately, the enrichment pipeline presented here offers a universal approach for characterizing the mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteome. PMID:24920161

  12. Expedited Site Characterization geophysics: Geophysical methods and tools for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report covers five classes of geophysical technologies: Magnetics; Electrical/electromagnetic; Seismic reflection; Gamma-ray spectrometry; and Metal-specific spectrometry. Except for radiometry, no other classes of geophysical tedmologies are specific for direct detection of the types of contaminants present at the selected sites. For each of the five classes covered, the report gives a general description of the methodology, its field use, and its general applicability to the ESC Project. In addition, the report gives a sample of the most promising instruments available for each class, including the following information: Hardware/software attributes; Purchase and rental costs; Survey rate and operating costs; and Other applicable information based on case history and field evaluations.

  13. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  14. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-14

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

  15. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs.

  16. Methods And Devices For Characterizing Duplex Nucleic Acid Molecules

    DOEpatents

    Akeson, Mark; Vercoutere, Wenonah; Haussler, David; Winters-Hilt, Stephen

    2005-08-30

    Methods and devices are provided for characterizing a duplex nucleic acid, e.g., a duplex DNA molecule. In the subject methods, a fluid conducting medium that includes a duplex nucleic acid molecule is contacted with a nanopore under the influence of an applied electric field and the resulting changes in current through the nanopore caused by the duplex nucleic acid molecule are monitored. The observed changes in current through the nanopore are then employed as a set of data values to characterize the duplex nucleic acid, where the set of data values may be employed in raw form or manipulated, e.g., into a current blockade profile. Also provided are nanopore devices for practicing the subject methods, where the subject nanopore devices are characterized by the presence of an algorithm which directs a processing means to employ monitored changes in current through a nanopore to characterize a duplex nucleic acid molecule responsible for the current changes. The subject methods and devices find use in a variety of applications, including, among other applications, the identification of an analyte duplex DNA molecule in a sample, the specific base sequence at a single nulceotide polymorphism (SNP), and the sequencing of duplex DNA molecules.

  17. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities.

  18. Use of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system at Grandville, Michigan superfund site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.; Kala, R.; Powell, J.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation at the Organic Chemical, Inc. site in Grandville, Michigan. This site is on the National Priority List for cleanup, and is being overseen by the Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, Region V office. The site was investigated utilizing the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, with a fiber optic fluorimeter sensor. This sensor allows the detection of hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface. A total of fifty pushes were completed at the site to an average depth of approximately 15 ft, covering approximately 80 acres. A hydrocarbon contaminant plume was located at the site extending from the OCI facility in a northerly direction. This matches the flow of the groundwater in the area as it moves toward the Grand River. The plume was successfully bounded on the North, South, and West sides. The plume boundary on the East side could not be established due to property constraints. The concentrations of contaminants in certain areas of the site exceeded 5000 ppm. Cone penetrometer, Geophysics, Fiber optic fluorescence.

  19. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  20. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  1. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  2. First principles characterization of silicate sites in clay surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Raphael S; Miranda, Caetano R

    2015-02-21

    Aluminosilicate clays like Montmorillonite (MMT) and Muscovite Mica (MT) have siloxane cavities on the basal plane. The hydroxyl groups localized in these cavities and van der Waals (vdW) forces contribute significantly to adsorption processes. However, the basal sites are found to be difficult to characterize experimentally. Here, (001) surfaces of MMT and MT clays were investigated using first-principles calculations to understand how these silicate surface sites are influenced by hydroxyl groups and the effective role of inner layer vdW interactions. Based on density-functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), different types of exchange-correlation functionals were tested to check the effect of vdW dispersion correction. Noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the near-edge region and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) spectroscopy were simulated. In both clays, the oxygen surface sites are directly affected by the intralayer interaction through hydroxyl groups. Our results indicated that the chemical environment of the hydroxyl groups is distinct in the MMT and MT structures. The vdW correction was essential for a better description of the surface oxygen sites and correctly describes the similarity between both clays. Particularly, the bulk apical oxygen sites in the MT structure are less influenced by vdW interaction. Compared to MMT, the silicon surface sites of MT are more sensitive to the intralayer changes in Si-Oapical-Al and with less effect of the hydroxyl groups. These results provide a clear understanding of influence of the siloxane cavity on the oxygen and silicon surface sites in aluminosilicates. PMID:25592132

  3. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  4. Soil Characterization and Site Response of Marine and Continental Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Porras, R. S.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Collins, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    An in situ soil properties study was conducted to characterize both site and shallow layer sediments under marine and continental environments. Data from the SCoOBA (Sea of Cortez Ocean Bottom Array) seismic experiment and in land ambient vibration measurements on the urban areas of Tijuana, B. C., and Ensenada, B. C., Mexico were used in the analysis. The goal of this investigation is to identify and to analyze the effect of the physical/geotechnical properties of the ground on the site response upon seismic excitations in both marine and continental environments. The time series were earthquakes and background noise recorded within interval of 10/2005 to 10/2006 in the Gulf of California (GoC) with very-broadband Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS), and ambient vibration measurements collected during different time periods on Tijuana and Ensenada urban areas. The data processing and analysis was conducted by means of the H/V Spectral Ratios (HVSPR) of multi component data, the Random Decrement Method (RDM), and Blind Deconvolution (BD). This study presents ongoing results of a long term project to characterize the local site response of soil layers upon dynamic excitations using digital signal processing algorithms on time series, as well as the comparison between the results these methodologies are providing.

  5. Myth and Reality in Hydrogeological Site Characterization at DD and R Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2008-01-15

    The science of hydrogeological site characterization has made significant progress over the last twenty years. Progress has been made in modeling of flow and transport in the heterogeneous subsurface, in understanding of the complex patterns of geological heterogeneity and in measurement technologies. Modeling of uncertainty has also advanced significantly, in recognition of the inherent limitations of subsurface characterization. Much less progress has been made in transforming this progress into practice, where characterization is determined to a large extent by regulations. Environmental regulations have not progressed as much as the science, for example, in recognizing uncertainty. As such, practitioners are less inclined to adopt advanced, science-based solutions, this opening the door for myths and conflicts. Myths develop where the science base is perceived to be weak, whereas conflicts arise in the face of a disconnect between the science and the regulations. Myths translate to ad-hoc solutions and misplaced empiricism, as well as to unjustified reliance on field experience, to the detriment of D and DR. This paper explores the roots for this situation and identifies ideas that may help in bridging the gap between research and applications. A rational approach for DD and R is needed that will encourage innovation in site characterization, reduce costs and accelerate completion. Such an approach needs to include several elements. DD and R regulations need to recognize the various aspects of uncertainty inherent to site characterization, and as such, should be formulated using probabilistic concepts. One of the immediate benefits will be in allowing a gradual approach for data acquisition in DD and R sites: decisions can be made even under the most severe data limitations, and can be modified as additional data become available. The definition of risk is another major element. There is no universal definition of risk or of a methodology to define risk

  6. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    In December 1988, the US Department of Energy issued a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site, as required by Section 113 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The purpose of site characterization is to develop sufficient information to support a determination of the suitability, or lack of suitability of the site to safely isolate high-level radioactive waste with reasonable certainty for thousands of years. The purpose of the Site Characterization Plan is to describe plans for obtaining sufficient information about the site, plans for mitigation of any adverse impacts occurring from site characterization activities, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning of the site if it is determined not to be suitable for a repository. Part I presents an overview of the State`s comments. The overview takes the form of general concerns and comments organized by specific areas of concern. The overview does not follow the format of the SCP.

  7. SUMMARY OF TECHNIQUES AND UNIQUE USES FOR DIRECT PUSH METHODS IN SITE CHARACTERIZATION ON CONTAMINATED FIELD SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site characterization of subsurface contaminant transport is often hampered by a lack of knowledge of site heterogeneity and temporal variations in hydrogeochemistry. Two case studies are reviewed to illustrate the utility of macro-scale mapping information along with spatially-...

  8. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  9. Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.

    2016-05-01

    Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India

  10. Consultation draft: Site characterization plan overview, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the candidate site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Texas and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the repository system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Deaf Smith County site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mamani, J.B.; Costa-Filho, A.J.; Cornejo, D.R.; Vieira, E.D.; Gamarra, L.F.

    2013-07-15

    Understanding the process of synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is important for its implementation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this work we report the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles made from ferrous oxide through coprecipitation chemical process. The nanostructured material was coated with lauric acid and dispersed in aqueous medium containing surfactant that yielded a stable colloidal suspension. The characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with distinct physico-chemical configurations is fundamental for biomedical applications. Therefore magnetic nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphology by means of TEM and DLS, which showed a polydispersed set of spherical nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 9 nm) as a result of the protocol. The structural properties were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern showed the presence of peaks corresponding to the spinel phase of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The relaxivities r{sub 2} and r{sub 2}* values were determined from the transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* at 3 T. Magnetic characterization was performed using SQUID and FMR, which evidenced the superparamagnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Thermal characterization using DSC showed exothermic events associated with the oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles coated with lauric acidCharacterization of magnetic nanoparticles • Morphological, structural, magnetic, calorimetric and relaxometric characterization.

  12. Noninvasive Contaminant Site Characterization Using Geophysical Induced Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, F.D.; Sogade, J.; Lesmes, D.; Coles, D.; Vichabian, Y.; Scira-Scappuzzo, F.; Shi, W.; Vandiver, A.; Rodi, W.

    2003-03-27

    Results of aspects of a broad foundational study of time domain IP (TDIP) and spectral IP (SIP) for contaminant site characterization are presented. This ongoing study encompassed laboratory studies of coupled effects of rock/soil microgeometry and contaminant chemistry on induced polarization (IP), an investigation of electromagnetic coupling (EMC) noise and development of 3D modeling and inversion codes. SIP requires extensions to higher frequencies (above the typical 100Hz threshold) and EMC becomes the major limitation for field implementation, because conventional correction methods are inadequate at required higher frequencies. A proposed methodology is outlined, based on a model of all EMC components, that addresses the EMC problem by coupling IP and electromagnetic induction in modeling and inversion. Examples of application of IP and SIP to contaminant mapping and detection for TDIP and SIP will be presented for FS-12 plume at Massachusetts Military Reservation and a suspected DNAPL plume at Savannah River Site.

  13. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  14. Uranium characterization at the St. Louis Airport Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Bowyer, T.W.; Reiman, R.T.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the Department of Energy/Office of Technology Development`s Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project (coordinated by Ames Laboratory), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory demonstrated two complementary technologies at the St. Louis Airport (SLAP) site that have been designed and optimized for the rapid, in situ quantification of radionuclide contamination in surface soils. The sensors are optimized for the detection of high-energy beta particles or gamma rays emitted from the decay of specific radionuclides of interest. These technologies were demonstrated by measuring the beta and gamma fluxes at several locations within the SLAP site. Measurements were converted to average contamination levels, using detector calibrations performed with spiked samples (beta) or sealed sources (gamma). Additionally, subsurface activity levels were derived from discrete soil samples (provided by the ESC field crew) via gamma-ray spectrometry in a controlled laboratory setting. Since the beta and gamma sensor technologies are intrinsically sensitive to different types of radiation and activity distributions (i.e., surface and shallow subsurface, respectively), the data obtained from the two detectors provide complementary information about the distribution of the contamination. The results reported here suggest that a number of locations within the SLAP site have elevated levels of {sup 211}U, and the differences between the beta and gamma activities indicate that the contamination is largely located near the surface of the soil.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Conjugates of Niacin and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Benson, Ericka; Bista, Pradeep; Carney, David; Fahrner, Richard; Lee, Diana; Liu, Feng; Lonkar, Pallavi; Milne, Jill C; Nichols, Andrew J; Picarella, Dominic; Shoelson, Adam; Smith, Jesse; Ting, Amal; Wensley, Allison; Yeager, Maisy; Zimmer, Michael; Jirousek, Michael R

    2016-02-11

    This report describes the synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of novel fatty acid niacin conjugates and fatty acid salicylate conjugates. These molecular entities were created by covalently linking two bioactive molecules, either niacin or salicylic acid, to an omega-3 fatty acid. This methodology allows the simultaneous intracellular delivery of two bioactives in order to elicit a pharmacological response that could not be replicated by administering the bioactives individually or in combination. The fatty acid niacin conjugate 5 has been shown to be an inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism proteins such as PCSK9, HMG-CoA reductase, ATP citrate lyase, and NPC1L1. On the other hand, the fatty acid salicylate conjugate 11 has been shown to have a unique anti-inflammatory profile based on its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway through the intracellular release of the two bioactives. PMID:26784936

  16. Automated site characterization for robotic sample acquisition systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi; Schumate, Michael S.; Majani, Eric; Anderson, Charles H.; Sloan, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A mobile, semi-autonomous vehicle with multiple sensors and on-board intelligence is proposed for performing preliminary scientific investigations on extraterrestrial bodies prior to human exploration. Two technologies, a hybrid optical-digital computer system based on optical correlator technology and an image and instrument data analysis system, provide complementary capabilities which might be part of an instrument package for an intelligent robotic vehicle. The hybrid digital-optical vision system could perform real-time image classification tasks using an optical correlator with programmable matched filters under control of a digital microcomputer. The data analysis system would analyze visible and multiband imagery to extract mineral composition and textural information for geologic characterization. Together these technologies would support the site characterization needs of a robotic vehicle for both navigational and scientific purposes.

  17. Characterization and purification of neutrophil ecto-phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    English, D; Martin, M; Harvey, K A; Akard, L P; Allen, R; Widlanski, T S; Garcia, J G; Siddiqui, R A

    1997-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid and its derivatives play potentially important roles as extracellular messengers in biological systems. An ecto-phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (ecto-PAPase) has been identified which effectively regulates neutrophil responses to exogenous phosphatidic acid by converting the substrate to diacylglycerol. The present study was undertaken to characterize this ecto-enzyme on intact cells and to isolate the enzyme from solubilized neutrophil extracts. In the absence of detergent, short chain phosphatidic acids were hydrolysed most effectively by neutrophil plasma membrane ecto-PAPase; both saturated and unsaturated long chain phosphatidic acids were relatively resistant to hydrolysis. Both long (C18:1) and short (C8) chain lyso-phosphatidic acids were hydrolysed at rates comparable with those observed for short chain (diC8) phosphatidic acid. Activity of the ecto-enzyme accounted for essentially all of the N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive, Mg2+-independent PAPase activity recovered from disrupted neutrophils. At 37 degrees C and pH7.2, the apparent Km for dioctanoyl phosphatidic acid (diC8PA) was 1. 4x10(-3) M. Other phosphatidic acids and lysophosphatidic acids inhibited hydrolysis of [32P]diC8PA in a rank order that correlated with competitor solubility, lysophosphatidic acids and unsaturated phosphatidic acids being much more effective inhibitors than long chain saturated phosphatidic acids. Dioleoyl (C18:1) phosphatidic acid was an unexpectedly strong inhibitor of activity, in comparison with its ability to act as a direct substrate in the absence of detergent. Other inhibitors of neutrophil ecto-PAPase included sphingosine, dimethyl- and dihydro-sphingosine, propranolol, NaF and MgCl2. Of several leucocyte populations isolated from human blood by FACS, including T cells, B cells, NK lymphocytes and monocytes, ecto-PAPase was most prevalent on neutrophils; erythrocytes were essentially devoid of activity. A non-hydrolysable, phosphonate analogue of

  18. DNAPLs at DOE sites: Background and assessment of characterization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP) within the Office of Technology Development (OTD) has responsibility for identification, evaluation, and delivery of technologies needed for the work of the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report addresses part of that responsibility by providing summary information on DNAPL site characterization. A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is a source of contamination that can persist in the subsurface for decades before dissipating completely into the vapor phase and groundwater. The DNAPL chemicals of particular concern to the DOE are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl VOCS) such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE). These Cl VOCs were used in multiple ton quantities at DOE sites and were often released to the subsurface. The predicted fate of released Cl VOC liquid is downward movement through the soil under the force of gravity. As it moves, some of the Cl VOC liquid becomes trapped in the soil pores as residual saturation. The liquid also moves rapidly downward if small fractures are present. This migration continues until an impermeable or semi-permeable layer is encountered. Then lateral movement or spreading occurs. The downward and lateral migration in the subsurface leads to DNAPL pools, lenses, and residual saturation that can cause long-term contamination of groundwater at levels well above drinking water standards. Although Cl VOCs have been detected as dissolved components in the groundwater and as vapor in the soil gas at several DOE sites, direct evidence of their presence as DNAPL is sparse and no measurements of the amounts of DNAPL present within a given volume of subsurface have been made. Consequently, unresolved DNAPL issues exist at DOE sites.

  19. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Study; Progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

    1991-12-31

    Studies continued on organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization project. Tracers studied include benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. The main focus of the work performed during the time period from 07/01/91 to 12/31/91 has been the continuation of (1) LC-MS optimization for tracer identification, (2) batch sorption and degradation studies, (3) neoprene tubing evaluation studies, and (4) soil column evaluation of tracer compounds. All of these areas of research (except perhaps the neoprene tubing evaluation) are ongoing and will continue throughout the coming year.

  20. Design of a Brønsted acid with two different acidic sites: synthesis and application of aryl phosphinic acid-phosphoric acid as a Brønsted acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, N; Narumi, T; Terada, M

    2015-12-11

    A Brønsted acid with two different acidic sites, aryl phosphinic acid-phosphoric acid, has been synthesized. Its catalytic performance was assessed in the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of aldehyde hydrates with Danishefsky's diene, achieving high reaction efficiency. PMID:26445921

  1. Arra-Funded Geotechnical Characterization of Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, W. S.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K. H.; Diehl, J.; Martin, A. J.; Jack, S.

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the USGS allocated funding to help support research capabilities, as well as improve and upgrade facilities in the bureau. As part of this effort, the USGS contracted a consortium consisting of principals from academia and commerce to perform geotechnical site characterization at 189 seismographic station sites—185 in California and four in the central U.S. In this pilot project of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), site characterizations will be conducted at: 130 Southern California Seismographic Network (SCSN), 25 California Geological Survey (CGS), 30 Northern California Seismographic Network (NCSN), and four Central U.S. (CEUS) sites. Each site investigation, involving passive and active surface-wave techniques, includes one or more of established approaches such as the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), 2-D array microtremor, 1-D refraction microtremor (ReMi), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), and multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods. From this multi-method approach, we determine Vs (shear-wave velocity) profiles and the calculated Vs30 (the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth) for each site. In general, preliminary results based on field reports indicate observed records match expected values for surficial geologic conditions. Unexpected results are typically attributable to inaccurate or coarse map information and alternative explanations are verified through interpretations of local geologic structure observed during field investigations. For example, we find map-based geology to be consistent with observed records at the SCSN station CI.PLS, but not the case for CI.CWC, where inaccurate map information are at odds with our recorded velocities. At station CI.TIN (near edge of basalt outcrop) and NCSN station NC.MMLB (on rhyolite outcrop), the records observed in the shallow surface do not match expected rock values. Our pilot

  2. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Protonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Saxena, Narendra S.; Sharma, Kananbala; Sharma, Thaneshwar P.

    2008-04-01

    Polyaniline doped with different protonic acids were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which confirms the amorphous nature and acid doping, respectively. Electrical conduction in these samples has been studied through the measurement of I-V characteristics at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 413 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be nonlinear. The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polyaniline sample is higher as compared to HCl doped polyaniline and pure polyaniline. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature with increase in temperature. Activation energies have been found to be 50.86, 25.74 and 21.05 meV for pure polyaniline (base), polyaniline doped with hydrochloric, phosphoric acid, respectively.

  3. Characterization of carbon black modified by maleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Vijayshankar; Kosinski, Pawel; Skodvin, Tore; Myrseth, Velaug

    2013-09-01

    We present here a method for modifying the surface of carbon black (CB) using a simple heat treatment in the presence of a carboxylic acid as well as water or ethylene glycol as a solvent. CB was mixed with maleic acid and either water or ethylene glycol, and heated at 250°C. Unlike the traditional surface modification processes which use heat treatment of carbon with mineral acids the present modification method using a carboxylic acid proved to be simple and time efficient. CB from two different vendors was used, and the modified samples were characterized by TGA, BET surface area measurement, XRD, particle size and zeta potential measurements, and FTIR. It was found that several material properties, including thermal stability and surface area, of the modified CB are significantly altered relative to the parental carbon samples. This method provides a rapid and simple route to tailor new materials with desired properties.

  4. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. PMID:23554234

  5. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  6. Innovative site characterization demonstration saves time and money

    SciTech Connect

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-02-01

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based {open_quotes}smart sampling{close_quotes} methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume{trademark}, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the EPA. To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe{reg_sign} soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the RCRA investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site. By comparison, the Adaptive Sampling program drilled 28 locations (vs. 36 for the conventional investigation), collected 81 samples (vs. 163), and sent 15 samples (vs. 163) off-site for laboratory analysis. In addition, the field work took 3 1/2 days compared to 13 days for the RCRA investigation.

