Science.gov

Sample records for acid site characterization

  1. Modeling Analysis for Characterizing Sulfate Reduction at an Acid Mine Drainage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Ahlfeld, D. P.

    2004-05-01

    A field site has been established at Davis Mine, an abandoned pyrite mine in rural Rowe, Massachusetts in the United States. At the site, attenuation restricts the extent of AMD in both the groundwater and surface water of the area. Current research is examining the Fe(III) and sulfate reduction along with a complex community of acidophilic and acid-tolerant anaerobic microorganisms. In an effort to interlink the geochemical reduction with the microbial community existing in the site, the role of the Fe(III) and sulfate reducing bacteria is being investigated. Initial experimental data and column studies have shown the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria at the site. A detailed groundwater flow model for the affected site has been developed. A model is currently being developed of the various geochemical and biological processes at Davis Mine for use in distinguishing between sulfate reduction and dilution as they affect observed sulfate attenuation.

  2. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  4. SMARTE'S SITE CHARACTERIZATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Characterization involves collecting environmental data to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination. Environmental data could consist of chemical analyses of soil, sediment, water or air samples. Typically site characterization data are statistically evaluated for thr...

  5. Site characterization handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This Handbook discusses both management and technical elements that should be considered in developing a comprehensive site characterization program. Management elements typical of any project of a comparable magnitude and complexity are combined with a discussion of strategies specific to site characterization. Information specific to the technical elements involved in site characterization is based on guidance published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with respect to licensing requirements for LLW disposal facilities. The objective of this Handbook is to provide a reference for both NRC Agreement States and non-Agreement States for use in developing a comprehensive site characterization program that meets the specific objectives of the State and/or site developer/licensee. Each site characterization program will vary depending on the objectives, licensing requirements, schedules/budgets, physical characteristics of the site, proposed facility design, and the specific concerns raised by government agencies and the public. Therefore, the Handbook is not a prescriptive guide to site characterization. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Characterization of cyclo-Acetoacetyl-L-Tryptophan Dimethylallyltransferase in Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis: Substrate Promiscuity and Site Directed Mutagenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2009-01-01

    The fungal neurotoxin α-cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a nanomolar inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase with a unique pentacyclic indole tetramic acid scaffold is assembled by a three enzyme pathway CpaS, CpaD and CpaO in Aspergillus sp. We recently characterized the first pathway-specific enzyme CpaS, a hybrid two module polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) that generates cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan (cAATrp). Here we report the characterization of the second pathway-specific enzyme CpaD that regiospecifically dimethylallylates cAATrp to form β-cyclopiazonic acid. By exploring the tryptophan and tetramate moieties of cAATrp, we demonstrate that CpaD discriminates against free Trp but accepts tryptophan-containing thiohydantoins, diketopiperazines and linear peptides as substrates for C4-prenylation and also acts as regiospecific O-dimethylallyltransferase (DMAT) on a tyrosine-derived tetramic acid. Comparative evaluation of CpaDs from A. oryzae RIB40 and A. flavus NRRL3357 indicated the importance of the N-terminal region for its activity. Sequence alignment of CpaD with eleven homologous fungal Trp-DMATs revealed five regions of conservation suggesting the presense of critical motifs that could be diagonostic for discovering additional Trp-DMATs. Subsequent site-directed mutagenesis studies identified five polar/charged residues and five tyrosine residues within these motifs that are critical for CpaD activity. This motif characerization will enable a gene probe-based approach to discover additional biosynthetic Trp-DMATs. PMID:19877600

  7. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Yong; Hu, Mary Y.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-18

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS {sup 15}N NMR, static {sup 2}H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these Broensted acid sites is confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In contrast, terminal W-OH sites are very stable and only weakly acidic as are terminal Si-OH sites. Furthermore, molecular interactions between pyridine molecules and the dimer Broensted and terminal W-OH sites for dispersed tungsten oxide species is strong. This results in restricted molecular motion for the interacting pyridine molecules even at room temperature, i.e., a reorientation mainly about the molecular 2-fold axis. This restricted reorientation makes it possible to estimate the relative ratio of the Broensted (tungsten dimer) to the weakly acidic terminal W-OH sites in the catalyst using the slow-MAS {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N CP PASS method.

  8. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis. PMID:10102999

  9. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.

  10. Characterization of the N-Acetyl-5-neuraminic Acid-binding Site of the Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor (SiaP) of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain 2019

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jason W.; Coussens, Nathan P.; Allen, Simon; Houtman, Jon C.D.; Turner, Keith H.; Zaleski, Anthony; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-11-14

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic human pathogen causing otitis media in children and chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The outer membrane of nontypeable H. influenzae is dominated by lipooligosaccharides (LOS), many of which incorporate sialic acid as a terminal nonreducing sugar. Sialic acid has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the survival of the bacteria within the host environment. H. influenzae is incapable of synthesizing sialic acid and is dependent on scavenging free sialic acid from the host environment. To achieve this, H. influenzae utilizes a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter. In this study, we characterize the binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) from nontypeable H. influenzae strain 2019. A crystal structure of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-bound SiaP was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Thermodynamic characterization of Neu5Ac binding shows this interaction is enthalpically driven with a substantial unfavorable contribution from entropy. This is expected because the binding of SiaP to Neu5Ac is mediated by numerous hydrogen bonds and has several buried water molecules. Point mutations targeting specific amino acids were introduced in the putative binding site. Complementation with the mutated siaP constructs resulted either in full, partial, or no complementation, depending on the role of specific residues. Mass spectrometry analysis of the O-deacylated LOS of the R127K point mutation confirmed the observation of reduced incorporation of Neu5Ac into the LOS. The decreased ability of H. influenzae to import sialic acid had negative effects on resistance to complement-mediated killing and viability of biofilms in vitro, confirming the importance of sialic acid transport to the bacterium.

  11. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeologic characterization is crucial to evaluations of the performance of natural attenuation processes when monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is considered for remedy implementation. Stratigraphic and lithologic data define the framework for ground-water flow and contam...

  12. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. SITE CHARACTERIZATION LIBRARY VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Characterization Library is a CD that provides a centralized, field-portable source for site characterization information. Version 3 of the Site Characterization Library contains additional (from earlier versions) electronic documents and computer programs related to th...

  14. Lunar site characterization and mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

  15. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.; Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  16. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  17. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  18. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  19. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  20. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an application... repository at Yucca Mountain to the extent practical....

  1. Molecular characterization of the body site-specific human epidermal cytokeratin 9: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Langbein, L; Heid, H W; Moll, I; Franke, W W

    1993-12-01

    Differentiation of human plantar and palmar epidermis is characterized by the suprabasal synthesis of a major special intermediate-sized filament (IF) protein, the type I (acidic) cytokeratin 9 (CK 9). Using partial amino acid (aa) sequence information obtained by direct Edman sequencing of peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of purified CK 9, we synthesized several redundant primers by 'back-translation'. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription of mRNAs from human foot sole epidermis, including 5'-primer extension, resulted in multiple overlapping cDNA clones, from which the complete cDNA (2353 bp) could be constructed. This cDNA encoded the CK 9 polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 61,987 and an isoelectric point at about pH 5.0. The aa sequence deduced from cDNA was verified in several parts by comparison with the peptide sequences and showed the typical structure of type I CKs, with a head (153 aa), and alpha-helical coiled-coil-forming rod (306 aa), and a tail (163 aa) domain. The protein displayed the highest homology to human CK 10, not only in the highly conserved rod domain but also in large parts of the head and the tail domains. On the other hand, the aa sequence revealed some remarkable differences from CK 10 and other CKs, even in the most conserved segments of the rod domain. The nuclease digestion pattern seen on Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA indicated the existence of a unique CK 9 gene. Using CK 9-specific riboprobes for hybridization on Northern blots of RNAs from various epithelia, a mRNA of about 2.4 kb in length could be identified only in foot sole epidermis, and a weaker cross-hybridization signal was seen in RNA from bovine heel pad epidermis at about 2.0 kb. A large number of tissues and cell cultures were examined by PCR of mRNA-derived cDNAs, using CK 9-specific primers. But even with this very sensitive signal amplification, only palmar

  2. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  3. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  4. Double tracks test site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  5. CANTON CAFO FIELD SITE STUDY - SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTAMINANT IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation of CAFO research concerning the Canton CAFO field site study, including its characterization and contaminant impacts, was given at a NRMRL program review discussion of the CAFO Research Program.

  6. Characterization of GNSS site stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, GNSS data have been and are still being collected that allow position determinations of relatively close sites. Some of these sites installed near GGOS reference sites are deployed to provide stability measurements to the nearby VLBI and/or SLR sites. Other deployments have been aimed assessing the stability of different monuments. One such experiment is being performed by UNAVCO as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory and seeks to compare drilled braced monuments will pillar type monuments. Tests have also been carried out radomes being removed and replaced. In this paper we examine these data and assess the magnitudes of the variations seen in the position estimates and thus provide a lower bound on the stability of monuments and the effects of some radomes. We will also apply different analysis methods to these data to assess the impacts of processing methods. For radomes, site multipath effects and antenna problems, comparing dual frequency analyses, the method always needed for site separations of more than 1 km, with single frequency solutions can yield bounds on the frequency dependent errors that can arise from multipath and possibly radomes. The best of the short baseline results have root-mean-square (RMS) scatters of 80 microns horizontally and 200 microns vertically over a 12-month period. Some monument types show much greater variations. Radome effects can be several millimeters and in some cases the largest effect of removing radomes can be horizontal.

  7. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO2 in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity = 1000 mg/l CaCO3). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to 6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). The ???30% of the residual grains in the pulsed flow reactor that are armored have thicker (50- to 100-??m), more aluminous coatings and lack the gypsum rind that develops in the constant flow experiment. Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical characterization of the surface sites of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, F.M.; Lloyd, T.B.; Cole, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    We propose to do experimental studies in four related areas concerning the acid-base properties of coal surfaces; (1) develop high precision flow microcalorimetric methods for determining the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders; (2) develop photo-acoustic FTIR and solid-state NMR spectral shift techniques for determination of the concentrations and strengths of acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders; (3) determine the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of some of the well-characterized coal samples from Argonne National Labs, comparing the coal samples before and after demineralization treatments with HCl and HF; (4) study the effects of surface acidity and basicity on the coal/water interface, with emphasis on the role of interfacial acid-base interactions in the adsorption of ions, surfactants and coal/water slurry stabilizers. A practical application of the new measurements of the acidity and basicity of surface sites will be to exploit acid-base contributions to preferential wettability for optimizing separation of coal pyrites from the organic components. Work this quarter concentrated on flow microcalorimetry for assessing acidity/basicity of coal powders. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

  10. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  11. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 8 WORKSHOP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  12. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (WORKSHOP MSA PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. Characterizing Site Hydrology (Region 10, Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. Acid-site characterization of water-oxidized alumina films by near-edge x-ray absorption and soft x-ray photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hagan, P.J.; Merrill, R.P.; Rhodin, T.N.; Woronick, S.W.; Shinn, N.D.; Woolery, G.L.; Chester, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hydroxylated alumina films have been synthesized by water oxidation of single crystal Al(110) surfaces. Thermal dehydroxylation results in anion vacancies which produce an Al(3s) defect state 3.5 eV below the conduction band edge. A maximum in the defect-DOS occurs for oxides heated to 350 to 400C, which is where the materials exhibit maximum Lewis acidity with respect to C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Adsorbed C{sub 2}H{sub 4} produces thermally active C{sub 2} species which interact covalently with the defect-DOS and nonbonding O(2p) from the top of the valence band. C(1s) binding energies suggest significant charge transfer which is consistent with a carbenium ion. Ni evaporated onto the surface, however, transfers charge directly to Al species and does not interact with O atoms at the defect site. The defect-DOS is regenerated when the C{sub 2} species decomposes or when Ni migrates thermally through the oxide layer.

  15. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio. PMID:27514871

  16. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio.

  17. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL. PMID:26820485

  18. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL.

  19. Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Site atlas 1997. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for an underground repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Atlas is a tool used to cartographically display some of the Geographic Information System (GIS) data in the form of thematic map products. Essentially, the Site Atlas is a compilation of map products that are designed to illustrate the location and extent of site characterization studies. Additionally, the Site Atlas provides maps showing project administrative boundaries and basemaps in the vicinity of the project. The data are current through September 1997. The Atlas is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains GIS maps and supporting characteristic data for geology; stratigraphy; tectonics; volcanism; hydrology; geochemistry; environmental issues; paleontology; repository design; YMP boreholes, trenches, pits, pavements, and exposures; basemap features; and surface-based testing activities, and Part 2 contains 1:6,000- and 1:12,000-scale orthophotography basemaps and orthophotography-based hypsography maps (topographic data). This data is shown at a 50% reduction. The maps and orthophotographs in this Site Atlas are provided to YMP participants as an informational source only and are not for making precise measurements. The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description statement on each map identifies the quality status of the thematic data presented. The Site Atlas is not a comprehensive guide; it does not include all scientific features or studies undertaken for the YMP. The features presented are a small subset of the total work being conducted for the project.

  20. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  1. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  2. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses... situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. (c) The program of...

  3. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses... situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. (c) The program of...

  4. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses... situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. (c) The program of...

  5. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses... situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. (c) The program of...

  6. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses... situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. (c) The program of...

  7. Chemical characterization of the surface sites of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, F.M.; Kardos, K.; Riddle, F.L. Jr.; Cole, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    We propose to do experimental studies in four related areas concerning the acid-base properties of coal surfaces: (1) develop high precision flow microcalorimetric methods for determining the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders: (2) develop photo-acoustic FTIR and solid-state NMR spectral shift techniques for determination of the concentrations and strengths of acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders; (3) determine the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of some of the well-characterized coal samples from Argonne National Labs., comparing the coal samples before and after demineralization treatments with HCl and HF; (4) study the effects of surface acidity and basicity on the coal/water interface, with emphasis on the role of interfacial acid-base interactions in the adsorption of ions, surfactants and coal/water slurry stabilizers. From measured heats of interaction, a reasonable estimate can be made of the most prevalent functional groups in coal. This quarter, heats of adsorption of phenols and pyridines were investigated. 2 tabs. (CBS)

  8. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-07-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential.

  9. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper. PMID:24213742

  10. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  11. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  12. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  13. Site Characterization Progress Report No.20

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    1999-10-01

    This is the 20th progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. Readers may request specific U.S. Department of Energy-approved program documents that are listed in Section 7, References, and Appendix A by contacting the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Line at 1-800-225-6972. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from October 1, 1998, through March 31, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  14. Characterization of anthropogenic and natural sources of acid rock drainage at the Cinnamon Gulch abandoned mine land inventory site, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colorado's Cinnamon Gulch releases acid rock drainage (ARD) from anthropogenic and natural sources. In 2001, the total discharge from Cinnamon Gulch was measured at 1.02 cfs (29 L/s) at base flow and 4.3 cfs (122 L/s) at high flow (spring runoff). At base flow, natural sources account for 98% of the discharge from the watershed, and about 96% of the chemical loading. At high flow, natural sources contribute 96% of discharge and 92 to 95% of chemical loading. The pH is acidic throughout the Cinnamon Gulch watershed, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4. At baseflow, nearly all of the trace metals analyzed in the 18 samples exceeded state hardness-dependent water quality standards for aquatic life. Maximum dissolved concentrations of selected constituents included 16 mg/ L aluminum, 15 mg/L manganese, 40 mg/L iron, 2 mg/L copper, 560 ??g/L lead, 8.4 mg/L zinc, and 300 mg/L sulfate. Average dissolved concentrations of selected metals at baseflow were 5.5 mg/L aluminum, 5.5 mg/L manganese, 14 ??g/L cadmium, 260 ??g/L copper, 82 ??g/L lead, and 2.8 mg/L zinc.

  15. Characterization of Lewis acid sites on the (100) surface of {beta}-AlF{sub 3}: Ab initio calculations of NH{sub 3} adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, C. L.; Wander, A.; Searle, B. G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Harrison, N. M.

    2008-06-14

    The current study employs hybrid-exchange density functional theory to show that the Lewis base, NH{sub 3}, binds to the {beta}-AlF{sub 3} (100) surface with a binding energy (BE) of up to -1.96 eV per molecule. This is characteristic of a strong Lewis acid. The binding of NH{sub 3} to the surface is predominately due to electrostatic interactions. There is only a small charge transfer from the NH{sub 3} molecule to the surface. The BE as a function of coverage is computed and used to develop a lattice Monte Carlo model which is used to predict the temperature programed desorption (TPD) spectrum. Comparison with experimental TPD studies of NH{sub 3} from {beta}-AlF{sub 3} strongly suggests that these structural models and binding mechanisms are good approximations to those that occur on real AlF{sub 3} surfaces.

  16. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-07-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH{sub 3}). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear.

  17. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  18. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  19. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Richardson, B.S.; Pence, J.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. To address the need to minimize the exposure of on-site personnel to the hazards associated with such sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by an radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS). The sensors are environmentally protected, internally cooled, and interchangeable based on mission requirements. To date, the RCS has been successfully tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  20. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  1. Miscellaneous chemical basin expedited site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.; Pemberton, B.E.; Rossabi, J.

    1996-12-01

    A total of twenty nine cone penetrometer test (CPT) pushes in three weeks were conducted for vadose zone characterization of the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin (MCB) waste unit at the Savannah River Site. The shallow, unlined basin received liquid chemical wastes over an 18 year period beginning in 1956. This characterization was initiated to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination in the vadose zone and to install vadose zone wells for remediation by barometric pumping or active vapor extraction to help prevent further contamination of groundwater. The CPT locations within the waste site were selected based on results from previous shallow soil gas surveys, groundwater contamination data, and the suspected basin center. Geophysical data and soil gas samples were collected at twenty five locations and twenty five vadose zone wells were installed. The wells were screened to target the clay zones and areas of higher soil gas concentrations. The well construction diagrams are provided in Appendix B. Baro-Ball{trademark} valves for enhanced barometric pumping were installed on each well upon completion to immediately begin the remediation treatability study at the site.

  2. Toxicological characterization of phthalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bang, Du Yeon; Lee, In Kyung; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2011-12-01

    There has been growing concern about the toxicity of phthalate esters. Phthalate esters are being used widely for the production of perfume, nail varnish, hairsprays and other personal/cosmetic uses. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. The parent phthalate is rapidly metabolized to its monoester (the active metabolite) and also glucuronidated, then excreted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of phthalic acid (PA), which is the final common metabolic form of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). The individual PA isomers are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents, for example isophthalic acid (IPA), and terephthalic acid (TPA), which have very broad applications in the preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items. There is a broad potential for exposure by industrial workers during the manufacturing process and by the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). This review suggests that PA shows in vitro and in vivo toxicity (mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc.). In addition, PA seems to be a useful biomarker for multiple exposure to PAEs in humans.

  3. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in site and waste characterization program effort. The term ``physical sampling`` used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ``physical sampling`` broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measuring of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting.

  4. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandness, Gerald A.; Richardson, Bradley S.; Pence, Jon

    1994-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. By performing these tasks with remotely controlled sensors, it is possible to obtain improved data quality and consistency as well as enhanced safety for on-site workers. Therefore, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by a radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS).

  5. New site characterization and monitoring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Bruce J.; Gillispie, Gregory D.; Bohne, David A.; Lindstrom, David R.

    1995-10-01

    The cost of characterizing and monitoring U.S. government hazardous waste sites could exceed $500 billion utilizing traditional methods and technology. New sensor technologies are being developed to meet the nation's environmental remediation and compliance programs. In 1993, the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory and Loral Defense System, Eagan (formerly a division of Unisys Corporation) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) to commercialize fiber optic laser-induced fluorescence technology that had been developed with U.S. Air Force funding a North Dakota State University (NDSU). A consortium consisting of the CRDA partners (USAF and Loral), Dakota Technologies Inc., and NDSU submitted a proposal to the advanced Research Projects Agency, Technology Reinvestment Project and won an award to fund the commercialization. The result, the Rapid Optical Screening Tool or ROST is a state-of-the-art laser spectroscopy system for analysis of aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater. With ROST, environmental investigators are able to find, classify, and map the distribution of many hazardous chemicals in the field instead of waiting for reports to come back from the analytical laboratory. The research and development program leading to prototype laser spectrometers is summarized along with results from laboratory and field demonstrations illustrating system performance and benefits for site characterization. The technology has recently been demonstrated in Europe in Germany, the Netherlands, France an several sites in the United Kingdom having light, medium, and heavy aromatic hydrocarbon contamination from fuel spills and refinery or chemical plant operations. The use of the ROST system to find hydrocarbon contamination is now being offered as a service by Loral Corporation.

  6. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  7. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  8. Design and Characterization of Auxotrophy-Based Amino Acid Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bertels, Felix; Merker, Holger; Kost, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that – upon deletion – should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC) both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used. PMID:22829942

  9. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Garza, J.C. de la

    1994-12-31

    Because performance standards are not established for the Yucca Mountain Site (the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been remanded), it is necessary to define surrogate or derived criteria to evaluate performance. The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) in 1988 attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish repository performance. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. This paper reports on a two month effort undertaken to reevaluate the SCP thermal goals using an expert Working Group. Fifteen thermal goals identified in various sections of the SCP were evaluated by the Working Group. It was recommended that two goals be deleted: (1) to keep borehole wall temperature < 275 degrees C and keep the mid-drift temperature < 100 degrees C. It was also recommended that one goal be added to establish a thermal loading that would not degrade the Upper Paintbrush Tuff Formation (Lowermost Tiva Canyon; Yucca Mountain; Pah Canyon; and Uppermost Topopah Spring Members) (Vitric nonwelded) (PTn) barrier. Two other thermal goals and a process statement were reworded to afford compatibility with any emplacement mode, not just the vertical borehole. A recommendation was made to increase the conservatism of a goal to limit potential impact on the surface environment by limiting temperature rise to < 2 degrees C rather than < 6 degrees C. This revised set of goals was used in the Thermal Loading Systems Study.

  10. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-04

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

  11. Site characterization plan: Public Handbook, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, for detailed study as the candidate site for the first US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The detailed study --- called ``site characterization`` --- will be conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the suitability of the site for a repository and, if the site is suitable, to obtain from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorization to construct the repository. As part of the site characterization study, DOE has prepared a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site. The Site Characterization Plan is a nine-volume document, approximately 6300 pages in length, which describes the activities that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. Part 1 of this Handbook explains what site characterization is and how the Site Characterization Plan (Plan) relates to it. Part 2 tells how to locate subjects covered in the Plan. Another major purpose of this Handbook is to identify opportunities for public involement in the review of the Site Characterization Plan. DOE wants to be sure that the public has adequate opportunities to learn about the Plan and review the results of the subsequent technical studies. 14 refs.

  12. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.

  14. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  15. Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

    2012-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show

  16. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  17. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  18. Site characterization plan overview: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington: Consultation draft:

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    As part of the process for siting the nation's first geologic repository for radioactive waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. As a step in the preparation of that plan, the DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Washington, the affected Indian Tribes - the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Nez Perce Indian Tribe, and the Yakima Indian Nation - and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Hanford site is one of three sites that the DOE currently plans to characterize;the other sites are the Deaf Smith County site in Texas and the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. After site characterization has been completed and its results evaluated, the DOE will identify from among the three characterized sites the site that is preferred for the repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consulation draft of the site characterization plan;it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with breif descriptions of the dispoal system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Hanford site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization.

  19. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R H; Huff, D D

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables.

  20. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D.

    1989-02-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British smoke and SO/sub 2/ were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO/sub 2/ and British smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors.

  1. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Thurston, G D

    1989-02-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British Smoke and SO2 were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO2 and British Smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors.

  2. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  3. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  4. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  5. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  6. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  7. Diffractaic acid: Crystalline structure and physicochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Fonseca, Jéssica; de Oliveira, Yara Santiago; Bezerra, Beatriz P.; Ellena, Javier; Honda, Neli Kika; Silva, Camilla V. N. S.; da Silva Santos, Noemia Pereira; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Diffractaic acid (DA) is a secondary metabolite of lichens that belongs to the chemical class of depsides, and some relevant pharmacological properties are associated with this natural product, such as antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and gastroprotective effects. Considering the relevant biological activities and taking into account that the activities are intrinsically related to the structure, the main goal of this study was to elucidate the structure of diffractaic acid by single crystal X-ray diffraction as well to characterize its physicochemical properties by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and vibrational spectroscopy. It was observed that DA belongs to the monoclinic crystal system, crystallizing in the space group P21/c with the following cell parameters: a = 18.535(7) Å, b = 4.0439(18) Å, c = 23.964(6) Å, β = 91.55(3)°. The crystal packing is characterized by difractaic acid dimers, which are reflected in the vibrational spectrum. These observations were supported by quantum mechanical calculations.

  8. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center. This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data they acquire. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the techniques used to characterize data from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active LIDAR systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible through long-wave infrared remote sensing systems and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed include: 1) The use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations; 2) Additional sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States; 3) The need for a standardized technique to be adopted by CEOS and other organizations.

  9. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  10. Site Characterization Using Solar Hα Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Bayanna, A. Raja; Venugopalan, K.

    2007-04-01

    A Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is proposed to be installed at the lake site (Lake Fatehsagar) of Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) in India. The lake site Observatory of USO is located on a small island in the middle of the lake. To determine the optimum size of the MAST (for use with an adaptive optics system), it was decided to quantify the seeing conditions prevailing at the lake site during the different months of the year. For this purpose, we have used short-exposure (3 ms) high-resolution Hα (6563 Å) images (spatial scale of ˜0.55 arc sec per pixel) of the Sun taken in burst mode with the 15-cm refractor Spar telescope located at the lake site of USO. Spectral ratio technique as reported by von der Lühe (1984, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A1, 510) has been used to estimate the Fried’s parameter ( r 0) at this site, which gives the quantitative measure of astronomical seeing. This study has been carried out daily on an hourly basis during 4:30 - 10:30 UT over the months January - June of the years 2005 and 2006 to understand the diurnal and seasonal variations in r 0 at this site. It is noteworthy that the lake was almost dry during the observing period in 2005, while it overflowed during our observations in 2006 because of abundant monsoon rains. The seeing in the presence of water shows improvement in r 0 by about 1.0 cm with respect to the previous year’s dry condition and mean r 0 varies between 4.0 and 4.5 cm as evident from the data obtained between January and June, 2006.

  11. Area 5 Site characterization project report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, W.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.; Estrella, R.

    1994-09-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research institute (DRI) has conducted this study for the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Waste Management Division (WMD). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization Project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from borehole samples through September 1994. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, and soil water extract isotope analyses.

  12. Site characterization and hazard assessment criteria for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1993-09-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements for site characterization and hazard assessment of Natural Phenomena Hazards for compliance with DOE Order 5480.28. The site characterization criteria for NPH evaluation are provided in a draft DOE-STD-1022-XX and the assessment criteria of natural phenomena hazards are provided in draft DOE-STD-1023-XX.

  13. Characterization of Undermethylated Sites in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dalia, Ankur B.; Lazinski, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The activities of DNA methyltransferases are important for a variety of cellular functions in bacteria. In this study, we developed a modified high-throughput technique called methyl homopolymer tail mediated sequencing (methyl HTM-seq) to identify the undermethylated sites in the Vibrio cholerae genome for the two DNA methyltransferases, Dam, an adenine methyltransferase, and VchM, a cytosine methyltransferase, during growth in rich medium in vitro. Many of the undermethylated sites occurred in intergenic regions, and for most of these sites, we identified the transcription factors responsible for undermethylation. This confirmed the presence of previously hypothesized DNA-protein interactions for these transcription factors and provided insight into the biological state of these cells during growth in vitro. DNA adenine methylation has previously been shown to mediate heritable epigenetic switches in gene regulation. However, none of the undermethylated Dam sites tested showed evidence of regulation by this mechanism. This study is the first to identify undermethylated adenines and cytosines genomewide in a bacterium using second-generation sequencing technology. PMID:23504020

  14. Characterization of active sites in zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, J.; Bug, A.; Nicol, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Atomic-level details of the interaction of adsorbed molecules with active sites in catalysts are urgently needed to facilitate development of more effective and/or environmentally benign catalysts. To this end the authors have carried out neutron scattering studies combined with theoretical calculations of the dynamics of small molecules inside the cavities of zeolite catalysts. The authors have developed the use of H{sub 2} as a probe of adsorption sites by observing the hindered rotations of the adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule, and they were able to show that an area near the four-rings is the most likely adsorption site for H{sub 2} in zeolite A while adsorption of H{sub 2} near cations located on six-ring sites decreases in strength as Ni {approximately} Co > Ca > Zn {approximately} Na. Vibrational and rotational motions of ethylene and cyclopropane adsorption complexes were used as a measure for zeolite-adsorbate interactions. Preliminary studies of the binding of water, ammonia, and methylamines were carried out in a number of related guest-host materials.