  7. Site Characterization Plan: Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Bruce A.; Williams, Mark D.

    2006-12-01

    An initial feasibility study of options to treat the uranium plume at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit considered hydraulic containment, slurry wall containment, and groundwater extraction as potential remedial action technologies. None were selected for interim action, and reduction of contamination levels by natural processes was considered a viable alternative while source removal actions continued. Subsequent planning for a Phase III feasibility study focused on methods that would reduce the concentration of uranium in the aquifer, including multiple methods to immobilize uranium using chemical-based technologies. Based on an initial technology screening, the polyphosphate technology was identified as the best candidate to treat the for further evaluation and selected for treatability testing. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of the work elements included in this site characterization plan is to collect site-specific characterization data that will be needed to design and implement a field-scale demonstration of the technology.

  8. Solid-state NMR investigation of acid sites in dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolite.

    PubMed

    Deng, F; Du, Y; Ye, C H

    1996-01-01

    The acid sites and the hydration behaviors of dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolites (calcined at 550, 600, 650, and 700 degrees C) were characterized by high-resolution 1H MAS, 1H{27A1} spin-echo double resonance in combination with 27A1 MAS NMR. Apart from the usually observed peaks for dealuminated zeolite HZSM-5, a narrow plus a broad peak simultaneously appears at ca. 6.9 ppm in the 1H spectra and they exhibit different decay behavior in the 1H [27A1] double-resonance experiments. The existence of the former signal indicates that Lewis acid sites may'be formed in the zeolites after calcination. By means of the spin echo double resonance technique, we observed for the first time a previously unexpected narrow signal at 5.2 ppm, which resonates on the downfield side of Bronsted acid signal (4.3 ppm) and cannot be resolved in the 1H MAS spectra. This new signal is probably due to another kind of Bronsted acid site, locating in the small cages bounded by four- and five-membered rings. Three narrow peaks at 50 ppm, 30 ppm, and 0 ppm are superimposed on a very broad signal in the 27A1 MAS NMR spectra of dried HZSM-5. The intensity of the line at 50 ppm is significantly reduced compared with that of the rehydrated sample. 27A1 MAS NMR suggests that most part of the four-coordinated framework A1 turns into a intermediate case between four- and three-coordinated A1 after the dehydration and this process is reversible upon dehydration/rehydration. While some framework A1 atoms are transformed into three-coordinated A1 species and Lewis acid sites are, thus, generated in the dealuminated zeolites. For the signal at 30 ppm, the hydration leads to a dispersion in the chemical shift or the quadrupole interaction, which broadens its linewidth in hydrated samples. PMID:8970117

  9. SMARTe Site Characterization Tool. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Site Characterization Tool is to: (1) develop a sample design for collecting site characterization data and (2) perform data analysis on uploaded data. The sample design part helps to determine how many samples should be collected to characterize a site with ...

  10. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  11. In situ detection of salicylic acid binding sites in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Wen; Deng, Da-Yi; Yu, Ying; Liu, Fang-Fei; Lin, Bi-Xia; Cao, Yu-Juan; Hu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    The determination of hormone-binding sites in plants is essential in understanding the mechanisms behind hormone function. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to label SA-binding sites in plant tissues, a quantum dots (QDs) probe functionalized with a SA moiety was successfully synthesized by coupling CdSe QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (PAS), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as the coupling agent. The probe was then characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, as well as UV/vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the successful conjugation of PAS to CdSe QDs and revealed that the conjugates maintained the properties of the original QDs, with small core diameters and adequate dispersal in solution. The PAS-CdSe QDs were used to detect SA-binding sites in mung bean and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vitro and in vivo. The PAS-CdSe QDs were effectively transported into plant tissues and specifically bound to SA receptors in vivo. In addition, the effects of the PAS-CdSe QDs on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in the tips of A. thaliana seedlings were investigated. Both SA and PAS-CdSe QDs had similar effects on the trend in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting that the PAS-CdSe QDs maintained the bioactivity of SA. To summarize, PAS-CdSe QDs have high potential as a fluorescent probe for the in vitro/in vivo labeling and imaging of SA receptors in plants. PMID:24833131

  12. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization: Phase 1 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based Adaptive Sampling methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume{trademark}, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe{reg_sign} soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses; some trenches may also contain mixed waste. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site.

  13. Partial characterization of specific cantharidin binding sites in mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, M.J.; Pessah, I.N.; Matsuzawa, M.; Casida, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    The mode of action of cantharidin, the natural vesicant of blister beetles, is examined by radioligand binding studies with mouse tissues. (3H)Cantharidin undergoes specific and saturable binding with the liver cytosol, which is characterized as follows: Kd and Bmax values of 30 nM and 1.8 pmol/mg of protein, respectively; linearity with respect to protein concentration; pH optimum of 6.5 to 7.5; association and dissociation half-times of 20 min and 12 hr, respectively; and 50% inhibition by Mg2+ at 70 microM, Ca2+ at 224 microM, pyrophosphate at 27 microM, and nucleotide triphosphates at 52-81 microM. The binding site undergoes a loss of activity at 45 degrees or higher. The toxicological relevance of this specific (3H)cantharidin binding site of mouse liver cytosol is established in three ways. First, the potency of 15 active cantharidin analogs for inhibiting (3H)cantharidin binding is correlated with their acute toxicity to mice (r = 0.829). Second, 26 related compounds that are inactive in inhibiting (3H)cantharidin binding are also of little or no toxicity to mice. Finally, the binding of (3H) cantharidin to liver cytosol from mice poisoned with increasing amounts of unlabeled cantharidin is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. (3H)Cantharidin also specifically binds to cytosol fractions of blood, brain, heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, skin, spleen, and stomach. The characteristics of the specific binding site in brain are very similar to those determined in liver with respect to Kd, Bmax, association/dissociation kinetics, and sensitivity to inhibitors. It therefore appears that the toxicity of cantharidin and related oxabicycloheptanes, including the herbicide endothal, is attributable to binding at a specific site in liver and possibly other tissues.

  14. Nitrous Acid at Concordia (Inland Site) and Dumont d'Urville (Costal Site), East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbrat, M.; Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Gallée, H.; Kleffman, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most recent important finding made in Antarctica after the discovery of the appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole in the early 80's was the discovery of a very oxidizing canopy over the South Pole region in relation with unexpected high levels of NO. There is a strong need however to extend investigations of the oxidation capacity of the lower atmosphere at the scale of the whole Antarctic continent, and in particular, over East Antarctica. That motivated the OPALE (Oxidant Production over Antarctic Land and its Export) project. Indeed the limited data gained by using aircraft sampling during ANTCI 2003 suggest that over the East Antarctic plateau even higher NO emissions persist. Among several not yet resolved questions related to the high level of oxidants over Antarctica is the role of nitrous acid (HONO). During the austral summer 2010/2011 the levels of nitrous acid (HONO) were for the first time investigated at Concordia (75°06'S, 123°33'E) and Dumont D'Urville (66°40'S, 140°01'E), two stations located in East Antarctica. Also for the first time in Antarctica, HONO was measured by deploying a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP). At Concordia, from the end of December 2010 to mid January 2011 HONO mixing ratios at 1 m above the snow surface ranged between 5 and 60 pptv. Diurnal cycles were observed with levels peaking in the morning (06:30 to 07:30) and the evening (19:00 to 20:00). At Dumont d'Urville, background mixing ratios close to 2 pptv were observed in February 2011. No clear diurnal cycles were observed at that site but several events of air masses export from inland Antarctica were encountered with enhanced HONO levels reaching 10 pptv at night. These first HONO data gained in East Antarctica are discussed in terms of sources and sinks along with synoptic weather conditions.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of acidic mesoporous borosilicate thin films.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Tongping; Liu, Qian; Wang, Jiacheng

    2009-02-01

    Work on the synthesis and characterization of acidic wormhole-like ordered mesoporous borosilicate thin films (MBSTFs) on silicon wafers is described in this paper. The MBSTFs coated by the dip-coating method were prepared through an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process using nonionic block copolymers as structure-directing agents. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the formation of borosiloxane bonds (Si-O-B). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 sorption evidenced a wormhole-like mesoporous structure in the MBSTFs obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the cross sections and surfaces of the samples showed that MBSTFs on silicon wafers were continuous, homogeneous and did not crack. The acidic properties of the MBSTFs were characterized by FT-IR spectra of chemisorbed pyridine. The MBSTFs thus prepared may find their future applications in many fields including chemical sensors, catalysis, optical coating, molecule separation, etc. PMID:19441565

  16. Characterization and bacterial adhesion of chitosan-perfluorinated acid films.

    PubMed

    Bierbrauer, Karina L; Alasino, Roxana V; Muñoz, Adrián; Beltramo, Dante M; Strumia, Miriam C

    2014-02-01

    We reported herein the study and characterization of films obtained by casting of chitosan solutions in perfluorinated acids, trifluoroacetic (TFA), perfluoropropionic (PFPA), and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA). The films were characterized by FTIR, solid state (13)C NMR, X-ray, AFM, contact angle, thermogravimetric effluent analysis by mass spectrometry, and rheology. The results showed a marked influence of chain length of the perfluorinated acids on the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio of the modified chitosan films which was evidenced by the different characteristics observed. The material that showed greater surface stability was chitosan-PFOA. Chitosan film with the addition of PFOA modifier became more hydrophobic, thus water vapor permeability diminished compared to chitosan films alone, this new material also depicted bacterial adhesion which, together with the features already described, proves its potential in applications for bioreactor coating. PMID:24189195

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Being a binding site: characterizing residue composition of binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Iván, Gábor; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince

    2007-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank contains the description of more than 45,000 three-dimensional protein and nucleic-acid structures today. Started to exist as the computer-readable depository of crystallographic data complementing printed articles, the proper interpretation of the content of the individual files in the PDB still frequently needs the detailed information found in the citing publication. This fact implies that the fully automatic processing of the whole PDB is a very hard task. We first cleaned and re-structured the PDB data, then analyzed the residue composition of the binding sites in the whole PDB for frequency and for hidden association rules. Main results of the paper: (i) the cleaning and repairing algorithm (ii) redundancy elimination from the data (iii) application of association rule mining to the cleaned non-redundant data set. We have found numerous significant relations of the residue-composition of the ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, summarized in two figures. One of the classical data-mining methods for exploring implication-rules, the association-rule mining, is capable to find previously unknown residue-set preferences of bind ligands on protein surfaces. Since protein-ligand binding is a key step in enzymatic mechanisms and in drug discovery, these uncovered preferences in the study of more than 19,500 binding sites may help in identifying new binding protein-ligand pairs. PMID:18305831

  19. Characterization of mobile radiation detection systems at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gunnink, D.S.; Nelsen, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of vehicle-mounted radiation detection systems for characterizing large areas contaminated with radioactive materials at the Hanford Reservation were examined. Detection capabilities as a function of vehicle speed, detector-source geometry, and source characteristics were evaluated for each of the three systems currently used at the Hanford Site. Large-area radioactive sources (1 ft{sup 2}) with varying source strengths containing gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides were used to measure detection-system performance. Detection capability was found to be most influenced by vehicle speed and detector-source geometry. As the vehicle`s speed was increased, the probability of detecting a given source decreased dramatically. The probability of detecting a given source was significantly lower under ``poor`` geometry conditions. Each vehicle`s monitoring performance was found to compare favorably with portable survey instrument capabilities. The use of vehicle-mounted detectors proves to be far more economical for surveying large surface areas.

  20. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  1. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  2. Characterization of muon and gamma radiations at the PTOLEMY site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Susannah; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Zapata, Sandra; Chris Tully Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    PTOLEMY is an experimental project at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory designed to determine the present day number density of relic neutrinos through measurement of electrons produced from neutrino capture on tritium. The weak interaction cross section for relic neutrino interactions necessitates high sensitivity measurements that could be influenced by high energy particles, like muons and gamma ray photons, which induce nuclear transitions and secondary electrons. Muons produced from the collision of cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei are a significant source of background radiation at and below Earth's surface. The muon flux is measured by the coincidence of minimum ionization radiation loss in two plastic scintillator paddles. The spectrum of gamma ray photons is measured using sodium iodide based scintillators. These measurements will provide a characterization of the background and rates at the PTOLEMY site.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  8. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  9. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  10. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  11. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  12. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-28

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  13. Characterization Report for the David Witherspoon Screen Art Site

    SciTech Connect

    Phyllis C. Weaver

    2011-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of Environmental Management (EM) requested the technical assistance of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to characterize a tract of land associated with the David Witherspoon, Incorporated (DWI) Volunteer Equipment and Supply Company (VESC). This tract of land (hereinafter referred to as Screen Arts) is located in the Vestal Community in the 2000-block of Maryville Pike in south Knoxville, Tennessee, as shown in Figure A-1. This tract of land has been used primarily to store salvaged equipment and materials for resale, recycle, or for disposal in the former landfill once operated by DWI. The DWI Site industrial landfill and metal recycling business had been permitted by the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health to accept low-level radiologically contaminated metals. DWI received materials and equipment associated with operations from DOE sites, including those in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. It is likely that items stored at Screen Arts may have contained some residual radiological materials.

  14. Application of data fusion modeling (DFM) to site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.W.; Gibbs, B.P.; Jones, W.F.; Fairbanks, J.R.; Hamm, L.L.; Flach, G.P.

    1996-12-31

    Subsurface characterization is faced with substantial uncertainties because the earth is very heterogeneous, and typical data sets are fragmented and disparate. DFM removes many of the data limitations of current methods to quantify and reduce uncertainty for a variety of data types and models. DFM is a methodology to compute hydrogeological state estimates and their uncertainties from three sources of information: measured data, physical laws, and statistical models for spatial heterogeneities. The benefits of DFM are savings in time and cost through the following: the ability to update models in real time to help guide site assessment, improved quantification of uncertainty for risk assessment, and improved remedial design by quantifying the uncertainty in safety margins. A Bayesian inverse modeling approach is implemented with a Gauss Newton method where spatial heterogeneities are viewed as Markov random fields. Information from data, physical laws, and Markov models is combined in a Square Root Information Smoother (SRIS). Estimates and uncertainties can be computed for heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in multiple geological layers from the usually sparse hydraulic conductivity data and the often more plentiful head data. An application of DFM to the Old Burial Ground at the DOE Savannah River Site will be presented. DFM estimates and quantifies uncertainty in hydrogeological parameters using variably saturated flow numerical modeling to constrain the estimation. Then uncertainties are propagated through the transport modeling to quantify the uncertainty in tritium breakthrough curves at compliance points.

  15. Application of data fusion modeling (DFM) to site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.W.; Gibbs, B.P. ); Jones, W.F.; Fairbanks, J.R. ); Hamm, L.L.; Flach, G.P. )

    1996-01-01

    Subsurface characterization is faced with substantial uncertainties because the earth is very heterogeneous, and typical data sets are fragmented and disparate. DFM removes many of the data limitations of current methods to quantify and reduce uncertainty for a variety of data types and models. DFM is a methodology to compute hydrogeological state estimates and their uncertainties from three sources of information: measured data, physical laws, and statistical models for spatial heterogeneities. The benefits of DFM are savings in time and cost through the following: the ability to update models in real time to help guide site assessment, improved quantification of uncertainty for risk assessment, and improved remedial design by quantifying the uncertainty in safety margins. A Bayesian inverse modeling approach is implemented with a Gauss Newton method where spatial heterogeneities are viewed as Markov random fields. Information from data, physical laws, and Markov models is combined in a Square Root Information Smoother (SRIS). Estimates and uncertainties can be computed for heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in multiple geological layers from the usually sparse hydraulic conductivity data and the often more plentiful head data. An application of DFM to the Old Burial Ground at the DOE Savannah River Site will be presented. DFM estimates and quantifies uncertainty in hydrogeological parameters using variably saturated flow numerical modeling to constrain the estimation. Then uncertainties are propagated through the transport modeling to quantify the uncertainty in tritium breakthrough curves at compliance points.

  16. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies. PMID:25897974

  17. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    SciTech Connect

    Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

    2014-09-30

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  18. Aerosol characterization at the Saharan AERONET site Tamanrasset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, C.; Cuevas, E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Bustos, J. J.; Basart, S.; Romero, P. M.; Camino, C.; Mimouni, M.; Zeudmi, L.; Goloub, P.; Baldasano, J. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    More than two years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006-2009) at Tamanrasset site, in the heart of the Sahara desert, are analysed. AERONET level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO method was applied to a part of level 1.5 data series to improve the quality of the results. The annual variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (AE) has been found to be strongly linked to the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) thermodynamic features. The dry-cool season (autumn and winter time) is characterized by a shallow CBL and very low mean turbidity (AOD ~ 0.09 at 440 nm, AE ~ 0.62). The wet-hot season (spring and summer time) is dominated by high turbidity of coarse dust particles (AE ~ 0.28, AOD ~ 0.39 at 440 nm) and a deep CBL. The aerosol-type characterization shows desert mineral dust as prevailing aerosol. Both pure Saharan dust and very clear sky conditions are observed depending on the season. However, several case studies indicate an anthropogenic fine mode contribution from Libya and Algeria's industrial areas. The Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) source apportionment method was used to identify potential sources of air masses arriving at Tamanrasset at several heights for each season. Microphysical and optical properties and precipitable water vapour were also investigated.

  19. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  20. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  1. Design and characterization of an acid-activated antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Lina; He, Jian; Eckert, Randal; Yarbrough, Daniel; Lux, Renate; Anderson, Maxwell; Shi, Wenyuan

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a microbial biofilm infection in which the metabolic activities of plaque bacteria result in a dramatic pH decrease and shift the demineralization/remineralization equilibrium on the tooth surface towards demineralization. In addition to causing a net loss in tooth minerals, creation of an acidic environment favors growth of acid-enduring and acid-generating species, which causes further reduction in the plaque pH. In this study, we developed a prototype antimicrobial peptide capable of achieving high activity exclusively at low environmental pH to target bacterial species like Streptococcus mutans that produce acid and thrive under the low pH conditions detrimental for tooth integrity. The features of clavanin A, a naturally occurring peptide rich in histidine and phenylalanine residues with pH-dependent antimicrobial activity, served as a design basis for these prototype 'acid-activated peptides' (AAPs). Employing the major cariogenic species S. mutans as a model system, the two AAPs characterized in this study exhibited a striking pH-dependent antimicrobial activity, which correlated well with the calculated charge distribution. This type of peptide represents a potential new way to combat dental caries. PMID:19878192

  2. Site characterization and site response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan K.; Altidor, Jean Robert; Anglade, Dieuseul; Given, Douglas D.; Mildor, Saint-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Waveform analysis of aftershocks of the Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 reveals amplification of ground motions at sites within the Cul de Sac valley in which Port-au-Prince is situated. Relative to ground motions recorded at a hard-rock reference site, peak acceleration values are amplified by a factor of approximately 1.8 at sites on low-lying Mio-Pliocene deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of approximately 2.5–3 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplitude, predominant periods, variability, and polarization of amplification are consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. A swath of unusually high damage in this region corresponds with the extent of the ridge where high weak-motion amplifications are observed. We use ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to map local geomorphology, including characterization of both near-surface and of small-scale topographic structures that correspond to zones of inferred amplification.

  3. VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) site characterization at NTS (Nevada Test Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; McEvilly, T.V.; Michelini, A.

    1990-10-01

    In late 1989 a site characterization study using the Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) method was conducted as part of the On Site Seismic Yield (OSSY) experiment organized by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory as well UE-10 ITS {number sign}3 located in Yucca valley inside the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The OSSY experiment fired 10 and 100 lb explosive sources at several depths in the hole, with multiple 3-component receivers on the surface, to test the nature of seismic signal scaling with source size and the accuracy in the near field of source modeling algorithms. Shear-waves in particular are influenced strongly by both the source mechanism and the properties of the propagation path. The multi-component OSSY VSP (3-component receivers at several depths, with P, SV and SH surface sources) measured the seismic wave transmission separately for three source types. The VSP surface-source to borehole-receiver acquisition geometry was reversed in the subsequent explosion phase of the experiment in which the explosion-generated waves presumably experienced the same propagation effects as did the waves generated by the VSP sources. The OSSY VSP has progressed through data acquisition and processing to an initial interpretation in terms of P- and S-velocity structures. Preliminary result were presented at the 1990 meeting of the Seismological Society of America (Daley and McEvilly, 1990). This report is an overview of the data acquisition, processing and analysis to date, and on plans for the next of interpretation. 6 refs., 23 figs.

  4. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Sampaio, Klicia A; Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; De Greyt, Wim; Cerny, Muriel; Evon, Philippe; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-01-01

    Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8%) and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%). It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12), an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%), oleic acid (6%), and palmitic acid (3%). The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg). The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols), stigmasterol (24%), and Δ⁷-stigmastenol (18%). Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg) and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%), phosphatidylcholine (25%), phosphatidylinositol (17%), and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%). About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition. PMID:27617992

  5. Interaction of metal ions with acid sites of biosorbents peat moss and Vaucheria and model substances alginic and humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Martin, J.R.; Crist, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    The interaction between added metal ions and acid sites of two biosorbents, peat moss and the alga Vaucheria, was studied. Results were interpreted in terms of two model substances, alginic acid, a copolymer of guluronic and mannuronic acids present in marine algae, and humic acid in peat moss. For peat moss and Vaucheria at pH 4--6, two protons were displaced per Cd sorbed, after correction for sorbed metals also displaced by the heavy metal. The frequent neglect of exchange of heavy metals for metals either sorbed on the native material or added for pH adjustment leads to erroneous conclusions about proton displacement stoichiometry. Proton displacement constants K{sub ex}{sup H} decreased logarithmically with pH and had similar slopes for alginic acid and biosorbents. This pH effect was interpreted as an electrostatic effect of increasing anionic charge making proton removal less favorable. The maximum number of exchangeable acid sites (capacity C{sub H}) decreased with pH for alginic acid but increased with pH for biosorbents. Consistent with titration behavior, this difference was explained in terms of more weak acid sites in the biosorbents.

  6. Rock mass mechanical property estimations for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-06-01

    Rock mass mechanical properties are important in the design of drifts and ramps. These properties are used in evaluations of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of potential host rock within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Representative intact rock and joint mechanical properties were selected for welded and nonwelded tuffs from the currently available data sources. Rock mass qualities were then estimated using both the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (Q) and Geomechanics Rating (RMR) systems. Rock mass mechanical properties were developed based on estimates of rock mass quality, the current knowledge of intact properties, and fracture/joint characteristics. Empirical relationships developed to correlate the rock mass quality indices and the rock mass mechanical properties were then used to estimate the range of rock mass mechanical properties.

  7. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  8. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  9. Aerosol characterization at the Saharan AERONET site Tamanrasset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, C.; Cuevas, E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Bustos, J. J.; Basart, S.; Romero, P. M.; Camino, C.; Mimouni, M.; Zeudmi, L.; Goloub, P.; Baldasano, J. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    More than 2 years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006-2009) at the Tamanrasset site (22.79° N, 5.53° E, 1377 m a.s.l.), in the heart of the Sahara, are analysed. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO (K is the name of a constant and ciclo means cycle in Spanish) method was applied to a part of the level 1.5 data series to improve the quality of the results. The annual variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) has been found to be strongly linked to the convective boundary layer (CBL) thermodynamic features. The dry-cool season (autumn and winter) is characterized by a shallow CBL and very low mean turbidity (AOD ~ 0.09 at 440 nm, AE ~ 0.62). The wet-hot season (spring and summer) is dominated by high turbidity of coarse dust particles (AE ~ 0.28, AOD ~ 0.39 at 440 nm) and a deep CBL. The aerosol-type characterization shows desert mineral dust as the prevailing aerosol. Both pure Saharan dust and very clear sky conditions are observed depending on the season. However, several case studies indicate an anthropogenic fine mode contribution from the industrial areas in Libya and Algeria. The concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) source apportionment method was used to identify potential sources of air masses arriving at Tamanrasset at several heights for each season. Microphysical and optical properties and precipitable water vapour were also investigated.

  10. Characterization of the proton binding sites of extracellular polymeric substances in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Chang, Sheng; Defersha, Fantahun M

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the chemical compositions and acidic constants of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating synthetic brewery wastewater by using chemical analysis, linear programming analysis (LPA) of titration data, and FT-IR analysis. The linear programming analysis of titration data revealed that the EPSs have proton binding sites with pKa values from pKa ≤ 6, between 6 and 7, and approximately 9.8. The strong acidic sites (pKa ≤ 6) and some weak acidic sites (7.5 < pKa < 9.0) were found to be readily removed by 0.45-μm membrane filtration. In addition, the FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids in the EPS samples. Based on the FT-IR analysis and the main chemical functional groups at the bacterial cell surfaces, the identified proton binding sites were related to carboxyl, phosphate, and hydroxyl/amine groups with pKa values of 4.6 ± 0.7, 6.6 ± 0.01, and 9.7 ± 0.1, respectively, with the corresponding respective intensities of 0.31 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.3, and 1.53 ± 0.3 mmole/g-EPS. The pKa values and intensities of the proton binding sites are the fundamental molecular properties of EPSs that affect the EPS charge, molecular interactions, and metal complexation characteristics. Determination of such properties can advance Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO)-based concentration polarization modeling, facilitate the estimation of the osmotic pressure of the EPS concentration polarization layers, and lead to a deeper understanding of the role of metal complexation in membrane fouling. PMID:25935368

  11. Characterization of active site residues of nitroalkane oxidase.

    PubMed

    Valley, Michael P; Fenny, Nana S; Ali, Shah R; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-06-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Ser171 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by approximately 5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of approximately 2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. PMID:20056514

  12. Prediction of flow and drawdown for the site characterization and validation site in the Stripa Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Mauldon, A.D.; Nelson, K.; Martel, S.; Fuller, P.; and Karasaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical and hydrologic data from a location in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, called the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) block, has been used to create a series of models for flow through the fracture network. The models can be characterized as ``equivalent discontinuum`` models. Equivalent discontinuum models are derived starting from a specified lattice or 6 ``template``. An inverse analysis called ``Simulated Annealing`` is used to make a random search through the elements of the lattice to find a configuration that can reproduce the measured responses. Evidence at Stripa points to hydrology which is dominated by fracture zones. These have been identified and located through extensive characterization efforts. Lattice templates were arranged to lie on the fracture zones identified by Black and Olsson. The fundamental goal of this project was to build a fracture flow model based an initial data set, and use this model to make predictions of the flow behavior during a new test. Then given data from the new test, predict a second test, etc. The first data set was an interference test called C1-2. Both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional model were annealed to the C1-2 data and use this model to predict the behavior of the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). The SDE measured the flow into, and drawdown due to reducing the pressure in a group of 6 parallel boreholes. Then both the C1-2 and SDE data were used to predict the flow into and drawdown due to an excavation, the Validation Drift (VD), made through the boreholes. Finally, all the data was used to predict the hydrologic response to opening another hole, T1.

  13. Prediction of flow and drawdown for the site characterization and validation site in the Stripa Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Mauldon, A.D.; Nelson, K.; Martel, S.; Fuller, P.; and Karasaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical and hydrologic data from a location in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, called the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) block, has been used to create a series of models for flow through the fracture network. The models can be characterized as equivalent discontinuum'' models. Equivalent discontinuum models are derived starting from a specified lattice or 6 template''. An inverse analysis called Simulated Annealing'' is used to make a random search through the elements of the lattice to find a configuration that can reproduce the measured responses. Evidence at Stripa points to hydrology which is dominated by fracture zones. These have been identified and located through extensive characterization efforts. Lattice templates were arranged to lie on the fracture zones identified by Black and Olsson. The fundamental goal of this project was to build a fracture flow model based an initial data set, and use this model to make predictions of the flow behavior during a new test. Then given data from the new test, predict a second test, etc. The first data set was an interference test called C1-2. Both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional model were annealed to the C1-2 data and use this model to predict the behavior of the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). The SDE measured the flow into, and drawdown due to reducing the pressure in a group of 6 parallel boreholes. Then both the C1-2 and SDE data were used to predict the flow into and drawdown due to an excavation, the Validation Drift (VD), made through the boreholes. Finally, all the data was used to predict the hydrologic response to opening another hole, T1.

  14. Isolation and partial characterization of the gene for goose fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Kameda, K; Goodridge, A G

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is regulated by diet and hormones, with regulation being primarily transcriptional. In chick embryo hepatocytes in culture, triiodothyronine stimulates accumulation of enzyme and transcription of the gene. Since the 5'-flanking region of this gene is likely involved in hormonal regulation of its expression, we have isolated and partially characterized an avian fatty acid synthase gene. A genomic DNA library was constructed in a cosmid vector and screened with cDNA clones that contained sequence complementary to the 3' end of goose fatty acid synthase mRNA. A genomic clone (approximately 35 kilobase pairs (kb] was isolated, and a 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment thereof contained DNA complementary to the 3' noncoding region of fatty acid synthase mRNA. Additional cosmid libraries were screened with 5' fragments of previously isolated genomic clones, resulting in the isolation of five overlapping cosmid DNAs. The entire region of cloned DNA spans approximately 105 kb. Exon-containing fragments were identified by hybridization with end-labeled poly(A)+ RNA and by hybridization of labeled exon-containing genomic DNA fragments to fatty acid synthase mRNA. A new set of cDNA clones spanning approximately 3.2 kb was isolated from a lambda-ZAP goose liver cDNA library using the 5'-most exon-containing fragment of the 5'-most genomic DNA clone. This region of mRNA contains a 5'-untranslated sequence and a continuous open reading frame which includes a region that codes for the essential cysteine of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. The entire fatty acid synthase gene spans about 50 kb. The 5' 15 kb of the gene contain 7 exons. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses were used to identify a single site for initiation of transcription, 174 nucleotides upstream from the putative translation initiation codon. Putative "TATA" and "CCAAT" boxes are located 28 and 60 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the site of initiation of transcription. The 5'-flanking 597

  15. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  16. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  17. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  18. Site-specific regulation of adult neurogenesis by dietary fatty acid content, vitamin E and flight exercise in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Zachary J; Bauchinger, Ulf; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Pierce, Barbara; McWilliams, Scott R; Sherry, David F; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is known to have a strong effect on neuroproliferation in mammals ranging from rodents to humans. Recent studies have also shown that fatty acids and other dietary supplements can cause an upregulation of neurogenesis. It is not known, however, how exercise and diet interact in their effects on adult neurogenesis. We examined neuronal recruitment in multiple telencephalic sites in adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to a factorial combination of flight exercise, dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. Experimental birds were flown in a wind tunnel following a training regime that mimicked the bird's natural flight behaviour. In addition to flight exercise, we manipulated the composition of dietary fatty acids and the level of enrichment with vitamin E, an antioxidant reported to enhance neuronal recruitment. We found that all three factors - flight exercise, fatty acid composition and vitamin E enrichment - regulate neuronal recruitment in a site-specific manner. We also found a robust interaction between flight training and vitamin E enrichment at multiple sites of neuronal recruitment. Specifically, flight training was found to enhance neuronal recruitment across the telencephalon, but only in birds fed a diet with a low level of vitamin E. Conversely, dietary enrichment with vitamin E upregulated neuronal recruitment, but only in birds not flown in the wind tunnel. These findings indicate conserved modulation of adult neurogenesis by exercise and diet across vertebrate taxa and indicate possible therapeutic interventions in disorders characterized by reduced adult neurogenesis. PMID:24372878

  19. Quantification of uncertain outcomes from site characterization: Insights from the ESF-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, W.J.; Parrish, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Exploratory Studies Facility Alternatives Study (ESF-AS) the uncertain outcomes from site characterization were quantified using a probabilistic tree known as ``Nature`s Tree.`` Nature`s Tree distinguished the true characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site from the perceived characteristics deduced from testing. Bayesian probabilistic calculations converted probabilities in Nature`s Tree to the probabilistic estimates required for the comparative analysis of Exploratory Studies Facility-repository options. Experts on characterization testing explicitly addressed several site characterization issues that are considered implicitly in many site characterization programs.

  20. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments. PMID:26841776

  1. Characterization of phosphonic acid binding to zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Malicki, Michał; Giordano, Anthony J.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Marder, Seth R.

    2011-01-24

    Radio Frequency (RF) sputter-deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been modified with alkylphosphonic acids in order to study both the binding of the phosphonic acid (PA) group to the ZnO surface and the packing of the alkyl chain. The characterization of these PA-modified ZnO substrates by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements is presented herein. The surface modification procedure is straightforward and was adapted from earlier work. XPS analysis shows that oxygen plasma (OP) treatment creates reactive oxygen species on the surface of ZnO, allowing for a more robust binding of PAs to the ZnO surface. IRRAS analysis indicates that octadecylphosphonic acid binds to the ZnO surface in a predominantly tridentate fashion, forming dense, well-packed monolayers with alkyl chains in a fully anti-conformation. AFM and contact angle measurements indicate good surface coverage of the PAs with little to no multilayer formation.

  2. Characterization and quantification of groundwater sulfate sources at a mining site in an arid climate: The Monument Valley site in Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-11-01

    The Monument Valley site, a former uranium mining site located in the state of Arizona in the Southwest USA, has high concentrations of sulfate in groundwater. Stable isotope analysis of S and O for sulfate, in combination with geochemical and hydrogeological data, was used to characterize the sources and fate of sulfate. The results indicate the existence of two discrete sources of sulfate (in excess of baseline levels): sulfuric acid released during ore processing and sulfate generated via sulfide-mineral oxidation. The contributions of the sources are related to spatial distributions of sulfate in the plume through analysis of groundwater travel times. Quantification of the sources using two isotope-analysis methods yielded similar results. The results indicate that sulfuric acid served as the primary source (mean = 427 mg/L, 74%), with sulfide-mineral oxidation providing a smaller contribution (mean = 147 mg/L, 26%). It appears that the major contribution to the sulfide-mineral oxidation component originates from oxidation of sulfide minerals in exposed bedrock residing in the primary recharge zone of the local aquifer, which provides an elevated sulfate background for groundwater. Conversely, the oxidation of sulfide minerals associated with the mine tailings appears to provide a relatively minor contribution (˜8% of the overall total). Interestingly, it appears that sulfuric acid served as a sustained source of sulfate for approximately 40 years. This may be related to the accumulation of sulfate salts (formed after neutralization and disposal of the sulfuric acid) in the source zone due to the arid climate of the site. Contrary to the typical assumption applied at many mining sites that sulfide-mineral oxidation is the primary source of sulfate, these sulfate salts are hypothesized to be the primary source for this site.

  3. Characterization and quantification of groundwater sulfate sources at a mining site in an arid climate: The Monument Valley site in Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ziheng; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Monument Valley site, a former uranium mining site located in the state of Arizona in the Southwest USA, has high concentrations of sulfate in groundwater. Stable isotope analysis of S and O for sulfate, in combination with geochemical and hydrogeological data, was used to characterize the sources and fate of sulfate. The results indicate the existence of two discrete sources of sulfate (in excess of baseline levels): sulfuric acid released during ore processing and sulfate generated via sulfide-mineral oxidation. The contributions of the sources are related to spatial distributions of sulfate in the plume through analysis of groundwater travel times. Quantification of the sources using two isotope-analysis methods yielded similar results. The results indicate that sulfuric acid served as the primary source (mean = 427 mg/L, 74%), with sulfide-mineral oxidation providing a smaller contribution (mean = 147 mg/L, 26%). It appears that the major contribution to the sulfide-mineral oxidation component originates from oxidation of sulfide minerals in exposed bedrock residing in the primary recharge zone of the local aquifer, which provides an elevated sulfate background for groundwater. Conversely, the oxidation of sulfide minerals associated with the mine tailings appears to provide a relatively minor contribution (∼8% of the overall total). Interestingly, it appears that sulfuric acid served as a sustained source of sulfate for approximately 40 years. This may be related to the accumulation of sulfate salts (formed after neutralization and disposal of the sulfuric acid) in the source zone due to the arid climate of the site. Contrary to the typical assumption applied at many mining sites that sulfide-mineral oxidation is the primary source of sulfate, these sulfate salts are hypothesized to be the primary source for this site. PMID:24729633

  4. Site and Event Characterization Using the CTBT On-Site Inspection Techniques (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, P.; Gaya Pique, L. R.; Rowlands, A. P.; Arndt, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    One of the four elements of the CTBT verification regime is On-Site Inspection (OSI). The sole purpose of an OSI is to clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been conducted in violation of the CTBT. An OSI would be conducted within an area no bigger than 1000 km2 and by no more than 40 inspectors at any one time, applying search logic and inspection techniques with the aim of collecting relevant information that will be the basis for the inspection report. During the course of an OSI less intrusive techniques applied over broad areas (usually with lower spatial resolution) are supplemented with more intrusive techniques applied to more targeted areas (usually at a higher spatial resolution). Environmental setting and the evolution of OSI-relevant observables over time will influence the application of OSI techniques. In the course of the development of OSI methodology and relevant techniques, field tests and exercises have been conducted. While earlier activities mainly focused on progress of individual techniques (such as visual observation, passive seismological monitoring for aftershocks and measurements of radioactivity), recent work covered both technique development (such as multi-spectral imaging including infrared measurements, and environmental sampling and analysis of solids, liquids and gases) as well as the integration of techniques, search logic and data flow. We will highlight examples of application of OSI technologies for site and event characterization from recently conducted field tests and exercises and demonstrate the synthesis of techniques and data necessary for the conduct of an OSI.

  5. STATE-OF-THE-ART FIELD TECHNIQUES FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the traditional methods for characterizing the hydrogeologic properties and contaminant distribution of subsurface materials were derived from methods developed in the water supply industry. These methods generally result in the characterization of bulk aquifer propert...

  6. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  7. Probing the Binding Site of Bile Acids in TGR5.

    PubMed

    Macchiarulo, Antonio; Gioiello, Antimo; Thomas, Charles; Pols, Thijs W H; Nuti, Roberto; Ferrari, Cristina; Giacchè, Nicola; De Franco, Francesca; Pruzanski, Mark; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2013-12-12

    TGR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating cellular responses to bile acids (BAs). Although some efforts have been devoted to generate homology models of TGR5 and draw structure-activity relationships of BAs, none of these studies has hitherto described how BAs bind to TGR5. Here, we present an integrated computational, chemical, and biological approach that has been instrumental to determine the binding mode of BAs to TGR5. As a result, key residues have been identified that are involved in mediating the binding of BAs to the receptor. Collectively, these results provide new hints to design potent and selective TGR5 agonists. PMID:24900622

  8. Improving Evolutionary Models for Mitochondrial Protein Data with Site-Class Specific Amino Acid Exchangeability Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Katherine A.; Jiang, Wenyi; Field, Christopher; Bielawski, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate modeling of mitochondrial sequence evolution is an essential component of mitochondrial phylogenomics (comparative mitogenomics). There is wide recognition within the field that lineage-specific aspects of mitochondrial evolution should be accommodated through lineage-specific amino-acid exchangeability matrices (e.g., mtMam for mammalian data). However, such a matrix must be applied to all sites and this implies that all sites are subject to the same, or largely similar, evolutionary constraints. This assumption is unjustified. Indeed, substantial differences are expected to arise from three-dimensional structures that impose different physiochemical environments on individual amino acid residues. The objectives of this paper are (1) to investigate the extent to which amino acid evolution varies among sites of mitochondrial proteins, and (2) to assess the potential benefits of explicitly modeling such variability. To achieve this, we developed a novel method for partitioning sites based on amino acid physiochemical properties. We apply this method to two datasets derived from complete mitochondrial genomes of mammals and fish, and use maximum likelihood to estimate amino acid exchangeabilities for the different groups of sites. Using this approach we identified large groups of sites evolving under unique physiochemical constraints. Estimates of amino acid exchangeabilities differed significantly among such groups. Moreover, we found that joint estimates of amino acid exchangeabilities do not adequately represent the natural variability in evolutionary processes among sites of mitochondrial proteins. Significant improvements in likelihood are obtained when the new matrices are employed. We also find that maximum likelihood estimates of branch lengths can be strongly impacted. We provide sets of matrices suitable for groups of sites subject to similar physiochemical constraints, and discuss how they might be used to analyze real data. We also discuss how

  9. Phosphorus characterization in sediments impacted by septic effluent at four sites in central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, L.; Robertson, W. D.; Ptacek, C. J.; Schiff, S. L.; Mayer, T.

    1998-10-01

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) enriched solids was undertaken in the sediments below four mature septic system infiltration beds, where previous monitoring of phosphate (PO 4) concentrations in the groundwater had indicated that substantial retention of P was occurring in the vadose zone. At each site, zones of sediment P enrichment were identified by an acid extraction procedure. Acid extractable sediment P concentrations were found to be 2-5 times higher than background values, within narrow discrete zones generally 10-30 cm in thickness, located within one meter of the infiltration pipes. Back scattered electron images of the P enriched zones indicated that the P solids occurred as distinct authigenic grains (up to 300 μm diameter) and as grain coatings. Microprobe analyses indicated predominantly Fe-P in calcareous sediments (Cambridge and Langton) and Al-Fe-P in non-calcareous sediments (Muskoka and Harp Lake). Porewater analyses indicated that the zones of P accumulation were closely associated with zones of redox change characterized by the conversion of effluent NH 4+ to NO 3-. The data suggests that a substantial amount of the septic derived P is being attenuated by mineral precipitation reactions that occur rapidly after the effluent encounters subsurface sediments. Reductive dissolution of ferric (oxy)hydroxide minerals as a consequence of reducing environments near the infiltrations pipes, the release of Fe 2+ in solution and subsequent conversion of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ may promote the precipitation of ferric or ferrosoferric PO 4 minerals. In sediments with limited buffering capacity (calcite deficient), the decrease in pH resulting from effluent oxidation may cause Al (oxy)hydroxide dissolution and subsequent precipitation of Al-P rich phases. These precipitation reactions appear to have the capacity to immobilize a substantial amount of septic derived P (25-99% at these sites) for a considerable period of time.