  15. Groundwater Site Characterization: A Systems Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater remedial actions are highly complex projects. During the past 10 years, many remedial actions have begun, but very few have been successfully completed. This paper describes the complexity of groundwater remediation and offers an alternative management approach involving systems movement successfully utilized at a site in the…

  16. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  17. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly used for Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Blonski, Slawomir; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists with NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data that they require. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high-spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high-resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible-through-longwave infrared remote sensing systems, and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed inslude: 1) use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations, 2) other sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States,a nd 3) the need for a standardized technique to be adopted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and other organizations.

  18. CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZAROUDS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers (RPM) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSC) concerning soil characterization data types required for decision-making in the CERCLA RI/FS process related to risk assessment and remedial alternative evaluation ...

  19. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Consultation Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The consultation draft of the site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site-characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site-characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the disposal system -- the site, the repository, and the waste package -- preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE`s repository program -- staff who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 22 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A Sialic Acid Binding Site in a Human Picornavirus

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Martin; Hähnlein-Schick, Irmgard; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Arnberg, Niklas; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The picornaviruses coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and enterovirus 70 (EV70) cause continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease against which neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are currently available. Moreover, these viruses can cause symptoms in the cornea, upper respiratory tract, and neurological impairments such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. We report the structures of an intact human picornavirus in complex with a range of glycans terminating in Neu5Ac. We determined the structure of the CVA24v to 1.40 Å resolution, screened different glycans bearing Neu5Ac for CVA24v binding, and structurally characterized interactions with candidate glycan receptors. Biochemical studies verified the relevance of the binding site and demonstrated a preference of CVA24v for α2,6-linked glycans. This preference can be rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations that show that α2,6-linked glycans can establish more contacts with the viral capsid. Our results form an excellent platform for the design of antiviral compounds to prevent AHC. PMID:25329320

  1. SH-wave refraction/reflection and site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Street, R.L.; Woolery, E.W.; Madin, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, nonintrusive techniques used to characterize soils have been based on P-wave refraction/reflection methods. However, near-surface unconsolidated soils are oftentimes water-saturated, and when groundwater is present at a site, the velocity of the P-waves is more related to the compressibility of the pore water than to the matrix of the unconsolidated soils. Conversely, SH-waves are directly relatable to the soil matrix. This makes SH-wave refraction/reflection methods effective in site characterizations where groundwater is present. SH-wave methods have been used extensively in site characterization and subsurface imaging for earthquake hazard assessments in the central United States and western Oregon. Comparison of SH-wave investigations with geotechnical investigations shows that SH-wave refraction/reflection techniques are viable and cost-effective for engineering site characterization.

  2. Correct implementation of the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) process for preremedial site investigations.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J. C.; Cook, S.; Sedivy, R.; Walker, J. L.

    1997-12-12

    The Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ANL ESC) methodology, developed by Argonne National Laboratory and popularly known as ESC, is an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for technically successful preremedial site characterizations. The major objective of the ANL ESC is to determine whether a site containing contamination requires remediation. The methodology is equivalent to a CERCLA RI/FS or a RCRA RFI/CMS investigation. The ANL ESC methodology is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The ANL ESC is the basis for the expedited site characterization standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). The methodology has been registered under the service mark QuickSite{trademark} to offer both clients and providers a mechanism for ensuring that they receive the ANL ESC methodology developed by Argonne. The ANL ESC is a flexible process and is neither site nor contaminant dependent. It can be tailored to fit the unique characteristics that distinguish one site from the next, in contrast to the traditional approach of making all sites conform to the same rigid, inflexible investigation regimen. The ANL ESC has been applied successfully to remedial site investigations of landfills with multiple contaminants in the southwestern US for the Department of Interior (DOI), to former grain storage facilities in the Midwest for the Commodity Credit Corporation of the Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), to weapons production facilities in Texas for the Department of Energy (DOE), and to closing and active military bases in several locations for the Department of Defense (DOD). The process can be applied both at sites that have seen little investigation and at sites that have undergone numerous previous site characterizations without reaching closure. In the latter case (e.g., at many DOE and DOD sites

  3. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  4. Site characterization and its role in repository licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (the Acts) specify a schedule and a process for the siting of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A key step is the collection of geotechnical information as described in a site characterization plan (SCP). The information to be secured should fully support the technical data needs for a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for authorization to construct a repository. Although the Acts only require a general plan for site characterization, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has, as a matter of policy, prepared a comprehensive and detailed draft SCP that includes available geotechnical information about the site, a description of the conceptual design of the repository, a description of the waste package, and a detailed discussion of the plans for characterizing the site.

  5. Characterization of the Hanford Site and environs

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to site, construct, and operate a new production reactor (NPR) intended to produce materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The DOE has determined that this proposed action constitutes an action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment; therefore, the DOE is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives on the human and natural environment. The NPR-EIS is being prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented in regulations (40 CFR 1500--1508) promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Information on the potentially affected environment at the Hanford Site and its environs was provided to ANL by PNL in various submissions during CY-1989, and some of that information was consolidated into this report, which is considered to be supporting documentation for the NPR-EIS. 93 refs., 35 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  7. Minimally invasive three-dimensional site characterization system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ``ground truth`` data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization.

  8. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Mutations of fumarase that distinguish between the active site and a nearby dicarboxylic acid binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, T.; Lees, M.; Banaszak, L.

    1997-01-01

    Two mutant forms of fumarase C from E. coli have been made using PCR and recombinant DNA. The recombinant form of the protein included a histidine arm on the C-terminal facilitating purification. Based on earlier studies, two different carboxylic acid binding sites, labeled A- and B-, were observed in crystal structures of the wild type and inhibited forms of the enzyme. A histidine at each of the sites was mutated to an asparagine. H188N at the A-site resulted in a large decrease in specific activity, while the H129N mutation at the B-site had essentially no effect. From the results, we conclude that the A-site is indeed the active site, and a dual role for H188 as a potential catalytic base is proposed. Crystal structures of the two mutant proteins produced some unexpected results. Both mutations reduced the affinity for the carboxylic acids at their respective sites. The H129N mutant should be particularly useful in future kinetic studies because it sterically blocks the B-site with the carboxyamide of asparagine assuming the position of the ligand's carboxylate. In the H188N mutation at the active site, the new asparagine side chain still interacts with an active site water that appears to have moved slightly as a result of the mutation. PMID:9098893

  10. Acidity characterization of heterogeneous catalysts by solid-state NMR spectroscopy using probe molecules.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Shang-Bin; Deng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the surface acidic properties of solid acid catalysts is a key issue in heterogeneous catalysis. Important acid features of solid acids, such as their type (Brønsted vs. Lewis acid), distribution and accessibility (internal vs. external sites), concentration (amount), and strength of acid sites are crucial factors dictating their reactivity and selectivity. This short review provides information on different solid-state NMR techniques used for acidity characterization of solid acid catalysts. In particular, different approaches using probe molecules containing a specific nucleus of interest, such as pyridine-d5, 2-(13)C-acetone, trimethylphosphine, and trimethylphosphine oxide, are compared. Incorporation of valuable information (such as the adsorption structure, deprotonation energy, and NMR parameters) from density functional theory (DFT) calculations can yield explicit correlations between the chemical shift of adsorbed probe molecules and the intrinsic acid strength of solid acids. Methods that combine experimental NMR data with DFT calculations can therefore provide both qualitative and quantitative information on acid sites.

  11. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

  12. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Synthesis of kojic acid derivatives as secondary binding site probes of D-amino acid oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Mithun; Hin, Niyada; Duvall, Bridget; Ferraris, Dana V.; Berry, James F.; Thomas, Ajit G.; Alt, Jesse; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.; Tsukamoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    A series of kojic acid (5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4H-pyran-4-one) derivatives were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). Various substituents were incorporated into kojic acid at its 2-hydroxymethyl group. These analogs serve as useful molecular probes to explore the secondary binding site, which can be exploited in designing more potent DAAO inhibitors. PMID:23683589

  14. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for site: Draft characterization of the Yucca Mountain site:Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the EMMP is to document compliance with the NWPA. To do so, a summary description of site characterization activites is provided, based on the consultation draft of the SCP. Subsequent chpaters identify those technical areas having the potential to be impacted by site characterization activities and the monitoring plans proposed to identify whether those impacts acutally occur. Should monitoring confirm the potential for significant adverse impact, mitigative measures will be developed. In the context of site characterization, mitigation is defined as those changes in site characterization activities that serve to avoid or minimize, to the maximum extent practicle, any significant adverse environmental impacts. Although site characterization activies involve both surface and subsurface activities, it is the surface-based aspect of site characterization that is addressed in detailed by the EMMP. The schedule and duration of these activities is given in the consultation draft of the SCP. A breif summary of all proposed activities is given in the EMMP. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Acid properties of solid acid catalysts characterized by solid-state 31P NMR of adsorbed phosphorous probe molecules.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Anmin; Huang, Shing-Jong; Liu, Shang-Bin; Deng, Feng

    2011-09-01

    A brief review is presented on acidity characterization of solid acid catalysts by means of solid-state phosphor-31 magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P MAS NMR) spectroscopy using phosphor-containing molecules as probes. It is emphasized that such a simple approach using (31)P MAS NMR of adsorbed phosphorous probe molecules, namely trimethylphosphine (TMP) and trialkylphosphine oxides (R(3)PO), represents a unique technique in providing detailed qualitative and quantitative features, viz. type, strength, distribution, and concentration of acid sites in solid acid catalysts. In particular, it will be shown that when applied with a proper choice of probe molecules with varied sizes and results obtained from elemental analysis, the amounts and locations (intracrystalline vs. extracrystalline) of different types (Brønsted vs. Lewis) of acid sites may be determined. In addition, by incorporating the NMR results with that obtained from theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations, correlations between the (31)P chemical shifts (δ(31)P) and acidic strengths of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites may also be derived, facilitating a suitable acidity scale for solid acid catalysts.

  16. TOMOGRAPHIC SITE CHARACTERIZATION USING CPT, ERT, AND GPR

    SciTech Connect

    Rexford M. Morey; Susanne M. Conklin; Stephen P. Farrington, P.E.; James D. Shinn II, P.E.

    1999-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system for site characterization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); and (2) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the CPT. The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used for both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site cleanup and waste management operations.

  17. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  18. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  19. CryptoSite: Expanding the Druggable Proteome by Characterization and Prediction of Cryptic Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Cimermancic, Peter; Weinkam, Patrick; Rettenmaier, T Justin; Bichmann, Leon; Keedy, Daniel A; Woldeyes, Rahel A; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Demerdash, Omar N; Mitchell, Julie C; Wells, James A; Fraser, James S; Sali, Andrej

    2016-02-22

    Many proteins have small-molecule binding pockets that are not easily detectable in the ligand-free structures. These cryptic sites require a conformational change to become apparent; a cryptic site can therefore be defined as a site that forms a pocket in a holo structure, but not in the apo structure. Because many proteins appear to lack druggable pockets, understanding and accurately identifying cryptic sites could expand the set of drug targets. Previously, cryptic sites were identified experimentally by fragment-based ligand discovery and computationally by long molecular dynamics simulations and fragment docking. Here, we begin by constructing a set of structurally defined apo-holo pairs with cryptic sites. Next, we comprehensively characterize the cryptic sites in terms of their sequence, structure, and dynamics attributes. We find that cryptic sites tend to be as conserved in evolution as traditional binding pockets but are less hydrophobic and more flexible. Relying on this characterization, we use machine learning to predict cryptic sites with relatively high accuracy (for our benchmark, the true positive and false positive rates are 73% and 29%, respectively). We then predict cryptic sites in the entire structurally characterized human proteome (11,201 structures, covering 23% of all residues in the proteome). CryptoSite increases the size of the potentially "druggable" human proteome from ~40% to ~78% of disease-associated proteins. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of our approach in practice, we experimentally validate a cryptic site in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using a covalent ligand and NMR spectroscopy. The CryptoSite Web server is available at http://salilab.org/cryptosite.

  20. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  1. An alternative approach to characterize nonlinear site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Hartzell, S.; Liang, J.; Hu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale of a method of nonstationary processing and analysis, referred to as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for its application to a recording-based approach in quantifying influences of soil nonlinearity in site response. In particular, this paper first summarizes symptoms of soil nonlinearity shown in earthquake recordings, reviews the Fourier-based approach to characterizing nonlinearity, and offers justifications for the HHT in addressing nonlinearity issues. This study then uses the HHT method to analyze synthetic data and recordings from the 1964 Niigata and 2001 Nisqually earthquakes. In doing so, the HHT-based site response is defined as the ratio of marginal Hilbert amplitude spectra, alternative to the Fourier-based response that is the ratio of Fourier amplitude spectra. With the Fourier-based approach in studies of site response as a reference, this study shows that the alternative HHT-based approach is effective in characterizing soil nonlinearity and nonlinear site response.

  2. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  3. Tomographic Site Characterization Using CPT, ERT, and GPR

    SciTech Connect

    Rexford M. Morey

    1997-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system fix site characterization. Applied Research Associates is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: . Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and . Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the Cone Penetrometer Technique (CPT). The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used in both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and environmental remediation monitoring. Technologies used for site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site clean-up and waste management operations.

  4. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  5. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-05-24

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

  6. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-12-14

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  7. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  8. A Task-oriented Approach for Hydrogeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Y.; Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization is a challenging task from several reasons: (1) the large spatial variability and scarcity of prior information render the outcome of any planned sampling campaign uncertain; (2) there are no simple tools for comparing between the many alternative measurement techniques and data acquisition strategies, and (3) physical and budgetary constraints associated with data acquisition. This paper presents several ideas on how to plan sampling campaigns in a rational manner while addressing these challenges. The first idea is to recognize that different sites and different problems require different characterization strategies. Hence the idea is to plan data acquisition according to its capability for meeting site-specific goals. For example, the characterization needs at a “research problem” site (e.g., a site intended to investigate the transport of uranium in the subsurface such as in Hanford) are different from those of a “problem” site (e.g., contaminated site associated with a health risk to human such as Camp Lejeune, or determining the safe yield of an aquifer). This distinction requires planners to define the characterization goal(s) in a quantitative manner. The second idea is to define metrics that could link specific data types and data acquisition strategies with the site-specific goals in a way that would allow planners to compare between strongly different, alternatives strategies at the design stage (even prior to data acquisition) and to modify the strategies as more data become available. To meet this goal, we developed the concept of the (comparative) information yield curve. Finally, we propose to look at site characterization from the perspective of statistical hypothesis testing, whereby data acquisition strategies could be evaluated in terms of their ability to support or refute various hypotheses made with regard to the characterization goals, and the strategies could be modified once the test is

  9. Acid aerosol measurements at a suburban Connecticut site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gerald J.; Spengler, John D.; Castillo, Raymond A.

    Atmospheric acidity data were gathered during a year-long field project investigating the possible health effects of acid aerosol in a rural community in southwestern Connecticut. This site was chosen because the air quality is frequently influenced by pollutants transported from the New York-New Jersey corridor as well as from the Midwest U.S. An annular denuder filter-pack system utilized to obtain daily measurements of gaseous HNO 3, HONO, SO 2, and NH 3; plus fine particle SO 42-, NO 3-, and H +. Fine particle mass ( d ⩽ 2.1 μm) and PM10 (particles d ⩽ 10 μm) were also measured. Ozone concentrations and basic meteorological data were also obtained continuously. The atmosphere was acidic with average concentrations of HONO (16 nmol m -3), HNO 3 (42 nmol m -3), and H + (42 nmol m -3), observed from May to September 1988. Atmospheric ammonia concentrations were fairly low averaging 34 nmol m -3 during the same period, and suggesting the neutralizing capacity of the air was significant to neutralize all the acidic species present. Neutralization of acidic particles by reactions on the filter media after collection resulted in a loss of approximately 10% of the measured particle strong acidity for the summertime period investigated. Concentrations of ozone and acidic gases tended to peak with mixed layer flow from the south-southwest while particulate acidity was highest with flow predominantly from the west-soutwest. Hourly ozone concentrations greater than 100 ppb were observed on 31 different days during the monitoring, and concentrations greater than 150 ppb measured on 14 days. HNO 3 and aerosol strong acidity (H +) concentrations reached 174 and 199 nmol m -3, respectively during the summer months.

  10. Computational studies of Bronsted acid sites in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, L.A.; Iton, L.E.; Zygmunt, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have performed high-level ab initio calculations using both Hartree-Fock (HF) and Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) to study the geometry and energetics of the adsorption complex involving H{sub 2}O and the Bronsted acid site in the zeolite H-ZSM-5. In these calculations, which use aluminosilicate cluster models for the zeolite framework with as many a 28 T atoms (T = Si, Al), we included geometry optimization in the local vicinity of the acid site at the HF/6-31G(d) level of theory, and have calculated corrections for zero-point energies, extensions for zero-point energies, extensions to higher basis sets, and the influence of electron correlation. Results for the adsorption energy and geometry of this complex are reported and compared with previous theoretical and experimental values.

  11. The synergic effect between Mo species and acid sites in Mo/HMCM-22 catalysts for methane aromatization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ding; Zhu, Qingjun; Wu, Zili; Zhou, Danhong; Shu, Yuying; Xin, Qin; Xu, Yide; Bao, Xinhe

    2005-08-21

    The acid properties of Mo/HMCM-22 catalyst, which is the precursor form of the working catalyst for methane aromatization reaction, and the synergic effect between Mo species and acid sites were studied and characterized by various characterization techniques. It is concluded that Brønsted and Lewis acidities of HMCM-22 are modified due to the introduction of molybdenum. We suggest a monomer of Mo species is formed by the exchange of Mo species with the Brønsted acid sites. On the other hand, coordinate unsaturated sites (CUS) are suggested to be responsible for the formation of newly detected Lewis acid sites. Computer modelling is established and coupling with experimental results, it is then speculated that the effective activation of methane is properly accomplished on Mo species accommodated in the 12 MR supercages of MCM-22 zeolite whereas the Brønsted acid sites in the same channel system play a key role for the formation of benzene. A much more pronounced volcano-typed reactivity curve of the Mo/HMCM-22 catalysts, as compared with that of the Mo/HZSM-5, with respect to Mo loading is found and this can be well understood due to the unique channel structure of MCM-22 zeolite and synergic effect between Mo species and acid sites.

  12. Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

    1999-03-09

    A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

  13. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options.

  14. Optical characterization of perturbed sites and C3i sites in rare earth doped oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinemer, Gregoy Donald

    Energies, linewidths, and line strengths for some intrinsic and perturbed site transitions of seven different rare-earth ions doped into Y3Al 5O12 were measured as a function of concentration using visible and infrared absorption. Nearest and next-nearest neighbor ion pair transitions were characterized by their concentration dependence, and an analysis of Pr 3+ and Nd3+ pairs showed that those ions are distributed randomly in the lattice. For all transitions studied, the intrinsic D2 site and pair site transitions accounted for 92%--95% of the total line strength; the remaining 5%--8% was assigned to perturbed site transitions. No significant dependence of perturbed site line strength on ionic radius was observed. The nominally equal perturbed site line strength for all transitions studied implied that oscillator strengths for intrinsic and perturbed sites were similar. The perturbed sites appear to be a normal property of the Y3Al 5O12 lattice. To further investigate the nature of the perturbed sites, experiments were done showing that Er3+ occupies a site in Er3+ :Y3Al5O12 with a threefold axis along <111> that is consistent with occupation of the octahedral Al3+ site with C3i symmetry. Allowed magnetic dipole transitions at 1.5 microns were identified in the 4I15/2(1)→ 4I13/2 absorption spectrum using site selective fluorescence. Angle dependent Zeeman experiments on these transitions confirmed that they are from a site with a threefold axis along <111>. Using optical nutation experiments, the number density for Er 3+ C3i sites in 1.0 at.% Er3+:Y3Al 5O12 was determined to be (5 +/- 2) x 10 17 Er3+/cm3. Since Er3+ has nearly the same ionic radius as Y3+, the occupation of these same sites by Y3+ was deduced to be 0.6% +/- 0.3%. Assuming each Y3+ C3i site perturbs 12 D2 sites, the fractional line strength for perturbed sites would be 5% +/- 2%. Similar experiments on 0.05 at.% Er3+:Y2O 3 characterized C3i site Er3+ 4I 15/2 and 4I13/2 crystal field levels and g

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  17. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    PubMed Central

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states. PMID:25004958

  18. A CASE STUDY ILLUSTRATING THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Too frequently, researchers rely on incomplete site characterization data to determine the placement of the sampling wells. They forget that it is these sampling wells that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of their research efforts. This case study illustrates the eff...

  19. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: PROGRESS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) has been engaged in verification activities since the fall of 1994 (U.S. EPA, 1997). The purpose of the ETV is to promote th...

  20. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  1. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  2. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  3. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  4. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  5. Site Characterization at a Tidal Energy Site in the East River, NY (usa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Colby, J.

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive tidal energy site characterization is performed using ADV measurements of instantaneous horizontal current magnitude and direction at the planned hub centerline of a tidal turbine over a two month period, and contributes to the growing data base of tidal energy site hydrodynamic conditions. The temporal variation, mean current statistics, and turbulence of the key tidal hydrodynamic parameters are examined in detail, and compared to estimates from two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound. Tidal hydrodynamic conditions, including mean annual current (at hub height), the speed of extreme gusts (instantaneous horizontal currents acting normal to the rotor plane), and turbulence intensity (as proposed here, relative to a mean current of 2 m s-1) can vary greatly among tidal energy sites. Comparison of hydrodynamic conditions measured in the East River tidal straight in New York City with those reported for two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound indicate differences of mean annual current speeds, difference in the instantaneous current speeds of extreme gusts, and differences in turbulence intensities. Significant differences in these parameters among the tidal energy sites, and with the tidal resource assessment map, highlight the importance of conducting site resource characterization with ADV measurements at the machine scale. As with the wind industry, which adopted an International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) wind class standard to aid in the selection of wind turbines for a particular site, it is recommended that the tidal energy industry adopt an appropriate standard for tidal current classes. Such a standard requires a comprehensive field campaign at multiple tidal energy sites that can identify the key hydrodynamic parameters for tidal current site classification, select a list of tidal energy sites that exhibit the range of hydrodynamic conditions that will be encountered, and adopt consistent measurement practices (standards) for site

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  7. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus polyadenylation site use in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Maciolek, Nicole L.; McNally, Mark T.

    2008-05-10

    Polyadenylation of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA is inefficient, as approximately 15% of RSV RNAs represent read-through transcripts that use a downstream cellular polyadenylation site (poly(A) site). Read-through transcription has implications for the virus and the host since it is associated with oncogene capture and tumor induction. To explore the basis of inefficient RSV RNA 3'-end formation, we characterized RSV polyadenylation in vitro using HeLa cell nuclear extracts and HEK293 whole cell extracts. RSV polyadenylation substrates composed of the natural 3' end of viral RNA and various lengths of upstream sequence showed little or no polyadenylation, indicating that the RSV poly(A) site is suboptimal. Efficiently used poly(A) sites often have identifiable upstream and downstream elements (USEs and DSEs) in close proximity to the conserved AAUAAA signal. The sequences upstream and downstream of the RSV poly(A) site deviate from those found in efficiently used poly(A) sites, which may explain inefficient RSV polyadenylation. To assess the quality of the RSV USEs and DSEs, the well-characterized SV40 late USEs and/or DSEs were substituted for the RSV elements and vice versa, which showed that the USEs and DSEs from RSV are suboptimal but functional. CstF interacted poorly with the RSV polyadenylation substrate, and the inactivity of the RSV poly(A) site was at least in part due to poor CstF binding since tethering CstF to the RSV substrate activated polyadenylation. Our data are consistent with poor polyadenylation factor binding sites in both the USE and DSE as the basis for inefficient use of the RSV poly(A) site and point to the importance of additional elements within RSV RNA in promoting 3' end formation.

  8. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  11. Western Maryland power plant siting study: biological characterization of candidate sites. Final assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, F.; Himel, J.; Cummins, R.; Weisberg, S.

    1984-10-01

    Three locations in western Maryland are being considered as potential candidate sites for future construction of a 1200-1800 MWe coal-fired power plant. This report provides a detailed biological characterization of each site and assesses potential terrestrial and aquatic impacts associated with plant construction and operation. This assessment considers possible impacts on geomorphology, vegetation, wildlife, water quality, and nearby aquatic biota. Relevant information contained in a Phase I document produced earlier under this contract, was incorporated into this final report.

  12. Acidity of edge surface sites of montmorillonite and kaolinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiandong; Lu, Xiancai; Sprik, Michiel; Cheng, Jun; Meijer, Evert Jan; Wang, Rucheng

    2013-09-01

    Acid-base chemistry of clay minerals is central to their interfacial properties, but up to now a quantitative understanding on the surface acidity is still lacking. In this study, with first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) based vertical energy gap technique, we calculate the acidity constants of surface groups on (0 1 0)-type edges of montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are representatives of 2:1 and 1:1-type clay minerals, respectively. It shows that tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Al-OH2OH groups of kaolinite have pKas of 6.9 and 5.7 and those of montmorillonite have pKas of 7.0 and 8.3, respectively. For each mineral, the calculated pKas are consistent with the experimental ranges derived from fittings of titration curves, indicating that tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Al-OH2OH groups are the major acidic sites responsible to pH-dependent experimental observations. The effect of Mg substitution in montmorillonite is investigated and it is found that Mg substitution increases the pKas of the neighboring tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Si-OH2 groups by 2-3 pKa units. Furthermore, our calculation shows that the pKa of edge tbnd Mg-(OH2)2 is as high as 13.2, indicating the protonated state dominates under common pH. Together with previous adsorption experiments, our derived acidity constants suggest that tbnd Si-O- and tbnd Al-(OH)2 groups are the most probable edge sites for complexing heavy metal cations.

  13. Efficient solid acid catalyst containing Lewis and Brønsted Acid sites for the production of furfurals.

    PubMed

    Mazzotta, Michael G; Gupta, Dinesh; Saha, Basudeb; Patra, Astam K; Bhaumik, Asim; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2014-08-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticulates of porous sulfonated carbonaceous TiO2 material that contain Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites were prepared by a one-pot synthesis method. The material was characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, pyridine FTIR spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 -sorption, atomic absorbance spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The carbonaceous heterogeneous catalyst (Glu-TsOH-Ti) with a Brønsted-to-Lewis acid density ratio of 1.2 and more accessible acid sites was effective to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural from biomass-derived mono- and disaccharides and xylose in a biphasic solvent that comprised water and biorenewable methyltetrahydrofuran. The catalyst was recycled in four consecutive cycles with a total loss of only 3 % activity. Thus, Glu-TsOH-Ti, which contains isomerization and dehydration catalytic sites and is based on a cheap and biorenewable carbon support, is a sustainable catalyst for the production of furfurals, platform chemicals for biofuels and chemicals. PMID:24807741

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  15. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  16. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  18. Geoscientific Characterization of the Bruce Site, Tiverton, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, K.; Jackson, R.; Avis, J.; Clark, I.; Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) within a Paleozoic-age sedimentary sequence beneath the Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The concept envisions that the DGR would be excavated at a depth of approximately 680 m within the Ordovician Cobourg Formation, a massive, dense, low- permeability, argillaceous limestone. Characterization of the Bruce site for waste disposal is being conducted in accordance with a four year multi-phase Geoscientific Site Characterization Plan (GSCP). The GSCP, initially developed in 2006 and later revised in 2008 to account for acquired site knowledge based on successful completion of Phase I investigations, describes the tools and methods selected for geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical site characterization. The GSCP was developed, in part, on an assessment of geoscience data needs and collection methods, review of the results of detailed geoscientific studies completed in the same bedrock formations found off the Bruce site, and recent international experience in geoscientific characterization of similar sedimentary rocks for long-term radioactive waste management purposes. Field and laboratory work related to Phase 1 and Phase 2A are nearing completion and have focused on the drilling, testing and monitoring of four continuously cored vertical boreholes through Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian bedrock to depths of about 860 mBGS. Work in 2009 will focus on drilling and testing of inclined boreholes to assess presence of vertical structure. The available geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data indicate the presence of remarkably uniform and predictable geology, physical hydrogeologic and geochemical properties over well separation distances exceeding 1 km. The current data set including 2-D seismic reflection surveys, field and lab hydraulic testing, lab petrophysical and

  19. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-06-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

  20. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Motion Monitor (MASS-DIMM)). We investigate the statistical distributions of annual and monthly meteorological conditions for day and night separately. This is the third paper in a series discussing the E-ELT FP6 site characterization project.

  1. Acidic sulfate aerosols: characterization and exposure.

    PubMed

    Lioy, P J; Waldman, J M

    1989-02-01

    Exposures to acidic aerosol in the atmosphere are calculated from data reported in the scientific literature. The majority of date was not derived from studies necessarily designed to examine human exposures. Most of the studies were designed to investigate the characteristics of the atmosphere. However, the measurements were useful in defining two potential exposure situations: regional stagnation and transport conditions and local plume impacts. Levels of acidic aerosol in excess of 20 to 40 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) have been observed for time durations ranging from 1 to 12 hr. These were associated with high, but not necessarily the highest, atmospheric SO4(2)- levels. Exposures of 100 to 900 micrograms/m3/hr were calculated for the acid events that were monitored. In contrast, earlier London studies indicated that apparent acidity in excess of 100 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) was present in the atmosphere, and exposures less than 2000 micrograms/m3/hr were possible. Our present knowledge about the frequency, magnitude, and duration of acidic sulfate aerosol events and episodes is insufficient. Efforts must be made to gather more data, but these should be done in such a way that evaluation of human exposure is the focus of the research. In addition, further data are required on the mechanisms of formation of H2SO4 and on what factors can be used to predict acidic sulfate episodes.

  2. Acidic sulfate aerosols: characterization and exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J; Waldman, J M

    1989-01-01

    Exposures to acidic aerosol in the atmosphere are calculated from data reported in the scientific literature. The majority of date was not derived from studies necessarily designed to examine human exposures. Most of the studies were designed to investigate the characteristics of the atmosphere. However, the measurements were useful in defining two potential exposure situations: regional stagnation and transport conditions and local plume impacts. Levels of acidic aerosol in excess of 20 to 40 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) have been observed for time durations ranging from 1 to 12 hr. These were associated with high, but not necessarily the highest, atmospheric SO4(2)- levels. Exposures of 100 to 900 micrograms/m3/hr were calculated for the acid events that were monitored. In contrast, earlier London studies indicated that apparent acidity in excess of 100 micrograms/m3 (as H2SO4) was present in the atmosphere, and exposures less than 2000 micrograms/m3/hr were possible. Our present knowledge about the frequency, magnitude, and duration of acidic sulfate aerosol events and episodes is insufficient. Efforts must be made to gather more data, but these should be done in such a way that evaluation of human exposure is the focus of the research. In addition, further data are required on the mechanisms of formation of H2SO4 and on what factors can be used to predict acidic sulfate episodes. PMID:2651103

  3. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-22

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an {open_quotes}analogue{close_quotes} site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL.

  5. Expedited site characterization for remedial investigations at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Side Characterization (ESC) methodology gives federal agencies a process for producing high-quality CERCLA and RCRA site characterizations and remedial investigations in a cost- and time-efficient manner. The ESC process has been successfully tested and applied at numerous federal facilities. Examples include expanded site investigations for the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Land Management and remedial investigations for the Commodity Credit Corporation/US Dept. of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). In particular, the CCC/USDA has been the major sponsor in the development of the ESC process at Argonne. The technical successes and the cost and time savings of the ESC process for these programs have been detailed in previous papers. The Argonne ESC is currently being implemented at a Department of Energy facility (Pantex) and is schedules for implementation in the Department of Defense base closure program in order to meet accelerated schedules for remedial actions by these agencies.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel high affinity metal-binding site in the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M R; Simorre, J P; Hanson, P; Mokler, V; Bellon, L; Beigelman, L; Pardi, A

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal-binding site has been identified in the hammerhead ribozyme by 31P NMR. The metal-binding site is associated with the A13 phosphate in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme and is distinct from any previously identified metal-binding sites. 31P NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the metal-binding affinity for this site and leads to an apparent dissociation constant of 250-570 microM at 25 degrees C for binding of a single Mg2+ ion. The NMR data also show evidence of a structural change at this site upon metal binding and these results are compared with previous data on metal-induced structural changes in the core of the hammerhead ribozyme. These NMR data were combined with the X-ray structure of the hammerhead ribozyme (Pley HW, Flaherty KM, McKay DB. 1994. Nature 372:68-74) to model RNA ligands involved in binding the metal at this A13 site. In this model, the A13 metal-binding site is structurally similar to the previously identified A(g) metal-binding site and illustrates the symmetrical nature of the tandem G x A base pairs in domain 2 of the hammerhead ribozyme. These results demonstrate that 31P NMR represents an important method for both identification and characterization of metal-binding sites in nucleic acids. PMID:10445883

  7. Characterization of a potential radiation-sensitive fragile site

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.; Oroskar, A.A.; Sedita, B.A.

    1995-11-01

    We have been characterizing a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, CHO-K1 10T5, into which a gpt-containing retroviral shuttle vector has been stably integrated. This normally stable locus in CHO-K1 10T5 cells is very sensitive to deletion mutation following ionizing radiation exposure and shows an LET response with an RBE of 3 for {alpha} particles. Almost all of the gpt mutants are total gene deletions. The gpt gene has been localized to chromosome 5q15, within 100-1000 kb of a large region of interstitial telomere repeats. In addition, sequences showing homology to telomere repeat sequences have been identified at the integration site both 5` and 3` to the gpt gene locus. The integration site has been cloned and is presently being sequenced. Preliminary data suggest that there is a hotspot for breakage and/or recombination 5` of the integration site. We hypothesize that (1) the gpt vector has integrated into a region containing telomere repeat sequences, (2) this region of the genome is a radiation-sensitive fragile site, and (3) the radiation sensitivity of this site is due to the telomere sequences, which act by either serving as a site for further telomerase action and chromosome terminilization, or by providing repeat structures to facilitate radiation-induced recombination.

  8. Site characterization in densely fractured dolomite: Comparison of methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muldoon, M.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges in characterizing fractured-rock aquifers is determining whether the equivalent porous medium approximation is valid at the problem scale. Detailed hydrogeologic characterization completed at a small study site in a densely fractured dolomite has yielded an extensive data set that was used to evaluate the utility of the continuum and discrete-fracture approaches to aquifer characterization. There are two near-vertical sets of fractures at the site; near-horizontal bedding-plane partings constitute a third fracture set. Eighteen boreholes, including five coreholes, were drilled to a depth of ???10.6 m. Borehole geophysical logs revealed several laterally extensive horizontal fractures and dissolution zones. Flowmeter and short-interval packer testing identified which of these features were hydraulically important. A monitoring system, consisting of short-interval piezometers and multilevel samplers, was designed to monitor four horizontal fractures and two dissolution zones. The resulting network consisted of >70 sampling points and allowed detailed monitoring of head distributions in three dimensions. Comparison of distributions of hydraulic head - and hydraulic conductivity determined by these two approaches suggests that even in a densely fractured-carbonate aquifer, a characterization approach using traditional long-interval monitoring wells is inadequate to characterize ground water movement for the purposes of regulatory monitoring or site remediation. In addition, traditional multiwell pumping tests yield an average or bulk hydraulic conductivity that is not adequate for predicting rapid ground water travel times through the fracture network, and the pumping test response does not appear to be an adequate tool for assessing whether the porous medium approximation is valid. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Site characterization in densely fractured dolomite: comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Maureen; Bradbury, Ken R

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges in characterizing fractured-rock aquifers is determining whether the equivalent porous medium approximation is valid at the problem scale. Detailed hydrogeologic characterization completed at a small study site in a densely fractured dolomite has yielded an extensive data set that was used to evaluate the utility of the continuum and discrete-fracture approaches to aquifer characterization. There are two near-vertical sets of fractures at the site; near-horizontal bedding-plane partings constitute a third fracture set. Eighteen boreholes, including five coreholes, were drilled to a depth of approximately 10.6 m. Borehole geophysical logs revealed several laterally extensive horizontal fractures and dissolution zones. Flowmeter and short-interval packer testing identified which of these features were hydraulically important. A monitoring system, consisting of short-interval piezometers and multilevel samplers, was designed to monitor four horizontal fractures and two dissolution zones. The resulting network consisted of >70 sampling points and allowed detailed monitoring of head distributions in three dimensions. Comparison of distributions of hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity determined by these two approaches suggests that even in a densely fractured-carbonate aquifer, a characterization approach using traditional long-interval monitoring wells is inadequate to characterize ground water movement for the purposes of regulatory monitoring or site remediation. In addition, traditional multiwell pumping tests yield an average or bulk hydraulic conductivity that is not adequate for predicting rapid ground water travel times through the fracture network, and the pumping test response does not appear to be an adequate tool for assessing whether the porous medium approximation is valid.

  10. Demonstration of using crossed dipole GPR antennae for site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Erich D.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Vendl, Mark A.

    Crossed dipole (cross-pole) and parallel dipole (co-pole) GPR data were acquired at an industrial site that formerly operated as a creosote wood treating facility in order to locate buried pipes and tanks or other possible contaminant-filled subsurface structures. Cross-pole data are not typically considered during GPR field studies, but proved essential for accurate site characterization at this location, as images produced using co-pole data had a poor signal to noise ratio. Data interpretations were confirmed through exploratory trenching conducted subsequent to this study. The GPR data proved successful in locating back-filled trenches that contained creosote-filled drainage tile, as well as vaults and a pit filled with pure creosote product at the site.

  11. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  12. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  13. Revised analysis of in-migrating workers during site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Deaf Smith Environmental Assessment's analysis of in-migrating workers and community service impacts was predicated on the assumption that a peak of approximately 480 workers would be needed on location to conduct site characterization activities. This analysis assumed that DOE's prime contractor(s) would have a limited staff in the area; the majority of the workers would be on site for the construction of the exploratory shaft and to conduct geologic and environmental studies. Since the time when the Environmental Assessment was prepared, the prime contractors (Battelle-ISSC and the Technical Field Service Contractor (TFSC)) were requested to move their offices to the site area. Therefore, many more administrative and technical workers would be expected to relocate in the Deaf Smith County regions. A change in the expected number of in-migrants could also change the expected nature of community service impacts. It is the purpose of this analysis to evaluate the site characterization workforce and thresholds for local community services. 22 refs., 24 tabs.

  14. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  15. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with t requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to@ previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  16. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (quarterly supplement)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated December 31, 1992, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1993.

  17. Expedited Site Characterization geophysics: Geophysical methods and tools for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report covers five classes of geophysical technologies: Magnetics; Electrical/electromagnetic; Seismic reflection; Gamma-ray spectrometry; and Metal-specific spectrometry. Except for radiometry, no other classes of geophysical tedmologies are specific for direct detection of the types of contaminants present at the selected sites. For each of the five classes covered, the report gives a general description of the methodology, its field use, and its general applicability to the ESC Project. In addition, the report gives a sample of the most promising instruments available for each class, including the following information: Hardware/software attributes; Purchase and rental costs; Survey rate and operating costs; and Other applicable information based on case history and field evaluations.

  18. Site and soil characterization of hazardous waste sites using an expert system guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Roy E.

    1993-03-01

    An expert system guide (knowledge book) has been devised to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, sample, and interpret size and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites. The guide takes an approach that will be unfamiliar to most soil and environmental scientists and is directed to on-scene coordinators and project managers and others who may have little soil science training. It meets the need of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for standard procedures, guidelines, or protocols that address soil and site contamination, particularly heavy metals. The guide is organized to include: (1) general considerations and processes for collecting and using site and soils data, (2) detailed knowledge frames (descriptive profiles) of likely site and soil conditions, (3) a citation of references, (4) an appendix listing common sources of characterization data, and (5) a glossary of more than 900 general definitions.

  19. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Terreic Acid Pathway in Aspergillus terreus

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2014-09-29

    Terreic acid is a natural product derived from 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA). A compact gene cluster for its biosynthesis was characterized. Isolation of the intermediates and shunt products from the mutant strains, in combined with bioinformatic analyses, allowed us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for terreic acid. Lastly, defining the pathway and the genes involved will facilitate the engineering of this molecule with interesting antimicrobial and antitumor bioactivities.

  20. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-14

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

  1. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  2. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs.

  3. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities.

  4. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  5. Acidic sulfate aerosols: characterization and exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    Exposures to acidic aerosol in the atmosphere are calculated from data reported in the scientific literature. The majority of date was not derived from studies necessarily designed to examine human exposures. Most of the studies were designed to investigate the characteristics of the atmosphere. However, the measurements were useful in defining two potential exposure situations: regional stagnation and transport conditions and local plume impacts. Levels of acidicaerosol in excess of 20 to 40 micrograms/m/sup 3/ (as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) have been observed for time durations ranging from 1 to 12 hr. These were associated with high, but not necessarily the highest, atmospheric SO/sub 4/(2)- levels. Exposures of 100 to 900 micrograms/m/sup 3//hr were calculated for the acid events that were monitored. In contrast, earlier London studies indicated that apparent acidity in excess of 100 micrograms/m/sup 3/ (as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was present in the atmosphere, and exposures less than 2000 micrograms/m/sup 3//hr were possible. Our present knowledge about the frequency, magnitude, and duration of acidic sulfate aerosol events and episodes is insufficient. Efforts must be made to gather more data, but these should be done in such a way that evaluation of human exposure is the focus of the research. In addition, further data are required on the mechanisms of formation of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and on what factors can be used to predict acidic sulfate episodes. 96 references.

  6. Use of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system at Grandville, Michigan superfund site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.; Kala, R.; Powell, J.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation at the Organic Chemical, Inc. site in Grandville, Michigan. This site is on the National Priority List for cleanup, and is being overseen by the Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, Region V office. The site was investigated utilizing the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, with a fiber optic fluorimeter sensor. This sensor allows the detection of hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface. A total of fifty pushes were completed at the site to an average depth of approximately 15 ft, covering approximately 80 acres. A hydrocarbon contaminant plume was located at the site extending from the OCI facility in a northerly direction. This matches the flow of the groundwater in the area as it moves toward the Grand River. The plume was successfully bounded on the North, South, and West sides. The plume boundary on the East side could not be established due to property constraints. The concentrations of contaminants in certain areas of the site exceeded 5000 ppm. Cone penetrometer, Geophysics, Fiber optic fluorescence.

  7. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  8. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  9. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  10. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  11. Characterization of particulate matter for three sites in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Bouhamra, Walid; Lamoureux, Denise P; Evans, John S; Koutrakis, Petros

    2008-08-01

    Many studies have shown strong associations between particulate matter (PM) levels and a variety of health outcomes, leading to changes in air quality standards in many regions, especially the United States and Europe. Kuwait, a desert country located on the Persian Gulf, has a large petroleum industry with associated industrial and urban land uses. It was marked by environmental destruction from the 1990 Iraqi invasion and subsequent oil fires. A detailed particle characterization study was conducted over 12 months in 2004-2005 at three sites simultaneously with an additional 6 months at one of the sites. Two sites were in urban areas (central and southern) and one in a remote desert location (northern). This paper reports the concentrations of particles less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) and fine PM (PM2.5), as well as fine particle nitrate, sulfate, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and elements measured at the three sites. Mean annual concentrations for PM10 ranged from 66 to 93 microg/m3 across the three sites, exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for PM10 of 20 microg/m3. The arithmetic mean PM2.5 concentrations varied from 38 and 37 microg/m3 at the central and southern sites, respectively, to 31 microg/m3 at the northern site. All sites had mean PM2.5 concentrations more than double the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5. Coarse particles comprised 50-60% of PM10. The high levels of PM10 and large fraction of coarse particles comprising PM10 are partially explained by the resuspension of dust and soil from the desert crust. However, EC, OC, and most of the elements were significantly higher at the urbanized sites, compared with the more remote northern site, indicating significant pollutant contributions from local mobile and stationary sources. The particulate levels in this study are high enough to generate substantial health impacts and present opportunities for improving public

  12. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff.

  13. Myth and Reality in Hydrogeological Site Characterization at DD and R Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2008-01-15

    The science of hydrogeological site characterization has made significant progress over the last twenty years. Progress has been made in modeling of flow and transport in the heterogeneous subsurface, in understanding of the complex patterns of geological heterogeneity and in measurement technologies. Modeling of uncertainty has also advanced significantly, in recognition of the inherent limitations of subsurface characterization. Much less progress has been made in transforming this progress into practice, where characterization is determined to a large extent by regulations. Environmental regulations have not progressed as much as the science, for example, in recognizing uncertainty. As such, practitioners are less inclined to adopt advanced, science-based solutions, this opening the door for myths and conflicts. Myths develop where the science base is perceived to be weak, whereas conflicts arise in the face of a disconnect between the science and the regulations. Myths translate to ad-hoc solutions and misplaced empiricism, as well as to unjustified reliance on field experience, to the detriment of D and DR. This paper explores the roots for this situation and identifies ideas that may help in bridging the gap between research and applications. A rational approach for DD and R is needed that will encourage innovation in site characterization, reduce costs and accelerate completion. Such an approach needs to include several elements. DD and R regulations need to recognize the various aspects of uncertainty inherent to site characterization, and as such, should be formulated using probabilistic concepts. One of the immediate benefits will be in allowing a gradual approach for data acquisition in DD and R sites: decisions can be made even under the most severe data limitations, and can be modified as additional data become available. The definition of risk is another major element. There is no universal definition of risk or of a methodology to define risk

  14. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    In December 1988, the US Department of Energy issued a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site, as required by Section 113 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The purpose of site characterization is to develop sufficient information to support a determination of the suitability, or lack of suitability of the site to safely isolate high-level radioactive waste with reasonable certainty for thousands of years. The purpose of the Site Characterization Plan is to describe plans for obtaining sufficient information about the site, plans for mitigation of any adverse impacts occurring from site characterization activities, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning of the site if it is determined not to be suitable for a repository. Part I presents an overview of the State`s comments. The overview takes the form of general concerns and comments organized by specific areas of concern. The overview does not follow the format of the SCP.

  15. SUMMARY OF TECHNIQUES AND UNIQUE USES FOR DIRECT PUSH METHODS IN SITE CHARACTERIZATION ON CONTAMINATED FIELD SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site characterization of subsurface contaminant transport is often hampered by a lack of knowledge of site heterogeneity and temporal variations in hydrogeochemistry. Two case studies are reviewed to illustrate the utility of macro-scale mapping information along with spatially-...

  16. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  17. Specific Initiation Site for Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Replication

    PubMed Central

    Thoren, Marilyn M.; Sebring, Edwin D.; Salzman, Norman P.

    1972-01-01

    Replicating simian virus 40 (SV40) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules have been isolated under conditions in which the newly synthesized DNA is uniformly labeled with 3H-thymidine. These newly synthesized strands are released from the replicative intermediate molecules by alkaline treatment, and it has been possible to isolate single-stranded SV40 DNA which varies in size from 157,000 daltons (from molecules that are 10% replicated) to 1,360,000 daltons (85% replicated). The rates of duplex formation of newly synthesized DNA have been used to relate their genetic complexity to the extent of DNA replication. As DNA replication proceeds, the time required to effect 50% renaturation of the newly synthesized DNA increases at a proportional rate. The data establish that DNA replication is not initiated at random, but rather that there is a single specific initiation site for DNA replication. PMID:4342054

  18. Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.

    2016-05-01

    Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India

  19. Noninvasive Contaminant Site Characterization Using Geophysical Induced Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, F.D.; Sogade, J.; Lesmes, D.; Coles, D.; Vichabian, Y.; Scira-Scappuzzo, F.; Shi, W.; Vandiver, A.; Rodi, W.

    2003-03-27

    Results of aspects of a broad foundational study of time domain IP (TDIP) and spectral IP (SIP) for contaminant site characterization are presented. This ongoing study encompassed laboratory studies of coupled effects of rock/soil microgeometry and contaminant chemistry on induced polarization (IP), an investigation of electromagnetic coupling (EMC) noise and development of 3D modeling and inversion codes. SIP requires extensions to higher frequencies (above the typical 100Hz threshold) and EMC becomes the major limitation for field implementation, because conventional correction methods are inadequate at required higher frequencies. A proposed methodology is outlined, based on a model of all EMC components, that addresses the EMC problem by coupling IP and electromagnetic induction in modeling and inversion. Examples of application of IP and SIP to contaminant mapping and detection for TDIP and SIP will be presented for FS-12 plume at Massachusetts Military Reservation and a suspected DNAPL plume at Savannah River Site.

  20. Site characterization plan for the W-058 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this preoperational study plan is to characterize the proposed pipeline route for the Cross-Site Transfer System (W-058). The purpose of this study is to meet the requirements set forth in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, Chapter 4, (DOE 1990). The W-058 pipeline is intended to replace the existing Cross-Site Transfer System (H-2-43056). The proposed route for the W-058 project will be reviewed to provide information on documented waste sites and potentially to identify any undocumented hazards that may currently exist along the proposed route. Historical records will be researched for pertinent information. Health Physics personnel will perform a ``walk-down`` radiological survey of the proposed path. A sampling plan will be generated and will consist of actual drilling of boreholes to allow field screening for radionuclides and/or chemical contamination and the collection of samples at selected sites for laboratory analyses. The information generated from this combined effort will establish existing/potential contamination levels, aid in developing personnel safety requirements, assist in determining the need for any changes in the proposed route prior to installation/construction of the new pipeline, and satisfy the requirements of a preoperational baseline for the project.

  1. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  2. Consultation draft: Site characterization plan overview, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the candidate site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Texas and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the repository system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Deaf Smith County site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. SITE CHARACTERIZATION USING JOINT RECONSTRUCTIONS OF DISPARATE DATA TYPES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A; Friedmann, J; Dyer, K; Aines, R

    2006-01-31

    Potential CO{sub 2} reservoirs are often geologically complex and possible leakage pathways such as those created. Reservoir heterogeneity can affect injectivity, storage capacity, and trapping rate. Similarly, discontinuous caprocks and faults can create risk of CO{sub 2} leakage. The characteristics of potential CO{sub 2} reservoirs need to be well understood to increase confidence in injection project success. Reservoir site characterization will likely involve the collection and integration of multiple geological, geophysical, and geochemical data sets. We have developed a computational tool to more realistically render lithologic models using multiple geological and geophysical techniques. Importantly, the approach formally and quantitatively integrates available data and provides a strict measure of probability and uncertainty in the subsurface. The method will characterize solution uncertainties whether they stem from unknown reservoir properties, measurement error, or poor sensitivity of geophysical techniques.

  4. Goal-oriented Site Characterization in Hydrogeological Applications: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we address the importance of goal-oriented site characterization. Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in hydrogeological applications, information needs of modeling, prediction and decision support should be satisfied with efficient and rational field campaigns. In this work, we provide an overview of an optimal sampling design framework based on Bayesian decision theory, statistical parameter inference and Bayesian model averaging. It optimizes the field sampling campaign around decisions on environmental performance metrics (e.g., risk, arrival times, etc.) while accounting for parametric and model uncertainty in the geostatistical characterization, in forcing terms, and measurement error. The appealing aspects of the framework lie on its goal-oriented character and that it is directly linked to the confidence in a specified decision. We illustrate how these concepts could be applied in a human health risk problem where uncertainty from both hydrogeological and health parameters are accounted.

  5. Automated site characterization for robotic sample acquisition systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi; Schumate, Michael S.; Majani, Eric; Anderson, Charles H.; Sloan, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A mobile, semi-autonomous vehicle with multiple sensors and on-board intelligence is proposed for performing preliminary scientific investigations on extraterrestrial bodies prior to human exploration. Two technologies, a hybrid optical-digital computer system based on optical correlator technology and an image and instrument data analysis system, provide complementary capabilities which might be part of an instrument package for an intelligent robotic vehicle. The hybrid digital-optical vision system could perform real-time image classification tasks using an optical correlator with programmable matched filters under control of a digital microcomputer. The data analysis system would analyze visible and multiband imagery to extract mineral composition and textural information for geologic characterization. Together these technologies would support the site characterization needs of a robotic vehicle for both navigational and scientific purposes.

  6. The effect of the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid on the activity in catalyzing aldol condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaofang; Yu Xiaobo; Wu Shujie; Liu Bo; Liu Heng; Guan Jingqi; Kan Qiubin

    2011-02-15

    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts containing carboxylic and amine groups, which were immobilized at defined distance from one another on the mesoporous solid were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), elemental analysis, and back titration. Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance was more active than maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. It appears that the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid should be an essential factor for catalysis optimization. -- Graphical abstract: Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance and maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance. {yields} Maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance. {yields} Compared to maximum-C-A-SBA-15, proximal-C-A-SBA-15 was more active toward aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  7. Anatomical and pharmacological characterization of excitatory amino acid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Monaghan, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    The majority of the excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate Central Nervous System is thought to be mediated by acidic amino acid neurotransmitters. However, relatively little is known about the excitatory amino acid receptors and their distribution within the CNS. By analyzing radioligand binding to purified synaptic plasma membranes and to thin tissue sections processed for autoradiography, multiple distinct binding sites were found. These binding sites exhibited the pharmacological properties indicative of the excitatory amino acid receptors, which had been identified by electrophysiological techniques. Specifically, L-(/sup 3/H)-glutamate and D-(/sup 3/H)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate appear to label N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, L-(/sup 3/H)-glutamate and (/sup 3/H)-kainic acid appear to label kainic acid receptors, and L-(/sup 3/H)-glutamate and (/sup 3/H)-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate appear to label quisqualate receptors. Together, these results confirm the three receptor scheme proposed for excitatory amino acid neurotransmission. These results also show that these transmitter-receptor systems are differentially distributed in the brain, and that the total distribution is consistent with that found by other markers for excitatory amino acid-using neurons.

  8. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  9. Site Characterization Plan: Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Bruce A.; Williams, Mark D.

    2006-12-01

    An initial feasibility study of options to treat the uranium plume at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit considered hydraulic containment, slurry wall containment, and groundwater extraction as potential remedial action technologies. None were selected for interim action, and reduction of contamination levels by natural processes was considered a viable alternative while source removal actions continued. Subsequent planning for a Phase III feasibility study focused on methods that would reduce the concentration of uranium in the aquifer, including multiple methods to immobilize uranium using chemical-based technologies. Based on an initial technology screening, the polyphosphate technology was identified as the best candidate to treat the for further evaluation and selected for treatability testing. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of the work elements included in this site characterization plan is to collect site-specific characterization data that will be needed to design and implement a field-scale demonstration of the technology.

  10. Fracture analysis and rock quality designation estimation for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-02-01

    Within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, the design of drifts and ramps and evaluation of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of the host rock requires definition of the rock mass mechanical properties. Ramps and exploratory drifts will intersect both welded and nonwelded tuffs with varying abundance of fractures. The rock mass mechanical properties are dependent on the intact rock properties and the fracture joint characteristics. An understanding of the effects of fractures on the mechanical properties of the rock mass begins with a detailed description of the fracture spatial location and abundance, and includes a description of their physical characteristics. This report presents a description of the abundance, orientation, and physical characteristics of fractures and the Rock Quality Designation in the thermomechanical stratigraphic units at the Yucca Mountain site. Data was reviewed from existing sources and used to develop descriptions for each unit. The product of this report is a data set of the best available information on the fracture characteristics.

  11. Methods And Devices For Characterizing Duplex Nucleic Acid Molecules

    DOEpatents

    Akeson, Mark; Vercoutere, Wenonah; Haussler, David; Winters-Hilt, Stephen

    2005-08-30

    Methods and devices are provided for characterizing a duplex nucleic acid, e.g., a duplex DNA molecule. In the subject methods, a fluid conducting medium that includes a duplex nucleic acid molecule is contacted with a nanopore under the influence of an applied electric field and the resulting changes in current through the nanopore caused by the duplex nucleic acid molecule are monitored. The observed changes in current through the nanopore are then employed as a set of data values to characterize the duplex nucleic acid, where the set of data values may be employed in raw form or manipulated, e.g., into a current blockade profile. Also provided are nanopore devices for practicing the subject methods, where the subject nanopore devices are characterized by the presence of an algorithm which directs a processing means to employ monitored changes in current through a nanopore to characterize a duplex nucleic acid molecule responsible for the current changes. The subject methods and devices find use in a variety of applications, including, among other applications, the identification of an analyte duplex DNA molecule in a sample, the specific base sequence at a single nulceotide polymorphism (SNP), and the sequencing of duplex DNA molecules.