  10. Characterization of DNA Binding and Retinoic Acid Binding Properties of Retinoic Acid Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Na; Schule, Roland; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Evans, Ronald M.

    1991-05-01

    High-level expression of the full-length human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α and the DNA binding domain of the RAR in Escherichia coli was achieved by using a T7 RNA polymerase-directed expression system. After induction, full-length RAR protein was produced at an estimated level of 20% of the total bacterial proteins. Both intact RAR molecules and the DNA binding domain bind to the cognate DNA response element with high specificity in the absence of retinoic acid. However, this binding is enhanced to a great extent upon the addition of eukaryotic cell extracts. The factor responsible for this enhancement is heat-sensitive and forms a complex with RAR that binds to DNA and exhibits a distinct migration pattern in the gel-mobility-shift assay. The interaction site of the factor with RAR is localized in the 70-amino acid DNA binding region of RAR. The hormone binding ability of the RARα protein was assayed by a charcoal absorption assay and the RAR protein was found to bind to retinoic acid with a K_d of 2.1 x 10-10 M.

  11. Transport and signaling via the amino acid binding site of the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    PubMed

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Bonini, Beatriz Monge; Versele, Matthias; Thevelein, Johan M

    2009-01-01

    Transporter-related nutrient sensors, called transceptors, mediate nutrient activation of signaling pathways through the plasma membrane. The mechanism of action of transporting and nontransporting transceptors is unknown. We have screened 319 amino acid analogs to identify compounds that act on Gap1, a transporting amino acid transceptor in yeast that triggers activation of the protein kinase A pathway. We identified competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors of transport, either with or without agonist action for signaling, including nontransported agonists. Using substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) analysis, we identified Ser388 and Val389 as being exposed into the amino acid binding site, and we show that agonist action for signaling uses the same binding site as used for transport. Our results provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the mechanism of action of transceptors. They indicate that signaling requires a ligand-induced specific conformational change that may be part of but does not require the complete transport cycle. PMID:19060912

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  13. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  14. Na+ Inhibits the Epithelial Na+ Channel by Binding to a Site in an Extracellular Acidic Cleft*

    PubMed Central

    Kashlan, Ossama B.; Blobner, Brandon M.; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na+, Cl−, protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na+ concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na+ binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na+. Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li+ or K+ rather than Na+. Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na+. Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured

  16. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering. PMID:23649268

  17. Mesoporous Nb and Ta Oxides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications in Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuxiang Tony

    In this work, a series of mesoporous Niobium and Tantalum oxides with different pore sizes (C6, C12, C18 , ranging from 12A to 30 A) were synthesized using the ligand-assisted templating approach and investigated for their activities in a wide range of catalytic applications including benzylation, alkylation and isomerization. The as-synthesized mesoporous materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solid-state Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. In order to probe into the structural and coordination geometry of mesoporous Nb oxide and in efforts to make meaningful comparisons of mesoporous niobia prepared by the amine-templating method with the corresponding bulk sol-gel prepared Nb2O5 phase, 17O magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR studies were conducted. The results showed a very high local order in the mesoporous sample. The oxygen atoms are coordinated only as ONb 2 in contrast with bulk phases in which the oxygen atoms are always present in a mixture of ONb2 and ONb3 coordination environments. To enhance their surface acidities and thus improve their performance as solid acid catalysts in the acid-catalyzed reactions mentioned above, pure mesoporous Nb and Ta oxides were further treated with 1M sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid. Their surface acidities before and after acid treatment were measured by Fourier transform infraRed (FT IR), amine titration and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). Results obtained in this study showed that sulfated mesoporous Nb and Ta oxides materials possess relative high surface areas (up to 612 m 2/g) and amorphous wormhole structure. These mesoporous structures are thus quite stable to acid treatment. It was also found that Bronsted (1540 cm-1) and Lewis (1450 cm-1) acid sites coexist in a roughly 50:50 mixture

  18. Detection and characterization of oxidizing acids in the Atacama Desert using the Mars Oxidation Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. C.; Zent, A. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Taylor, C. L.; Garry, J. R. C.

    2005-11-01

    We have performed field experiments to further develop and validate the Mars Oxidation Instrument (MOI) as well as measurement strategies for the in situ characterization of oxidation mechanisms, kinetics, and carbon cycling on Mars. Using the Atacama Desert as a test site for the current dry conditions on Mars, we characterized the chemical reactivity of surface and near-surface atmosphere in the dry core of the Atacama. MOI is a chemiresistor-based sensor array that measures the reaction rates of chemical films that are sensitive to particular types of oxidants or that mimic chemical characteristics of pre-biotic and biotic materials. With these sensors, the chemical reactivity of a planetary environment is characterized by monitoring the resistance of the film as a function of time. Our instrumental approach correlates reaction rates with dust abundance, UV flux, humidity, and temperature, allowing discrimination between competing hypotheses of oxidant formation and organic decomposition. The sensor responses in the Atacama are consistent with an oxidative attack by strong acids triggered by dust accumulation, followed by transient wetting due to an increase in relative humidity during the night. We conclude that in the Atacama Desert, and perhaps on Mars, low pH resulting from acid accumulation, combined with limited water availability and high oxidation potential, can result in oxidizing acid reactions on dust and soil surfaces during low-moisture transient wetting events (i.e. thin films of water). These soil acids are expected to play a significant role in the oxidizing nature of the soils, the formation of mineral surface coatings, and the chemical modification of organics in the surface material.

  19. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: HYDROGEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR SUBSURFACE SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project focuses on three issues that are critical to Environmental Management of contaminated sites: reducing cost, reducing risk, and increasing the effectiveness of subsurface remediation schemes. The significance of this research is that it addresses the issue of site cha...

  20. SITE-SPECIFIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL RADON POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a theoretical basis for measuring site-specific radon potentials. However, the empirical measurements suggest that the precision of such measurements is marginal, leaving an uncertainty of about a factor of 2 in site-specific estimates. Although this may be us...

  1. Site specific incorporation of heavy atom-containing unnatural amino acids into proteins for structure determination

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Jianming; Wang, Lei; Wu, Ning; Schultz, Peter G.

    2008-07-15

    Translation systems and other compositions including orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases that preferentially charge an orthogonal tRNA with an iodinated or brominated amino acid are provided. Nucleic acids encoding such synthetases are also described, as are methods and kits for producing proteins including heavy atom-containing amino acids, e.g., brominated or iodinated amino acids. Methods of determining the structure of a protein, e.g., a protein into which a heavy atom has been site-specifically incorporated through use of an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase pair, are also described.

  2. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  3. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

  5. Teapot Dome: Site Characterization of a CO2- Enhanced Oil Recovery Site in Eastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Stamp, V

    2005-11-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), better known as the Teapot Dome oil field, is the last U.S. federally-owned and -operated oil field. This provides a unique opportunity for experiments to provide scientific and technical insight into CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and other topics involving subsurface fluid behavior. Towards that end, a combination of federal, academic, and industrial support has produced outstanding characterizations of important oil- and brine-bearing reservoirs there. This effort provides an unparalleled opportunity for industry and others to use the site. Data sets include geological, geophysical, geochemical, geomechanical, and operational data over a wide range of geological boundary conditions. Importantly, these data, many in digital form, are available in the public domain due to NPR-3's federal status. Many institutions are already using portions of the Teapot Dome data set as the basis for a variety of geoscience, modeling, and other research efforts. Fifteen units, 9 oil-bearing and 6 brine-bearing, have been studied to varying degrees. Over 1200 wells in the field are active or accessible, and over 400 of these penetrate 11 formations located below the depth that corresponds to the supercritical point for CO{sub 2}. Studies include siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs; shale, carbonate, and anhydrite cap rocks; fractured and unfractured units; and over-pressured and under-pressured zones. Geophysical data include 3D seismic and vertical seismic profiles. Reservoir data include stratigraphic, sedimentological, petrologic, petrographic, porosity, and permeability data. These have served as the basis for preliminary 3D flow simulations. Geomechanical data include fractures (natural and drilling induced), in-situ stress determination, pressure, and production history. Geochemical data include soil gas, noble gas, organic, and other measures. The conditions of these reservoirs directly or indirectly represent many reservoirs

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Evolution of HLA class II molecules: Allelic and amino acid site variability across populations.

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, H; Klitz, W; Easteal, S; Gao, X; Erlich, H A; Fernandez-Viña, M; Trachtenberg, E A; McWeeney, S K; Nelson, M P; Thomson, G

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the highly polymorphic beta1 domains of the HLA class II molecules encoded by the DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci reveals contrasting levels of diversity at the allele and amino acid site levels. Statistics of allele frequency distributions, based on Watterson's homozygosity statistic F, reveal distinct evolutionary patterns for these loci in ethnically diverse samples (26 populations for DQB1 and DRB1 and 14 for DPB1). When examined over all populations, the DQB1 locus allelic variation exhibits striking balanced polymorphism (P < 10(-4)), DRB1 shows some evidence of balancing selection (P < 0.06), and while there is overall very little evidence for selection of DPB1 allele frequencies, there is a trend in the direction of balancing selection (P < 0.08). In contrast, at the amino acid level all three loci show strong evidence of balancing selection at some sites. Averaged over polymorphic amino acid sites, DQB1 and DPB1 show similar deviation from neutrality expectations, and both exhibit more balanced polymorphic amino acid sites than DRB1. Across ethnic groups, polymorphisms at many codons show evidence for balancing selection, yet data consistent with directional selection were observed at other codons. Both antigen-binding pocket- and non-pocket-forming amino acid sites show overall deviation from neutrality for all three loci. Only in the case of DRB1 was there a significant difference between pocket- and non-pocket-forming amino acid sites. Our findings indicate that balancing selection at the MHC occurs at the level of polymorphic amino acid residues, and that in many cases this selection is consistent across populations. PMID:10224269

  9. Mononuclear metal complexes of organic carboxylic acid derivatives: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, thermal investigation and antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H.

    2007-05-01

    Two Schiff base ligands bearing organic acid moiety, vis., N-(2-thienylmethylidene)-2-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid (HL 1) and N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid (H 2L 2) have been synthesized by the interaction of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 2-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of these ligands have been prepared. They are characterized on the basis of analytical data, molar conductance, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction technique. The molar conductance data reveal that these complexes are non-electrolytes. The ligands are coordinated to the metal ions in a terdentate manner with ONO/ONS donor sites of the carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen or thiophenic sulphur. An octahedral structure is proposed for the prepared metal complexes and some ligand field parameters ( Dq, B and β) in addition to CFSE were calculated. The thermal stability of the metal complexes is evaluated. The Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes have been tested against four species of bacteria as well as four species of fungi and the results have been compared with some known antibiotics.

  10. Framework for Site Characterization for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is unique among remedial technologies in relying entirely on natural processes to achieve site-specific objectives. Site characterization is essential to provide site-specific data and interpretations for the decision-making process (i.e., to ...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  13. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  14. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  15. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  16. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  17. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  1. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface.

  2. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; D'Alema, Ezio; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Stefania Danesi, Adriano; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch/), we deployed overall 20 seismic broad-band stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. All the stations, connected in real-time, were installed at sites selected according to the AlpArray Seismic Network plan: 16 temporary stations running for two to three years and 4 new permanent stations in sites already occupied by accelerometers of the INGV national network. Most temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130S digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120s sensors (a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P and one Streckeisen STS2). For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  3. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  4. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  5. Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A. ); Antonio, Ernest J. ); Fosmire, Christian J. ); Fowler, Richard A. ); Glantz, Clifford S. ); Goodwin, Shannon M. ); Harvey, David W. ); Hendrickson, Paul L. ); Horton, Duane G. ); Poston, Ted M. ); Rohay, Alan C. ); Thorne, Paul D. ); Wright, Mona K. )

    1999-12-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the twelfth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the thirteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomic, occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100, 200, 300, and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 of this document can be adapted and

  8. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Phase II of a 5-phase overall compressed air energy storage (CAES) development program was performed to characterize and explore potential CAES sites and to prepare a research and development plan. This volume for Phase II activities contains an evaluation of the suitability of seven selected sites to undergo field drilling and air injection testing; a bibliography; results of a literature search on the effects of air injection of aquifer-caprock well systems; reservoir data for the sites; cost estimates; and predicted potential risks from a CAES plant. (LCL)

  9. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Van Remortel; Y. J. Lee; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  10. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Y. J. Lee; R. D. Van Remortel; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  11. In silico Identification and Characterization of Protein-Ligand Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel Barry; McGuffin, Liam James

    2016-01-01

    Protein-ligand binding site prediction methods aim to predict, from amino acid sequence, protein-ligand interactions, putative ligands, and ligand binding site residues using either sequence information, structural information, or a combination of both. In silico characterization of protein-ligand interactions has become extremely important to help determine a protein's functionality, as in vivo-based functional elucidation is unable to keep pace with the current growth of sequence databases. Additionally, in vitro biochemical functional elucidation is time-consuming, costly, and may not be feasible for large-scale analysis, such as drug discovery. Thus, in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions must be utilized to aid in functional elucidation. Here, we briefly discuss protein function prediction, prediction of protein-ligand interactions, the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) and the Continuous Automated EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) competitions, along with their role in shaping the field. We also discuss, in detail, our cutting-edge web-server method, FunFOLD for the structurally informed prediction of protein-ligand interactions. Furthermore, we provide a step-by-step guide on using the FunFOLD web server and FunFOLD3 downloadable application, along with some real world examples, where the FunFOLD methods have been used to aid functional elucidation. PMID:27094282

  12. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements'' published by

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  18. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  19. Hydrogenation of biofuels with formic acid over a palladium-based ternary catalyst with two types of active sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zhang, Bingsen; Meng, Xiangju; Su, Dang Sheng; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-06-01

    A composite catalyst including palladium nanoparticles on titania (TiO2) and on nitrogen-modified porous carbon (Pd/TiO2@N-C) is synthesized from palladium salts, tetrabutyl titanate, and chitosan. N2 sorption isotherms show that the catalyst has a high BET surface area (229 m(2)  g(-1)) and large porosity. XPS and TEM characterization of the catalyst shows that palladium species with different chemical states are well dispersed across the TiO2 and nitrogen-modified porous carbon, respectively. The Pd/TiO2@N-C catalyst is very active and shows excellent stability towards hydrogenation of vanillin to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol using formic acid as hydrogen source. This activity can be attributed to a synergistic effect between the Pd/TiO2 (a catalyst for dehydrogenation of formic acid) and Pd/N-C (a catalyst for hydrogenation of vanillin) sites. PMID:24861954

  20. Gas phase acidity measurement of local acidic groups in multifunctional species: controlling the binding sites in hydroxycinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Andres; Baer, Tomas; Chana, Antonio; González, Javier; Dávalos, Juan Z

    2013-07-01

    The applicability of the extended kinetic method (EKM) to determine the gas phase acidities (GA) of different deprotonable groups within the same molecule was tested by measuring the acidities of cinnamic, coumaric, and caffeic acids. These molecules differ not only in the number of acidic groups but in their nature, intramolecular distances, and calculated GAs. In order to determine independently the GA of groups within the same molecule using the EKM, it is necessary to selectively prepare pure forms of the hydrogen-bound heterodimer. In this work, the selectivity was achieved by the use of solvents of different vapor pressure (water and acetonitrile), as well as by variation of the drying temperature in the ESI source, which affected the production of heterodimers with different solvation energies and gas-phase dissociation energies. A particularly surprising finding is that the calculated solvation enthalpies of water and the aprotic acetonitrile are essentially identical, and that the different gas-phase products generated are apparently the result of their different vapor pressures, which affects the drying mechanism. This approach for the selective preparation of heterodimers, which is based on the energetics, appears to be quite general and should prove useful for other studies that require the selective production of heterodimers in ESI sources. The experimental results were supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of both gas-phase and solvated species. The experimental thermochemical parameters (deprotonation ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) are in good agreement with the calculated values for the monofunctional cinnamic acid, as well as the multifunctional coumaric and caffeic acids. The measured GA for cinnamic acid is 334.5 ± 2.0 kcal/mol. The measured acidities for the COOH and OH groups of coumaric and caffeic acids are 332.7 ± 2.0, 318.7 ± 2.1, 332.2 ± 2.0, and 317.3 ± 2.2 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:23799241

  1. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  2. GUIDE TO SITE AND SOIL DESCRIPTION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE CHARACTERIZATION VOLUME 1: METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide is intended to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, and interpret site and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites where metals contamination is suspected or known. he approach presented, including the knowledge frames of an expert system, will be ...

  3. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL SITE MODELS AND TRANSPORT MODELS FOR MONITORING CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  4. Thunder-induced ground motions: 2. Site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ting-L.; Langston, Charles A.

    2009-04-01

    Thunder-induced ground motion, near-surface refraction, and Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements were used to constrain near-surface velocity structure at an unconsolidated sediment site. We employed near-surface seismic refraction measurements to first define ranges for site structure parameters. Air-coupled and hammer-generated Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were used to further constrain the site structure by a grid search technique. The acoustic-to-seismic coupling is modeled as an incident plane P wave in a fluid half-space impinging into a solid layered half-space. We found that the infrasound-induced ground motions constrained substrate velocities and the average thickness and velocities of the near-surface layer. The addition of higher-frequency near-surface Rayleigh waves produced tighter constraints on the near-surface velocities. This suggests that natural or controlled airborne pressure sources can be used to investigate the near-surface site structures for earthquake shaking hazard studies.

  5. SITE CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS): INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 1994, a demonstration of cone penetrometer-mounted sensor technologies took place to evaluate their effectiveness in sampling and analyzing the physical and chemical characteristics of subsurface sod at hazardous waste sites. he effectiveness of each technology was eval...

  6. SITE CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 1994, a demonstration of cone penetrometer-mounted sensor technologies took place to evaluate their effectiveness in sampling and analyzing the physical and chemical characteristics of subsurface sod at hazardous waste sites. he effectiveness of each technology was eval...

  7. Hydrogeologic characterization report for the Rocky Flats environmental technology site

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, D.C.; Burcar, S.; Smith, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Denver groundwater basin encompasses approximately 6,700 square miles, extending east from the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. This structural basin contains four Cretaceous bedrock aquifers overlain by a regional Quaternary alluvial aquifer. The Rocky Flats Site is located on the northwest margin of the basin. The shallow groundwater system at the Rocky Flats Site is divided into upper and lower hydrostratigraphic units (UHSU and LHSU, respectively). The UHSU at the Rocky Flats site comprises Quaternary alluvium, colluvium, valley-fill alluvium, artificial fill, weathered bedrock of the undifferentiated Arapahoe and Laramie formations and all sandstones that are hydraulically connected with overlying surficial groundwater. The LHSU comprises unweathered claystone with interbedded siltstones and sandstones of the undifferentiated Arapahoe and Laramie formations. The contact separating the UHSU and LHSU is identified as the base of the weathered zone. The separation of hydrostratigraphic units is supported by the contrasting permeabilities of the units comprising the UHSU and LHSU, well hydrograph data indicating that the units respond differently to seasonal recharge events, and geochemical data reflecting distinct major ion chemistries in the groundwaters of the UHSU and LHSU. Surface-water/groundwater interactions at the Rocky Flats site generally respond to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation, recharge, groundwater storage, and stream and ditch flow. Effluent conditions are dominant in the spring along western stream segments and influent conditions are common in the late summer and fall along most stream reaches.

  8. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1990--March 31, 1991; Number 4

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113 (b) (3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. This report is the fourth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program, and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, Study Plans, and performance assessment.

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  10. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  11. Characterization of MER Landing Sites Using MOC and MOLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Parker, T. J.