  12. ELT Site Characterization for AO, the Tools and the Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, M.

    2011-09-01

    With the choice of the sites of the three main ELT projects worldwide, an unprecedentedly large site characterization effort is coming to an end. During the past decade more than 20 summits have been studied by the site survey teams of E-ELT, GMT and TMT projects. Other institutions have provided support or funding (NOAO, EU-FP6) so that close to one hundred scientists, engineers and students have been involved in this search for top quality observing conditions. For the first time also, the various project have deployed a very uniform instrumentation suite, often using similar measurement methods (DIMM) and even in some cases identical instruments (MASS). The consequence is that the core of the collected database is directly usable and could be made available to the community in its original state. The various teams have also maintained close contact during the whole process and new instruments were developed on the fly to solve the remaining unknowns. After sharing the tools and ideas, the time of sharing data has come and a review is proposed of what has been achieved and what is now available.

  13. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S,; Martinez, M.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE`s Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ``chirped`` FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  14. Hydrogeologic characterization of an arid zone Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ginanni, J.M.; O`Neill, L.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Dozier, B.L.; Sully, M.J.; Johnejack, K.R.; Emer, D.F.; Tyler, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth subsurface site characterization and monitoring program for the soil water migration pathway has been planned, implemented, and completed to satisfy data requirements for a waiver from groundwater monitoring, for an exemption from liner leachate collections systems, and for different regulatory driven performance assessments. A traditional scientific approach has been taken to focus characterization and monitoring efforts. This involved developing a conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system and defining and testing hypotheses about this model. Specific hypotheses tested included: that the system was hydrologically heterogenous and anisotropic, and that recharge was very low or negligible. Mineralogical, physical, and hydrologic data collected to test hypotheses has shown the hydrologic system to be remarkably homogenous and isotropic rather than heterogenous and anisotropic. Both hydrodynamic and environmental tracer approaches for estimating recharge have led to the conclusion that recharge from the Area 5 RWMS is not occurring in the upper region of the vadose zone, and that recharge at depth is extremely small or negligible. This demonstration of ``no migration of hazardous constituents to the water table satisfies a key requirement for both the groundwater monitoring waiver and the exemption from liner leachate collection systems. Data obtained from testing hypotheses concerning the soil water migration pathway have been used to refine the conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system of the site. These data suggest that the soil gas and atmospheric air pathways may be more important for transporting contaminants to the accessible environment than the soil water pathway. New hypotheses have been developed about these pathways, and characterization and monitoring activities designed to collect data to test these hypotheses.

  15. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Study; Progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

    1991-12-31

    Studies continued on organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization project. Tracers studied include benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. The main focus of the work performed during the time period from 07/01/91 to 12/31/91 has been the continuation of (1) LC-MS optimization for tracer identification, (2) batch sorption and degradation studies, (3) neoprene tubing evaluation studies, and (4) soil column evaluation of tracer compounds. All of these areas of research (except perhaps the neoprene tubing evaluation) are ongoing and will continue throughout the coming year.

  16. SMARTe Site Characterization Tool. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Site Characterization Tool is to: (1) develop a sample design for collecting site characterization data and (2) perform data analysis on uploaded data. The sample design part helps to determine how many samples should be collected to characterize a site with ...

  17. Characterization of the active site of chloroperoxidase using physical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO) and Cytochrome P-450, two very different hemeproteins, have been shown to have similar active sites by several techniques. Recent work has demonstrated thiolate ligation from a cysteine residue to the iron in P-450. A major portion of this research has been devoted to obtaining direct evidence that CPO also has a thiolate 5th ligand from a cysteine residue. This information will provide the framework for a detailed analysis of the structure-function relationships between peroxidases, catalase and cytochrome P-450 hemeproteins. To determine whether the 5th ligand is a cysteine, methionine or a unique amino acid, specific isotope enrichment experiments were used. Preliminary /sup 1/H-NMR studies show that the carbon monoxide-CPO complex has a peak in the upfield region corresponding to alpha-protons of a thiolate amino acid. C. fumago was grown on 95% D/sub 2/O media with a small amount of /sup 1/H-cysteine added. Under these conditions C. fumago slows down the biosynthesis of cysteine by at least 50% and utilizes the exogenous cysteine in the media. GC-MS was able to show that the methylene protons next to the sulfur atom in cysteine are 80-90% protonated while these positions in methionine are approximately 73% deuterated. Comparison of the /sup 1/H-NMR spectra of CO-CPO and CO-CPO indicate the presence of a cysteine ligand in chloroperoxidase.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  19. A multitechnique characterization of the acidity of dealuminated mazzite

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, D. |; Fitoussi, F.; Schulz, P.

    1996-07-01

    The authors endeavored to characterize the acidity of stream-dealuminated mazzite through various techniques. Isomerization of n-paraffin over the platinum/mazzite catalyst indicated higher activity and selectivity than that of commercial platinum/mordenite. 44 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Characterization of muon and gamma radiations at the PTOLEMY site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Susannah; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Zapata, Sandra; Chris Tully Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    PTOLEMY is an experimental project at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory designed to determine the present day number density of relic neutrinos through measurement of electrons produced from neutrino capture on tritium. The weak interaction cross section for relic neutrino interactions necessitates high sensitivity measurements that could be influenced by high energy particles, like muons and gamma ray photons, which induce nuclear transitions and secondary electrons. Muons produced from the collision of cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei are a significant source of background radiation at and below Earth's surface. The muon flux is measured by the coincidence of minimum ionization radiation loss in two plastic scintillator paddles. The spectrum of gamma ray photons is measured using sodium iodide based scintillators. These measurements will provide a characterization of the background and rates at the PTOLEMY site.

  1. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  2. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mamani, J.B.; Costa-Filho, A.J.; Cornejo, D.R.; Vieira, E.D.; Gamarra, L.F.

    2013-07-15

    Understanding the process of synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is important for its implementation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this work we report the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles made from ferrous oxide through coprecipitation chemical process. The nanostructured material was coated with lauric acid and dispersed in aqueous medium containing surfactant that yielded a stable colloidal suspension. The characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with distinct physico-chemical configurations is fundamental for biomedical applications. Therefore magnetic nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphology by means of TEM and DLS, which showed a polydispersed set of spherical nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 9 nm) as a result of the protocol. The structural properties were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern showed the presence of peaks corresponding to the spinel phase of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The relaxivities r{sub 2} and r{sub 2}* values were determined from the transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* at 3 T. Magnetic characterization was performed using SQUID and FMR, which evidenced the superparamagnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Thermal characterization using DSC showed exothermic events associated with the oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles coated with lauric acidCharacterization of magnetic nanoparticles • Morphological, structural, magnetic, calorimetric and relaxometric characterization.

  4. Site Characterization of Deep Bedrock with Integrated Geophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, C.; Eun, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    In order to utilize the deep underground storage facility stable for a long time, precise site characterization is required before its construction. Various kinds of geophysical survey as well as drilling and geological survey should be used to know the status of deep bedrock. A research had been conducted to make the site characterization of deep bedrock for several years, and to achieve its purpose, integrated geophysical survey were applied to the test area which had gneiss bedrock. DC resistivity survey for six surficial profiles was conducted to find the appropriate location of drilling survey. Cross-hole/surface-to-hole resistivity tomography survey and borehole reflection radar survey were applied to the drill holes after its installation completed. Three bore holes of which length was 500 meter were drilled to investigate the status of deep bedrock, and cross-hole tomography survey was applied between two boreholes among these. Also borehole reflection radar survey was conducted to another two boreholes. Deep seated fracture zones which were not identified with the surficial geological and resistivity survey were found through the analysis of tomography section. Fracture zones were consisted of steep slope fault and these were also identified with the result of borehole radar section. After the basic survey was completed, one of three holes was extended to the depth of 1 km. Radar reflection survey which was only available to the deep drill-hole was applied. Because steel casing was installed to the depth of 750 m to stabilize the extended drill-hole, resistivity method was not available and borehole radar reflection method was only available among the geophysical method used in this research. Through results of radar reflection survey, several fracture zones were identified for the newly extended section of drill hole and some of those facture has relatively large size and passed through the bore hole.

  5. Identification and characterization of glycosylation sites in human serum clusterin.

    PubMed Central

    Kapron, J. T.; Hilliard, G. M.; Lakins, J. N.; Tenniswood, M. P.; West, K. A.; Carr, S. A.; Crabb, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Clusterin is a ubiquitous, heterodimeric glycoprotein with multiple possible functions that are likely influenced by glycosylation. Identification of oligosaccharide attachment sites and structural characterization of oligosaccharides in human serum clusterin has been performed by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry revealed two molecular weight species of holoclusterin (58,505 +/- 250 and 63,507 +/- 200). Mass spectrometry also revealed molecular heterogeneity associated with both the alpha and beta subunits of clusterin, consistent with the presence of multiple glycoforms. The data indicate that clusterin contains 17-27% carbohydrate by weight, the alpha subunit contains 0-30% carbohydrate and the beta subunit contains 27-30% carbohydrate. Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry with stepped collision energy scanning was used to selectively identify and preparatively fractionate tryptic glycopeptides. Edman sequence analysis was then used to confirm the identities of the glycopeptides and to define the attachment sites within each peptide. A total of six N-linked glycosylation sites were identified, three in the alpha subunit (alpha 64N, alpha 81N, alpha 123N) and three in the beta subunit (beta 64N, beta 127N, and beta 147N). Seven different possible types of oligosaccharide structures were identified by mass including: a monosialobiantennary structure, bisialobiantennary structures without or with one fucose, trisialotriantennary structures without or with one fucose, and possibly a trisialotriantennary structure with two fucose and/or a tetrasialotriantennary structure. Site beta 64N exhibited the least glycosylation diversity, with two detected types of oligosaccharides, and site beta 147N exhibited the greatest diversity, with five or six detected types of oligosaccharides. Overall, the most abundant glycoforms detected were bisialobiantennary without fucose and the least

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  11. Characterization Report for the David Witherspoon Screen Art Site

    SciTech Connect

    Phyllis C. Weaver

    2011-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of Environmental Management (EM) requested the technical assistance of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to characterize a tract of land associated with the David Witherspoon, Incorporated (DWI) Volunteer Equipment and Supply Company (VESC). This tract of land (hereinafter referred to as Screen Arts) is located in the Vestal Community in the 2000-block of Maryville Pike in south Knoxville, Tennessee, as shown in Figure A-1. This tract of land has been used primarily to store salvaged equipment and materials for resale, recycle, or for disposal in the former landfill once operated by DWI. The DWI Site industrial landfill and metal recycling business had been permitted by the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health to accept low-level radiologically contaminated metals. DWI received materials and equipment associated with operations from DOE sites, including those in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. It is likely that items stored at Screen Arts may have contained some residual radiological materials.

  12. Optical turbulence characterization at the SAAO Sutherland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala, L.; Crawford, S. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Pickering, T. E.; Wilson, R. W.; Butterley, T.; Shepherd, H. W.; Marang, F.; Matshaya, P.; Fourie, C.

    2013-11-01

    We present results from the first year of a campaign to characterize and monitor the optical turbulence profile at the South African Astronomical Observatory's Sutherland observing station in South Africa. A Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor Differential Image Motion Monitor (MASS-DIMM) was commissioned in 2010 March to provide continuous monitoring of the seeing conditions. Over the first month of the campaign, a Slope Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) from Durham University was also installed, allowing an independent verification of the performance of the MASS-DIMM device. After the first year of data collection, the overall median seeing value is found to be 1.32 arcsec as measured at ground level. The ground layer which includes all layers below 1 km accounts for 84 per cent of the turbulence, while the free atmosphere above 1 km accounts for 16 per cent with a median value of 0.41 arcsec. The median isoplanatic angle value is 1.92 arcsec, which is similar to other major astronomical sites. The median coherence time, calculated from corrected MASS measurements, is 2.85 ms. The seeing conditions at the site do show a strong correlation with wind direction, with bad seeing conditions being associated with winds from the south-east.

  13. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies. PMID:25897974

  14. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies.

  15. Aerosol characterization at the Saharan AERONET site Tamanrasset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, C.; Cuevas, E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Bustos, J. J.; Basart, S.; Romero, P. M.; Camino, C.; Mimouni, M.; Zeudmi, L.; Goloub, P.; Baldasano, J. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    More than two years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006-2009) at Tamanrasset site, in the heart of the Sahara desert, are analysed. AERONET level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO method was applied to a part of level 1.5 data series to improve the quality of the results. The annual variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (AE) has been found to be strongly linked to the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) thermodynamic features. The dry-cool season (autumn and winter time) is characterized by a shallow CBL and very low mean turbidity (AOD ~ 0.09 at 440 nm, AE ~ 0.62). The wet-hot season (spring and summer time) is dominated by high turbidity of coarse dust particles (AE ~ 0.28, AOD ~ 0.39 at 440 nm) and a deep CBL. The aerosol-type characterization shows desert mineral dust as prevailing aerosol. Both pure Saharan dust and very clear sky conditions are observed depending on the season. However, several case studies indicate an anthropogenic fine mode contribution from Libya and Algeria's industrial areas. The Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) source apportionment method was used to identify potential sources of air masses arriving at Tamanrasset at several heights for each season. Microphysical and optical properties and precipitable water vapour were also investigated.

  16. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  17. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    SciTech Connect

    Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  18. Site characterization and site response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan K.; Altidor, Jean Robert; Anglade, Dieuseul; Given, Douglas D.; Mildor, Saint-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Waveform analysis of aftershocks of the Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 reveals amplification of ground motions at sites within the Cul de Sac valley in which Port-au-Prince is situated. Relative to ground motions recorded at a hard-rock reference site, peak acceleration values are amplified by a factor of approximately 1.8 at sites on low-lying Mio-Pliocene deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of approximately 2.5–3 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplitude, predominant periods, variability, and polarization of amplification are consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. A swath of unusually high damage in this region corresponds with the extent of the ridge where high weak-motion amplifications are observed. We use ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to map local geomorphology, including characterization of both near-surface and of small-scale topographic structures that correspond to zones of inferred amplification.

  19. Activation of the Human Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) by Bile Acids Involves the Degenerin Site.

    PubMed

    Ilyaskin, Alexandr V; Diakov, Alexei; Korbmacher, Christoph; Haerteis, Silke

    2016-09-16

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin ion channel family, which also includes the bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC). So far little is known about the effects of bile acids on ENaC function. ENaC is probably a heterotrimer consisting of three well characterized subunits (αβγ). In humans, but not in mice and rats, an additional δ-subunit exists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chenodeoxycholic, cholic, and deoxycholic acid in unconjugated (CDCA, CA, and DCA) and tauro-conjugated (t-CDCA, t-CA, t-DCA) form on human ENaC in its αβγ- and δβγ-configuration. We demonstrated that tauro-conjugated bile acids significantly stimulate ENaC in the αβγ- and in the δβγ-configuration. In contrast, non-conjugated bile acids have a robust stimulatory effect only on δβγENaC. Bile acids stimulate ENaC-mediated currents by increasing the open probability of active channels without recruiting additional near-silent channels known to be activated by proteases. Stimulation of ENaC activity by bile acids is accompanied by a significant reduction of the single-channel current amplitude, indicating an interaction of bile acids with a region close to the channel pore. Analysis of the known ASIC1 (acid-sensing ion channel) crystal structure suggested that bile acids may bind to the pore region at the degenerin site of ENaC. Substitution of a single amino acid residue within the degenerin region of βENaC (N521C or N521A) significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of bile acids on ENaC, suggesting that this site is critical for the functional interaction of bile acids with the channel. PMID:27489102

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Conjugates of Niacin and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Benson, Ericka; Bista, Pradeep; Carney, David; Fahrner, Richard; Lee, Diana; Liu, Feng; Lonkar, Pallavi; Milne, Jill C; Nichols, Andrew J; Picarella, Dominic; Shoelson, Adam; Smith, Jesse; Ting, Amal; Wensley, Allison; Yeager, Maisy; Zimmer, Michael; Jirousek, Michael R

    2016-02-11

    This report describes the synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of novel fatty acid niacin conjugates and fatty acid salicylate conjugates. These molecular entities were created by covalently linking two bioactive molecules, either niacin or salicylic acid, to an omega-3 fatty acid. This methodology allows the simultaneous intracellular delivery of two bioactives in order to elicit a pharmacological response that could not be replicated by administering the bioactives individually or in combination. The fatty acid niacin conjugate 5 has been shown to be an inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism proteins such as PCSK9, HMG-CoA reductase, ATP citrate lyase, and NPC1L1. On the other hand, the fatty acid salicylate conjugate 11 has been shown to have a unique anti-inflammatory profile based on its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway through the intracellular release of the two bioactives.

  1. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. PMID:23554234

  2. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Protonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Saxena, Narendra S.; Sharma, Kananbala; Sharma, Thaneshwar P.

    2008-04-01

    Polyaniline doped with different protonic acids were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which confirms the amorphous nature and acid doping, respectively. Electrical conduction in these samples has been studied through the measurement of I-V characteristics at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 413 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be nonlinear. The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polyaniline sample is higher as compared to HCl doped polyaniline and pure polyaniline. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature with increase in temperature. Activation energies have been found to be 50.86, 25.74 and 21.05 meV for pure polyaniline (base), polyaniline doped with hydrochloric, phosphoric acid, respectively.

  3. Characterization of carbon black modified by maleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Vijayshankar; Kosinski, Pawel; Skodvin, Tore; Myrseth, Velaug

    2013-09-01

    We present here a method for modifying the surface of carbon black (CB) using a simple heat treatment in the presence of a carboxylic acid as well as water or ethylene glycol as a solvent. CB was mixed with maleic acid and either water or ethylene glycol, and heated at 250°C. Unlike the traditional surface modification processes which use heat treatment of carbon with mineral acids the present modification method using a carboxylic acid proved to be simple and time efficient. CB from two different vendors was used, and the modified samples were characterized by TGA, BET surface area measurement, XRD, particle size and zeta potential measurements, and FTIR. It was found that several material properties, including thermal stability and surface area, of the modified CB are significantly altered relative to the parental carbon samples. This method provides a rapid and simple route to tailor new materials with desired properties.

  4. Endolysosomes Are the Principal Intracellular Sites of Acid Hydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Bright, Nicholas A; Davis, Luther J; Luzio, J Paul

    2016-09-12

    The endocytic delivery of macromolecules from the mammalian cell surface for degradation by lysosomal acid hydrolases requires traffic through early endosomes to late endosomes followed by transient (kissing) or complete fusions between late endosomes and lysosomes. Transient or complete fusion results in the formation of endolysosomes, which are hybrid organelles from which lysosomes are re-formed. We have used synthetic membrane-permeable cathepsin substrates, which liberate fluorescent reporters upon proteolytic cleavage, as well as acid phosphatase cytochemistry to identify which endocytic compartments are acid hydrolase active. We found that endolysosomes are the principal organelles in which acid hydrolase substrates are cleaved. Endolysosomes also accumulated acidotropic probes and could be distinguished from terminal storage lysosomes, which were acid hydrolase inactive and did not accumulate acidotropic probes. Using live-cell microscopy, we have demonstrated that fusion events, which form endolysosomes, precede the onset of acid hydrolase activity. By means of sucrose and invertase uptake experiments, we have also shown that acid-hydrolase-active endolysosomes and acid-hydrolase-inactive, terminal storage lysosomes exist in dynamic equilibrium. We conclude that the terminal endocytic compartment is composed of acid-hydrolase-active, acidic endolysosomes and acid hydrolase-inactive, non-acidic, terminal storage lysosomes, which are linked and function in a lysosome regeneration cycle. PMID:27498570

  5. Rock mass mechanical property estimations for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-06-01

    Rock mass mechanical properties are important in the design of drifts and ramps. These properties are used in evaluations of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of potential host rock within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Representative intact rock and joint mechanical properties were selected for welded and nonwelded tuffs from the currently available data sources. Rock mass qualities were then estimated using both the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (Q) and Geomechanics Rating (RMR) systems. Rock mass mechanical properties were developed based on estimates of rock mass quality, the current knowledge of intact properties, and fracture/joint characteristics. Empirical relationships developed to correlate the rock mass quality indices and the rock mass mechanical properties were then used to estimate the range of rock mass mechanical properties.

  6. Characterization of 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport in Neurospora crassa: a general amino acid permease-specific substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie-Villa, S; DeBusk, R M; DeBusk, A G

    1981-01-01

    We report the characterization of an amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid was transported solely by the general amino acid permease and not by the neutral amino acid permease. Furthermore, this substrate was not metabolized after transport. The potential for a system-specific nonmetabolizable substrate as a tool in the analysis of amino acid transport and its regulation is discussed. PMID:6456264

  7. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  8. Design of a Brønsted acid with two different acidic sites: synthesis and application of aryl phosphinic acid-phosphoric acid as a Brønsted acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, N; Narumi, T; Terada, M

    2015-12-11

    A Brønsted acid with two different acidic sites, aryl phosphinic acid-phosphoric acid, has been synthesized. Its catalytic performance was assessed in the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of aldehyde hydrates with Danishefsky's diene, achieving high reaction efficiency. PMID:26445921

  9. Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula: Ice-Core Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, E. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Bauer, R. J.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Truffer, M.; Blair, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Bruce Plateau is a broad, gently-undulating ice plateau spanning the divide of the Antarctic Peninsula near 66°S. The western side is the catchment area for the glaciers of numerous inlet fjords such as Andvord Bay, Beascochea Bay, and Barilari Bay. The eastern side is the catchment area for the glaciers of the southern Larsen B Ice Shelf and northern Larsen C Ice Shelf. Because it is the catchment for the Larsen B, the Bruce Plateau was chosen as a site to drill an ice core for paleoclimate studies. We present the results of a site characterization study of a 10 km × 10 km area near the ridge crest. We mapped surface topography using the LVIS (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor) instrument collected as part of NASA’s Ice Bridge program and extended these data using ground-based kinematic GPS profiles. We mapped bedrock topography through a 5 MHz Radio Echo Sounding (RES) survey. A weather station augmented with firn temperature sensors and C/A code GPS was installed at the ice-core site in February 2010 and was active for 5 months. We measured the spatial accumulation rate pattern and internal structure of the ice to 400 m with a 25 MHz RES survey near the ice-core site. The RES-mapped relative accumulation pattern was tied to measurements at the weather station, a temporary stake network, and data from the ice core. The surface topography data show that the crest of the ice divide ranges from 1980 to 2020 m above the ellipsoid, with surfaces sloping at 0.047 to the northeast (Leppard Glacier catchment) and approximately 0.04 to the southwest (Atlee Glacier). The bedrock topography consists of two hills of a few hundred meters relief, with deeper troughs under the regions leading to both Leppard and Atlee Glaciers. Ice thickness ranges from 200 m above the hills to more than 700 m deep in the troughs, as determined by a 5 MHz RES system. To the west of the hills, bedrock slopes gently downward, while surface elevation increases to the crest. This suggests

  10. 40 CFR 280.63 - Initial site characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... site investigations concerning the following factors: surrounding populations, water quality, use and... subsurface sewers, climatological conditions, and land use; (3) Results of the site check required...

  11. Amino acids, precursors for cationic and anionic intercalation synthesis and characterization of amino acid pillared materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudala, Á.; Pálinkó, I.; Kiricsi, I.

    1999-05-01

    The preparation and characterization of amino acid pillared materials are reported in this contribution. Host substances were Na-montmorillonite for cationic and hydrotalcite for anionic pillaring. Guest molecules were L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. The pillared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, BET measurements and FT-IR spectroscopy. Pillaring was successful: the layers propped open and the basal distances increased significantly. For hydrotalcite this increase was always significantly larger than for montmorillonite. This fact indicated that the spatial arrangement of the amino acid moieties is widely different. A model for this arrangement is given.

  12. Characterization of the zinc binding site of bacterial phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed

    Omburo, G A; Kuo, J M; Mullins, L S; Raushel, F M

    1992-07-01

    The bacterial phosphotriesterase has been found to require a divalent cation for enzymatic activity. This enzyme catalyzes the detoxification of organophosphorus insecticides and nerve agents. In an Escherichia coli expression system significantly higher concentrations of active enzyme could be produced when 1.0 mM concentrations of Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ were included in the growth medium. The isolated enzymes contained up to 2 equivalents of these metal ions as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the various metal enzyme derivatives was lost upon incubation with EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid. Protection against inactivation by metal chelation was afforded by the binding of competitive inhibitors, suggesting that at least one metal is at or near the active site. Apoenzyme was prepared by incubation of the phosphotriesterase with beta-mercaptoethanol and EDTA for 2 days. Full recovery of enzymatic activity could be obtained by incubation of the apoenzyme with 2 equivalents of Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, or Mn2+. The 113Cd NMR spectrum of enzyme containing 2 equivalents of 113Cd2+ showed two resonances at 120 and 215 ppm downfield from Cd(ClO4)2. The NMR data are consistent with nitrogen (histidine) and oxygen ligands to the metal centers.

  13. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  14. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  15. Identification and characterization of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lu, Cheng-Tzung; Cheng, Tzu-Hsiu; Chang, Tzu-Hao

    2014-06-01

    Protein methylation is a kind of post-translational modification (PTM), and typically takes place on lysine and arginine amino acid residues. Protein methylation is involved in many important biological processes, and most recent studies focused on lysine methylation of histones due to its critical roles in regulating transcriptional repression and activation. Histones possess highly conserved sequences and are homologous in most species. However, there is much less sequence conservation among non-histone proteins. Therefore, mechanisms for identifying lysine-methylated sites may greatly differ between histones and non-histone proteins. Nevertheless, this point of view was not considered in previous studies. Here we constructed two support vector machine (SVM) models by using lysine-methylated data from histones and non-histone proteins for predictions of lysine-methylated sites. Numerous features, such as the amino acid composition (AAC) and accessible surface area (ASA), were used in the SVM models, and the predictive performance was evaluated using five-fold cross-validations. For histones, the predictive sensitivity was 85.62% and specificity was 80.32%. For non-histone proteins, the predictive sensitivity was 69.1% and specificity was 88.72%. Results showed that our model significantly improved the predictive accuracy of histones compared to previous approaches. In addition, features of the flanking region of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins were also characterized and are discussed. A gene ontology functional analysis of lysine-methylated proteins and correlations of lysine-methylated sites with other PTMs in histones were also analyzed in detail. Finally, a web server, MethyK, was constructed to identify lysine-methylated sites. MethK now is available at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/MethK/.

  16. Aerosol characterization at the Saharan AERONET site Tamanrasset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, C.; Cuevas, E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Bustos, J. J.; Basart, S.; Romero, P. M.; Camino, C.; Mimouni, M.; Zeudmi, L.; Goloub, P.; Baldasano, J. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    More than 2 years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006-2009) at the Tamanrasset site (22.79° N, 5.53° E, 1377 m a.s.l.), in the heart of the Sahara, are analysed. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO (K is the name of a constant and ciclo means cycle in Spanish) method was applied to a part of the level 1.5 data series to improve the quality of the results. The annual variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) has been found to be strongly linked to the convective boundary layer (CBL) thermodynamic features. The dry-cool season (autumn and winter) is characterized by a shallow CBL and very low mean turbidity (AOD ~ 0.09 at 440 nm, AE ~ 0.62). The wet-hot season (spring and summer) is dominated by high turbidity of coarse dust particles (AE ~ 0.28, AOD ~ 0.39 at 440 nm) and a deep CBL. The aerosol-type characterization shows desert mineral dust as the prevailing aerosol. Both pure Saharan dust and very clear sky conditions are observed depending on the season. However, several case studies indicate an anthropogenic fine mode contribution from the industrial areas in Libya and Algeria. The concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) source apportionment method was used to identify potential sources of air masses arriving at Tamanrasset at several heights for each season. Microphysical and optical properties and precipitable water vapour were also investigated.

  17. NMR characterization of a novel bile acid sequestrant, DMP 504.

    PubMed

    Lerke, S A; Nemeth, G; Schubert, E; Hovsepian, P K

    2001-02-01

    DMP 504, a potential bile acid sequestrant for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, is a highly insoluble, cross-linked polymer which does not lend itself to ordinary means of characterization used for drug substances in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, alternative characterization techniques have been sought. As part of an effort into extensive characterization of DMP 504 drug substance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to provide insight into details of the DMP 504 polymer structure. The primary motivation for determining the structure of the polymer chain is to relate the DMP 504 structure to its performance properties as a bile acid sequestrant. Characterization of the polymer chain and understanding of the structural basis of its properties is essential in optimizing and controlling the manufacture of reproducible drug substance. NMR has proven a versatile tool for the description of polymer structure and dynamics because of the wide range of nuclear interactions affecting the NMR signal. This allows the design of experiments to elicit information about specific polymer interactions or properties. The methods of sample preparation utilized to obtain NMR spectra of the insoluble polymer, as well as a discussion and comparison of results for the characterization of DMP 504 obtained using several different NMR techniques will be presented.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of acidic mesoporous borosilicate thin films.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Tongping; Liu, Qian; Wang, Jiacheng

    2009-02-01

    Work on the synthesis and characterization of acidic wormhole-like ordered mesoporous borosilicate thin films (MBSTFs) on silicon wafers is described in this paper. The MBSTFs coated by the dip-coating method were prepared through an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process using nonionic block copolymers as structure-directing agents. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the formation of borosiloxane bonds (Si-O-B). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 sorption evidenced a wormhole-like mesoporous structure in the MBSTFs obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the cross sections and surfaces of the samples showed that MBSTFs on silicon wafers were continuous, homogeneous and did not crack. The acidic properties of the MBSTFs were characterized by FT-IR spectra of chemisorbed pyridine. The MBSTFs thus prepared may find their future applications in many fields including chemical sensors, catalysis, optical coating, molecule separation, etc.

  19. Geophysical site characterization methods -- the ``divining rods`` of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, L.L.

    1997-12-31

    Have you ever wished that you could use a ``divining rod`` to quickly and reliably define the magnitude of environmental impacts in soil or water? To the uninitiated, such ideas seem like a farfetched script from a star trek episode where a guy named Spock is walking around with a device called a tri-quarter. In realty, such approaches to site characterization have been used in the petroleum and mineral exploration industries for decades. These techniques are so reliable that they are widely used in the medical field today. Consider the value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasound. Using the principles of electromagnetics, resistivity, seismology, and gravity, explorationists have successfully measured minute differences in the properties of earth materials. Using these differences, called anomalies, scientists can predict actual conditions with little or no sampling or analysis and with striking repeatability. This paper provides a plain English description of some common geophysical methods in use today. The general principles and specific applications of several methods will be described. The obvious and not-so-obvious limitations of those methods will be examined in detail.

  20. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-28

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  4. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  5. Characterization of the proton binding sites of extracellular polymeric substances in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Chang, Sheng; Defersha, Fantahun M

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the chemical compositions and acidic constants of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating synthetic brewery wastewater by using chemical analysis, linear programming analysis (LPA) of titration data, and FT-IR analysis. The linear programming analysis of titration data revealed that the EPSs have proton binding sites with pKa values from pKa ≤ 6, between 6 and 7, and approximately 9.8. The strong acidic sites (pKa ≤ 6) and some weak acidic sites (7.5 < pKa < 9.0) were found to be readily removed by 0.45-μm membrane filtration. In addition, the FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids in the EPS samples. Based on the FT-IR analysis and the main chemical functional groups at the bacterial cell surfaces, the identified proton binding sites were related to carboxyl, phosphate, and hydroxyl/amine groups with pKa values of 4.6 ± 0.7, 6.6 ± 0.01, and 9.7 ± 0.1, respectively, with the corresponding respective intensities of 0.31 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.3, and 1.53 ± 0.3 mmole/g-EPS. The pKa values and intensities of the proton binding sites are the fundamental molecular properties of EPSs that affect the EPS charge, molecular interactions, and metal complexation characteristics. Determination of such properties can advance Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO)-based concentration polarization modeling, facilitate the estimation of the osmotic pressure of the EPS concentration polarization layers, and lead to a deeper understanding of the role of metal complexation in membrane fouling. PMID:25935368

  6. SUMMARY OF TECNIQUES AND UNIQUE USES FOR DIRECT PUSH METHODS IN SITE CHARACTERIZATION ON CONTAMINATED FIELD SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    At many of the sites where we have been asked to assist in site characterization, we have discovered severe discrepancies that new technologies may be able to prevent. This presentation is designed to illustrate these new technologies or unique uses of existing technology and the...

  7. Characterizing the proton loading site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianxun; Gunner, M R

    2014-08-26

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) uses the energy released by reduction of O2 to H2O to drive eight charges from the high pH to low pH side of the membrane, increasing the electrochemical gradient. Four electrons and protons are used for chemistry, while four more protons are pumped. Proton pumping requires that residues on a pathway change proton affinity through the reaction cycle to load and then release protons. The protonation states of all residues in CcO are determined in MultiConformational Continuum Electrostatics simulations with the protonation and redox states of heme a, a3, Cu(B), Y288, and E286 used to define the catalytic cycle. One proton is found to be loaded and released from residues identified as the proton loading site (PLS) on the P-side of the protein in each of the four CcO redox states. Thus, the same proton pumping mechanism can be used each time CcO is reduced. Calculations with structures of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Paracoccus denitrificans, and bovine CcO derived by crystallography and molecular dynamics show the PLS functions similarly in different CcO species. The PLS is a cluster rather than a single residue, as different structures show 1-4 residues load and release protons. However, the proton affinity of the heme a3 propionic acids primarily determines the number of protons loaded into the PLS; if their proton affinity is too low, less than one proton is loaded.

  8. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  9. Quantification of uncertain outcomes from site characterization: Insights from the ESF-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, W.J.; Parrish, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Exploratory Studies Facility Alternatives Study (ESF-AS) the uncertain outcomes from site characterization were quantified using a probabilistic tree known as ``Nature`s Tree.`` Nature`s Tree distinguished the true characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site from the perceived characteristics deduced from testing. Bayesian probabilistic calculations converted probabilities in Nature`s Tree to the probabilistic estimates required for the comparative analysis of Exploratory Studies Facility-repository options. Experts on characterization testing explicitly addressed several site characterization issues that are considered implicitly in many site characterization programs.

  10. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  11. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Sampaio, Klicia A; Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; De Greyt, Wim; Cerny, Muriel; Evon, Philippe; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-01-01

    Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8%) and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%). It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12), an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%), oleic acid (6%), and palmitic acid (3%). The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg). The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols), stigmasterol (24%), and Δ⁷-stigmastenol (18%). Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg) and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%), phosphatidylcholine (25%), phosphatidylinositol (17%), and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%). About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition. PMID:27617992

  12. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Sampaio, Klicia A; Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; De Greyt, Wim; Cerny, Muriel; Evon, Philippe; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-01-01

    Coriander vegetable oil was extracted from fruits of French origin in a 23% yield. The oil was of good quality, with a low amount of free fatty acids (1.8%) and a concurrently high amount of triacylglycerols (98%). It is a rich source of petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12), an important renewable building block, making up 73% of all fatty acids, with also significant amounts of linoleic acid (14%), oleic acid (6%), and palmitic acid (3%). The oil was characterized by a high unsaponifiable fraction, comprising a substantial amount of phytosterols (6.70 g/kg). The main sterol markers were β-sitosterol (35% of total sterols), stigmasterol (24%), and Δ⁷-stigmastenol (18%). Squalene was detected at an amount of 0.2 g/kg. A considerable amount of tocols were identified (500 mg/kg) and consisted mainly of tocotrienols, with γ-tocotrienol as the major compound. The phospholipid content was low at 0.3%, of which the main phospholipid classes were phosphatidic acid (33%), phosphatidylcholine (25%), phosphatidylinositol (17%), and phosphatidylethanolamine (17%). About 50% of all phospholipids were non-hydratable. The β-carotene content was low at 10 mg/kg, while a significant amount of chlorophyll was detected at about 11 mg/kg. An iron content of 1.4 mg/kg was determined through element analysis of the vegetable oil. The influence of fruit origin on the vegetable oil composition was shown to be very important, particularly in terms of the phospholipids, sterols, and tocols composition.

  13. Characterization of DNAPL from the U.S. DOE Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenqian; Omran, Kamel; Grimberg, Stefan J; Denham, Miles; Powers, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    The composition of chlorinated hydrocarbon DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) from field sites can be substantially different than the material originally purchased for use as a solvent. Waste management practices at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) included co-disposal of a wide range of organic and inorganic wastes. In 1991, a clear, orange-colored DNAPL was found in two wells near the SRS M-area settling basin. Waste effluent from the fuel and target fabrication facilities that were discharged to this settling basin included acids, caustics, metals and chlorinated solvents. The characterization of the SRS DNAPL suggests that numerous constituents partitioned into the DNAPL during its use as a solvent, co-disposal and ultimate migration through the subsurface. Trace constituents in the DNAPL include metals, from processing operations or co-disposal practices and subsurface minerals, high molecular weight hydrocarbons and alkyl esters, and acids. This complex mixture results in DNAPL-water interfacial properties that are substantially different than would be expected from a simple mixture of PCE and TCE. Under conditions when there is a high DNAPL to water volume ratio, a semi-rigid film accumulates on water droplets suspended in the DNAPL. It is concluded that the array of precipitated metal species comprising this film contributes to the interfacial tension that is over an order of magnitude lower than expected for a "clean" PCE/TCE mixture.

  14. Site and Event Characterization Using the CTBT On-Site Inspection Techniques (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, P.; Gaya Pique, L. R.; Rowlands, A. P.; Arndt, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    One of the four elements of the CTBT verification regime is On-Site Inspection (OSI). The sole purpose of an OSI is to clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been conducted in violation of the CTBT. An OSI would be conducted within an area no bigger than 1000 km2 and by no more than 40 inspectors at any one time, applying search logic and inspection techniques with the aim of collecting relevant information that will be the basis for the inspection report. During the course of an OSI less intrusive techniques applied over broad areas (usually with lower spatial resolution) are supplemented with more intrusive techniques applied to more targeted areas (usually at a higher spatial resolution). Environmental setting and the evolution of OSI-relevant observables over time will influence the application of OSI techniques. In the course of the development of OSI methodology and relevant techniques, field tests and exercises have been conducted. While earlier activities mainly focused on progress of individual techniques (such as visual observation, passive seismological monitoring for aftershocks and measurements of radioactivity), recent work covered both technique development (such as multi-spectral imaging including infrared measurements, and environmental sampling and analysis of solids, liquids and gases) as well as the integration of techniques, search logic and data flow. We will highlight examples of application of OSI technologies for site and event characterization from recently conducted field tests and exercises and demonstrate the synthesis of techniques and data necessary for the conduct of an OSI.

  15. Interaction of metal ions with acid sites of biosorbents peat moss and Vaucheria and model substances alginic and humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Martin, J.R.; Crist, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    The interaction between added metal ions and acid sites of two biosorbents, peat moss and the alga Vaucheria, was studied. Results were interpreted in terms of two model substances, alginic acid, a copolymer of guluronic and mannuronic acids present in marine algae, and humic acid in peat moss. For peat moss and Vaucheria at pH 4--6, two protons were displaced per Cd sorbed, after correction for sorbed metals also displaced by the heavy metal. The frequent neglect of exchange of heavy metals for metals either sorbed on the native material or added for pH adjustment leads to erroneous conclusions about proton displacement stoichiometry. Proton displacement constants K{sub ex}{sup H} decreased logarithmically with pH and had similar slopes for alginic acid and biosorbents. This pH effect was interpreted as an electrostatic effect of increasing anionic charge making proton removal less favorable. The maximum number of exchangeable acid sites (capacity C{sub H}) decreased with pH for alginic acid but increased with pH for biosorbents. Consistent with titration behavior, this difference was explained in terms of more weak acid sites in the biosorbents.

  16. STATE-OF-THE-ART FIELD TECHNIQUES FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the traditional methods for characterizing the hydrogeologic properties and contaminant distribution of subsurface materials were derived from methods developed in the water supply industry. These methods generally result in the characterization of bulk aquifer propert...

  17. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  18. Characterization and quantification of groundwater sulfate sources at a mining site in an arid climate: The Monument Valley site in Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-11-01

    The Monument Valley site, a former uranium mining site located in the state of Arizona in the Southwest USA, has high concentrations of sulfate in groundwater. Stable isotope analysis of S and O for sulfate, in combination with geochemical and hydrogeological data, was used to characterize the sources and fate of sulfate. The results indicate the existence of two discrete sources of sulfate (in excess of baseline levels): sulfuric acid released during ore processing and sulfate generated via sulfide-mineral oxidation. The contributions of the sources are related to spatial distributions of sulfate in the plume through analysis of groundwater travel times. Quantification of the sources using two isotope-analysis methods yielded similar results. The results indicate that sulfuric acid served as the primary source (mean = 427 mg/L, 74%), with sulfide-mineral oxidation providing a smaller contribution (mean = 147 mg/L, 26%). It appears that the major contribution to the sulfide-mineral oxidation component originates from oxidation of sulfide minerals in exposed bedrock residing in the primary recharge zone of the local aquifer, which provides an elevated sulfate background for groundwater. Conversely, the oxidation of sulfide minerals associated with the mine tailings appears to provide a relatively minor contribution (˜8% of the overall total). Interestingly, it appears that sulfuric acid served as a sustained source of sulfate for approximately 40 years. This may be related to the accumulation of sulfate salts (formed after neutralization and disposal of the sulfuric acid) in the source zone due to the arid climate of the site. Contrary to the typical assumption applied at many mining sites that sulfide-mineral oxidation is the primary source of sulfate, these sulfate salts are hypothesized to be the primary source for this site.

  19. Characterization and quantification of groundwater sulfate sources at a mining site in an arid climate: The Monument Valley site in Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ziheng; Carroll, Kenneth C; Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-11-11

    The Monument Valley site, a former uranium mining site located in the state of Arizona in the Southwest USA, has high concentrations of sulfate in groundwater. Stable isotope analysis of S and O for sulfate, in combination with geochemical and hydrogeological data, was used to characterize the sources and fate of sulfate. The results indicate the existence of two discrete sources of sulfate (in excess of baseline levels): sulfuric acid released during ore processing and sulfate generated via sulfide-mineral oxidation. The contributions of the sources are related to spatial distributions of sulfate in the plume through analysis of groundwater travel times. Quantification of the sources using two isotope-analysis methods yielded similar results. The results indicate that sulfuric acid served as the primary source (mean = 427 mg/L, 74%), with sulfide-mineral oxidation providing a smaller contribution (mean = 147 mg/L, 26%). It appears that the major contribution to the sulfide-mineral oxidation component originates from oxidation of sulfide minerals in exposed bedrock residing in the primary recharge zone of the local aquifer, which provides an elevated sulfate background for groundwater. Conversely, the oxidation of sulfide minerals associated with the mine tailings appears to provide a relatively minor contribution (∼8% of the overall total). Interestingly, it appears that sulfuric acid served as a sustained source of sulfate for approximately 40 years. This may be related to the accumulation of sulfate salts (formed after neutralization and disposal of the sulfuric acid) in the source zone due to the arid climate of the site. Contrary to the typical assumption applied at many mining sites that sulfide-mineral oxidation is the primary source of sulfate, these sulfate salts are hypothesized to be the primary source for this site.

  20. Characterization and quantification of groundwater sulfate sources at a mining site in an arid climate: The Monument Valley site in Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ziheng; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Monument Valley site, a former uranium mining site located in the state of Arizona in the Southwest USA, has high concentrations of sulfate in groundwater. Stable isotope analysis of S and O for sulfate, in combination with geochemical and hydrogeological data, was used to characterize the sources and fate of sulfate. The results indicate the existence of two discrete sources of sulfate (in excess of baseline levels): sulfuric acid released during ore processing and sulfate generated via sulfide-mineral oxidation. The contributions of the sources are related to spatial distributions of sulfate in the plume through analysis of groundwater travel times. Quantification of the sources using two isotope-analysis methods yielded similar results. The results indicate that sulfuric acid served as the primary source (mean = 427 mg/L, 74%), with sulfide-mineral oxidation providing a smaller contribution (mean = 147 mg/L, 26%). It appears that the major contribution to the sulfide-mineral oxidation component originates from oxidation of sulfide minerals in exposed bedrock residing in the primary recharge zone of the local aquifer, which provides an elevated sulfate background for groundwater. Conversely, the oxidation of sulfide minerals associated with the mine tailings appears to provide a relatively minor contribution (∼8% of the overall total). Interestingly, it appears that sulfuric acid served as a sustained source of sulfate for approximately 40 years. This may be related to the accumulation of sulfate salts (formed after neutralization and disposal of the sulfuric acid) in the source zone due to the arid climate of the site. Contrary to the typical assumption applied at many mining sites that sulfide-mineral oxidation is the primary source of sulfate, these sulfate salts are hypothesized to be the primary source for this site. PMID:24729633

  1. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  2. Growth and characterization of an adduct 4-aminobenzoic acid with nicotinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, S.; Rajalakshmi, M.; Shyju, T. S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2011-03-01

    Synthesis, crystal growth of an adduct 2:1 4-aminobenzoic acid-nicotinic acid (AMN) and characterization are reported. The crystallographic data of the title compound are obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The optical absorbance spectrum from 200 to 2250 nm shows the cutoff occurs at 490 nm. Thermal analysis carried out reveals the melting point and thermal stability of the grown crystal. Dielectric studies were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. Vicker's microhardness test was performed to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown specimen. The grown features were analyzed by chemical etching.

  3. Phosphorus characterization in sediments impacted by septic effluent at four sites in central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, L.; Robertson, W. D.; Ptacek, C. J.; Schiff, S. L.; Mayer, T.

    1998-10-01

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) enriched solids was undertaken in the sediments below four mature septic system infiltration beds, where previous monitoring of phosphate (PO 4) concentrations in the groundwater had indicated that substantial retention of P was occurring in the vadose zone. At each site, zones of sediment P enrichment were identified by an acid extraction procedure. Acid extractable sediment P concentrations were found to be 2-5 times higher than background values, within narrow discrete zones generally 10-30 cm in thickness, located within one meter of the infiltration pipes. Back scattered electron images of the P enriched zones indicated that the P solids occurred as distinct authigenic grains (up to 300 μm diameter) and as grain coatings. Microprobe analyses indicated predominantly Fe-P in calcareous sediments (Cambridge and Langton) and Al-Fe-P in non-calcareous sediments (Muskoka and Harp Lake). Porewater analyses indicated that the zones of P accumulation were closely associated with zones of redox change characterized by the conversion of effluent NH 4+ to NO 3-. The data suggests that a substantial amount of the septic derived P is being attenuated by mineral precipitation reactions that occur rapidly after the effluent encounters subsurface sediments. Reductive dissolution of ferric (oxy)hydroxide minerals as a consequence of reducing environments near the infiltrations pipes, the release of Fe 2+ in solution and subsequent conversion of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ may promote the precipitation of ferric or ferrosoferric PO 4 minerals. In sediments with limited buffering capacity (calcite deficient), the decrease in pH resulting from effluent oxidation may cause Al (oxy)hydroxide dissolution and subsequent precipitation of Al-P rich phases. These precipitation reactions appear to have the capacity to immobilize a substantial amount of septic derived P (25-99% at these sites) for a considerable period of time.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yanchao; Si, Zhenjun; Duan, Qian

    2014-05-01

    Three ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids of 3,3'-(4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-1), 4,4',4″-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4,5-triyl)tribenzoic acid (Tz-2), and 4,4'-(4-(4'-carboxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-3) were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by the (1)H NMR, the IR absorption spectra, and the X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was found that Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3 could give out the ultraviolet photoluminescent spectra centered at 369 nm, 365 nm and 350 nm, respectively. The luminescence quantum yields of Tz-1 and Tz-2 were measured to be 0.20 and 0.14, respectively. Additionally, the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT calculations were also carried out for Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3.

  5. The Electropolymerization and Characterizations of Acid Red Dye Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Liang, Fei-Yue; Liao, Jia-Xing; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Yi-Ping; Xian, Ze-Yu

    2016-05-01

    The electrochromic properties of an electrochemical polymerized composite consisted of polyaniline doped with acid red dye (PANI-ARD) are reported. The structures of PANIARD were characterized via cycle voltammograms, spectroelectrochemistry and colorimetric analysis. Film of the PANI-ARD composites of different concentrations appears violet, aubergine in the neutral state and darkblue in the oxidized state, which are different from the pure PANI of yellow (-0.8V) and blue (1.0V). The oxidation and reduction response speed of PANI-ARD was a bit lower than those obtained in pure PANI. It is shown that acid dye doping is an effective method to broaden the color change range of the electrochromicmateials.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured

  7. Active-site mutations of diphtheria toxin: effects of replacing glutamic acid-148 with aspartic acid, glutamine, or serine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B A; Reich, K A; Weinstein, B R; Collier, R J

    1990-09-18

    Glutamic acid-148, an active-site residue of diphtheria toxin identified by photoaffinity labeling with NAD, was replaced with aspartic acid, glutamine, or serine by directed mutagenesis of the F2 fragment of the toxin gene. Wild-type and mutant F2 proteins were synthesized in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding enzymic fragment A moieties (DTA) were derived, purified, and characterized. The Glu----Asp (E148D), Glu----Gln (E148Q), and Glu----Ser (E148S) mutations caused reductions in NAD:EF-2 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ca. 100-, 250-, and 300-fold, respectively, while causing only minimal changes in substrate affinity. The effects of the mutations on NAD-glycohydrolase activity were considerably different; only a 10-fold reduction in activity was observed for E148S, and the E148D and E148Q mutants actually exhibited a small but reproducible increase in NAD-glycohydrolytic activity. Photolabeling by nicotinamide-radiolabeled NAD was diminished ca. 8-fold in the E148D mutant and was undetectable in the other mutants. The results confirm that Glu-148 plays a crucial role in the ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 and imply an important function for the side-chain carboxyl group in catalysis. The carboxyl group is also important for photochemical labeling by NAD but not for NAD-glycohydrolase activity. The pH dependence of the catalytic parameters for the ADP-ribosyltransferase reaction revealed a group in DTA-wt that titrates with an apparent pKa of 6.2-6.3 and is in the protonated state in the rate-determining step.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. SITE-SPECIFIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL RADON POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a theoretical basis for measuring site-specific radon potentials. However, the empirical measurements suggest that the precision of such measurements is marginal, leaving an uncertainty of about a factor of 2 in site-specific estimates. Although this may be us...

  9. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of [125I]lysergic acid diethylamide binding to serotonin receptors in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Kadan, M J; Hartig, P R

    1988-03-01

    The sensitive serotonergic radioligand 2-[125I]lysergic acid diethylamide was used to study the distribution and pharmacological binding properties of serotonin receptors in Aplysia californica. The high specific activity of this radioligand allowed us to develop a methodology for the investigation of receptor binding properties and receptor distribution in a single ganglion. [125I]Lysergic acid diethylamide labels a population of high-affinity serotonergic sites (Kd = 0.41 nM) in Aplysia ganglia whose regional distribution matches that expected from previous electrophysiological and immunohistochemical studies. The properties of [125I]lysergic acid diethylamide binding sites in Aplysia are in general agreement with previous studies on [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide binding in this system but these sites differ from the serotonergic receptor subtypes described in the mammalian brain. Guanine nucleotides were shown to modulate agonist but not antagonist affinity for the [125I]lysergic acid diethylamide binding site in Aplysia, suggesting that this site is coupled to a G-protein. Images of serotonin receptor distribution in the Aplysia nervous system were obtained from autoradiograms of [125I]lysergic acid diethylamide binding. Serotonin receptors in ganglia tissue sections are located primarily within the neuropil. In addition, a subset of neuronal soma are specifically labeled by [125I]lysergic acid diethylamide. These studies indicate that [125I]lysergic acid diethylamide binds to sites in the Aplysia nervous system which display a regional distribution, pharmacological binding properties and evidence of coupling to a G-protein consistent with labeling of a subset of functional serotonin receptors. In addition, the techniques used in this investigation provide a general approach for rapidly characterizing the pharmacological properties and anatomical distribution of receptor binding sites in single invertebrate ganglia. Individual neurons containing these receptor

  10. Site-specific regulation of adult neurogenesis by dietary fatty acid content, vitamin E and flight exercise in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Zachary J; Bauchinger, Ulf; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Pierce, Barbara; McWilliams, Scott R; Sherry, David F; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is known to have a strong effect on neuroproliferation in mammals ranging from rodents to humans. Recent studies have also shown that fatty acids and other dietary supplements can cause an upregulation of neurogenesis. It is not known, however, how exercise and diet interact in their effects on adult neurogenesis. We examined neuronal recruitment in multiple telencephalic sites in adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to a factorial combination of flight exercise, dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. Experimental birds were flown in a wind tunnel following a training regime that mimicked the bird's natural flight behaviour. In addition to flight exercise, we manipulated the composition of dietary fatty acids and the level of enrichment with vitamin E, an antioxidant reported to enhance neuronal recruitment. We found that all three factors - flight exercise, fatty acid composition and vitamin E enrichment - regulate neuronal recruitment in a site-specific manner. We also found a robust interaction between flight training and vitamin E enrichment at multiple sites of neuronal recruitment. Specifically, flight training was found to enhance neuronal recruitment across the telencephalon, but only in birds fed a diet with a low level of vitamin E. Conversely, dietary enrichment with vitamin E upregulated neuronal recruitment, but only in birds not flown in the wind tunnel. These findings indicate conserved modulation of adult neurogenesis by exercise and diet across vertebrate taxa and indicate possible therapeutic interventions in disorders characterized by reduced adult neurogenesis.

  11. Teapot Dome: Site Characterization of a CO2- Enhanced Oil Recovery Site in Eastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Stamp, V

    2005-11-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), better known as the Teapot Dome oil field, is the last U.S. federally-owned and -operated oil field. This provides a unique opportunity for experiments to provide scientific and technical insight into CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and other topics involving subsurface fluid behavior. Towards that end, a combination of federal, academic, and industrial support has produced outstanding characterizations of important oil- and brine-bearing reservoirs there. This effort provides an unparalleled opportunity for industry and others to use the site. Data sets include geological, geophysical, geochemical, geomechanical, and operational data over a wide range of geological boundary conditions. Importantly, these data, many in digital form, are available in the public domain due to NPR-3's federal status. Many institutions are already using portions of the Teapot Dome data set as the basis for a variety of geoscience, modeling, and other research efforts. Fifteen units, 9 oil-bearing and 6 brine-bearing, have been studied to varying degrees. Over 1200 wells in the field are active or accessible, and over 400 of these penetrate 11 formations located below the depth that corresponds to the supercritical point for CO{sub 2}. Studies include siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs; shale, carbonate, and anhydrite cap rocks; fractured and unfractured units; and over-pressured and under-pressured zones. Geophysical data include 3D seismic and vertical seismic profiles. Reservoir data include stratigraphic, sedimentological, petrologic, petrographic, porosity, and permeability data. These have served as the basis for preliminary 3D flow simulations. Geomechanical data include fractures (natural and drilling induced), in-situ stress determination, pressure, and production history. Geochemical data include soil gas, noble gas, organic, and other measures. The conditions of these reservoirs directly or indirectly represent many reservoirs

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of the gene for goose fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Kameda, K; Goodridge, A G

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is regulated by diet and hormones, with regulation being primarily transcriptional. In chick embryo hepatocytes in culture, triiodothyronine stimulates accumulation of enzyme and transcription of the gene. Since the 5'-flanking region of this gene is likely involved in hormonal regulation of its expression, we have isolated and partially characterized an avian fatty acid synthase gene. A genomic DNA library was constructed in a cosmid vector and screened with cDNA clones that contained sequence complementary to the 3' end of goose fatty acid synthase mRNA. A genomic clone (approximately 35 kilobase pairs (kb] was isolated, and a 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment thereof contained DNA complementary to the 3' noncoding region of fatty acid synthase mRNA. Additional cosmid libraries were screened with 5' fragments of previously isolated genomic clones, resulting in the isolation of five overlapping cosmid DNAs. The entire region of cloned DNA spans approximately 105 kb. Exon-containing fragments were identified by hybridization with end-labeled poly(A)+ RNA and by hybridization of labeled exon-containing genomic DNA fragments to fatty acid synthase mRNA. A new set of cDNA clones spanning approximately 3.2 kb was isolated from a lambda-ZAP goose liver cDNA library using the 5'-most exon-containing fragment of the 5'-most genomic DNA clone. This region of mRNA contains a 5'-untranslated sequence and a continuous open reading frame which includes a region that codes for the essential cysteine of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. The entire fatty acid synthase gene spans about 50 kb. The 5' 15 kb of the gene contain 7 exons. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses were used to identify a single site for initiation of transcription, 174 nucleotides upstream from the putative translation initiation codon. Putative "TATA" and "CCAAT" boxes are located 28 and 60 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the site of initiation of transcription. The 5'-flanking 597

  13. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

  15. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

  16. Influence of different forms of acidities on soil microbiological properties and enzyme activities at an acid mine drainage contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Tripathy, Subhasish; Equeenuddin, Sk Md; Panigrahi, M K

    2010-07-15

    Assessment of microbial parameters, viz. microbial biomass, fluorescence diacetate, microbial respiration, acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase and urease with respect to acidity helps in evaluating the quality of soils. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different forms of acidities on soil microbial parameters in an acid mine drainage contaminated site around coal deposits in Jainta Hills of India. Total potential and exchangeable acidity, extractable and exchangeable aluminium were significantly higher in contaminated soil compared to the baseline (p<0.01). Different forms of acidity were significantly and positively correlated with each other (p<0.05). Further, all microbial properties were positively and significantly correlated with organic carbon and clay (p<0.05). The ratios of microbial parameters with organic carbon were negatively correlated with different forms of acidity. Principal component analysis and cluster analyses showed that the microbial activities are not directly influenced by the total potential acidity and extractable aluminium. Though acid mine drainage affected soils had higher microbial biomass and activities due to higher organic matter content than those of the baseline soils, the ratios of microbial parameters/organic carbon indicated suppression of microbial growth and activities due to acidity stress. PMID:20417031

  17. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  19. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Characterization of an organic acid analog model in Adirondack, New York, surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraei, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Natural waters include a variety of organic matter that differs in composition and functional groups. Dissolved organic matter is important but difficult to characterize acidic and metal binding (e.g., Al) functional groups in chemical equilibrium models. In this study data from Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate an organic acid analog model in order to quantify the influence of organic acids on surface water chemistry. The study sites in the Adirondack region of New York have diverse levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), used as a surrogate for organic acids. DOC in 55 Adirondack surface waters varies from 180 μmol C/l (in Little Echo Pond) to 1263 μmol C/l (in Sunday Pond). To reduce the variability inherited in the large raw data set, suite of mean observations was constructed by grouping and averaging measured data into pH intervals of 0.05 pH units from pH 4.15 to 7.3. A chemical equilibrium model, which includes major solutes in natural waters, was linked to an optimization algorithm (genetic algorithm) to calibrate a triprotic organic analog model which includes proton and aluminum binding by adjusting the dissociation constants and site density of DOC. The object of fitting procedure was to simultaneously minimize the discrepancy between observed and simulated pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), organic monomeric aluminum and inorganic monomeric aluminum. A sensitivity analysis on calibrated values indicate that the speciation of the modeled solutes are most responsive to the dissociation constant of AlOrg= Al3+ + Org3- reaction (Org3- represents organic anion), the site density of DOC and the second H+ dissociation constant of the triprotic organic analog (i.e. H2Org- = 2H+ + Org3- reaction).