    2002-01-01

    The MOC images for MER are compared with MOLA data to characterize and locate each image. MOLA profiles show that Hematite remains benign, Melas and Isidis are rougher, and Athabasca and Gusev have regions of significant small scale topography. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  13. Protocatechuic acid grafted onto chitosan: Characterization and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Meng, Chen-Guang; Yan, Ye-Hua; Shan, Ya-Na; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2016-08-01

    In this study, protocatechuic acid (PA) was grafted onto chitosan (CS) by a carbodiimide mediated cross-linking reaction. The structural characterization, physical property and antioxidant activity of PA grafted CS (PA-g-CS) was investigated. As results, three copolymers with different grafting ratios (61.64, 190.11 and 279.69mg PAE/g) were obtained by varying the molar ratios of reaction substrates. PA-g-CS showed the same UV absorption peaks as PA at 258 and 292nm. As compared to CS, PA-g-CS exhibited a decreased band at 1596cm(-1) and a new band at 1716cm(-1), suggesting the formation of amide and ester linkages between PA and CS. New proton signals at δ6.77-7⋅33ppm were observed on (1)H NMR spectrum of PA-g-CS, assigning to the methine protons of PA. Signals at δ 150.8-116.6 ppm on (13)C NMR spectrum of PA-g-CS was assigned to the aromatic ring carbon of PA moieties. All the structural information confirmed the successful grafting of PA onto CS. SEM observation showed CS had a smooth surface, while PA-g-CS had a rough surface. TGA revealed the thermal stability of PA-g-CS was lower than CS. Antioxidant activity assays further verified the reducing power and DDPH radical scavenging activity of PA-g-CS was much higher than CS. PMID:27164501

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Hyaluronic Acid-Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Camci-Unal, Gulden; Cuttica, Davide; Annabi, Nasim; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic hybrid hydrogels have generated broad interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin (hydrolyzed collagen) are naturally derived polymers and biodegradable under physiological conditions. Moreover, collagen and HA are major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in most of the tissues (e.g. cardiovascular, cartilage, neural). When used as a hybrid material, HA-gelatin hydrogels may enable mimicking the ECM of native tissues. Although HA-gelatin hybrid hydrogels are promising biomimetic substrates, their material properties have not been thoroughly characterized in the literature. Herein, we generated hybrid hydrogels with tunable physical and biological properties by using different concentrations of HA and gelatin. The physical properties of the fabricated hydrogels including swelling ratio, degradation, and mechanical properties were investigated. In addition, in vitro cellular responses in both two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) culture conditions were assessed. It was found that the addition of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) into HA methacrylate (HAMA) promoted cell spreading in the hybrid hydogels. Moreover, the hybrid hydrogels showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to their single component analogs. The HAMA-GelMA hydrogels exhibited remarkable tunability behavior and may be useful for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. PMID:23419055

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Camci-Unal, Gulden; Cuttica, Davide; Annabi, Nasim; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Biomimetic hybrid hydrogels have generated broad interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin (hydrolyzed collagen) are naturally derived polymers and biodegradable under physiological conditions. Moreover, collagen and HA are major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in most of the tissues (e.g., cardiovascular, cartilage, neural). When used as a hybrid material, HA-gelatin hydrogels may enable mimicking the ECM of native tissues. Although HA-gelatin hybrid hydrogels are promising biomimetic substrates, their material properties have not been thoroughly characterized in the literature. Herein, we generated hybrid hydrogels with tunable physical and biological properties by using different concentrations of HA and gelatin. The physical properties of the fabricated hydrogels including swelling ratio, degradation, and mechanical properties were investigated. In addition, in vitro cellular responses in both two and three-dimensional culture conditions were assessed. It was found that the addition of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) into HA methacrylate (HAMA) promoted cell spreading in the hybrid hydogels. Moreover, the hybrid hydrogels showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to their single component analogs. The HAMA-GelMA hydrogels exhibited remarkable tunability behavior and may be useful for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. PMID:23419055

  16. Synthesis and characterization of europium- trimesic acid luminescent complex nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Huijuan; Liu, Guixia; Song, Xinyuan; Hong, Guangyan; Cui, Zhenfeng

    2006-01-01

    Eu(III)-trimesic acid (TMA) luminescent complex Nanorods were synthesized in the polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix. The obtained sample was characterized by elemental analysis, Inductively Coupled Plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy(ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The results demonstrated that its chemical constitution is PVP/Eu(MTA) • 2H IIO. The XRD patterns show that the complex was a new kind of crystal whose structure is totally different with the ligand. TEM image indicated that the complex is nanocrystal with rod shape in one dimension, the size of rod diameter is about 50~100 nm, and the length ranges from hundred nanometer to a few micrometers, in addition, the dispersity is better. Photoluminescence analysis indicated that the complex emits Eu 3+ characteristic luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. TG-DTA curves indicated that the complex is heat stable under the temperature of 454°C. Therefore an thermal decomposition mechanism is: Eu(MTA) • 2H IIO->Eu(MTA)-> Eu IIO 3.

  17. Production and characterization of 166Ho polylactic acid microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Kamal; Yeganeh, Ehsan; Abolghasemi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Microsphere and particle technology with selective transport of radiation represents a new generation of therapeutics. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microspheres loaded with holmium-166 acetylacetonate ((166)Ho-PLLA-MS) are novel microdevices. In this research, (165)HoAcAc-PLLA microparticles were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres were irradiated at Tehran Research Reactor. The diameter and surface morphologies were characterized by particle sizer and scanning electron microscopy before and after irradiation. The complex stability, radiochemical purity, and in vivo biodistribiotion were checked in the final solution up to 3 days. In this study, (166)Ho-PLLA spherical particles with a smooth surface and diameter of 20-40 µm were obtained, which were stable in vitro and in vivo studies. Neutron irradiation did not damage the particles. The ease with which the PLLA spheres could be made in the optimal size range for later irradiation and their ability to retain the (166)Ho provided good evidence for their potential use in radioembolization. PMID:26691104

  18. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin-4-biphenylylacetic acid conjugate.

    PubMed

    Ventura, C A; Paolino, D; Pedotti, S; Pistarà, V; Corsaro, A; Puglisi, G

    2003-05-01

    Biphenylylacetic acid (BPAA) was linked to the free hydroxyl group of 2,6-di-O-methyl-beta-Cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) through an ester linkage to obtain the site specific release of the drug to the colon. The conjugate at 1:1 mole ratio was separated from the reaction mixture by semipreparative reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Chemico-physical characteristics, such as water solubility and dissolution rate, were evaluated comparatively to the BPAA-DM-beta-CyD inclusion complex. Hydrolysis rates were investigated in media simulating gastro-intestinal fluids and at pH 7.4 in the presence of porcine liver esterase. A rapid release of the drug was observed at acid pH value. In all cases a first order kinetic was observed, characterized by t1/2 value of 1.19, 19 and 4 h for chemical hydrolysis at pH 1.1, at pH 7.4 and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. In vitro permeation studies through caco-2 cells confirmed the ability of DM-beta-CyD to increase the absorption of included BPAA. A slow permeation was observed for the drug conjugate to DM-beta-CyD due to the slow release of BPAA. PMID:14578110

  19. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J.; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949–1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale. PMID:25598701

  20. Technical Data Catalog: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    This report presents reference information contained in the Yucca Mountain Project Automated Technical Data Tracking System. The Department of Energy is seeking to design and maintain a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. However, before this repository can be built, the DOE must first do a comprehensive site evaluation. This evaluation is subject to many regulations. This report fulfills the reporting requirements of the Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on a quarterly basis. This catalog contains: description of data; time, place, and method of acquisition; and where data may be examined.

  1. Summary of 1990 eolian characterization studies, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, D.R.; Stetler, L.D.; Smith, G.D.; Mars, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    A study of eolian activity was initiated to improve understanding of past climate change and the likely effect of wind on engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site. Eolian features from a Holocene sand dune field located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site were investigated using a variety of field and laboratory techniques including stratigraphic examinations of hand-dug pits, textural and compositional analyses of dune sand and potential source detritus, and air photo interpretations. These investigations were undertaken to evaluate the provenance and eolian dynamics of the sand dunes. Interpretations of sand dune migration using archival air photo stereopairs document a 20% reduction in the volume of active sand dunes (measured from an approximate 15-km{sup 2} test area) between 1948 and 1987. Changes in annual precipitation appear to have influenced active dune migration strongly.

  2. Site Characterization Plan (SCP) conceptual design criteria document

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1986-05-19

    This SCP Conceptual Design Criteria Document was developed to guide engineering effort for Engineering Study No. 10, the supporting document for Chapter 6 of the SCP. The document provides regulatory design guidance, design rationale derived from the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geological Disposal System document, site-specific criteria, and design assumptions. Appendices were added to provide additional information on geology and seals design. 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. SCP (Site Characterization Plan) conceptual design criteria document

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1985-05-01

    This SCP Conceptual Design Criteria Document was developed to guide engineering efforts for Engineering Study No. 10, the supporting document for Chapter 6 of the SCP. The document provides regulatory design guidance, design rationale derived from the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geological Disposal System document, site-specific criteria, and design assumptions. Appendices were added to provide additional information on geology and seals design.

  4. Characterization of atmospheric bioaerosols at 9 sites in Tijuana, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Lilia; Rodríguez, Guillermo; López, Jonathan; Castillo, J. E.; Molina, Luisa; Zavala, Miguel; Quintana, Penelope J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The atmosphere is not considered a habitat for microorganisms, but can exist in the atmosphere as bioaerosols. These microorganisms in the atmosphere have great environmental importance through their influence on physical processes such as ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Pathogenic airborne microorganisms may also have public health consequences. In this paper we analyze the microbial concentration in the air at three sites in Tijuana, Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality campaign and from nine sites over the following year. Samples were collected by impaction with the air analyzer Millipore M Air T, followed by incubation and counting as colony forming units (CFU) of viable colonies. Airborne microbial contamination average levels ranged from a low of 230 ± 130 CFU/m³ in the coastal reference site to an average of 40,100 ± 21,689 CFU/m³ in the Tijuana river valley. We found the highest microbial load in the summer and the lowest values in the winter. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the samples, with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis being most common. This work is the first evaluation of bioaerosols in Tijuana, Mexico.

  5. Characterization of Heparin-binding Site of Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J.; Pytel, Kamila; Rathbone, Daniel L.; Li, Xiaoling; Griffin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca2+-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and metastatic cancer. Extracellular TG2 can also facilitate cell adhesion important in wound healing through a nontransamidating mechanism via its association with fibronectin, heparan sulfates (HS), and integrins. Regulating the mechanism how TG2 is translocated into the ECM therefore provides a strategy for modulating these physiological and pathological functions of the enzyme. Here, through molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified the HS-binding site of TG2 202KFLKNAGRDCSRRSSPVYVGR222. We demonstrate the requirement of this binding site for translocation of TG2 into the ECM through a mechanism involving cell surface shedding of HS. By synthesizing a peptide NPKFLKNAGRDCSRRSS corresponding to the HS-binding site within TG2, we also demonstrate how this mimicking peptide can in isolation compensate for the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin via binding to syndecan-4, leading to activation of PKCα, pFAK-397, and ERK1/2 and the subsequent formation of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton organization. A novel regulatory mechanism for TG2 translocation into the extracellular compartment that depends upon TG2 conformation and the binding of HS is proposed. PMID:22298777

  6. Characterization of Drosophila CMP-sialic acid synthetase activity reveals unusual enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Mertsalov, Ilya B; Novikov, Boris N; Scott, Hilary; Dangott, Lawrence; Panin, Vladislav M

    2016-07-01

    CMP-sialic acid synthetase (CSAS) is a key enzyme of the sialylation pathway. CSAS produces the activated sugar donor, CMP-sialic acid, which serves as a substrate for sialyltransferases to modify glycan termini with sialic acid. Unlike other animal CSASs that normally localize in the nucleus, Drosophila melanogaster CSAS (DmCSAS) localizes in the cell secretory compartment, predominantly in the Golgi, which suggests that this enzyme has properties distinct from those of its vertebrate counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we purified recombinant DmCSAS and characterized its activity in vitro Our experiments revealed several unique features of this enzyme. DmCSAS displays specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid as a substrate, shows preference for lower pH and can function with a broad range of metal cofactors. When tested at a pH corresponding to the Golgi compartment, the enzyme showed significant activity with several metal cations, including Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Mn(2+), whereas the activity with Mg(2+) was found to be low. Protein sequence analysis and site-specific mutagenesis identified an aspartic acid residue that is necessary for enzymatic activity and predicted to be involved in co-ordinating a metal cofactor. DmCSAS enzymatic activity was found to be essential in vivo for rescuing the phenotype of DmCSAS mutants. Finally, our experiments revealed a steep dependence of the enzymatic activity on temperature. Taken together, our results indicate that DmCSAS underwent evolutionary adaptation to pH and ionic environment different from that of counterpart synthetases in vertebrates. Our data also suggest that environmental temperatures can regulate Drosophila sialylation, thus modulating neural transmission. PMID:27114558

  7. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Yao, Jianzhuang; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Li, Guanglin; Guan, Ju; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

  8. Amino acid sequence analysis and characterization of a ribonuclease from starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Itagaki, Tadashi; Inokuchi, Norio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to phylogenetically characterize the location of the RNase T2 enzyme in the starfish (Asterias amurensis). We isolated an RNase T2 ribonuclease (RNase Aa) from the ovaries of starfish and determined its amino acid sequence by protein chemistry and cloning cDNA encoding RNase Aa. The isolated protein had 231 amino acid residues, a predicted molecular mass of 25,906 Da, and an optimal pH of 5.0. RNase Aa preferentially released guanylic acid from the RNA. The catalytic sites of the RNase T2 family are conserved in RNase Aa; furthermore, the distribution of the cysteine residues in RNase Aa is similar to that in other animal and plant T2 RNases. RNase Aa is cleaved at two points: 21 residues from the N-terminus and 29 residues from the C-terminus; however, both fragments may remain attached to the protein via disulfide bridges, leading to the maintenance of its conformation, as suggested by circular dichroism spectrum analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that starfish RNase Aa is evolutionarily an intermediate between protozoan and oyster RNases. PMID:26920046

  9. Site Characterization To Support Use Of Monitored Natural Attentuation For Remediation Of Inorganic Contaminants In Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical recommendations have recently been published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address site characterization needed to support selection of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for cleanup of inorganic contaminant plumes in groundwater. Immobilization onto ...

  10. Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and Rcra Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final document titled, Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and RCRA Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations.

  11. TRI-SERVICE SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS) ACCELERATED SENSOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1994, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded a Tri-Service effort to accelerate the development and fielding of environmental sensing technologies to extend the capabilities of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCA...

  12. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM TWO MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are someof the most environmentally damaging land uses i the US. Acid Mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exceed regulatory standards for safe disc...

  13. PHYSICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ACID ROCK DRAINAGE AT REMOTE SITES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program, Activity III, Project 42, Physical Solutions for Acid Rock Drainage at Remote Sites, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy. A...

  14. A FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...

  15. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM(SCAPS) LAZER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE (LIF) SENSOR AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consortium for Site Characterization Technology (CSCT) has established a formal program to accelerate acceptance and application of innovative monitoring and site characterization technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental problems. In 1995 the CS...

  16. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-03-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media.

  17. Biochemical and structural characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae oxamate amidohydrolase in the uric acid degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Katherine A; Ealick, Steven E

    2016-06-01

    HpxW from the ubiquitous pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is involved in a novel uric acid degradation pathway downstream from the formation of oxalurate. Specifically, HpxW is an oxamate amidohydrolase which catalyzes the conversion of oxamate to oxalate and is a member of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily. HpxW is autoprocessed from an inactive precursor to form a heterodimer, resulting in a 35.5 kDa α subunit and a 20 kDa β subunit. Here, the structure of HpxW is presented and the substrate complex is modeled. In addition, the steady-state kinetics of this enzyme and two active-site variants were characterized. These structural and biochemical studies provide further insight into this class of enzymes and allow a mechanism for catalysis consistent with other members of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily to be proposed. PMID:27303801

  18. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-11

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once the sites and problems have been located and characterized and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated waste forms in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirement for long-term monitoring.

  19. Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of protein dynamics using two vibrational labels: a site-specific genetically encoded unnatural amino acid and an active site ligand.

    PubMed

    Thielges, Megan C; Axup, Jun Y; Wong, Daryl; Lee, Hyun Soo; Chung, Jean K; Schultz, Peter G; Fayer, Michael D

    2011-09-29

    Protein dynamics and interactions in myoglobin (Mb) were characterized via two vibrational dynamics labels (VDLs): a genetically incorporated site-specific azide (Az) bearing unnatural amino acid (AzPhe43) and an active site CO ligand. The Az-labeled protein was studied using ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. CO bound at the active site of the heme serves as a second VDL located nearby. Therefore, it was possible to use Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 2D IR spectroscopic experiments on the Az in unligated Mb and in Mb bound to CO (MbAzCO) and on the CO in MbCO and MbAzCO to investigate the environment and motions of different states of one protein from the perspective of two spectrally resolved VDLs. A very broad bandwidth 2D IR spectrum, encompassing both the Az and CO spectral regions, found no evidence of direct coupling between the two VDLs. In MbAzCO, both VDLs reported similar time scale motions: very fast homogeneous dynamics, fast, ∼1 ps dynamics, and dynamics on a much slower time scale. Therefore, each VDL reports independently on the protein dynamics and interactions, and the measured dynamics are reflective of the protein motions rather than intrinsic to the chemical nature of the VDL. The AzPhe VDL also permitted study of oxidized Mb dynamics, which could not be accessed previously with 2D IR spectroscopy. The experiments demonstrate that the combined application of 2D IR spectroscopy and site-specific incorporation of VDLs can provide information on dynamics, structure, and interactions at virtually any site throughout any protein. PMID:21823631

  20. Two-Dimensional IR Spectroscopy of Protein Dynamics Using Two Vibrational Labels: A Site-Specific Genetically Encoded Unnatural Amino Acid and an Active Site Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Thielges, Megan C.; Axup, Jun Y.; Wong, Daryl; Lee, Hyun Soo; Chung, Jean K.; Schultz, Peter G.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Protein dynamics and interactions in myoglobin (Mb) were characterized via two vibrational dynamics labels (VDLs): a genetically incorporated site-specific azide (Az) bearing unnatural amino acid (AzPhe43) and an active site CO ligand. The Az-labeled protein was studied using ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. CO bound at the active site of the heme serves as a second VDL located nearby. Therefore, it was possible to use Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 2D IR spectroscopic experiments on the Az in unligated Mb and in Mb bound to CO (MbAzCO) and on the CO in MbCO and MbAzCO to investigate the environment and motions of different states of one protein from the perspective of two spectrally resolved VDLs. A very broad bandwidth 2D IR spectrum, encompassing both the Az and CO spectral regions, found no evidence of direct coupling between the two VDLs. In MbAzCO, both VDLs reported similar time scale motions: very fast homogeneous dynamics, fast, ~1 ps dynamics, and dynamics on a much slower time scale. Therefore, each VDL reports independently on the protein dynamics and interactions, and the measured dynamics are reflective of the protein motions rather than intrinsic to the chemical nature of the VDL. The AzPhe VDL also permitted study of oxidized Mb dynamics, which could not be accessed previously with 2D IR spectroscopy. The experiments demonstrate that the combined application of 2D IR spectroscopy and site-specific incorporation of VDLs can provide information on dynamics, structure, and interactions at virtually any site throughout any protein. PMID:21823631

  1. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  2. Proton-Binding Sites of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that exist throughout the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. ASIC1 is the most abundant of all the ASICs and is likely to modulate synaptic transmission. Identifying the proton-binding sites of ASCI1 is required to elucidate its pH-sensing mechanism. By using the crystal structure of ASIC1, the protonation states of each titratable site of ASIC1 were calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation under conditions wherein the protonation states of all these sites are simultaneously in equilibrium. Four acidic-acidic residue pairs—Asp238-Asp350, Glu220-Asp408, Glu239-Asp346, and Glu80-Glu417—were found to be highly protonated. In particular, the Glu80-Glu417 pair in the inner pore was completely protonated and possessed 2 H+, implying its possible importance as a proton-binding site. The pKa of Glu239, which forms a pair with a possible pH-sensing site Asp346, differs among each homo-trimer subunit due to the different H-bond pattern of Thr237 in the different protein conformations of the subunits. His74 possessed a pKa of ≈6–7. Conservation of His74 in the proton-sensitive ASIC3 that lacks a residue corresponding to Asp346 may suggest its possible pH-sensing role in proton-sensitive ASICs. PMID:21340031

  3. Characterizing the Sites of Hadronic Cosmic Ray Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlstrom, Ylva; Mesler, R.; Sjouwerman, L.; Frail, D.; Claussen, M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that supernova remnant (SNRs) shocks are the acceleration sites for galactic cosmic rays. While this has been established for electrons, solid evidence for hadrons constituting the bulk of the cosmic rays have been lacking. Models of hadronic cosmic ray acceleration in SNRs predict a gamma-ray flux density depending on parameters like the environment density and distance. Few reliable estimates of those parameters exist. SNRs with cosmic rays interacting with molecular clouds are expected to be bright gamma-ray sources, and these sites can be traced using 1720 MHz OH masers. The masers give information about the density and kinematical distance estimates. Only 10% of galactic SNRs harbor OH masers, and we have therefore searched for a more frequently occurring SNR/cloud interaction tracer. We have detected 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol masers associated with a few SNRs. Here we report on the result of a search for methanol masers in 21 SNRs, and in particular the details of our detections in Sgr A East. Combining observations and modeling of methanol masers in SNRs, we aim to better constrain the density and distance to SNRs with TeV emission. The goal is to test the hadronic cosmic ray models and to understand the mechanisms of particle acceleration in SNRs. This project is supported under NASA-Fermi grant NNX10A055G.