  1. Acid-base site detection and mapping on solid surfaces by Kelvin force microscopy (KFM).

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Rubia F; Bernardes, Juliana S; Ducati, Telma R D; Galembeck, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Electrostatic potential at the surface of acidic or basic solids changes under higher relative humidity (RH), as determined by using Kelvin force microscopy (KFM). The potential on acid surfaces becomes more negative as the water vapor pressure increases, while it becomes more positive on basic solids. These results verify the following hypothesis: OH(-) or H(+) ions associated with atmospheric water ion clusters are selectively adsorbed on solid surfaces, depending on the respective Brønsted acid or base character. Therefore, Kelvin microscopy, under variable humidity, is a rigorous but convenient alternative to determine the acid-base character of solid surfaces, with a great advantage: it uses only one amphoteric and simple reagent to determine both the acid and base sites. Moreover, this technique provides information on the spatial distribution of acid-base sites, which is currently inaccessible to any other method.

  2. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  3. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; D'Alema, Ezio; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Stefania Danesi, Adriano; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch/), we deployed overall 20 seismic broad-band stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. All the stations, connected in real-time, were installed at sites selected according to the AlpArray Seismic Network plan: 16 temporary stations running for two to three years and 4 new permanent stations in sites already occupied by accelerometers of the INGV national network. Most temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130S digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120s sensors (a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P and one Streckeisen STS2). For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  4. Framework for Site Characterization for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is unique among remedial technologies in relying entirely on natural processes to achieve site-specific objectives. Site characterization is essential to provide site-specific data and interpretations for the decision-making process (i.e., to ...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-2 - Site nomination for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site nomination for characterization. 960.3-1-4-2 Section 960.3-1-4-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-2 Site nomination...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  11. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  12. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  13. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  14. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  15. 10 CFR 63.16 - Review of site characterization activities. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.16 Review of... conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, DOE shall report the nature and... activities at the Yucca Mountain site, NRC staff shall be permitted to visit and inspect the locations...

  16. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface.

  17. Probing the Binding Site of Bile Acids in TGR5.

    PubMed

    Macchiarulo, Antonio; Gioiello, Antimo; Thomas, Charles; Pols, Thijs W H; Nuti, Roberto; Ferrari, Cristina; Giacchè, Nicola; De Franco, Francesca; Pruzanski, Mark; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2013-12-12

    TGR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating cellular responses to bile acids (BAs). Although some efforts have been devoted to generate homology models of TGR5 and draw structure-activity relationships of BAs, none of these studies has hitherto described how BAs bind to TGR5. Here, we present an integrated computational, chemical, and biological approach that has been instrumental to determine the binding mode of BAs to TGR5. As a result, key residues have been identified that are involved in mediating the binding of BAs to the receptor. Collectively, these results provide new hints to design potent and selective TGR5 agonists. PMID:24900622

  18. Probing the Binding Site of Bile Acids in TGR5

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    TGR5 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating cellular responses to bile acids (BAs). Although some efforts have been devoted to generate homology models of TGR5 and draw structure–activity relationships of BAs, none of these studies has hitherto described how BAs bind to TGR5. Here, we present an integrated computational, chemical, and biological approach that has been instrumental to determine the binding mode of BAs to TGR5. As a result, key residues have been identified that are involved in mediating the binding of BAs to the receptor. Collectively, these results provide new hints to design potent and selective TGR5 agonists. PMID:24900622

  19. Modelling and Characterization of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Hemchandra; Sarmah, Rajeev; Sharma, Ankita; Biswas, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is an intermediate-filament (IF) protein that maintains the astrocytes of the Central Nervous System in Human. This is differentially expressed during serological studies in inflamed condition such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Therefore, it is of interest to glean molecular insight using a model of GFAP (49.88 kDa) due to its crystallographic nonavailability. The present study has been taken into consideration to construct computational protein model using Modeller 9.11. The structural relevance of the protein was verified using Gromacs 4.5 followed by validation through PROCHECK, Verify 3D, WHAT-IF, ERRAT and PROVE for reliability. The constructed three dimensional (3D) model of GFAP protein had been scrutinized to reveal the associated functions by identifying ligand binding sites and active sites. Molecular level interaction study revealed five possible surface cavities as active sites. The model finds application in further computational analysis towards drug discovery in order to minimize the effect of inflammation. PMID:26420920

  20. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments. PMID:26841776

  1. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements'' published by

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  8. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Phase II of a 5-phase overall compressed air energy storage (CAES) development program was performed to characterize and explore potential CAES sites and to prepare a research and development plan. This volume for Phase II activities contains an evaluation of the suitability of seven selected sites to undergo field drilling and air injection testing; a bibliography; results of a literature search on the effects of air injection of aquifer-caprock well systems; reservoir data for the sites; cost estimates; and predicted potential risks from a CAES plant. (LCL)

  9. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  10. Na+ Inhibits the Epithelial Na+ Channel by Binding to a Site in an Extracellular Acidic Cleft*

    PubMed Central

    Kashlan, Ossama B.; Blobner, Brandon M.; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na+, Cl−, protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na+ concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na+ binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na+. Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li+ or K+ rather than Na+. Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na+. Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  11. Na+ inhibits the epithelial Na+ channel by binding to a site in an extracellular acidic cleft.

    PubMed

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Blobner, Brandon M; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na(+), Cl(-), protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na(+) concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na(+) binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na(+). Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li(+) or K(+) rather than Na(+). Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na(+). Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  12. In silico Identification and Characterization of Protein-Ligand Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel Barry; McGuffin, Liam James

    2016-01-01

    Protein-ligand binding site prediction methods aim to predict, from amino acid sequence, protein-ligand interactions, putative ligands, and ligand binding site residues using either sequence information, structural information, or a combination of both. In silico characterization of protein-ligand interactions has become extremely important to help determine a protein's functionality, as in vivo-based functional elucidation is unable to keep pace with the current growth of sequence databases. Additionally, in vitro biochemical functional elucidation is time-consuming, costly, and may not be feasible for large-scale analysis, such as drug discovery. Thus, in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions must be utilized to aid in functional elucidation. Here, we briefly discuss protein function prediction, prediction of protein-ligand interactions, the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) and the Continuous Automated EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) competitions, along with their role in shaping the field. We also discuss, in detail, our cutting-edge web-server method, FunFOLD for the structurally informed prediction of protein-ligand interactions. Furthermore, we provide a step-by-step guide on using the FunFOLD web server and FunFOLD3 downloadable application, along with some real world examples, where the FunFOLD methods have been used to aid functional elucidation. PMID:27094282

  13. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  14. Functional characterization of a fatty acid double-bond hydratase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its interaction with biosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Anaya, Joana; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogenation of linoleic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids is a detoxification mechanism that is present in the Lactobacillus genus of lactic bacteria. The first stage in this multi-step process is hydration of the substrate with formation of 10-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid due to fatty-acid hydratase activity that has been detected only in the membrane-associated cell fraction; however, its interaction with the cell membrane is unknown. To provide information in this respect we characterized the homotrimeric 64.7 kDa-native protein from Lactobacillus plantarum; afterwards, it was reconstituted in proteoliposomes and analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that hydratase is an extrinsic-membrane protein and hence, the enzymatic reaction occurs at the periphery of the cell. This location may be advantageous in the detoxifying process since the toxic linoleic acid molecule can be bound to hydratase and converted to non-toxic 10-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid before it reaches cell membrane. Additionally, we propose that the interaction with membrane periphery occurs through electrostatic contacts. Finally, the structural model of L. plantarum hydratase was constructed based on the amino acid sequence and hence, the putative binding sites with linoleic acid were identified: site 1, located in an external hydrophobic pocket at the C-terminus of the protein and site 2, located at the core and in contact with a FAD molecule. Interestingly, it was found that the linoleic acid molecule arranges around a methionine residue in both sites (Met154 and Met81, respectively) that acts as a rigid pole, thus playing a key role in binding unsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Hydrogeologic characterization report for the Rocky Flats environmental technology site

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, D.C.; Burcar, S.; Smith, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Denver groundwater basin encompasses approximately 6,700 square miles, extending east from the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. This structural basin contains four Cretaceous bedrock aquifers overlain by a regional Quaternary alluvial aquifer. The Rocky Flats Site is located on the northwest margin of the basin. The shallow groundwater system at the Rocky Flats Site is divided into upper and lower hydrostratigraphic units (UHSU and LHSU, respectively). The UHSU at the Rocky Flats site comprises Quaternary alluvium, colluvium, valley-fill alluvium, artificial fill, weathered bedrock of the undifferentiated Arapahoe and Laramie formations and all sandstones that are hydraulically connected with overlying surficial groundwater. The LHSU comprises unweathered claystone with interbedded siltstones and sandstones of the undifferentiated Arapahoe and Laramie formations. The contact separating the UHSU and LHSU is identified as the base of the weathered zone. The separation of hydrostratigraphic units is supported by the contrasting permeabilities of the units comprising the UHSU and LHSU, well hydrograph data indicating that the units respond differently to seasonal recharge events, and geochemical data reflecting distinct major ion chemistries in the groundwaters of the UHSU and LHSU. Surface-water/groundwater interactions at the Rocky Flats site generally respond to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation, recharge, groundwater storage, and stream and ditch flow. Effluent conditions are dominant in the spring along western stream segments and influent conditions are common in the late summer and fall along most stream reaches.

  16. SITE CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 1994, a demonstration of cone penetrometer-mounted sensor technologies took place to evaluate their effectiveness in sampling and analyzing the physical and chemical characteristics of subsurface sod at hazardous waste sites. he effectiveness of each technology was eval...

  17. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  18. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL SITE MODELS AND TRANSPORT MODELS FOR MONITORING CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  20. Characterization of DNA Binding and Retinoic Acid Binding Properties of Retinoic Acid Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Na; Schule, Roland; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Evans, Ronald M.

    1991-05-01

    High-level expression of the full-length human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α and the DNA binding domain of the RAR in Escherichia coli was achieved by using a T7 RNA polymerase-directed expression system. After induction, full-length RAR protein was produced at an estimated level of 20% of the total bacterial proteins. Both intact RAR molecules and the DNA binding domain bind to the cognate DNA response element with high specificity in the absence of retinoic acid. However, this binding is enhanced to a great extent upon the addition of eukaryotic cell extracts. The factor responsible for this enhancement is heat-sensitive and forms a complex with RAR that binds to DNA and exhibits a distinct migration pattern in the gel-mobility-shift assay. The interaction site of the factor with RAR is localized in the 70-amino acid DNA binding region of RAR. The hormone binding ability of the RARα protein was assayed by a charcoal absorption assay and the RAR protein was found to bind to retinoic acid with a K_d of 2.1 x 10-10 M.

  1. Chemical characterization of the surface sites of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dwight, D.W.; Lloyd, T.B.; Riddle, F.L. Jr.; Cole, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains a method for determining the van der Waals and acid-base contributions to the overall {sup 31}P chemical shifts ({Delta}{delta}{sup d} and {Delta}{delta}{sup ab}) and to the Acceptor Numbers (AN{sup d} and AN{sup ab}) of the Meyer and Gutmann two-component systems, and to illustrate the method with experimental results for thirty-two liquids. 9 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Site specific incorporation of heavy atom-containing unnatural amino acids into proteins for structure determination

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Jianming; Wang, Lei; Wu, Ning; Schultz, Peter G.

    2008-07-15

    Translation systems and other compositions including orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases that preferentially charge an orthogonal tRNA with an iodinated or brominated amino acid are provided. Nucleic acids encoding such synthetases are also described, as are methods and kits for producing proteins including heavy atom-containing amino acids, e.g., brominated or iodinated amino acids. Methods of determining the structure of a protein, e.g., a protein into which a heavy atom has been site-specifically incorporated through use of an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase pair, are also described.

  3. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering. PMID:23649268

  4. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering.

  5. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic acid from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Giji, Sadhasivam; Arumugam, Muthuvel

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) being a viscous slippery substance is a multifunctional glue with immense therapeutic applications such as ophthalmic surgery, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology, drug delivery systems, pulmonary pathology, joint pathologies, and tissue engineering. Although HA has been isolated from terrestrial origin (human umbilical cord, rooster comb, bacterial sources, etc.) so far, the increasing interest on this polysaccharide significantly aroused the alternative search from marine sources since it is at the preliminary level. Enthrallingly, marine environments are considered more biologically diverse than terrestrial environments. Although numerous methods have been described for the extraction and purification of HA, the hitch on the isolation methods which greatly influences the yield as well as the molecular weight of the polymer still exists. Adaptation of suitable method is essential in this venture. Stimulated by the developed technology, to sketch the steps involved in isolation and analytical techniques for characterization of this polymer, a brief report on the concerned approach has been reviewed.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  7. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  8. Site characterization and performance assessment for a low level radioactive waste management site in the American Southwest

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, G.J.; Sully, M.J.; Muller, C.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, located 105 km northwest of the city of Las Vegas in southern Nevada, has been used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste since 1961. Site characterization studies have measured the physical, hydrologic and geochemical properties of core samples collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 3 deep boreholes that extend through the unsaturated zone to the uppermost aquifer. Results indicate that the unsaturated zone consists of 240 m of dry alluvial sediments and is remarkably uniform with respect to most physical parameters. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth showed no evidence of trends, layering or anisotropy. Water potential profiles indicate that water movement in the upper alluvium is upward except immediately following a precipitation event. Below the evaporative zone, the liquid flux was downward and of the same order of magnitude as the upward thermal vapor flux induced by the geothermal gradient. The extreme climatic conditions at the site reduce or eliminate many radionuclide release and transport mechanisms. Downward transport of radionuclides to the uppermost aquifer appears unlikely under current climatic conditions. Important radionuclide transport pathways appear to be limited to upward diffusion and advection of gases and biologically mediated transport. Conceptual models of disposal site performance have been developed based on site characterization studies. The limited transport pathways and limited land use potential of the site provide reasonable assurance that regulatory performance objectives can be meet.

  9. Summary of 1990 eolian characterization studies, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, D.R.; Stetler, L.D.; Smith, G.D.; Mars, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    A study of eolian activity was initiated to improve understanding of past climate change and the likely effect of wind on engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site. Eolian features from a Holocene sand dune field located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site were investigated using a variety of field and laboratory techniques including stratigraphic examinations of hand-dug pits, textural and compositional analyses of dune sand and potential source detritus, and air photo interpretations. These investigations were undertaken to evaluate the provenance and eolian dynamics of the sand dunes. Interpretations of sand dune migration using archival air photo stereopairs document a 20% reduction in the volume of active sand dunes (measured from an approximate 15-km{sup 2} test area) between 1948 and 1987. Changes in annual precipitation appear to have influenced active dune migration strongly.

  10. Technical Data Catalog: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    This report presents reference information contained in the Yucca Mountain Project Automated Technical Data Tracking System. The Department of Energy is seeking to design and maintain a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. However, before this repository can be built, the DOE must first do a comprehensive site evaluation. This evaluation is subject to many regulations. This report fulfills the reporting requirements of the Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on a quarterly basis. This catalog contains: description of data; time, place, and method of acquisition; and where data may be examined.

  11. SCP (Site Characterization Plan) conceptual design criteria document

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1985-05-01

    This SCP Conceptual Design Criteria Document was developed to guide engineering efforts for Engineering Study No. 10, the supporting document for Chapter 6 of the SCP. The document provides regulatory design guidance, design rationale derived from the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geological Disposal System document, site-specific criteria, and design assumptions. Appendices were added to provide additional information on geology and seals design.

  12. Site Characterization Plan (SCP) conceptual design criteria document

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1986-05-19

    This SCP Conceptual Design Criteria Document was developed to guide engineering effort for Engineering Study No. 10, the supporting document for Chapter 6 of the SCP. The document provides regulatory design guidance, design rationale derived from the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geological Disposal System document, site-specific criteria, and design assumptions. Appendices were added to provide additional information on geology and seals design. 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Site Characterization and Seismic Response of Dumbarton Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, T.; Castle, J.; Yang, C.; Law, H.; Lam, I.; Mohan, S.

    2007-12-01

    The existing Dumbarton Toll Bridge was built in 1982, connecting the cities of Newark and East Palo Alto, California. The initial vulnerability studies conducted by California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) in 2004 indicated that the performance of the bridge during a maximum credible earthquake was uncertain. With over 18 years of practical experience in geotechnical and earthquake engineering, Earth Mechanics, Inc. (EMI) has been retained by the Bay Area Toll Authority and Caltrans to perform the necessary study for the seismic evaluation of the bridge. An extensive field investigation, consisting of 14 soil borings, six down-hole seismic loggings, seven vane shear tests, 33 cone penetrometer tests and an offshore geophysical survey, was undertaken both on-land and over-water at the site. The investigation resulted in a subsurface profile similar to the one dated 1982 (but with more local zones identified), and provided more reliable data for subsequent engineering analyses. According to probabilistic and deterministic earthquake analyses, a 1,000-year return period spectrum was adopted for the Safety Evaluation Earthquake (SEE), with seven sets of rock motion time histories generated. Site response and kinematic soil-pile interaction analyses were carried out at selected piers to develop the ARS design criteria for the bridge that are site and structure specific, and incorporate state-of-the- art seismic design principles. The axial capacity and lateral push-over behavior of each pier was also examined to ensure its sound performance at SEE levels. The current study provides an illustration of the recent great advances in site investigation and geotechnical analysis.

  14. Concrete characterization for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator Closure Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prignano, A.L.

    1995-02-21

    This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a concrete sampling and analyses study performed for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) closure site. The 300 ASE is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the concrete by 300 ASE operations.

  15. Mesoporous Nb and Ta Oxides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications in Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuxiang Tony

    In this work, a series of mesoporous Niobium and Tantalum oxides with different pore sizes (C6, C12, C18 , ranging from 12A to 30 A) were synthesized using the ligand-assisted templating approach and investigated for their activities in a wide range of catalytic applications including benzylation, alkylation and isomerization. The as-synthesized mesoporous materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solid-state Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. In order to probe into the structural and coordination geometry of mesoporous Nb oxide and in efforts to make meaningful comparisons of mesoporous niobia prepared by the amine-templating method with the corresponding bulk sol-gel prepared Nb2O5 phase, 17O magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR studies were conducted. The results showed a very high local order in the mesoporous sample. The oxygen atoms are coordinated only as ONb 2 in contrast with bulk phases in which the oxygen atoms are always present in a mixture of ONb2 and ONb3 coordination environments. To enhance their surface acidities and thus improve their performance as solid acid catalysts in the acid-catalyzed reactions mentioned above, pure mesoporous Nb and Ta oxides were further treated with 1M sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid. Their surface acidities before and after acid treatment were measured by Fourier transform infraRed (FT IR), amine titration and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). Results obtained in this study showed that sulfated mesoporous Nb and Ta oxides materials possess relative high surface areas (up to 612 m 2/g) and amorphous wormhole structure. These mesoporous structures are thus quite stable to acid treatment. It was also found that Bronsted (1540 cm-1) and Lewis (1450 cm-1) acid sites coexist in a roughly 50:50 mixture

  16. Characterization of atmospheric bioaerosols at 9 sites in Tijuana, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Lilia; Rodríguez, Guillermo; López, Jonathan; Castillo, J. E.; Molina, Luisa; Zavala, Miguel; Quintana, Penelope J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The atmosphere is not considered a habitat for microorganisms, but can exist in the atmosphere as bioaerosols. These microorganisms in the atmosphere have great environmental importance through their influence on physical processes such as ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Pathogenic airborne microorganisms may also have public health consequences. In this paper we analyze the microbial concentration in the air at three sites in Tijuana, Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality campaign and from nine sites over the following year. Samples were collected by impaction with the air analyzer Millipore M Air T, followed by incubation and counting as colony forming units (CFU) of viable colonies. Airborne microbial contamination average levels ranged from a low of 230 ± 130 CFU/m³ in the coastal reference site to an average of 40,100 ± 21,689 CFU/m³ in the Tijuana river valley. We found the highest microbial load in the summer and the lowest values in the winter. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the samples, with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis being most common. This work is the first evaluation of bioaerosols in Tijuana, Mexico.

  17. Characterization of Heparin-binding Site of Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J.; Pytel, Kamila; Rathbone, Daniel L.; Li, Xiaoling; Griffin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca2+-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and metastatic cancer. Extracellular TG2 can also facilitate cell adhesion important in wound healing through a nontransamidating mechanism via its association with fibronectin, heparan sulfates (HS), and integrins. Regulating the mechanism how TG2 is translocated into the ECM therefore provides a strategy for modulating these physiological and pathological functions of the enzyme. Here, through molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified the HS-binding site of TG2 202KFLKNAGRDCSRRSSPVYVGR222. We demonstrate the requirement of this binding site for translocation of TG2 into the ECM through a mechanism involving cell surface shedding of HS. By synthesizing a peptide NPKFLKNAGRDCSRRSS corresponding to the HS-binding site within TG2, we also demonstrate how this mimicking peptide can in isolation compensate for the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin via binding to syndecan-4, leading to activation of PKCα, pFAK-397, and ERK1/2 and the subsequent formation of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton organization. A novel regulatory mechanism for TG2 translocation into the extracellular compartment that depends upon TG2 conformation and the binding of HS is proposed. PMID:22298777

  18. Characterization of a catalytically efficient acidic RNA-cleaving deoxyribozyme.

    PubMed

    Kandadai, Srinivas A; Li, Yingfu

    2005-01-01

    We previously demonstrated--through the isolation of RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes by in vitro selection that are catalytically active in highly acidic solutions--that DNA, despite its chemical simplicity, could perform catalysis under challenging chemical conditions [Liu,Z., Mei,S.H., Brennan,J.D. and Li,Y. (2003) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7539-7545]. One remarkable DNA molecule therefrom is pH4DZ1, a self-cleaving deoxyribozyme that exhibits a k(obs) of approximately 1 min(-1) at pH 3.8. In this study, we carried out a series of experiments to examine the sequence and catalytic properties of this acidic deoxyribozyme. Extensive nucleotide truncation experiments indicated that pH4DZ1 was a considerably large deoxyribozyme, requiring approximately 80 out of the original 123 nt for the optimal catalytic activity. A reselection experiment identified ten absolutely conserved nucleotides that are distributed in three catalytically crucial sequence elements. In addition, a trans deoxyribozyme was successfully designed. Comparison of the observed rate constant of pH4DZ1 with experimentally determined rate constant for the uncatalyzed reaction revealed that pH4DZ1 achieved a rate enhancement of approximately 10(6)-fold. This study provides valuable information about this low-pH-functional deoxyribozyme and paves way for further structural and mechanistic characterization of this unique catalytic DNA. PMID:16391005

  19. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  20. Characterization of amino acid aminotransferases of Methanococcus aeolicus.

    PubMed Central

    Xing, R Y; Whitman, W B

    1992-01-01

    Four aminotransferases were identified and characterized from Methanococcus aeolicus. Branched-chain aminotransferase (BcAT, EC 2.6.1.42), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT, EC 2.6.1.1), and two aromatic aminotransferases (EC 2.6.1.57) were partially purified 175-, 84-, 600-, and 30-fold, respectively. The apparent molecular weight, substrate specificity, and kinetic properties of the BcAT were similar to those of other microbial BcATs. The AspAT had an apparent molecular weight of 162,000, which was unusually high. It had also a broad substrate specificity, which included activity towards alanine, a property which resembled the enzyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus. An additional alanine aminotransferase was not found in M. aeolicus, and this activity of AspAT could be physiologically significant. The apparent molecular weights of the aromatic aminotransferases (ArAT-I and ArAT-II) were 150,000 and 90,000, respectively. The methanococcal ArATs also had different pIs and kinetic constants. ArAT-I may be the major ArAT in methanococci. High concentrations of 2-ketoglutarate strongly inhibited valine, isoleucine, and alanine transaminations but were less inhibitory for leucine and aspartate transaminations. Aromatic amino acid transaminations were not inhibited by 2-ketoglutarate. 2-Ketoglutarate may play an important role in the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis in methanococci. PMID:1729242

  1. Hexafluorozirconic Acid Based Surface Pretreatments: Characterization and Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Saikat; Unocic, Kinga A; Zhai, Yumei; Frankel, Gerald; Zimmerman, John; Fristad, W

    2010-01-01

    A new phosphate-free pretreatment from Henkel Corp. named TecTalis , was investigated. The treatment bath is composed of dilute hexafluorozirconic acid with small quantities of non-hazardous components containing Si and Cu. The performance of treated steel was compared to samples treated in a phosphate conversion coating bath, in simple hexafluorozirconic acid and in TecTalis without the addition of the Cu containing component. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the coating surface morphology, structure and composition. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was used for studying film growth kinetics on thin films of pure Fe, Al and Zn. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on treated and painted steel for studying long-term corrosion performance of the coatings. The phosphate-free coating provided long-term corrosion performance comparable to that of phosphate conversion coatings. The coatings uniformly cover the surface in the form of 10-20 nm sized nodules and clusters of these features up to 500 nm in size. The coatings are usually about 20-30 nm thick and are mostly composed of Zr and O with enrichment of copper at randomly distributed locations and clusters.

  2. Functional characterization of the chicken fatty acid elongases.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Melissa K; Geier, Mark S; Gibson, Robert A; James, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of the (n-3) PUFA, EPA, and DHA have created a demand for fish and fish oil, the main sources of these PUFA. Production animals, such as poultry, are potential alternate and sustainable sources of EPA and DHA, provided these fatty acids can be synthesized from plant-derived α-linolenic acid [ALA, 18:3(n-3)]. Because elongases are potential control points in the conversion of ALA to DHA in rats, we examined the chicken elongases, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5, which had not been characterized. ELOVL2 activity was limited to C20-22 PUFA substrates and the major product of ELOVL2 metabolism of EPA was 24:5(n-3). This indicates that ELOVL2 can sequentially elongate EPA to docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)] and then onto 24:5(n-3). ELOVL5 selectivity was broader with elongation of C18-22 PUFA substrates. The ability of chicken ELOVL5 to efficiently synthesize 24:5(n-3) is unique compared with ELOVL5 enzymes from other species. The expression of ELOVL5 was higher than ELOVL2 in livers of broiler chickens and their expression did not change when dietary ALA was increased from 0.6 to 1.3% of dietary energy for 42 d. The expression of both genes was higher than previously seen in rats. The chicken elongase enzymes are unlike those of any species studied to date, because both ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 have the ability to efficiently elongate DPA. In addition, the relative abundance of ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 in the liver suggests that chickens may be able to metabolize more DPA through to 24:5(n-3), the precursor of DHA, compared with other species such as rats.