  4. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  6. The role of cone penetration testing in expedited site characterization: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Stenback, G.A.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Bevolo, A.; Wonder, D.; Older, K.

    1995-12-31

    Expedited site characterization (ESC) utilizes nonintrusive and minimally intrusive investigation techniques to efficiently and effectively characterize hazardous waste sites. Rapid data collection, interpretation and visualization technologies are used to update the conceptual site model on-site as the investigation proceeds. This paper describes the role that cone penetration testing played in the ESC demonstration at a former manufactured gas plant site in the midwestern US. Stratigraphic profiling information allowed development and assessment of the site geologic model as the investigation progressed and also allowed stratigraphic contouring of a lower confining unit on which the DNAPL coal tar residue tends to pool. A laser induced fluorescence sensor was very effective in delineating subsurface hydrocarbon contamination, including regions where it appears to have pooled on the lower confining unit. The availability of the data in real time allowed for effective integration into the ESC process.

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  17. Envelope Membranes from Spinach Chloroplasts Are a Site of Metabolism of Fatty Acid Hydroperoxides.

    PubMed Central

    Blee, E.; Joyard, J.

    1996-01-01

    Enzymes in envelope membranes from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts were found to catalyze the rapid breakdown of fatty acid hydroperoxides. In contrast, no such activities were detected in the stroma or in thylakoids. In preparations of envelope membranes, 9S-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid, 13S-hydroperoxy-9(Z),11(E)-octadecadienoic acid, or 13S-hydroperoxy-9(Z),11(E),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid were transformed at almost the same rates (1-2 [mu]mol min-1 mg-1 protein). The products formed were separated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and further characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acid hydroperoxides were cleaved (a) into aldehydes and oxoacid fragments, corresponding to the functioning of a hydroperoxide lyase, (b) into ketols that were spontaneously formed from allene oxide synthesized by a hydroperoxide dehydratase, (c) into hydroxy compounds synthesized enzymatically by a system that has not yet been characterized, and (d) into oxoenes resulting from the hydroperoxidase activity of a lipoxygenase. Chloroplast envelope membranes therefore contain a whole set of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of a variety of fatty acid derivatives, some of which may act as regulatory molecules. The results presented demonstrate a new role for the plastid envelope within the plant cell. PMID:12226196

  18. Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber.

  19. Subsurface characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Abydos Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, B.; Mousis, O.; Morse, A.; Marboeuf, U.; Jorda, L.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Andrews, D.; Barber, S.; Lamy, P.; Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mandt, K.; Morgan, G.; Sheridan, S.; Vernazza, P.; Wright, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the subsurface structure of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at the landing site of Rosetta's descent module Philae. We use a cometary nucleus model with an optimized parametrization and assume an initial composition derived from Rosetta/ROSINA measurements. We compare the CO and CO_2 outgassing rates derived from our model with those measured in situ by the Ptolemy experiment aboard the Philae module on November 12, 2014. We find results that allow us to place two main constraints on the subsurface structure of this region: a low CO/CO_2 molar ratio is needed in the nucleus, and the dust/ice mass ratio is higher at Abydos than in the rest of the nucleus. These specific constraints on Abydos support the statement of an important heterogeneity in 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's nucleus.

  20. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  1. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL REMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR TWO WOOD TREATER SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the applicability of thermal remediation at two wood treater sites is ongoing. The two wood treaters had been in operation for 50 to 80 years, and a variety of wood treating chemicals had been employed, including creosote, pentachlorophenol, and various metal prepa...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES - A METHODS MANUAL. VOLUME 1. SITE INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site investigations is the first of three volumes of a methods manual prepared to give guidance on information gathering activities in support of the requirements specified in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The National Contingency Plan cont...

  3. SAFOD Site Characterization using the Pilot Hole Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, P.; Chavarria, J.; Shalev, E.; Walter, L.

    2004-12-01

    Since we installed it in July 2002 and its demise in July 2004, we used a 32 level array of 3-component, 15 Hz seismographs in the Pilot Hole to study the structure and properties of the SAFOD site. The array levels were spaced at 40 m intervals, with the deepest level at 2096 m. A catalogue of several hundred earthquakes and explosions was recorded with the array, mostly with a sampling rate of 2 kHz. We found that the seismograms from these events contain significant information about the structure and properties of the SAFOD site and San Andreas Fault. These data show source and receiver position-sensitive travel time variations in the P- and S-waves. They also commonly contain several secondary phases between the direct waves. By analyzing the data with a variety of travel time ratio, tomographic, and wave-field migration techniques, we have been able to map changes in Vp/Vs along the SAF and along the PH itself. Along the SAF, a northwest-to-southeast reduction in Vp/Vs correlates well with a reduction in fault creep. Between the SAF and PH, P-wave tomography indicates that a large body of rocks with slow velocities is present. By migrating the secondary phases with Kirchhoff methods, we have been able to image SAF-paralleling structures, both within the low velocity body, and on its edges. As one possible interpretation, we have suggested that these features represent a faulted and fault bounded sedimentary section. So far this interpretation has fit the results of the SAFOD 2004 drilling. The presence of these faults and the unexpected volume of sedimentary rocks, which also appear fluid saturated, have important implication how local stresses and strains distribute and build during the earthquake cycle.

  4. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  5. Use of Electrical Conductivity Logging to Characterize the Geological Context of Releases at UST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk is the combination of hazard and exposure. Risk characterization at UST release sites has traditionally emphasized hazard (presence of residual fuel) with little attention to exposure. Exposure characterization often limited to a one-dimensional model such as the RBCA equa...

  6. Site-Specific Radiofluorination of Biomolecules with 8-[(18)F]-Fluorooctanoic Acid Catalyzed by Lipoic Acid Ligase.

    PubMed

    Drake, Christopher R; Sevillano, Natalia; Truillet, Charles; Craik, Charles S; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Evans, Michael J

    2016-06-17

    New methodologies for site-specifically radiolabeling proteins with (18)F are required to generate high quality radiotracers for preclinical and clinical applications with positron emission tomography. Herein, we report an approach by which we use lipoic acid ligase (LplA) to conjugate [(18)F]-fluorooctanoic acid to an antibody fragment bearing the peptide substrate of LplA. The mild conditions of the reaction preserve antibody immunoreactivity, and the efficiency of LplA allows for >90% yield even with very small amounts of peptidic precursor (1-10 nmol). These features are advantageous compared to the current gold standard in the field. Moreover, the methodology introduces a new application for an important tool in chemical biology. PMID:27008570

  7. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C.; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments. PMID:26308719

  9. Characterization of a novel N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase favoring N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenyan; Sun, Wujin; Feng, Jinmei; Song, Tianshun; Zhang, Dalu; Ouyang, Pingkai; Gu, Zhen; Xie, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    N-Acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL, E.C. number 4.1.3.3) is a Class I aldolase that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Due to the equilibrium favoring Neu5Ac cleavage, the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of two biocatalytic reactions producing Neu5Ac in industry. We report the biochemical characterization of a novel NAL from a "GRAS" (General recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (CgNal). Compared to all previously reported NALs, CgNal exhibited the lowest kcat/Km value for Neu5Ac and highest kcat/Km values for ManNAc and pyruvate, which makes CgNal favor Neu5Ac synthesis the most. The recombinant CgNal reached the highest expression level (480 mg/L culture), and the highest reported yield of Neu5Ac was achieved (194 g/L, 0.63 M). All these unique properties make CgNal a promising biocatalyst for industrial Neu5Ac biosynthesis. Additionally, although showing the best Neu5Ac synthesis activity among the NAL family, CgNal is more related to dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) by phylogenetic analysis. The activities of CgNal towards both NAL's and DHDPS' substrates are fairly high, which indicates CgNal a bi-functional enzyme. The sequence analysis suggests that CgNal might have adopted a unique set of residues for substrates recognition. PMID:25799411

  10. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  11. Structure and functional characterization of a bile acid 7α dehydratase BaiE in secondary bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Jones, David H; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D; Xu, Qingping; Farr, Carol L; Ridlon, Jason M; Wells, James E; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Hylemon, Phillip B; Lesley, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound [3-oxo-Δ(4,6) -lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)] complex are reported. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α + β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35, and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirm that these residues are essential for catalysis and also the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic studies reveal that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway. PMID:26650892

  12. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  13. Characterizing the Mineralogy of Potential Lunar Landing Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle; Head, James W., III; Mustard, Jack; Boardman, Joe; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger; Green, Rob; Head, James W, III; McCord, Thomas B.; Mustard, Jack; Runyon, Cassandra; Staid, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. The Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution, and the type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The association of several lunar minerals with key geologic processes is illustrated in Figure 1. The geologic history of potential landing sites on the Moon can be read from the character and context of local mineralogy.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-12

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

  15. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    The following document comprises a critical evaluation of the DOE`s Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The comments address a number of issues related to the scientific methods involved in the proposed procedures of site characterization, the suitability and integration of the methods, and the validity of the approach taken by the DOE in the context of the NRC regulations. The SCP contains many improvements of the Draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) and the Environmental Assessment (EA), and fewer improvements of the SCP Consultation Draft. An obvious attempt has been made to address topics that were regarded in these previous reviews as deficiencies in the study program. For example, the activity and seismogenic potential of the Quaternary faults at Yucca Mountain are treated much more realistically than orignally proposed by the DOE, even though published data has not increased significantly since the DEA and EA were released. Water is now recognized as a resource, and faults and fault breccias are recognized as potential hosts for epithermal mineralization. There has, in addition, been considerable effort to incorporate a number of alternative conceptual models (involving both cross sections of Yucca Mountain and regional tectonic models) into the realm of tectonic hypotheses. There is a little doubt that the SCP proposes an exhaustive and wide-ranging scope of investigations for the purpose of site characterization, and that many of these investigations have been included by the DOE in response to critical reviews by external groups (such as the NRC and various State of Nevada agencies).

  16. Zinc-induced oligomerization of zinc α2 glycoprotein reveals multiple fatty acid-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Henna; Miah, Layeque; Lau, Andy M; Brochard, Lea; Hati, Debolina; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Zinc α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with a class I MHC protein fold and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Although its intrinsic ligand remains unknown, ZAG binds the dansylated C11 fatty acid 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) in the groove between the α1 and α2 domains. The surface of ZAG has approximately 15 weak zinc-binding sites deemed responsible for precipitation from human plasma. In the present study the functional significance of these metal sites was investigated. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and CD showed that zinc, but not other divalent metals, causes ZAG to oligomerize in solution. Thus ZAG dimers and trimers were observed in the presence of 1 and 2 mM zinc. Molecular modelling of X-ray scattering curves and sedimentation coefficients indicated a progressive stacking of ZAG monomers, suggesting that the ZAG groove may be occluded in these. Using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity, these ZAG-zinc oligomers were again observed in the presence of the fluorescent boron dipyrromethene fatty acid C16-BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid). Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that ZAG binds C16-BODIPY. ZAG binding to C16-BODIPY, but not to DAUDA, was reduced by increased zinc concentrations. We conclude that the lipid-binding groove in ZAG contains at least two distinct fatty acid-binding sites for DAUDA and C16-BODIPY, similar to the multiple lipid binding seen in the structurally related immune protein CD1c. In addition, because high concentrations of zinc occur in the pancreas, the perturbation of these multiple lipid-binding sites by zinc may be significant in Type 2 diabetes where dysregulation of ZAG and zinc homoeostasis occurs. PMID:26487699

  17. Identification and Characterization of VpsR and VpsT Binding Sites in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Fong, Jiunn C. N.; Kilic, Sefa; Erill, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to form biofilms is critical for environmental survival and transmission of Vibrio cholerae, a facultative human pathogen responsible for the disease cholera. Biofilm formation is controlled by several transcriptional regulators and alternative sigma factors. In this study, we report that the two main positive regulators of biofilm formation, VpsR and VpsT, bind to nonoverlapping target sequences in the regulatory region of vpsL in vitro. VpsR binds to a proximal site (the R1 box) as well as a distal site (the R2 box) with respect to the transcriptional start site identified upstream of vpsL. The VpsT binding site (the T box) is located between the R1 and R2 boxes. While mutations in the T and R boxes resulted in a decrease in vpsL expression, deletion of the T and R2 boxes resulted in an increase in vpsL expression. Analysis of the role of H-NS in vpsL expression revealed that deletion of hns resulted in enhanced vpsL expression. The level of vpsL expression was higher in an hns vpsT double mutant than in the parental strain but lower than that in an hns mutant. In silico analysis of the regulatory regions of the VpsR and VpsT targets resulted in the identification of conserved recognition motifs for VpsR and VpsT and revealed that operons involved in biofilm formation and vpsT are coregulated by VpsR and VpsT. Furthermore, a comparative genomics analysis revealed substantial variability in the promoter region of the vpsT and vpsL genes among extant V. cholerae isolates, suggesting that regulation of biofilm formation is under active selection. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae causes cholera and is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments. One critical factor that is important for environmental survival and transmission of V. cholerae is the microbe's ability to form biofilms, which are surface-associated communities encased in a matrix composed of the exopolysaccharide VPS (Vibrio polysaccharide), proteins, and nucleic acids. Two proteins, Vps

  18. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  19. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993. This report is the eighth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  20. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  1. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Mutation-selection models of coding sequence evolution with site-heterogeneous amino acid fitness profiles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    Modeling the interplay between mutation and selection at the molecular level is key to evolutionary studies. To this end, codon-based evolutionary models have been proposed as pertinent means of studying long-range evolutionary patterns and are widely used. However, these approaches have not yet consolidated results from amino acid level phylogenetic studies showing that selection acting on proteins displays strong site-specific effects, which translate into heterogeneous amino acid propensities across the columns of alignments; related codon-level studies have instead focused on either modeling a single selective context for all codon columns, or a separate selective context for each codon column, with the former strategy deemed too simplistic and the latter deemed overparameterized. Here, we integrate recent developments in nonparametric statistical approaches to propose a probabilistic model that accounts for the heterogeneity of amino acid fitness profiles across the coding positions of a gene. We apply the model to a dozen real protein-coding gene alignments and find it to produce biologically plausible inferences, for instance, as pertaining to site-specific amino acid constraints, as well as distributions of scaled selection coefficients. In their account of mutational features as well as the heterogeneous regimes of selection at the amino acid level, the modeling approaches studied here can form a backdrop for several extensions, accounting for other selective features, for variable population size, or for subtleties of mutational features, all with parameterizations couched within population-genetic theory. PMID:20176949

  3. Mass spectrometric characterization of transglutaminase based site-specific antibody-drug conjugates.

    PubMed

    Farias, Santiago E; Strop, Pavel; Delaria, Kathy; Galindo Casas, Meritxell; Dorywalska, Magdalena; Shelton, David L; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2014-02-19

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are becoming an important new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. ADCs are produced through the linkage of a cytotoxic small molecule (drug) to monoclonal antibodies that target tumor cells. Traditionally, most ADCs rely on chemical conjugation methods that yield heterogeneous mixtures of varying number of drugs attached at different positions. The potential benefits of site-specific drug conjugation in terms of stability, manufacturing, and improved therapeutic index has recently led to the development of several new site-specific conjugation technologies. However, detailed characterization of the degree of site specificity is currently lacking. In this study we utilize mass spectrometry to characterize the extent of site-specificity of an enzyme-based site-specific antibody-drug conjugation technology that we recently developed. We found that, in addition to conjugation of the engineered site, a small amount of aglycosylated antibody present in starting material led to conjugation at position Q295, resulting in approximately 1.3% of off-target conjugation. Based on our detection limits, we show that Q295N mutant eliminates the off-target conjugation yielding highly homogeneous conjugates that are better than 99.8% site-specific. Our study demonstrates the importance of detailed characterization of ADCs and describes methods that can be utilized to characterize not only our enzyme based conjugates, but also ADCs generated by other conjugation technologies. PMID:24359082

  4. Characterization of the geology and contaminant distribution at the six phase heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Keenan, M.A.; Parker, W.H.; Poppy, S.P.; Simmons, J.L.

    1994-06-30

    The objective of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-arid Soils Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The focus of the third phase of the Integrated Demonstration is to evaluate the use of heating technologies, both radio frequency and ohmic heating, to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers. This report documents characterization data collected in support of the ohmic heating demonstration performed by researchers from PNL. The data presented and discussed in this report include a general description of the site including location of piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process, and detailed geologic cross sections of the study site, sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples, tabulations of moisture and VOC content of the sediments, models of the distribution of contamination before and after the test, and a comparison of the volume estimations of contaminated material before and after the test. The results show that the heating process was successful in mobilizing and removing solvent from the heated interval.

  5. Schiff base structured acid-base cooperative dual sites in an ionic solid catalyst lead to efficient heterogeneous knoevenagel condensations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjue; Zhao, Pingping; Leng, Yan; Chen, Guojian; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jun

    2012-10-01

    An acid-base bifunctional ionic solid catalyst [PySaIm](3)PW was synthesized by the anion exchange of the ionic-liquid (IL) precursor 1-(2-salicylaldimine)pyridinium bromide ([PySaIm]Br) with the Keggin-structured sodium phosphotungstate (Na(3) PW). The catalyst was characterized by FTIR, UV/Vis, XRD, SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, thermogravimetric analysis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, elemental analysis, and melting points. Together with various counterparts, [PySaIm](3)PW was evaluated in Knoevenagel condensation under solvent and solvent-free conditions. The Schiff base structure attached to the IL cation of [PySaIm](3)PW involves acidic salicyl hydroxyl and basic imine, and provides a controlled nearby position for the acid-base dual sites. The high melting and insoluble properties of [PySaIm](3)PW are relative to the large volume and high valence of PW anions, as well as the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding networks among inorganic anions and IL cations. The ionic solid catalyst [PySaIm](3)PW leads to heterogeneous Knoevenagel condensations. In solvent-free condensation of benzaldehyde with ethyl cyanoacetate, it exhibits a conversion of 95.8 % and a selectivity of 100 %; the conversion is even much higher than that (78.2 %) with ethanol as a solvent. The solid catalyst has a convenient recoverability with only a slight decrease in conversion following subsequent recyclings. Furthermore, the new catalyst is highly applicable to many substrates of aromatic aldehydes with activated methylene compounds. On the basis of the characterization and reaction results, a unique acid-base cooperative mechanism within a Schiff base structure is proposed and discussed, which thoroughly explains not only the highly efficient catalytic performance of [PySaIm](3)PW, but also the lower activities of various control catalysts. PMID:22907828

  6. Characterization of ascorbic acid uptake by isolated rat kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers-Komro, D.M.; McCormick, D.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Isolated kidney cells accumulated L(1-14C)ascorbic acid in a time-dependent manner and reached a steady state after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Initial velocity for uptake was over 300 pmol/mg protein per min when cells were separated from the bathing solution using a density gradient established during centrifugation. The uptake process was saturable with an apparent concentration at half maximal uptake of 36 mumols/L. Ascorbate uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent. Although ascorbic acid is an acid anion at pH 7.4, uptake did not appear to be inhibited by other acid anions such as p-aminohippurate and probenecid; however, involvement of the ion gradient established by Na+, H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase could not be confirmed. Replacing the sodium ion with other monovalent ions reduced the accumulation of ascorbate significantly. Isoascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids inhibited ascorbate uptake (34 and 13 mmol/L, respectively), whereas high concentrations of glucose showed some stimulation. These findings indicated that ascorbic acid is reabsorbed by the kidney in a sodium-dependent active transport process that is not common to other acid anions and has some specificity for the ascorbic acid structure.

  7. In Situ Site Characterization Technologies Demonstrated at the INEEL in Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Kelly Clyde; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    1999-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)continually seeks safer, more cost-effective, and better performing technologies for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) sponsors Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) which are conducted at various DOE sites. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of the DOE sites for demonstration of these newa and improved technologies. The INEEL needs statement defines specific needs or problems for their D&D program. One of the needs identified at the INEEL was for new or improved site characterization technologies. A variety of in-situ site characterization technologies have been demonstrated through the INEEL LSDDP. These technologies provide a safer means of characterization, improved documentation, real-time information, improved D&D schedules, and reduction in costs and radiation exposures to workers. These technologies have provided vast improvements to the D&D site characterizations. Some of these technologies include: • The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System for large-area, surface gamma radiation surveys • Remote underwater characterization system• Identifying heavy metals in painted surfaces and determining the alloy composition in metallic material • In-Situ Object Counting System for free release • Real-time radiological data acquisition with the Surveillance and Measurement’s sodium iodide detector • Electromagnetic radiography to locate contaminated soils. Historically, site characterization has been a slow, costly, and tedious process. However, through these demonstrations, new technologies have provided more accurate data, real-time information, and enhanced site characterization documentation. In addition, a safer work environment has been established as a result of decreasing the worker’s time

  8. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  9. The control of acid mine drainage at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketellapper, V.L.; Williams, L.O.