  3. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  4. Quantitative measurement of the Brönsted acid sites in solid acids: toward a single-site design of Mo-modified ZSM-5 zeolite.

    PubMed

    Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe; Louis, Benoît; Walspurger, Stephane; Sommer, Jean; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of our previous H/D exchange studies devoted to the quantification of the number of Brönsted acid sites in solid acids, we report here an innovative approach to determine both the amount and the localization of Mo atoms inside the Mo/ZSM-5 catalyst, commonly used for the methane dehydroaromatization reaction. The influence of Mo introduction in the MFI framework was studied by means of BET, X-ray diffraction, 27Al magic angle spinning NMR, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, and H/D isotopic exchange techniques. A dependence was found between the decrease of acidic OH groups and the Mo content. Depending on the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite, i.e., the proximity of two Brönsted acid sites, the Mo atoms substitute a different number of OH groups. Consequently, a chemical structure was proposed to describe the geometry of the Mo complex in the channels of the ZSM-5 zeolite.

  5. Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and Rcra Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final document titled, Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and RCRA Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations.

  6. Site Characterization To Support Use Of Monitored Natural Attentuation For Remediation Of Inorganic Contaminants In Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical recommendations have recently been published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address site characterization needed to support selection of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for cleanup of inorganic contaminant plumes in groundwater. Immobilization onto ...

  7. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  8. Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in acidic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mackie, A; Boilard, S; Walsh, M E; Lake, C B

    2010-01-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained material produced during the manufacture of cement. Current reuse options are limited and the bulk of CKD not reused in the cement manufacturing process is sent to landfills or stored on-site. Due to the calcium oxide (CaO) content of CKD, it has the potential to be used as a replacement for lime in treating acidic wastewaters such as acid rock drainage (ARD). This paper outlines the results of an examination of the physical and chemical properties of CKD samples collected from six cement plants. The CKD samples were analyzed for major oxides using X-ray diffraction (XRD), available lime, specific surface area, particle size, and morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared with a commercial quicklime product. Conductivity, pH, and calcium concentrations of slaked CKD and quicklime solutions were used as indicators of reactivity of the CKD. Slaking of two of the CKD samples with the highest free lime contents (e.g., 34 and 37% free CaO) gave elevated pH values statistically comparable to those of the commercial quicklime sample that was characterized as having 87% available CaO. Acid neutralization trials indicate that even CKD samples with low free lime contents could be effective at neutralizing acidic wastewaters.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in acidic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mackie, A; Boilard, S; Walsh, M E; Lake, C B

    2010-01-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained material produced during the manufacture of cement. Current reuse options are limited and the bulk of CKD not reused in the cement manufacturing process is sent to landfills or stored on-site. Due to the calcium oxide (CaO) content of CKD, it has the potential to be used as a replacement for lime in treating acidic wastewaters such as acid rock drainage (ARD). This paper outlines the results of an examination of the physical and chemical properties of CKD samples collected from six cement plants. The CKD samples were analyzed for major oxides using X-ray diffraction (XRD), available lime, specific surface area, particle size, and morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared with a commercial quicklime product. Conductivity, pH, and calcium concentrations of slaked CKD and quicklime solutions were used as indicators of reactivity of the CKD. Slaking of two of the CKD samples with the highest free lime contents (e.g., 34 and 37% free CaO) gave elevated pH values statistically comparable to those of the commercial quicklime sample that was characterized as having 87% available CaO. Acid neutralization trials indicate that even CKD samples with low free lime contents could be effective at neutralizing acidic wastewaters. PMID:19744781

  11. Geologic, geochemical, microbiologic, and hydrologic characterization at the In Situ Redox Manipulation Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, V.R.; Teel, S.S.; Amonette, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    This report documents results from characterization activities at the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Test Site which is located within the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Information obtained during hydrogeologic characterization of the site included sediment physical properties, geochemical properties, microbiologic population data, and aquifer hydraulic properties. The purpose of obtaining this information was to improve the conceptual understanding of the hydrogeology beneath the ISRM test site and provide detailed, site specific hydrogeologic parameter estimates. The resulting characterization data will be incorporated into a numerical model developed to simulate the physical and chemical processes associated with the field experiment and aid in experiment design and interpretation.

  12. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-03-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media.

  13. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM(SCAPS) LAZER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE (LIF) SENSOR AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consortium for Site Characterization Technology (CSCT) has established a formal program to accelerate acceptance and application of innovative monitoring and site characterization technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental problems. In 1995 the CS...

  14. A FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...

  15. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-11

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once the sites and problems have been located and characterized and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated waste forms in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirement for long-term monitoring.

  16. A bidentate Lewis acid with a telluronium ion as an anion-binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Gabbaï, François P.

    2010-11-01

    The search for receptors that can selectively capture small and potentially toxic anions in protic media has sparked a renewed interest in the synthesis and anion-binding properties of polydentate Lewis acids. Seeking new paradigms to enhance the anion affinities of such systems, we synthesized a bidentate Lewis acid that contains a boryl and a telluronium moiety as Lewis acidic sites. Anion-complexation studies indicate that this telluronium borane displays a high affinity for fluoride in methanol. Structural and computational studies show that the unusual fluoride affinity of this bidentate telluronium borane can be correlated with the formation of a B-F --> Te chelate motif supported by a strong lone-pair(F) --> σ*(Te-C) donor-acceptor interaction. These results, which illustrate the viability of heavier chalcogenium centres as anion-binding sites, allow us to introduce a novel strategy for the design of polydentate Lewis acids with enhanced anion affinities.

  17. Site-specific fatty acid-conjugation to prolong protein half-life in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung In; Mizuta, Yukina; Takasu, Akinori; Hahn, Young S; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Inchan

    2013-09-10

    Therapeutic proteins are indispensable in treating numerous human diseases. However, therapeutic proteins often suffer short serum half-life. In order to extend the serum half-life, a natural albumin ligand (a fatty acid) has been conjugated to small therapeutic peptides resulting in a prolonged serum half-life via binding to patients' serum albumin in vivo. However, fatty acid-conjugation has limited applicability due to lack of site-specificity resulting in the heterogeneity of conjugated proteins and a significant loss in pharmaceutical activity. In order to address these issues, we exploited the site-specific fatty acid-conjugation to a permissive site of a protein, using copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition, by linking a fatty acid derivative to p-ethynylphenylalanine incorporated into a protein using an engineered pair of yeast tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. As a proof-of-concept, we show that single palmitic acid conjugated to superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) in a site-specific manner enhanced a protein's albumin-binding in vitro about 20 times and the serum half-life in vivo 5 times when compared to those of the unmodified sfGFP. Furthermore, the fatty acid conjugation did not cause a significant reduction in the fluorescence of sfGFP. Therefore, these results clearly indicate that the site-specific fatty acid-conjugation is a very promising strategy to prolong protein serum half-life in vivo without compromising its folded structure and activity.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  19. AlpArray Austria & Slovakia: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray we deployed 30 seismic broadband stations in Eastern Austria and Western Slovakia. Stations were installed between Spring and Winter 2015, with an expected deployment duration of two to three years. Our installations comprising 60s Reftek sensors and Reftek digitizers as well as 3G telemetry are typically located inside shelters like abandoned or rarely used huts and small houses. In this poster, we describe the station setting and surroundings for each of the 30 stations in detail and discuss noise levels and site effects. The description documents technical information for any future studies involving data from temporary AlpArray stations.

  20. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  1. Subsurface characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Abydos Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, B.; Mousis, O.; Morse, A.; Marboeuf, U.; Jorda, L.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Andrews, D.; Barber, S.; Lamy, P.; Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mandt, K.; Morgan, G.; Sheridan, S.; Vernazza, P.; Wright, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the subsurface structure of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at the landing site of Rosetta's descent module Philae. We use a cometary nucleus model with an optimized parametrization and assume an initial composition derived from Rosetta/ROSINA measurements. We compare the CO and CO_2 outgassing rates derived from our model with those measured in situ by the Ptolemy experiment aboard the Philae module on November 12, 2014. We find results that allow us to place two main constraints on the subsurface structure of this region: a low CO/CO_2 molar ratio is needed in the nucleus, and the dust/ice mass ratio is higher at Abydos than in the rest of the nucleus. These specific constraints on Abydos support the statement of an important heterogeneity in 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's nucleus.

  2. Characterization of fines from the Apollo 16 site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.; Grant, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of Apollo 16 fines samples 61281,8; 65701,13; 66031,6; 67701,26; and 67712,16 observed microscopically during the course of size and magnetic separations. Sample 67712,16 is unique in that almost all grains are rounded and no glass welded aggregates are present. All samples except 67712,16 contained about 0.5 wt.% of metal fragments 45 microns or more in diameter including occasional spheres and large single crystals. Some of this metal showed rust spots. Moessbauer spectra showed all the samples to be high in olivine compared to samples from other Apollo sites and to vary significantly in modal composition from each other. The fine grained Fe metal content and the excess absorption area near zero velocity in the Moessbauer spectra both vary with particle size and regolith maturity in the way one would predict from our model of Fe metal reduction and agglomeration during glass aggregate formation.

  3. Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber.

  4. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2 - Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of sites as suitable for characterization. 960.3-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2 Nomination...

  15. Hydrogenation of biofuels with formic acid over a palladium-based ternary catalyst with two types of active sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zhang, Bingsen; Meng, Xiangju; Su, Dang Sheng; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-06-01

    A composite catalyst including palladium nanoparticles on titania (TiO2) and on nitrogen-modified porous carbon (Pd/TiO2@N-C) is synthesized from palladium salts, tetrabutyl titanate, and chitosan. N2 sorption isotherms show that the catalyst has a high BET surface area (229 m(2)  g(-1)) and large porosity. XPS and TEM characterization of the catalyst shows that palladium species with different chemical states are well dispersed across the TiO2 and nitrogen-modified porous carbon, respectively. The Pd/TiO2@N-C catalyst is very active and shows excellent stability towards hydrogenation of vanillin to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol using formic acid as hydrogen source. This activity can be attributed to a synergistic effect between the Pd/TiO2 (a catalyst for dehydrogenation of formic acid) and Pd/N-C (a catalyst for hydrogenation of vanillin) sites.

  16. Geostatistical methods for hazard assessment and site characterization in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Riefenberg, J.

    1996-12-01

    Ground control hazards, coal quality, ore reserve estimation, and pollution modeling seem unrelated topics from most mining perspectives. However, geostatistical methods can be used to characterize each of these, and more topics. Exploratory drill core data, and continued drilling and field measurements, can provide a wealth of information related to each of the above areas and are often severely underutilized. Recent studies have led to the development of the Multiple Parameter Mapping (MPM) technology, which utilizes geostatistics and other numerical modeling methods, to generate a {open_quotes}hazard index{close_quotes} map, often from exploratory drill core data. This mapping has been presented for ground control hazards relating roof quality, floor quality, numerically modelled stresses due to mining geometry, and geologic features. A review of the MPM method, future directions with the MPM, and a discussion of using these and other geostatistical methods to quantify coal quality, ore reserve estimation, and pollutant modeling are presented in this paper.

  17. Site characterization and performance assessment for a low-level radioactive waste management site in the American Southwest

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, G.J.; Sully, M.J.; Muller, C.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site located in southern Nevada, has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste since 1961. The site is located in the Mohave Desert of the American Southwest, an extremely arid region receiving as little as 0.1 m/yr of precipitation. Site characterization studies have measured the physical, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of core samples collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 3 deep boreholes that extend through the unsaturated zone to the uppermost aquifer. Results indicate that the unsaturated zone consists of 240 m of dry alluvial sediments and is remarkably uniform with respect to most physical parameters. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth showed no evidence of trends, layering, or anisotropy. Parameters for hydraulic functions were not highly variable and exhibited little trend with depth. Water potential profiles indicate that water movement in the upper alluvium is upward, except immediately following a precipitation event. Below the evaporative zone, the liquid flux was downward and of the same order of magnitude as the upward thermal vapor flux induced by the geothermal gradient. The extreme climatic conditions at the site reduce or eliminate many radionuclide release and transport mechanisms. Downward transport of radionuclides to the uppermost aquifer appears unlikely under current climatic conditions. Important radionuclide transport pathways appear to be limited to upward diffusion and advection of gases and biologically-mediated transport. Conceptual models of disposal site performance have been developed based on site characterization studies. The limited transport pathways and limited land use potential of the site provide reasonable assurance that regulatory performance objectives can be met.

  18. In vitro enantioselective displacement of propranolol from protein binding sites by acetyl salicylic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Z; Khabnadideh, S; Hemmateenejad, B; Dehghani, Z

    2007-09-01

    The influences of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) on the enantioselective binding of propranolol (PL) and its enantiomers to plasma proteins and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated. The equilibrium dialysis was employed for protein binding studies. We observed statistically significant displacement of racemic-PL, (+)-(R)-PL, and (-)-(S)-PL (0.1-10 microM) from their protein binding sites by ASA (200 microg/ml) and SA (100 microg/ml). ASA and SA displaced PL stereoselectivly from its binding sites. We concluded that ASA and its metabolite SA could change R/S ratio of PL unbound fractions and they might affect pharmacokinetic properties of PL.

  19. Characterization of the Suillus grevillei quinone synthetase GreA supports a nonribosomal code for aromatic α-keto acids.

    PubMed

    Wackler, Barbara; Lackner, Gerald; Chooi, Yit Heng; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2012-08-13

    The gene greA was cloned from the genome of the basidiomycete Suillus grevillei. It encodes a monomodular natural product biosynthesis protein composed of three domains for adenylation, thiolation, and thioesterase and, hence, is reminiscent of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). GreA was biochemically characterized in vitro. It was identified as atromentin synthetase and therefore represents one of only a limited number of biochemically characterized NRPS-like enzymes which accept an aromatic α-keto acid. Specificity-conferring amino acid residues--collectively referred to as the nonribosomal code--were predicted for the primary sequence of the GreA adenylation domain and were an unprecedented combination for aromatic α-keto acids. Plausible support for this new code came from in silico simulation of the adenylation domain structure. According to the model, the predicted residues line the active site and, therefore, very likely contribute to substrate specificity.

  20. Are carboxyl groups the most acidic sites in amino acids? Gas-phase acidities, photoelectron spectra, and computations on tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their conjugate bases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhixin; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kass, Steven R

    2009-01-28

    Deprotonation of tyrosine in the gas phase was found to occur preferentially at the phenolic site, and the conjugate base consists of a 70:30 mixture of phenoxide and carboxylate anions at equilibrium. This result was established by developing a chemical probe for differentiating these two isomers, and the presence of both ions was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Equilibrium acidity measurements on tyrosine indicated that deltaG(acid)(o) = 332.5 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1) and deltaH(acid)(o) = 340.7 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1). Photoelectron spectra yielded adiabatic electron detachment energies of 2.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.55 +/- 0.10 eV for the phenoxide and carboxylate anions, respectively. The H/D exchange behavior of deprotonated tyrosine was examined using three different alcohols (CF3CH2OD, C6H5CH2OD, and CH3CH2OD), and incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms was observed. Two pathways are proposed to account for these results, and all of the experimental findings are supplemented with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and G3B3 calculations. In addition, it was found that electrospray ionization of tyrosine from a 3:1 (v/v) CH3OH/H2O solution using a commercial source produces a deprotonated [M-H]- anion with the gas-phase equilibrium composition rather than the structure of the ion that exists in aqueous media. Electrospray ionization from acetonitrile, however, leads largely to the liquid-phase (carboxylate) structure. A control molecule, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, was found to behave in a similar manner. Thus, the electrospray conditions that are employed for the analysis of a compound can alter the isomeric composition of the resulting anion.

  1. Use of Electrical Conductivity Logging to Characterize the Geological Context of Releases at UST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk is the combination of hazard and exposure. Risk characterization at UST release sites has traditionally emphasized hazard (presence of residual fuel) with little attention to exposure. Exposure characterization often limited to a one-dimensional model such as the RBCA equa...

  2. Characterization of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 in cats.

    PubMed

    Graff, E C; Norris, O C; Sandey, M; Kemppainen, R J; Judd, R L

    2015-10-01

    The hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2) belongs to a family of nutrient-sensing receptors that bind β-hydroxybutyrate, an alternative fuel source produced during a negative energy balance. The HCA2 receptor has not been identified or characterized in cats. Therefore, the following were the objectives of this study: (1) identify the feline HCA2 receptor protein sequence and compare against known human and rodent sequences, (2) determine tissue distribution and relative expression in lean, healthy cats, and (3) demonstrate in vitro functionality in feline adipose tissue. Tissues (n = 6) and primary adipocytes (n = 4) were collected from lean, healthy, female cats. The published genomic sequence for cats was used to design primers for polymerase chain reaction isolation of HCA2. Relative tissue distribution was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with RNA isolated from 9 different tissues (spleen, pancreas, lymph node, jejunum, kidney, liver, heart, and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue). Receptor function was evaluated in primary feline adipocyte culture, and changes were compared with basal lipolysis. The in silico predicted feline HCA2 protein sequence exhibited 83.1% and 86.5% amino acid similarity to human and mouse sequences, respectively. The feline HCA2 receptor is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and spleen. Exposure of feline adipocytes to niacin, a pharmacologic ligand of HCA2, inhibited lipolysis to a similar degree as insulin, a potent lipolytic inhibitor. In conclusion, the feline HCA2 receptor is similar to human and murine receptors in sequence, distribution, and functionality. By gaining a better understanding of the HCA2 receptor in cats, we will be able to better manage feline patients.

  3. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Identification and characterization of columbid annexin Icp37. Insights into the evolution of annexin I phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Haigler, H T; Mangili, J A; Gao, Y; Jones, J; Horseman, N D

    1992-09-25

    Annexin I (AnxI) contains phosphorylation sites in its "hinge region" that have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and/or differentiation. A pigeon (Columba livia) isoform of this protein, annexin Icp35 (cp35), has a very similar amino acid sequence overall but an unrelated sequence that lacks phosphorylation sites in the hinge region. We now report the identification and characterization of annexin Icp37 (cp37) from pigeon. Genomic cloning and Southern blot analysis demonstrated that cp37 and cp35 were encoded by separated genes. Prolactin induced the expression of cp35 mRNA but not cp37. The amino acid sequence of cp37 was deduced from a cDNA clone and found to share 93 and 75% sequence identity with cp35 and human AnxI, respectively. The amino acid sequence of cp37 bore similarities to both AnxI and cp35 in the critical hinge region. Like AnxI, cp37 contained consensus phosphorylation sites in its amino acid sequence and was phosphorylated on tyrosine by the EGF receptor/kinase and on serine by protein kinase C in vitro. Despite the functional similarities between cp37 and AnxI, the nucleotide sequence that encoded the hinge region of cp37 was very similar to the analogous region of cp35, but different from that of AnxI. We propose that certain features shared by cp37 and AnxI are the products of convergent evolution. The fact that evolution independently selected for two annexin I-like genes (cp37 and anxI) encoding analogous phosphorylation sites is strong evidence that phosphorylation is important for the regulation of the biological activity of these proteins.

  5. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  6. Linking Spe Body-Wave Amplitudes and Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, R. J.; Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.; Wagoner, J. L.; Matzel, E.; Hauk, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the Source Physics Experiments is to investigate the generation and propagation of seismic waves from buried underground chemical explosions. Here we present results from an analysis of the tests up to date with emphasis on implications for discrimination and yield estimation using seismic data at very local (<20 km) distances. For example, previous work indicates that local (< 100 km) distance recordings of the SPE series do not appear to discriminate well using P/S ratios at some stations. We attempt to correlate variations in body wave amplitudes as a function of azimuth observed at very local ranges (< 20 km) with differences in 1) site effects; 2) path effects; 3) path topography; and 4) near-source (< 200 m) effects using both observations and modeling as a guide. Possible path effects are evaluated using a combination of existing geologic models combined with seismic velocity/attenuation models constructed using ambient noise tomography. Modeling is conducted with a finite-difference code capable of handling topographic effects. Near-source effects will rely on measurements of near-source geology, velocity models, and near-field observations (including spall) with focus on azimuthal variations.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of agricultural controllable humic acid superabsorbent.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lijuan; Wang, Shiqiang; Zhao, Xuefei

    2013-12-01

    Humic acid superabsorbent polymer (P(AA/AM-HA)) and superabsorbent polymer (P(AA/AM)) were synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization method using acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM) and humic acid (HA) as raw material. The effects of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) crosslinking agent, potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) initiator, reaction temperature, HA content, ratio of AA to AM, concentration of monomer and neutralization of AA on water absorption were investigated. Absorption and desorption ratios of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer were also investigated by determination of absorption and desorption ratio of NH4(+), PO4(3-) on P(AA/AM-HA) and P(AA/AM). The P(AA/AM-HA) and P(AA/AM) were characterized by Fourier translation infrared spectroscopy, biological photomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal conditions obtained were as follows: the weight ratio of MBA to AA and AM was 0.003; the weight ratio of KPS to AA and AM was 0.008; the weight ratio of HA to AA was 0.1; the mole ratio of AM to AA is 0.1; the mole ratio of NaOH to AA is 0.9; the reaction temperature was 60°C. P(AA/AM-HA) synthesized under optimal conditions, has a good saline tolerance, its water absorbency in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% saline solution is 1180 g/g and 110 g/g, respectively. P(AA/AM-HA) achieves half saturation in 6.5 min. P(AA/AM-HA) is superior to P(AA/AM) on absorption of NH4(+), PO4(3-). The SEM micrograph of P(AA/AM-HA) shows a fine alveolate structure. The biological optical microscope micrograph of P(AA/AM-HA) shows a network structure. Graft polymerization between P(AA/AM) and HA was demonstrated by infrared spectrum. The P(AA/AM-HA) superabsorbent has better absorbing ability of water and fertilizer, electrolytic tolerance and fewer cost than P(AA/AM) superabsorbent. PMID:25078843

  8. Site-specific incorporation of a fluorescent terphenyl unnatural amino acid.

    PubMed

    Lampkowski, Jessica S; Uthappa, Diya M; Young, Douglas D

    2015-11-15

    The site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins has a wide range of biological implications. Of particular interest is the incorporation of fluorescent probes as a mechanism to track protein function, transport, and folding. Thus, the development of a novel system for the incorporation of new fluorescent unnatural amino acids has significant utility. Specifically, we have elucidated an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase capable of recognizing a terphenyl UAA derivative, and charging a cognate tRNA with this amino acid for protein incorporation. Moreover, we have successfully incorporated this fluorescent UAA into GFP at several key residues, demonstrating a novel means to modulate fluorescence within the protein.

  9. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  10. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of acidic amino acids engineered into the active site cleft of Thermopolyspora flexuosa GH11 xylanase.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Turunen, Ossi

    2015-01-01

    Thermopolyspora flexuosa GH11 xylanase (XYN11A) shows optimal activity at pH 6-7 and 75-80 °C. We studied how mutation to aspartic acid (N46D and V48D) in the vicinity of the catalytic acid/base affects the pH activity of highly thermophilic GH11 xylanase. Both mutations shifted the pH activity profile toward acidic pH. In general, the Km values were lower at pH 4-5 than at pH 6, and in line with this, the rate of hydrolysis of xylotetraose was slightly faster at pH 4 than at pH 6. The N46D mutation and also lower pH in XYN11A increased the hydrolysis of xylotriose. The Km value increased remarkably (from 2.5 to 11.6 mg/mL) because of V48D, which indicates the weakening of binding affinity of the substrate to the active site. Xylotetraose functioned well as a substrate for other enzymes, but with lowered reaction rate for V48D. Both N46D and V48D increased the enzyme inactivation by ionic liquid [emim]OAc. In conclusion, the pH activity profile could be shifted to acidic pH due to an effect from two different directions, but the tightly packed GH11 active site can cause steric problems for the mutations.

  12. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    The following document comprises a critical evaluation of the DOE`s Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The comments address a number of issues related to the scientific methods involved in the proposed procedures of site characterization, the suitability and integration of the methods, and the validity of the approach taken by the DOE in the context of the NRC regulations. The SCP contains many improvements of the Draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) and the Environmental Assessment (EA), and fewer improvements of the SCP Consultation Draft. An obvious attempt has been made to address topics that were regarded in these previous reviews as deficiencies in the study program. For example, the activity and seismogenic potential of the Quaternary faults at Yucca Mountain are treated much more realistically than orignally proposed by the DOE, even though published data has not increased significantly since the DEA and EA were released. Water is now recognized as a resource, and faults and fault breccias are recognized as potential hosts for epithermal mineralization. There has, in addition, been considerable effort to incorporate a number of alternative conceptual models (involving both cross sections of Yucca Mountain and regional tectonic models) into the realm of tectonic hypotheses. There is a little doubt that the SCP proposes an exhaustive and wide-ranging scope of investigations for the purpose of site characterization, and that many of these investigations have been included by the DOE in response to critical reviews by external groups (such as the NRC and various State of Nevada agencies).

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-12

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

  14. Effective and site-specific phosphoramidation reaction for universally labeling nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Chih; Chen, Hsing-Yin; Ko, Ni Chien; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Wu, Min Hui; Wang, Li-Fang; Wang, Yun-Ming; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Eng-Chi; Wang, Tzu-Pin

    2014-03-15

    Here we report efficient and selective postsynthesis labeling strategies, based on an advanced phosphoramidation reaction, for nucleic acids of either synthetic or enzyme-catalyzed origin. The reactions provided phosphorimidazolide intermediates of DNA or RNA which, whether reacted in one pot (one-step) or purified (two-step), were directly or indirectly phosphoramidated with label molecules. The acquired fluorophore-labeled nucleic acids, prepared from the phosphoramidation reactions, demonstrated labeling efficacy by their F/N ratio values (number of fluorophores per molecule of nucleic acid) of 0.02-1.2 which are comparable or better than conventional postsynthesis fluorescent labeling methods for DNA and RNA. Yet, PCR and UV melting studies of the one-step phosphoramidation-prepared FITC-labeled DNA indicated that the reaction might facilitate nonspecific hybridization in nucleic acids. Intrinsic hybridization specificity of nucleic acids was, however, conserved in the two-step phosphoramidation reaction. The reaction of site-specific labeling nucleic acids at the 5'-end was supported by fluorescence quenching and UV melting studies of fluorophore-labeled DNA. The two-step phosphoramidation-based, effective, and site-specific labeling method has the potential to expedite critical research including visualization, quantification, structural determination, localization, and distribution of nucleic acids in vivo and in vitro.

  15. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J.; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949–1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale. PMID:25598701

  16. Characterization of the geology and contaminant distribution at the six phase heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Keenan, M.A.; Parker, W.H.; Poppy, S.P.; Simmons, J.L.

    1994-06-30

    The objective of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-arid Soils Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The focus of the third phase of the Integrated Demonstration is to evaluate the use of heating technologies, both radio frequency and ohmic heating, to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers. This report documents characterization data collected in support of the ohmic heating demonstration performed by researchers from PNL. The data presented and discussed in this report include a general description of the site including location of piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process, and detailed geologic cross sections of the study site, sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples, tabulations of moisture and VOC content of the sediments, models of the distribution of contamination before and after the test, and a comparison of the volume estimations of contaminated material before and after the test. The results show that the heating process was successful in mobilizing and removing solvent from the heated interval.