    1996-11-01

    The Summitville Mine Superfund Site is located about 25 miles south of Del Norte, Colorado, in Rio Grande County. Occurring at an average elevation of 11,500 feet in the San Juan Mountain Range, the mine site is located two miles east of the Continental Divide. Mining at Summitville has occurred since 1870. The mine was most recently operated by Summitville Consolidated Mining Company, Inc. (SCMCI) as an open pit gold mine with extraction by means of a cyanide leaching process. In December of 1992, SCMCI declared bankruptcy and vacated the mine site. At that time, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took over operations of the water treatment facilities to prevent a catastrophic release of cyanide and metal-laden water from the mine site. Due to high operational costs of water treatment (approximately $50,000 per day), EPA established a goal to minimize active water treatment by reducing or eliminating acid mine drainage (AMD). All of the sources of AMD generation on the mine site were evaluated and prioritized. Of the twelve areas identified as sources of AMD, the Cropsy Waste Pile, the Summitville Dam Impoundment, the Beaver Mud Dump, the Reynolds and Chandler adits, and the Mine Pits were consider to be the most significant contributors to the generation of metal-laden acidic (low pH) water. A two part plan was developed to control AMD from the most significant sources. The first part was initiated immediately to control AMD being released from the Site. This part focused on improving the efficiency of the water treatment facilities and controlling the AMD discharges from the mine drainage adits. The second part of the plan was aimed at reducing the AMD generated in groundwater and surface water runoff from the mine wastes. A lined and capped repository located in the mine pits for acid generating mining waste and water treatment plant sludge was found to be the most feasible alternative.

  10. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites. PMID:24587562

  11. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites. PMID:24587562

  12. Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 9: selection of transplant sites and habitat characterization. [Conradilla caelata

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.J.; Heuer, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the selection process and the composite analysis of 15 short reaches of free flowing streams in which the physical, limnological, botanical, and zoological components were examined. The purpose was to identify combinations of environmental conditions which occur in the study areas that support populations of Cumberlandian freshwater mussels and to select transplant sites which could support populations of selected Cumberlandian mussel species, especially Conradilla caelata, once they were (re)introduced. This report is divided into three major sections (selection of study reaches, selection of transplant sites, and habitat characterization) two of which appear to fall in reverse order. Chronologically, transplant sites for the birdwing pearly mussel, Conradilla caelata, were selected before the characterization of mussel habitat could be completed. Since the transplants were made based upon the comparison of sites presented in that analysis, the site selection description was retained in an unmodified state.

  13. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  14. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  15. (3H) 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid, a high affinity ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine regulatory site

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.D.; Baron, B.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors is allosterically linked to a strychnine-insensitive glycine regulatory site. Kynurenic acid and its halogenated derivatives are non-competitive NMDA antagonists acting at the glycine site. The authors have prepared (3H) 5,7-dichlorokyrurenic acid (DCKA) as an antagonist radioligand and have characterized its binding. 3-Bromo-5,7-DCKA was catalytically dehalogenated in the presence of tritium gas and HPLC purified to yield (3H) 5,7-DCKA with a specific activity of 17.6 Ci/mmol. (3H) 5,7-DCKA bound to rat brain synaptosomes with a Kd of 69 {plus minus} 23 nM and Bmax = 14.5 {plus minus} 3.2 pmoles/mg protein. Binding was 65-70% specific at 10 nM (3H) 5,7-DCKA. This ligand is thus more selective and has higher affinity than (3H) glycine, in addition to being an antagonist.

  16. Site-specific incorporation of keto amino acids into functional G protein-coupled receptors using unnatural amino acid mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shixin; Köhrer, Caroline; Huber, Thomas; Kazmi, Manija; Sachdev, Pallavi; Yan, Elsa C Y; Bhagat, Aditi; RajBhandary, Uttam L; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2008-01-18

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitous heptahelical transmembrane proteins involved in a wide variety of signaling pathways. The work described here on application of unnatural amino acid mutagenesis to two GPCRs, the chemokine receptor CCR5 (a major co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus) and rhodopsin (the visual photoreceptor), adds a new dimension to studies of GPCRs. We incorporated the unnatural amino acids p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine (Acp) and p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bzp) into CCR5 at high efficiency in mammalian cells to produce functional receptors harboring reactive keto groups at three specific positions. We obtained functional mutant CCR5, at levels up to approximately 50% of wild type as judged by immunoblotting, cell surface expression, and ligand-dependent calcium flux. Rhodopsin containing Acp at three different sites was also purified in high yield (0.5-2 microg/10(7) cells) and reacted with fluorescein hydrazide in vitro to produce fluorescently labeled rhodopsin. The incorporation of reactive keto groups such as Acp or Bzp into GPCRs allows their reaction with different reagents to introduce a variety of spectroscopic and other probes. Bzp also provides the possibility of photo-cross-linking to identify precise sites of protein-protein interactions, including GPCR binding to G proteins and arrestins, and for understanding the molecular basis of ligand recognition by chemokine receptors. PMID:17993461

  17. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  18. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  19. Estimates of cloud water deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program sites in the Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Ralph E; Isil, Selma S; Lavery, Thomas F; Rogers, Christopher M; Mohnen, Volker A

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman's Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO4(2-) greater than 50 kg/ha and NO3(-) rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) on the order of 6-20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80-90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition. PMID:12661689

  20. Characterization of the hyperline of D1/D0 conical intersections between the maleic acid and fumaric acid anion radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Sumita, Masato

    2004-10-01

    The cation and anion radicals of symmetrical 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes are expected to have a symmetry-allowed conical intersection (CI) between the ground doublet state (D0) and the lowest excited doublet state (D1) near a 90°-twisted geometry. By the complete active space self-consistent field method, we characterized the hyperline formed by D1/D0 CIs between the anion radicals of maleic acid (cis) and fumaric acid (trans). An implication of the results for the known one-way cis→trans photoisomerization of the maleic acid anion radical and other related ion radicals is presented.

  1. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1986-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollutants is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern United States and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. The principle objective is to examine how seasonal changes in lake water transparency are related to annual acidic load. Further, the relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units is being examined. Finally, the utility of Thematic Mapper (TM) based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes is being investigated.

  2. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1986-01-01

    A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forests. The number of lakes affected in northeastern United States and on the Canadian Shield is thought to be enormous. Seasonal changes in lake transparency are examined relative to annual acidic load. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units is being examined. Finally, the utility of Thematic Mapper (TM) based observations is being used to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes.

  3. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    PubMed

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments. PMID:25078662

  4. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  5. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, and microbiology of the radio frequency heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Fliermans, C.B.; Looney, B.B.; Parker, W.H.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of the Integrated Demonstration Project for the Remediation of Organics at Nonarid Sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The first phase of the demonstration focused on the application and development of in situ air stripping technologies to remediate sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second phase focused on the enhancement of the in situ air stripping process by adding selected nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microorganisms that degrade VOCs. The purpose of the third phase was to evaluate the use of heating technologies [radio frequency (rf) and ohmic heating] to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers where mass transfer is limited. The objective of this report is to document pretest and post-test data collected in support of the rf heating demonstration. The following data are discussed in this report: (1) a general description of the site including piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process; (2) stratigraphy, lithology, and a detailed geologic cross section of the study site; (3) tabulations of pretest and post-test moisture and VOC content of the sediments; (4) sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples; (5) microbial abundance and diversity; (6) three-dimensional images of pretest and post-test contaminant distribution; (7) volumetric calculations.

  6. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  7. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  8. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes. PMID:19754879

  9. Site-specific analysis of protein hydration based on unnatural amino acid fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Mariana; Brezovský, Jan; Kováčová, Silvia; Sýkora, Jan; Bednář, David; Němec, Václav; Lišková, Veronika; Kurumbang, Nagendra Prasad; Beerens, Koen; Chaloupková, Radka; Paruch, Kamil; Hof, Martin; Damborský, Jiří

    2015-04-22

    Hydration of proteins profoundly affects their functions. We describe a simple and general method for site-specific analysis of protein hydration based on the in vivo incorporation of fluorescent unnatural amino acids and their analysis by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Using this method, we investigate the hydration of functionally important regions of dehalogenases. The experimental results are compared to findings from molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25815779

  10. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D&D) characterization surveys performed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. (EG&G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D&D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ``hot`` and ``cold`` laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D&D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D&D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D&D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination.

  11. Materials characterization of phosphoric acid fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesh, Srinivasan

    1986-01-01

    The component materials used in the fabrication of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) must have mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical stability to withstand the moderately high temperature (200 C) and pressure (500 kPa) and highly oxidizing nature of phosphoric acid. This study discusses the chemical and structural stability, performance and corrosion data on certain catalysts, catalyst supports, and electrode support materials used in PAFC applications.

  12. Site Characterization at Napa Strong Motion Sites Using Tomography, MASW, and MALW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. H.; Catchings, R.; Goldman, M.; Criley, C.

    2015-12-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake caused $300 million in damage to private and commercial properties. Previous studies indicate areas underlain by deposits with low average shear-wave velocity to 30 m depth (Vs30) can experience extensive structural damage during earthquakes. Thus, Vs30 is considered a predictor of the influence of local geology on strong shaking from earthquakes. The goal of our study was to evaluate Vs30 at six accelerograph stations in the City and County of Napa and in the City of Vallejo. We used active seismic sources and 4.5-Hz sensors recorded on 120 channels to investigate the shallow velocity structure. Geophones and shots were spaced at 3 m along each profile, which ranged in length from 85 to 260 m. We used a 226-kg accelerated weight-drop and a seisgun to generate P and Rayleigh waves for P-wave tomography and MASW, and we used a 3.5-kg sledgehammer and block to generate S and Love waves for S-wave tomography and MALW. One of the six accelerographs was housed inside Napa Fire Station #3, where the local surface geology consists of late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvium and alluvial fan deposits. The average Vs30 determined from MASW (Rayleigh waves) is 312 m/s, and the average Vs30 from MALW (Love waves) is 340 m/s, with an average velocity difference of about 8% between the two methods. These average values are both slightly less than the average Vs30 of 375 m/s determined from S-wave tomography, which suggests the three methods are complimentary and can be useful in evaluating site response. The 0.42g median horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at Napa Fire Station #3 indicates the area experienced strong shaking during the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, consistent with expectations for a site with relatively low average Vs30.

  13. New copper(II) complexes with dopamine hydrochloride and vanillymandelic acid: Spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; El-Nahas, R. G.

    2011-10-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. The Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of dopamine hydrochloride (DO.HCl) and vanillymandelic acid (VMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical techniques namely IR, magnetic and UV-vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Cu(II) forms 1:1 (Cu:DO) and 1:2 (Cu:VMA) chelates. DO behave as a uninegative tridentate ligand in binding to the Cu(II) ion while VMA behaves as a uninegative bidentate ligand. IR spectra show that the DO is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in a tridentate manner with ONO donor sites of the phenolic- OH, -NH and carbonyl- O, while VMA is coordinated with OO donor sites of the phenolic- OH and -NH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Cu(II) chelates in octahedral and square planar geometries with DO and VMA, respectively. The thermal decomposition of Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  14. Limestone characterization to model damage from acidic precipitation: Effect of pore structure on mass transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, S.D.; Reddy, M.M.; Irez, W.F.; Heymans, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The pore structure of Salem limestone is investigated, and conclusions regarding the effect of the pore geometry on modeling moisture and contaminant transport are discussed based on thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption analyses. These investigations are compared to and shown to compliment permeability and capillary pressure measurements for this common building stone. Salem limestone exhibits a bimodal pore size distribution in which the larger pores provide routes for convective mass transfer of contaminants into the material and the smaller pores lead to high surface area adsorption and reaction sites. Relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements of the air/water system indicate that Salem limestone exhibits high capillarity end low effective permeability to water. Based on stone characterization, aqueous diffusion and convection are believed to be the primary transport mechanisms for pollutants in this stone. The extent of contaminant accumulation in the stone depends on the mechanism of partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. The described characterization techniques and modeling approach can be applied to many systems of interest such as acidic damage to limestone, mass transfer of contaminants in concrete and other porous building materials, and modeling pollutant transport in subsurface moisture zones.

  15. Integrating intrusive and nonintrusive characterization methods to achieve a conceptual site model for the SLDA FUSRAP site - 8265.

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L. A.; Peterson, J. M.; Frothingham, D. G.; Frederick, W. T.; Lenart, W.; Environmental Science Division; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburg District; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is addressing radiological contamination following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements at the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) site, which is a radiologically contaminated property that is part of the Formerly utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The SLDA is an 18-hectare (44-acre) site in Parks township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, about 37 kilometers (23 miles) east-northeast of Pittsburgh. According to historical record, radioactive wastes were disposed of at the SLDA in a series of trenches by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Company (NUMEC) in the 1960s. The wastes originated from the nearby Apollo nuclear fuel fabrication facility, which began operations under NUMEC in the late 1950s and fabricated enriched uranium into naval reactor fuel elements. It is believed that the waste materials were buried in a series of pits constructed adjacent to one another in accordance with an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) regulation that has since been rescinded. A CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process was completed for the SLDA site, and the results of the human health risk assessment indicated that the radiologically contaminated wastes could pose a risk to human health in the future. There are no historical records that provide the exact location of these pits. However, based on geophysical survey results conducted in the 1980s, these pits were defined by geophysical anomalies and were depicted on historical site drawings as trenches. At the SLDA site, a combination of investigative methods and tools was used in the RI/FS and site characterization activities. The SLDA site provides an excellent example of how historical documents and data, historical aerial photo analysis, physical sampling, and nonintrusive geophysical and gamma walkover surveys were used in combination to reduce the uncertainty in the location of the trenches. The

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  17. Increase in the Bmax of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A recognition sites in brain regions of mice receiving diazepam.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, P; Guidotti, A; Costa, E

    1984-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were characterized in vivo by studying ex vivo the binding of [3H]muscimol to cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and corpus striatum of mice receiving intravenous injections of tracer doses of high-specific-activity (approximately equal to 30 Ci/mmol) [3H]muscimol. This ligand binds with high affinity (apparent Kd, 2-3 X 10(-9) M) to a single population of binding sites (apparent Bmax, 250-180 fmol per 10 mg of protein). Pharmacological studies using drugs that selectively bind to GABAA or GABAB receptors suggest that [3H]muscimol specifically labels a GABAA recognition site. Moreover, diazepam (1.5 mumol/kg, i.p.) increases the Bmax but fails to change the affinity of [3H]muscimol binding to different brain areas. This diazepam-elicited increase in Bmax is blocked in mice receiving the diazepam antagonist Ro 15-1788 (ethyl-8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5a]-[1,4] benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate). Since the diazepam-induced increase of [3H]muscimol binding is paralleled by a significant potentiation of the inhibitory effect of muscimol on locomotor activity, it is proposed that the facilitatory action on GABAergic transmission elicited in vivo by diazepam is mediated by an increase in the Bmax of the binding sites of GABAA receptors. Images PMID:6326115

  18. Ionization-site effects on the photofragmentation of chloro- and bromoacetic acid molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levola, Helena; Itälä, Eero; Schlesier, Kim; Kooser, Kuno; Laine, Sanna; Laksman, Joakim; Ha, Dang Trinh; Rachlew, Elisabeth; Tarkanovskaja, Marta; Tanzer, Katrin; Kukk, Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation of gas-phase chloro- and bromoacetic acid samples, particularly its dependency on the atomic site of the initial core ionization, was studied in photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence (PEPIPICO) measurements. The fragmentation was investigated after ionizing carbon 1 s and bromine 3 d or chlorine 2 p core orbitals. It was observed that the samples had many similar fragmentation pathways and that their relative weights depended strongly on the initial ionization site. Additional Auger PEPIPICO measurements revealed a clear dependence of fragment pair intensities on the kinetic energy of the emitted Auger electrons. The modeled and measured Auger electron spectra indicated that the average internal energy of the molecule was larger following the carbon 1 s core-hole decay than after the decay of the halogen core hole. This difference in the internal energies was found to be the source of the site-dependent photofragmentation behavior.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P. A.

    1998-05-28

    The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint inversion of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of underground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. Potential users include DOE scientists and engineers responsible for characterizing contaminated sites and monitoring remediation of contaminated sites. In this three-year project, we use a multi-phase approach consisting of theoretical and numerical code development, laboratory investigations, testing on available laboratory and borehole geophysics data sets, and a controlled field experiment, to develop practical tools for joint electrical and seismic data interpretation.

  1. Site characterization progress report, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Number 19, April 1, 1998--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The nineteenth semiannual report of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) summarizes activities during the period from April 1, 1998, through September 30, 1998. Project activities are aimed at evaluating Yucca Mountain as a potential location for permanent geologic disposal of nuclear materials, as directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA). The progress report documents activities this period that contribute to completing the Project`s near-term programmatic and statutory objectives. These objectives include completing the Viability Assessment, the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a possible US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretarial Site Recommendation to the President, and, if the site is suitable, submittal of a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Project work this period continued to be concentrated in three integrated activities: site characterization, engineering design and construction, and performance assessment. Accomplishments this period and their relation to near-term objectives are briefly summarized.

  2. Characterization of bile acids and fatty acids from ox bile in oil paintings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Casas-Catalán, M J; Doménech-Carbó, M T; Mateo-Castro, R; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Bosch-Reig, F

    2004-02-01

    Characterization of ox bile, traditionally used in painting, is of interest in the fields of archaeometry and conservation and restoration of works of art. Bile acids, fatty acids (F), and cholesterol found in ox bile have been identified using a derivatization method that combines the formation of ethyl esters from the carboxylic groups and the trimethylsilyl ethers from hydroxyl groups. This method of analysis is consistent with these others proposed by the authors to analyze drying oils, proteins, and diterpenic resins usually used as binders and varnishes by the painters. Bile acids from binary samples such as animal glue/ox bile, casein/ox bile and Arabic gum/ox bile have been successfully analyzed using the proposed method. Finally, a method of analysis of mixtures of drying oil and ox bile has been also proposed attempting to quantitatively characterize samples in which ox bile was added to the drying oil for increasing the surfactant properties. PMID:14763811

  3. Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of MCM-48 supported tungstophosphoric acid mesoporous materials for green synthesis of benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Ya; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng

    2014-03-15

    MCM-48 and tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) were prepared and applied for the synthesis of HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous materials. The characterization results showed that HPW/MCM-48 obtained retained the typical mesopore structure of MCM-48, and the textural parameters decreased with the increase loading of HPW. The catalytic oxidation results of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde with 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicated that HPW/MCM-48 was an efficient catalyst for the green synthesis of benzoic acid. Furthermore, 35 wt% HPW/MCM-48 sample showed the highest activity under the reaction conditions. Highlights: • 5–45 wt% HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous catalysts were prepared and characterized. • Their catalytic activities for the green synthesis of benzoic acid were investigated. • HPW/MCM-48 was approved to be an efficient catalyst. • 5 wt% HPW/MCM-48 exhibited the highest catalytic activity.

  4. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    We find the Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area (DOE/RW-0160) seriously deficient, in terms of establishing an investigative program to confidently characterize hydrogeologic and closely-related aspects of the proposed repository, in the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain. Most hydrogeological licensing criteria indirectly measure waste isolation provided by the geologic environment during pre- and post-closure conditions. We believe the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) generally fails to establish scientifically sound and feasible programs of investigation that will, in a timely and confident manner, resolve most of the hydrogeologic and geochemical licensing issues that have been recognized since the vadose-zone repository was first proposed at this location in 1982. The SCP generally fails in its responsibility because it does not objectively set aside the DOE conceptual model of a ``dry`` repository environment with extremely slow flow of water confined to the rock matrix. In the SCP, the DOE fails to establish a scientifically sound investigative program that seriously tests for hydrogeologic conditions based on the range of existing data and general knowledge. Rather, the DOE builds a probabilistic program upon a preconceived conceptual model, without designing a field-data collection program with the power to test the validity of the conceptual model. This is unacceptable in that the DOE program, as described in the SCP, plans to build numerical model after numerical model upon untested conceptual models, in attempts to ``resolve`` the fundamental licensing issues of waste isolation by the geologic barrier. If executed as planned, these analyses will have only a series of assumptions of their foundation and, therefore, can not resolve licensing issues. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Marshall, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    The lake acidification in Northern Ontario was investigated using LANDSAT TM to sense lake volume reflectance and also to provide important vegetation and terrain characteristics. The purpose of this project was to determine the ability of LANDSAT to assess water quality characteristics associated with lake acidification. Results demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis is that seasonal and multi-year changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon present. Seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes can potentially provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  6. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

  7. Characterization of fatty amides produced by lipase-catalyzed amidation of multihydroxylated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel multi-hydroxylated primary fatty amides produced by direct amidation of 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) and 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (TOD) were characterized by GC-MS and NMR. The amidation reactions were catalyzed by immobilized Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica li...

  8. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for High Spatial Resolution Image Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Scientists within NASA's Applied Sciences Directorate have developed a well-characterized remote sensing Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site has enabled the in-flight characterization of satellite high spatial resolution remote sensing system products form Space Imaging IKONOS, Digital Globe QuickBird, and ORBIMAGE OrbView, as well as advanced multispectral airborne digital camera products. SSC utilizes engineered geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, atmospheric monitoring equipment and their Instrument Validation Laboratory to characterize high spatial resolution remote sensing data products. This presentation describes the SSC characterization capabilities and techniques in the visible through near infrared spectrum and examples of calibration results.

  9. Spectral characterization of acid weathering products on Martian basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yant, Marcella; Rogers, A. Deanne; Nekvasil, Hanna; Zhao, Yu-Yan Sara; Bristow, Tom

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, direct infrared spectral analyses of glasses with Martian compositions, altered under controlled conditions, are presented in order to assess surface weathering and regolith development on Mars. Basaltic glasses of Irvine and Backstay composition were synthesized and altered using H2SO4-HCl acid solutions (pH 0-4). Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectral measurements were acquired for each reaction product. Infrared spectra were also acquired from previously synthesized and altered glasses with Pathfinder-measured compositions. Acid alteration on particles in the most acidic solutions (pH ≤ 1) yielded sulfate-dominated visible near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectra with some silica influence. Spectral differences between alteration products from each starting material were present, reflecting strong sensitivity to changes in mineral assemblage. In the TIR, alteration features were preserved after reworking and consolidation. In the VNIR, hydrated sulfate features were present along with strong negative spectral slopes. Although such signatures are found in a few isolated locations on Mars with high-resolution spectrometers, much of the Martian surface lacks these characteristics, suggesting the following: acid alteration occurred at pH ≥ 2; small amounts of sulfates were reworked with unaltered material; there is a prevalence of intermediate-to-high silica glass in Martian starting materials (more resistant to acid alteration); primary or added sulfur were lacking; alteration features are obscured by dust; and/or large-scale, pervasive, acid sulfate weathering of the Martian surface did not occur. These results highlight the need to better understand the spectral properties of altered Martian surface material in order to enhance the interpretation of remote spectra for altered terrains.

  10. Organo-niobate Ionic Liquids: Synthesis, Characterization and Application as Acid Catalyst in Pechmann Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Valerio C. D.; Alves, Melquizedeque B.; Souza, Ernesto R.; Pinto, Ivana O.; Rubim, Joel C.; Andrade, Carlos Kleber Z.; Suarez, Paulo A. Z.

    2007-01-01

    The combinations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with NbCl5 yielded ionic mixtures with different melting point temperatures and acidity depending on the niobium molar fraction. The mixtures were characterized by thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (FT-IR and 1H NMR) analysis. The Pechmann reactions of different phenols with ethylacetoacetate, producing coumarins, was used as model to evaluate the catalytic behavior of these mixtures as acid Lewis catalyst. These reactions were carried out using acidic mixtures of 60 mol%.

  11. Microbial Communities in Biofilms of an Acid Mine Drainage Site Determined by Phospholipid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, S.; Fang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Phospholipids were extracted to determine the microbial biomass and community structure of biofims from an acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Green Valley coal mine site (GVS) in western Indiana. The distribution of specific biomarkers indicated the presence of a variety of microorganisms. Phototrophic microeukaryotes, which include Euglena mutabilis, algae, and cyanobacteria were the most dominant organisms, as indicated by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The presence of terminally methyl branched fatty acids suggests the presence of Gram-positive bacteria, and the mid-methyl branched fatty acids indicates the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Fungi appear to also be an important part of the AMD microbial communities as suggested by the presence of 18:2 fatty acid. The acidophilic microeukaryotes Euglena dominated the biofilm microbial communities. These microorganisms appear to play a prominent role in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and in releasing oxygen to the atmosphere by oxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the AMD environment comprises a host of microorganisms spreading out within the phylogenetic tree of life. Novel insights on the roles of microbial consortia in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and the production of oxygen through photosynthesis in AMD systems may have significance in the understanding of the interaction of Precambrian microbial communities in environments that produced microbially-mediated sedimentary structures and that caused oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Characterization and diagenesis of strong-acid carboxyl groups in humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Brown, G.K.; Reddy, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    A small fraction of carboxylic acid functional groups in humic substances are exceptionally acidic with pKa values as low as 0.5. A review of acid-group theory eliminated most models and explanations for these exceptionally acidic carboxyl groups. These acidic carboxyl groups in Suwannee River fulvic acid were enriched by a 2-stage fractionation process and the fractions were characterized by elemental, molecular-weight, and titrimetric analyses, and by infrared and 13C- and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. An average structural model of the most acidic fraction derived from the characterization data indicated a high density of carboxyl groups clustered on oxygen-heterocycle alicyclic rings. Intramolecular H-bonding between adjacent carboxyl groups in these ring structures enhanced stabilization of the carboxylate anion which results in low pKa1 values. The standard, tetrahydrofuran tetracarboxylic acid, was shown to have similar acidity characteristics to the highly acidic fulvic acid fraction. The end products of 3 known diagenetic pathways for the formation of humic substances were shown to result in carboxyl groups clustered on oxygen-heterocycle alicyclic rings.

  13. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico (Rev.1, Jan. 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-25

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  14. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment.

  15. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-11

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once sites and problems have been located and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated wastes in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirements for long-term monitoring.

  16. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  17. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This report is the tenth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are descriptions of activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies. The Executive Summary is intended to provide a summary of major decisions, activities, accomplishments, and issues of interest during the reporting period. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides background information to assist the reader in understanding the current status of the program. Chapter 2 provides specific detailed discussions of activities conducted during the current reporting period and has two major divisions. Section 2.1, Preparatory Activities, provides information on select preparatory activities necessary to conduct site characterization and design activities. Sections 2.2 through 2.8 provide specific details on studies and activities conducted during the reporting period and follow the original structure of the Department`s 1988 Site Characterization Plan. Chapter 3 contains the current summary schedule, while Chapter 4 provides a description of the program outreach, including activities during the reporting period, in both the international program and public outreach. Chapter 5 presents an epilogue of significant events that occurred after the end of the reporting period.

  18. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  19. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  20. Molecular docking characterizes substrate-binding sites and efflux modulation mechanisms within P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ricardo J; Ferreira, Maria-José U; dos Santos, Daniel J V A

    2013-07-22

    P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best characterized ABC transporters, often involved in the multidrug-resistance phenotype overexpressed by several cancer cell lines. Experimental studies contributed to important knowledge concerning substrate polyspecificity, efflux mechanism, and drug-binding sites. This information is, however, scattered through different perspectives, not existing a unifying model for the knowledge available for this transporter. Using a previously refined structure of murine Pgp, three putative drug-binding sites were hereby characterized by means of molecular docking. The modulator site (M-site) is characterized by cross interactions between both Pgp halves herein defined for the first time, having an important role in impairing conformational changes leading to substrate efflux. Two other binding sites, located next to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer, were identified as the substrate-binding H and R sites by matching docking and experimental results. A new classification model with the ability to discriminate substrates from modulators is also proposed, integrating a vast number of theoretical and experimental data. PMID:23802684

  1. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ( sup 3 H)-5 prime azido-N-1-naphthylphthlamic acid, a photolabile N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid analog

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, J.G.; Dodge, B.; Harris, K.; Jacobs, M.; Larkin, L.; Bader, S.; Schnitzler, G.; Sutherland, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) receptor is an important protein involved in the regulation of transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In our attempt to isolate and characterize this protein we have previously synthesized and characterized a photolabile analog of NPA, 5{prime}-azido-NPA (Az-NPA) and shown it to be a competitor of NPA for binding sites on the NPA receptor as well as an inhibitor of auxin transport. We have now synthesized and characterized ({sup 3}H)-Az-NPA. The precursor, 2,3,4,5-Br-5{prime}-amino-NPA was dehydrohalogenated with tritium gas by Research Products International. The amino group was converted to an azido group and the product purified by HPLC. ({sup 3}H)-Az-NPA was found to be photolabile and to co-chromatograph with our synthetic unlabeled Az-NPA. Furthermore, the tritiated material was found to bind to zucchini hypocotyl cell membranes in a manner competitive with NPA as well as unlabeled Az-NPA. Photolysis of zucchini phase-partitioned plasma membranes in the presence of ({sup 3}H)-Az-NPA resulted in covalent association of tritium with the membranes. Much of this covalent association could be prevented by prior treatment of the membranes with excess NPA.

  3. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1987-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollution is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern U.S. and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. How seasonal changes in lake transparency are related to annual acidic load was examined. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units was also examined. The utility of Thematic Mapper based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes was investigated. The potential for this optical response is related to a number of local ecophysical factors with bedrock geology being, perhaps, the most important. Other factors include sulfate deposition, vegetative cover, and terrain drainage/relief. The area of southern Ontario contains a wide variety of geologies from the most acid rain sensitive granite quartzite types to the least sensitive limestone dolomite sediments. Annual sulfate deposition ranges from 1.0 to 4.0 grams/sq m.

  4. Computational study on the roles of amino acid residues in the active site formation mechanism of blue-light photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryuma; Kitoh-Nishioka, Hirotaka; Ando, Koji; Yamato, Takahisa

    2015-07-01

    To examine the functional roles of the active site methionine (M-site) and glutamic acid (E-site) residues of blue-light photoreceptors, we performed in silico mutation at the M-site in a systematic manner and focused on the hydrogen bonding between the E-site and the substrate: the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD). Fragment molecular orbital calculations with electron correlations demonstrated that substitution of the M-site methionine with either alanine or glutamine always destabilizes the interaction energy between the E-site and the CPD by more than 12.0 kcal/mol, indicating that the methionine and glutamic acid residues cooperatively facilitate the enzymatic reaction in the active site.

  5. Characterization of ventilation ductwork in building K-31 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    An extensive sampling and analysis program was initiated in mid-August 1992 to characterize the ductwork of Building K-31 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. This building, 15 acres under roof, contains approximately 4,000 ft of main exhaust ducts (plenums), not including the side laterals, which are extensive. A large number of hexane-moistened wipe samples were taken from randomly selected locations within the seven main plenums and the side lateral ducts. Some samples were taken from the air-intake ducts as well. Three wipes were taken from each location and were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), uranium, and technetium. These samples were augmented with ten metal coupon samples (cut from the ducts) that were analyzed for radionuclides and subjected to Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure analyses for toxic metals, base/neutral/acid compounds, and volatile organic compounds. Based on the wipe analyses (with 95% confidence), 95% of the contamination levels in the ductwork are as follows. PCB levels are <200, <760, and <96 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} for the main plenums, side lateral ducts, and air-intake ducts respectively; uranium levels are <1,390, <8,430, and <340 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} for the main plenums, side lateral ducts, and air-intake ducts respectively; and technetium levels are <3,130, <167,000, and <2,570 pCi/100 cm{sup 2} for the main plenums, side lateral ducts, and air-intake ducts respectively. These values are higher than the contamination limits for the respective contaminants.

  6. Mechanism of dehydroxylation of naturally occurring high-silica zeolites involving the formation of Lewis acid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanskii, V.B.

    1987-11-01

    Using low-temperature adsorbed dihydrogen and carbon monoxide as molecular probes, the dehydroxylation of the hydrogen forms of the zeolites Y, and ZSM-5 has been studied. The high stability of the high-silica zeolites to dealumination and their difference from faujasites has been established as being due not only to the strength of their Broensted acid sites but also to the nature of their Lewis acid sites. The chemical properties of the Lewis acid sites and their possible role in catalytic reactions are discussed.

  7. Genetic Incorporation of the Unnatural Amino Acid p-Acetyl Phenylalanine into Proteins for Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Eric G.B.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful tool for the characterization of protein structure and dynamics; however, its application in many systems is hampered by the reliance on unique and benign cysteine substitutions for the site-specific attachment of the spin label. An elegant solution to this problem involves the use of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids (UAAs) containing reactive functional groups that are chemically orthogonal to those of the 20 amino acids found naturally in proteins. These unique functional groups can then be selectively reacted with an appropriately functionalized spin probe. In this chapter, we detail the genetic incorporation of the ketone-bearing amino acid p-acetyl phenylalanine (pAcPhe) into recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. Incorporation of pAcPhe is followed by chemoselective reaction of the ketone side chain with a hydroxylamine-functionalized nitroxide to afford the spin-labeled side chain “K1,” and we present two protocols for successful K1 labeling of proteins bearing site-specific pAcPhe. We outline the basic requirements for pAcPhe incorporation and labeling, with an emphasis on practical aspects that must be considered by the researcher if high yields of UAA incorporation and efficient labeling reactions are to be achieved. To this end, we highlight recent advances that have led to increased yields of pAcPhe incorporation, and discuss the use of aniline-based catalysts allowing for facile conjugation of the hydroxylamine spin label under mild reaction conditions. To illustrate the utility of K1 labeling in proteins where traditional cysteine-based SDSL methods are problematic, we site-specifically K1 label the cellular prion protein at two positions in the C-terminal domain and determine the interspin distance using double electron–electron resonance EPR. Recent advances in UAA incorporation and ketone-based bioconjugation, in combination with the commercial availability of all requisite

  8. Characterization of thermal and mechanical properties of opligo(glycerol-glutaric acid)s

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibutyltin oxide was used to catalyze the synthesis of oligo(glycerol-glutaric acid)s in the absence and presence of solvent. Reaction times were either 10h or 24h for reactions performed in DMF and 24h for the neat reaction. The oligomers were obtained on average in 84% yield and were characteriz...

  9. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i) the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii) the training and test datasets; iii) the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv) the performance measures and v) the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy…) are applied. We found that i) the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii) some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii) RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv) dataset bias may exist in some methods. PMID:26681179

  10. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i) the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii) the training and test datasets; iii) the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv) the performance measures and v) the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy…) are applied. We found that i) the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii) some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii) RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv) dataset bias may exist in some methods. PMID:26681179

  11. Characterization of stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid produced by solvent-free enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Sarah A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2011-09-14

    Stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) is a plant source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Solvent-free enzymatic interesterification was used to produce structured lipids (SLs) in a 1 L stir-batch reactor with a 1:2 substrate mole ratio of SDASO to tripalmitin, at 65 °C for 18 h. Two SLs were synthesized using immobilized lipases, Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. Free fatty acids (FFAs) were removed by short-path distillation. SLs were characterized by analyzing FFA and FA (total and positional) contents, iodine and saponification values, melting and crystallization profiles, tocopherols, and oxidative stability. The SLs contained 8.15 and 8.38% total stearidonic acid and 60.84 and 60.63% palmitic acid at the sn-2 position for Novozym 435 SL and Lipozyme TL IM SL, respectively. The SLs were less oxidatively stable than SDASO due to a decrease in tocopherol content after purification of the SLs. The saponification values of the SLs were slightly higher than that of the SDASO. The melting profiles of the SLs were similar, but crystallization profiles differed. The triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species of the SLs were similar to each other, with tripalmitin being the major TAG. SDASO's major TAG species comprised stearidonic and oleic acids or stearidonic, α-linolenic, and γ-linolenic acids. PMID:21830790

  12. Modelling metal centres, acid sites and reaction mechanisms in microporous catalysts.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Alexander J; Logsdail, A J; Sokol, A A; Catlow, C R A

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the role of QM/MM (embedded cluster) computational techniques in catalytic science, in particular their application to microporous catalysis. We describe the methodologies employed and illustrate their utility by briefly summarising work on metal centres in zeolites. We then report a detailed investigation into the behaviour of methanol at acidic sites in zeolites H-ZSM-5 and H-Y in the context of the methanol-to-hydrocarbons/olefins process. Studying key initial steps of the reaction (the adsorption and subsequent methoxylation), we probe the effect of framework topology and Brønsted acid site location on the energetics of these initial processes. We find that although methoxylation is endothermic with respect to the adsorbed system (by 17-56 kJ mol(-1) depending on the location), there are intriguing correlations between the adsorption/reaction energies and the geometries of the adsorbed species, of particular significance being the coordination of methyl hydrogens. These observations emphasise the importance of adsorbate coordination with the framework in zeolite catalysed conversions, and how this may vary with framework topology and site location, particularly suited to investigation by QM/MM techniques. PMID:27136967

  13. Preparation and characterization of ambazone salt with nicotinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacsó, I.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2012-02-01

    Salt formation is a good method of increasing solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs. The aim of this study was to obtain and to investigate the structural properties of the compound that was obtained by solvent drop grinding method at room temperature starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and nicotinic acid (NA). The obtained compound (AMB•NA) was investigated by thermal analysis (DSC, TG-DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The difference between the patterns of AMB•NA and of the starting compounds evidenced the formation of a salt. Using X-ray powder diffraction data, the lattice parameters were determined. The thermal and FTIR measurements on the pure compounds and on the (1:1) grinding mixture of AMB with NA confirm the salt formation.

  14. Mutational Studies on Resurrected Ancestral Proteins Reveal Conservation of Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences throughout Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Valeria A.; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Local protein interactions (“molecular context” effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  15. Mutational studies on resurrected ancestral proteins reveal conservation of site-specific amino acid preferences throughout evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Risso, Valeria A; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A; Gaucher, Eric A; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2015-02-01

    Local protein interactions ("molecular context" effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  16. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B; MacAulay, N; Fenton, R A

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antibodies targeting pS124-NCC demonstrated a band of 160 kDa in the kidney cortex, but not medulla, which was preabsorbed by a corresponding phosphorylated peptide. Confocal microscopy with kidney tubule segment-specific markers localized pS124-NCC to all distal convoluted tubule cells. Double immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich-Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist dDAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and mTOR/FRAP) showed weak but significant phosphorylation activity at S124. In oocytes, (36)Cl uptake studies combined with biochemical analysis showed decreased activity of plasma membrane-associated NCC when replacing S124 with alanine (A) or aspartic acid (D). In novel tetracycline-inducible MDCKII-NCC cell lines, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC. PMID:22966159

  17. SOHPRED: a new bioinformatics tool for the characterization and prediction of human S-sulfenylation sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Renxiang; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-08-16

    Protein S-sulfenylation (SOH) is a type of post-translational modification through the oxidation of cysteine thiols to sulfenic acids. It acts as a redox switch to modulate versatile cellular processes and plays important roles in signal transduction, protein folding and enzymatic catalysis. Reversible SOH is also a key component for maintaining redox homeostasis and has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, due to redox imbalance. Despite its significance, the in situ trapping of the entire 'sulfenome' remains a major challenge. Yang et al. have recently experimentally identified about 1000 SOH sites, providing an enriched benchmark SOH dataset. In this work, we developed a new ensemble learning tool SOHPRED for identifying protein SOH sites based on the compositions of enriched amino acids and the physicochemical properties of residues surrounding SOH sites. SOHPRED was built based on four complementary predictors, i.e. a naive Bayesian predictor, a random forest predictor and two support vector machine predictors, whose training features are, respectively, amino acid occurrences, physicochemical properties, frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs and sequence profiles. Benchmarking experiments on the 5-fold cross validation and independent tests show that SOHPRED achieved AUC values of 0.784 and 0.799, respectively, which outperforms several previously developed tools. As a real application of SOHPRED, we predicted potential SOH sites for 193 S-sulfenylated substrates, which had been experimentally detected through a global sulfenome profiling in living cells, though the actual SOH sites were not determined. The web server of SOHPRED has been made publicly available at for the wider research community. The source codes and the benchmark datasets can be downloaded from the website. PMID:27364688

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1995 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-07-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s (YMP`s) quality assurance program for January 1 to September 30, 1995. The report includes major sections on program activities and trend analysis.

  19. Technical site characterization of the Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.C.; Walton, C.G.; Zweig, L.T. )

    1993-03-01

    The Waste-Tech Services, Inc., Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility is a proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility located SW of Princeton, Missouri. The facility is to accept, store, treat and landfill ash residues from RCRA-permitted hazardous waste incineration. The site was characterized for a permit application submitted to the Missouri Department of Natural Resource (MDNR). MDNR was involved during all site characterization stages, including MDNR review, input and oversight during the planning, field execution and report-preparation stages. Both parties agreed upon the needs required for characterizing the sites prior field work, and the MDNR ensured that scope of work stipulations were implemented in the field and reported. Three broad characterization categories were defined: (1) physical characteristics; (2) biological characteristics; and, (3) socio-economic considerations. Physical criteria include the geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic and hydrologic site conditions. Threatened and Endangered Species and Wetlands comprised the biologic issues. Socio-economics considered cultural resources, such as history and archeology, market proximity, capacity assurance and transportation.

  20. SEISMIC-REFLECTION AND GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research seeks to show how shallow, high-resolution, three-component seismic reflection techniques, in concert with ground-penetrating radar (GPR), might assist in characterizing hydrologic-transport parameters at environmentally sensitive sites. The high dynamic range and m...