  17. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993. This report is the eighth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  18. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  19. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  20. Production and characterization of 166Ho polylactic acid microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Kamal; Yeganeh, Ehsan; Abolghasemi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Microsphere and particle technology with selective transport of radiation represents a new generation of therapeutics. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microspheres loaded with holmium-166 acetylacetonate ((166)Ho-PLLA-MS) are novel microdevices. In this research, (165)HoAcAc-PLLA microparticles were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres were irradiated at Tehran Research Reactor. The diameter and surface morphologies were characterized by particle sizer and scanning electron microscopy before and after irradiation. The complex stability, radiochemical purity, and in vivo biodistribiotion were checked in the final solution up to 3 days. In this study, (166)Ho-PLLA spherical particles with a smooth surface and diameter of 20-40 µm were obtained, which were stable in vitro and in vivo studies. Neutron irradiation did not damage the particles. The ease with which the PLLA spheres could be made in the optimal size range for later irradiation and their ability to retain the (166)Ho provided good evidence for their potential use in radioembolization.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Camci-Unal, Gulden; Cuttica, Davide; Annabi, Nasim; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Biomimetic hybrid hydrogels have generated broad interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin (hydrolyzed collagen) are naturally derived polymers and biodegradable under physiological conditions. Moreover, collagen and HA are major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in most of the tissues (e.g., cardiovascular, cartilage, neural). When used as a hybrid material, HA-gelatin hydrogels may enable mimicking the ECM of native tissues. Although HA-gelatin hybrid hydrogels are promising biomimetic substrates, their material properties have not been thoroughly characterized in the literature. Herein, we generated hybrid hydrogels with tunable physical and biological properties by using different concentrations of HA and gelatin. The physical properties of the fabricated hydrogels including swelling ratio, degradation, and mechanical properties were investigated. In addition, in vitro cellular responses in both two and three-dimensional culture conditions were assessed. It was found that the addition of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) into HA methacrylate (HAMA) promoted cell spreading in the hybrid hydogels. Moreover, the hybrid hydrogels showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to their single component analogs. The HAMA-GelMA hydrogels exhibited remarkable tunability behavior and may be useful for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Hyaluronic Acid-Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Camci-Unal, Gulden; Cuttica, Davide; Annabi, Nasim; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic hybrid hydrogels have generated broad interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin (hydrolyzed collagen) are naturally derived polymers and biodegradable under physiological conditions. Moreover, collagen and HA are major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in most of the tissues (e.g. cardiovascular, cartilage, neural). When used as a hybrid material, HA-gelatin hydrogels may enable mimicking the ECM of native tissues. Although HA-gelatin hybrid hydrogels are promising biomimetic substrates, their material properties have not been thoroughly characterized in the literature. Herein, we generated hybrid hydrogels with tunable physical and biological properties by using different concentrations of HA and gelatin. The physical properties of the fabricated hydrogels including swelling ratio, degradation, and mechanical properties were investigated. In addition, in vitro cellular responses in both two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) culture conditions were assessed. It was found that the addition of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) into HA methacrylate (HAMA) promoted cell spreading in the hybrid hydogels. Moreover, the hybrid hydrogels showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to their single component analogs. The HAMA-GelMA hydrogels exhibited remarkable tunability behavior and may be useful for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. PMID:23419055

  3. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  4. Absolute acidity of clay edge sites from ab-initio simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazi, Sami; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-10-01

    We provide a microscopic understanding of the solvation structure and reactivity of the edges of neutral clays. In particular we address the tendency to deprotonation of the different reactive groups on the (0 1 0) face of pyrophyllite. Such information cannot be inferred directly from titration experiments, which do not discriminate between different sites and whose interpretation resorts to macroscopic models. The determination of the corresponding pKa then usually relies on bond valence models, sometimes improved by incorporating some structural information from ab-initio simulations. Here we use density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations, combined with thermodynamic integration, to compute the free energy of the reactions of water with the different surface groups, leading to a deprotonated site and an aqueous hydronium ion. Our approach consistently describes the clay and water sides of the interface and includes naturally electronic polarization effects. It also allows to investigate the structure and solvation of all sites separately. We find that the most acidic group is SiOH, due to its ability to establish strong hydrogen bonds with adsorbed water, as it also happens on the quartz and amorphous silica surfaces. The acidity constant of AlOH2 is only 1 pKa unit larger. Finally, the pKa of AlOH is outside the possible range in water and this site should not deprotonate in aqueous solution. We show that the solvation of surface sites and hence their acidity is strongly affected by the proximity of other sites, in particular for AlOH and AlOH2 which share the same Al. We discuss the implications of our findings on the applicability of bond valence models to predict the acidity of edge sites of clays.

  5. In Situ Site Characterization Technologies Demonstrated at the INEEL in Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Kelly Clyde; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    1999-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)continually seeks safer, more cost-effective, and better performing technologies for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) sponsors Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) which are conducted at various DOE sites. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of the DOE sites for demonstration of these newa and improved technologies. The INEEL needs statement defines specific needs or problems for their D&D program. One of the needs identified at the INEEL was for new or improved site characterization technologies. A variety of in-situ site characterization technologies have been demonstrated through the INEEL LSDDP. These technologies provide a safer means of characterization, improved documentation, real-time information, improved D&D schedules, and reduction in costs and radiation exposures to workers. These technologies have provided vast improvements to the D&D site characterizations. Some of these technologies include: • The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System for large-area, surface gamma radiation surveys • Remote underwater characterization system• Identifying heavy metals in painted surfaces and determining the alloy composition in metallic material • In-Situ Object Counting System for free release • Real-time radiological data acquisition with the Surveillance and Measurement’s sodium iodide detector • Electromagnetic radiography to locate contaminated soils. Historically, site characterization has been a slow, costly, and tedious process. However, through these demonstrations, new technologies have provided more accurate data, real-time information, and enhanced site characterization documentation. In addition, a safer work environment has been established as a result of decreasing the worker’s time

  6. GC/MS Characterization of Fatty Acids Extracted From Southern African Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, L. G.; Billmark, K. A.; Swap, R. J.; Macko, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    Fatty acids of total suspended particulate aerosol samples, collected in Mongu, Zambia during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) field campaign, were analyzed to characterize emissions from an important source of aerosols in the southern African region. The sample site was chosen specifically so as to decrease the influence of industrial emissions and to focus primarily on the emissions from biomass burning, of which fatty acids are a significant component. Previous investigations in southern Africa have identified emissions from biomass burning as a significant contributor to the haze layer prevalent across the subcontinent. In order to better understand the origins of the materials within the haze layer, characteristic compounds of different source materials were identified in the aerosols. This characterization may clarify the contributions to total aerosol loads from other sources, including marine aerosols or mineral dust. By determining the distributions and concentrations of distinct organic components, this study enables future investigations to quantify the contribution of emissions from biomass burning at specific geographic locations.

  7. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites.

  8. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  9. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  10. PHYSICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ACID ROCK DRAINAGE AT REMOTE SITES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program, Activity III, Project 42, Physical Solutions for Acid Rock Drainage at Remote Sites, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy. A...

  11. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM TWO MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are someof the most environmentally damaging land uses i the US. Acid Mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exceed regulatory standards for safe disc...

  12. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  13. Characterization of a salicylic acid- and pathogen-induced lipase-like gene in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ah; Cho, Tae-Ju

    2003-09-30

    A cDNA clone for a salicylic acid-induced gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) was isolated and characterized. The cabbage gene, designated Br-sil1 (for Brassica rapa salicylate-induced lipase-like 1 gene), encodes a putative lipase that has the family II lipase motif GDSxxDxG around the active site serine. A database search showed that plant genomes have a large number of genes that contain the family II lipase motif. The lipase-like proteins include a myrosinase-associated protein, an anther-specific proline-rich protein APG, a pollen coat protein EXL, and an early nodule-specific protein. The Br-sil1 gene is strongly induced by salicylic acid and a nonhost pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, that elicits a hypersensitive response in Chinese cabbage. Treatment of the cabbage leaves with BTH, methyl jasmonate, or ethephon showed that the Br-sil1 gene expression is induced by BTH, but not by methyl jasmonate or ethylene. This indicates that the cabbage gene is activated via a salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway. An examination of the tissue-specific expression revealed that the induction of the Br-sil1 gene expression by BTH occurs in leaves and stems, but not in roots and flowers. Without the BTH treatment, however, the Br-sil1 gene is not expressed in any of the tissues that were examined.

  14. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Human N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing Acid Amidase

    PubMed Central

    West, Jay M.; Zvonok, Nikolai; Whitten, Kyle M.; Wood, JodiAnne T.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) is a lysosomal enzyme that primarily degrades palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), a lipid amide that inhibits inflammatory responses. We developed a HEK293 cell line stably expressing the NAAA pro-enzyme (zymogen) and a single step chromatographic purification of the protein from the media. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the zymogen (47.7 kDa) treated with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F (PNGase F) identified 4 glycosylation sites, and acid cleavage of the zymogen into α- and β-subunits (14.6 and 33.3 kDa) activated the enzyme. Size exclusion chromatography estimated the mass of the active enzyme as 45 ± 3 kDa, suggesting formation of an α/β heterodimer. MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting covered more than 80% of the amino acid sequence, including the N-terminal peptides, and evidence for the lack of a disulfide bond between subunits. The significance of the cysteine residues was established by their selective alkylation resulting in almost complete loss of activity. The purified enzyme was kinetically characterized with PEA and a novel fluorogenic substrate, N-(4-methyl coumarin) palmitamide (PAMCA). The production of sufficient quantities of NAAA and a high throughput assay could be useful in discovering novel inhibitors and determining the structure and function of this enzyme. PMID:22040171

  15. Amino acid sequence analysis and characterization of a ribonuclease from starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Itagaki, Tadashi; Inokuchi, Norio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to phylogenetically characterize the location of the RNase T2 enzyme in the starfish (Asterias amurensis). We isolated an RNase T2 ribonuclease (RNase Aa) from the ovaries of starfish and determined its amino acid sequence by protein chemistry and cloning cDNA encoding RNase Aa. The isolated protein had 231 amino acid residues, a predicted molecular mass of 25,906 Da, and an optimal pH of 5.0. RNase Aa preferentially released guanylic acid from the RNA. The catalytic sites of the RNase T2 family are conserved in RNase Aa; furthermore, the distribution of the cysteine residues in RNase Aa is similar to that in other animal and plant T2 RNases. RNase Aa is cleaved at two points: 21 residues from the N-terminus and 29 residues from the C-terminus; however, both fragments may remain attached to the protein via disulfide bridges, leading to the maintenance of its conformation, as suggested by circular dichroism spectrum analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that starfish RNase Aa is evolutionarily an intermediate between protozoan and oyster RNases. PMID:26920046

  16. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Yao, Jianzhuang; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Li, Guanglin; Guan, Ju; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

  17. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. RF1 Knockout Allows Ribosomal Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids at Multiple Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David B.F.; Xu, Jianfeng; Shen, Zhouxin; Takimoto, Jeffrey K.; Schultz, Matthew D.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Briggs, Steven P.; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Stop codons have been exploited for genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (Uaas) in live cells, but the efficiency is low possibly due to competition from release factors, limiting the power and scope of this technology. Here we show that the reportedly essential release factor 1 can be knocked out from Escherichia coli by fixing release factor 2. The resultant strain JX33 is stable and independent, and reassigns UAG from a stop signal to an amino acid when a UAG-decoding tRNA/synthetase pair is introduced. Uaas were efficiently incorporated at multiple UAG sites in the same gene without translational termination in JX33. We also found that amino acid incorporation at endogenous UAG codons is dependent on RF1 and mRNA context, which explains why E. coli tolerates apparent global suppression of UAG. JX33 affords a unique autonomous host for synthesizing and evolving novel protein functions by enabling Uaa incorporation at multiple sites. PMID:21926996

  19. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  20. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, and microbiology of the radio frequency heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Fliermans, C.B.; Looney, B.B.; Parker, W.H.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of the Integrated Demonstration Project for the Remediation of Organics at Nonarid Sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The first phase of the demonstration focused on the application and development of in situ air stripping technologies to remediate sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second phase focused on the enhancement of the in situ air stripping process by adding selected nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microorganisms that degrade VOCs. The purpose of the third phase was to evaluate the use of heating technologies [radio frequency (rf) and ohmic heating] to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers where mass transfer is limited. The objective of this report is to document pretest and post-test data collected in support of the rf heating demonstration. The following data are discussed in this report: (1) a general description of the site including piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process; (2) stratigraphy, lithology, and a detailed geologic cross section of the study site; (3) tabulations of pretest and post-test moisture and VOC content of the sediments; (4) sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples; (5) microbial abundance and diversity; (6) three-dimensional images of pretest and post-test contaminant distribution; (7) volumetric calculations.

  1. Characterization of carotenoid fatty acid esters from the peels of the persimmon Diospyros kaki.

    PubMed

    Hitaka, Yuki; Nakano, Ai; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Manabe, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Hideaki; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Separation and structural determination of the chloroform-soluble components obtained from the peels of the persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were performed. β-Carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin mono-myristic acid ester, zeaxanthin di-myristic acid ester, the latter two of which were accompanied by a small amount of palmitoleic acid in the fatty acid moiety, and oleanolic acid were identified. Among these components, the mono-fatty acid ester of β-cryptoxanthin and the di-fatty acid ester of zeaxanthin were characterized for the first time.

  2. Characterization of a bacterial community in an abandoned semiarid lead-zinc mine tailing site.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Monica O; Neilson, Julia W; Maier, Raina M

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial diversity in mine tailing microbial communities has not been thoroughly investigated despite the correlations that have been observed between the relative microbial diversity and the success of revegetation efforts at tailing sites. This study employed phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes to compare the bacterial communities present in highly disturbed, extremely (pH 2.7) and moderately (pH 5.7) acidic lead-zinc mine tailing samples from a semiarid environment with those from a vegetated off-site (OS) control sample (pH 8). Phylotype richness in these communities decreased from 42 in the OS control to 24 in the moderately acidic samples and 8 in the extremely acidic tailing samples. The clones in the extremely acidic tailing sample were most closely related to acidophiles, none of which were detected in the OS control sample. The comparison generated by this study between the bacteria present in extremely acidic tailing and that in moderately acidic tailing communities with those in an OS control soil provides a reference point from which to evaluate the successful restoration of mine tailing disposal sites by phytostabilization.

  3. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  4. Analytical methods for characterization of explosives-contaminated sites of U.S. Army installations

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, T.F.; Walsh, M.E.; Thorne, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    The US Army manufactures munitions at facilities throughout the United States. Many of these facilities are contaminated with residues of explosives from production, disposal of off-specification, and out-of-date munitions. The first step in remediating these sites is careful characterization. Currently sites are being characterized using a combination of on-site field screening and off-site laboratory analysis. Most of the contamination is associated with TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and their manufacturing impurities and environmental transformation products. Both colorimetric and enzyme immunoassay-based field screening methods have been used successfully for on-site characterization. These methods have similar detection capabilities but differ in their selectivity. Although field screening is very cost-effect, laboratory analysis is still required to fully characterize a site. Laboratory analysis for explosives residues in the United States is generally conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV detector. Air-dried soils are extracted with acetonitrile in an ultrasonic bath. Water is analyzed directly if detection limits in the range of 10--20 {micro}g/L are acceptable, or preconcentrated using either salting-out solvent extraction with acetonitrile or solid phase extraction.

  5. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D&D) characterization surveys performed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. (EG&G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D&D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ``hot`` and ``cold`` laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D&D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D&D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D&D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination.

  6. Integrating intrusive and nonintrusive characterization methods to achieve a conceptual site model for the SLDA FUSRAP site - 8265.

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L. A.; Peterson, J. M.; Frothingham, D. G.; Frederick, W. T.; Lenart, W.; Environmental Science Division; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburg District; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is addressing radiological contamination following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements at the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) site, which is a radiologically contaminated property that is part of the Formerly utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The SLDA is an 18-hectare (44-acre) site in Parks township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, about 37 kilometers (23 miles) east-northeast of Pittsburgh. According to historical record, radioactive wastes were disposed of at the SLDA in a series of trenches by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Company (NUMEC) in the 1960s. The wastes originated from the nearby Apollo nuclear fuel fabrication facility, which began operations under NUMEC in the late 1950s and fabricated enriched uranium into naval reactor fuel elements. It is believed that the waste materials were buried in a series of pits constructed adjacent to one another in accordance with an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) regulation that has since been rescinded. A CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process was completed for the SLDA site, and the results of the human health risk assessment indicated that the radiologically contaminated wastes could pose a risk to human health in the future. There are no historical records that provide the exact location of these pits. However, based on geophysical survey results conducted in the 1980s, these pits were defined by geophysical anomalies and were depicted on historical site drawings as trenches. At the SLDA site, a combination of investigative methods and tools was used in the RI/FS and site characterization activities. The SLDA site provides an excellent example of how historical documents and data, historical aerial photo analysis, physical sampling, and nonintrusive geophysical and gamma walkover surveys were used in combination to reduce the uncertainty in the location of the trenches. The

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  8. Creation of a thermostable NADP⁺-dependent D-amino acid dehydrogenase from Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain A1 meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hironaga; Doi, Katsumi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-09-01

    A thermostable, NADP(+)-dependent D: -amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was created from the meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase of Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain A1 by introducing five point mutations into amino acid residues located in the active site. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, was purified to homogeneity using a two-step separation procedure and then characterized. In the presence of NADP(+), the protein catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several D: -amino acids, including D: -cyclohexylalanine, D: -isoleucine and D: -2-aminooctanoate, but not meso-diaminopimelate, confirming the creation of a NADP(+)-dependent DAADH. For the reverse reaction, the corresponding 2-oxo acids were aminated in the presence of NADPH and ammonia. In addition, the D: -amino acid dehydrogenase showed no loss of activity at 65 °C, indicating the mutant enzyme was more thermostable than its parental meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase.

  9. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C.; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments. PMID:26308719

  10. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments.

  11. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M&O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky Flats

  12. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P. A.

    1998-05-28

    The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint inversion of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of underground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. Potential users include DOE scientists and engineers responsible for characterizing contaminated sites and monitoring remediation of contaminated sites. In this three-year project, we use a multi-phase approach consisting of theoretical and numerical code development, laboratory investigations, testing on available laboratory and borehole geophysics data sets, and a controlled field experiment, to develop practical tools for joint electrical and seismic data interpretation.

  13. Zinc-induced oligomerization of zinc α2 glycoprotein reveals multiple fatty acid-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Henna; Miah, Layeque; Lau, Andy M; Brochard, Lea; Hati, Debolina; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Zinc α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with a class I MHC protein fold and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Although its intrinsic ligand remains unknown, ZAG binds the dansylated C11 fatty acid 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) in the groove between the α1 and α2 domains. The surface of ZAG has approximately 15 weak zinc-binding sites deemed responsible for precipitation from human plasma. In the present study the functional significance of these metal sites was investigated. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and CD showed that zinc, but not other divalent metals, causes ZAG to oligomerize in solution. Thus ZAG dimers and trimers were observed in the presence of 1 and 2 mM zinc. Molecular modelling of X-ray scattering curves and sedimentation coefficients indicated a progressive stacking of ZAG monomers, suggesting that the ZAG groove may be occluded in these. Using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity, these ZAG-zinc oligomers were again observed in the presence of the fluorescent boron dipyrromethene fatty acid C16-BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid). Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that ZAG binds C16-BODIPY. ZAG binding to C16-BODIPY, but not to DAUDA, was reduced by increased zinc concentrations. We conclude that the lipid-binding groove in ZAG contains at least two distinct fatty acid-binding sites for DAUDA and C16-BODIPY, similar to the multiple lipid binding seen in the structurally related immune protein CD1c. In addition, because high concentrations of zinc occur in the pancreas, the perturbation of these multiple lipid-binding sites by zinc may be significant in Type 2 diabetes where dysregulation of ZAG and zinc homoeostasis occurs.

  14. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    We find the Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area (DOE/RW-0160) seriously deficient, in terms of establishing an investigative program to confidently characterize hydrogeologic and closely-related aspects of the proposed repository, in the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain. Most hydrogeological licensing criteria indirectly measure waste isolation provided by the geologic environment during pre- and post-closure conditions. We believe the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) generally fails to establish scientifically sound and feasible programs of investigation that will, in a timely and confident manner, resolve most of the hydrogeologic and geochemical licensing issues that have been recognized since the vadose-zone repository was first proposed at this location in 1982. The SCP generally fails in its responsibility because it does not objectively set aside the DOE conceptual model of a ``dry`` repository environment with extremely slow flow of water confined to the rock matrix. In the SCP, the DOE fails to establish a scientifically sound investigative program that seriously tests for hydrogeologic conditions based on the range of existing data and general knowledge. Rather, the DOE builds a probabilistic program upon a preconceived conceptual model, without designing a field-data collection program with the power to test the validity of the conceptual model. This is unacceptable in that the DOE program, as described in the SCP, plans to build numerical model after numerical model upon untested conceptual models, in attempts to ``resolve`` the fundamental licensing issues of waste isolation by the geologic barrier. If executed as planned, these analyses will have only a series of assumptions of their foundation and, therefore, can not resolve licensing issues. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

  16. Evidence of sulphur and nitrogen deposition signals at the United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network sites.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D M

    2005-09-01

    Some recent studies of trends in sulphate in surface waters have alluded to possible lag effects imposed by catchment soils, resulting in discrepancies between trends in deposition and run-off. To assess the extent of these possible effects in the UK, sulphate concentration data from the United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) sites are compared with estimates of sulphur deposition at each site. From these data, input-output budgets are computed at an annual time scale. The estimated budgets suggest a close association between catchment sulphur inputs and outputs at an annual scale, with well-balanced annual budgets at most sites, indicative of only minor lag effects. A similar analysis of the AWMN site nitrogen budget shows little evidence of an association between nitrogen inputs and outputs at this time scale.

  17. Modeling protein evolution with several amino acid replacement matrices depending on site rates.

    PubMed

    Le, Si Quang; Dang, Cuong Cao; Gascuel, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    Most protein substitution models use a single amino acid replacement matrix summarizing the biochemical properties of amino acids. However, site evolution is highly heterogeneous and depends on many factors that influence the substitution patterns. In this paper, we investigate the use of different substitution matrices for different site evolutionary rates. Indeed, the variability of evolutionary rates corresponds to one of the most apparent heterogeneity factors among sites, and there is no reason to assume that the substitution patterns remain identical regardless of the evolutionary rate. We first introduce LG4M, which is composed of four matrices, each corresponding to one discrete gamma rate category (of four). These matrices differ in their amino acid equilibrium distributions and in their exchangeabilities, contrary to the standard gamma model where only the global rate differs from one category to another. Next, we present LG4X, which also uses four different matrices, but leaves aside the gamma distribution and follows a distribution-free scheme for the site rates. All these matrices are estimated from a very large alignment database, and our two models are tested using a large sample of independent alignments. Detailed analysis of resulting matrices and models shows the complexity of amino acid substitutions and the advantage of flexible models such as LG4M and LG4X. Both significantly outperform single-matrix models, providing gains of dozens to hundreds of log-likelihood units for most data sets. LG4X obtains substantial gains compared with LG4M, thanks to its distribution-free scheme for site rates. Since LG4M and LG4X display such advantages but require the same memory space and have comparable running times to standard models, we believe that LG4M and LG4X are relevant alternatives to single replacement matrices. Our models, data, and software are available from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/models/lg4x.

  18. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  19. Number and strength of surface acidic sites on porous aluminosilicates of the MCM-41 type inferred from a combined microcalorimetric and adsorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Meziani, M.J.; Zajac, J.; Jones, D.J.; Partyka, S.; Roziere, J.

    2000-03-07

    A combined microcalorimetry and adsorption study has been used to characterize the surface acidity of two series of MCM-41 aluminosilicates (referred to as SiAlxCn, where x is the mole Si:Al ration and n the chain length of the surfactant template). {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning NMR spectra of a selected sample (SiAl32C16) indicates the presence of siloxane groups, Si(OSi){sub 4}, and three types of silanol groups, that is, single (SiO){sub 3}-Si-OH, hydrogen-bonded (SiO){sub 3}-SiOH{hor{underscore}ellipsis}HO-Si-(SiO){sub 3}, and germinal (SiO){sub 2}-Si(OH){sub 2}. It is also possible to detect the contributions from Si(3Si, 1Al) and Si(2Si,2Al) sites. The volumetric and calorimetric measurements of gas ammonia adsorption at 353 K were used to determine the number and strength of surface acidic sites. With the exception of H{sup +}-SiAl32C14 and SiAl8C14, all samples have low surface acidity. Following the pyridine-TPD study on SiAl9C14 sample, Lewis acid sites producing surface pyridine complexes constitute the strongest acidic site.

  20. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for High Spatial Resolution Image Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Scientists within NASA's Applied Sciences Directorate have developed a well-characterized remote sensing Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site has enabled the in-flight characterization of satellite high spatial resolution remote sensing system products form Space Imaging IKONOS, Digital Globe QuickBird, and ORBIMAGE OrbView, as well as advanced multispectral airborne digital camera products. SSC utilizes engineered geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, atmospheric monitoring equipment and their Instrument Validation Laboratory to characterize high spatial resolution remote sensing data products. This presentation describes the SSC characterization capabilities and techniques in the visible through near infrared spectrum and examples of calibration results.

  1. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico (Rev.1, Jan. 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-25

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  2. Mutation-selection models of coding sequence evolution with site-heterogeneous amino acid fitness profiles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    Modeling the interplay between mutation and selection at the molecular level is key to evolutionary studies. To this end, codon-based evolutionary models have been proposed as pertinent means of studying long-range evolutionary patterns and are widely used. However, these approaches have not yet consolidated results from amino acid level phylogenetic studies showing that selection acting on proteins displays strong site-specific effects, which translate into heterogeneous amino acid propensities across the columns of alignments; related codon-level studies have instead focused on either modeling a single selective context for all codon columns, or a separate selective context for each codon column, with the former strategy deemed too simplistic and the latter deemed overparameterized. Here, we integrate recent developments in nonparametric statistical approaches to propose a probabilistic model that accounts for the heterogeneity of amino acid fitness profiles across the coding positions of a gene. We apply the model to a dozen real protein-coding gene alignments and find it to produce biologically plausible inferences, for instance, as pertaining to site-specific amino acid constraints, as well as distributions of scaled selection coefficients. In their account of mutational features as well as the heterogeneous regimes of selection at the amino acid level, the modeling approaches studied here can form a backdrop for several extensions, accounting for other selective features, for variable population size, or for subtleties of mutational features, all with parameterizations couched within population-genetic theory. PMID:20176949

  3. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment.

  4. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-11

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once sites and problems have been located and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated wastes in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirements for long-term monitoring.

  5. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This report is the tenth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are descriptions of activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies. The Executive Summary is intended to provide a summary of major decisions, activities, accomplishments, and issues of interest during the reporting period. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides background information to assist the reader in understanding the current status of the program. Chapter 2 provides specific detailed discussions of activities conducted during the current reporting period and has two major divisions. Section 2.1, Preparatory Activities, provides information on select preparatory activities necessary to conduct site characterization and design activities. Sections 2.2 through 2.8 provide specific details on studies and activities conducted during the reporting period and follow the original structure of the Department`s 1988 Site Characterization Plan. Chapter 3 contains the current summary schedule, while Chapter 4 provides a description of the program outreach, including activities during the reporting period, in both the international program and public outreach. Chapter 5 presents an epilogue of significant events that occurred after the end of the reporting period.

  6. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  7. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  8. Schiff base structured acid-base cooperative dual sites in an ionic solid catalyst lead to efficient heterogeneous knoevenagel condensations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjue; Zhao, Pingping; Leng, Yan; Chen, Guojian; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jun

    2012-10-01

    An acid-base bifunctional ionic solid catalyst [PySaIm](3)PW was synthesized by the anion exchange of the ionic-liquid (IL) precursor 1-(2-salicylaldimine)pyridinium bromide ([PySaIm]Br) with the Keggin-structured sodium phosphotungstate (Na(3) PW). The catalyst was characterized by FTIR, UV/Vis, XRD, SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, thermogravimetric analysis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, elemental analysis, and melting points. Together with various counterparts, [PySaIm](3)PW was evaluated in Knoevenagel condensation under solvent and solvent-free conditions. The Schiff base structure attached to the IL cation of [PySaIm](3)PW involves acidic salicyl hydroxyl and basic imine, and provides a controlled nearby position for the acid-base dual sites. The high melting and insoluble properties of [PySaIm](3)PW are relative to the large volume and high valence of PW anions, as well as the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding networks among inorganic anions and IL cations. The ionic solid catalyst [PySaIm](3)PW leads to heterogeneous Knoevenagel condensations. In solvent-free condensation of benzaldehyde with ethyl cyanoacetate, it exhibits a conversion of 95.8 % and a selectivity of 100 %; the conversion is even much higher than that (78.2 %) with ethanol as a solvent. The solid catalyst has a convenient recoverability with only a slight decrease in conversion following subsequent recyclings. Furthermore, the new catalyst is highly applicable to many substrates of aromatic aldehydes with activated methylene compounds. On the basis of the characterization and reaction results, a unique acid-base cooperative mechanism within a Schiff base structure is proposed and discussed, which thoroughly explains not only the highly efficient catalytic performance of [PySaIm](3)PW, but also the lower activities of various control catalysts.

  9. The control of acid mine drainage at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketellapper, V.L.; Williams, L.O.

    1996-11-01

    The Summitville Mine Superfund Site is located about 25 miles south of Del Norte, Colorado, in Rio Grande County. Occurring at an average elevation of 11,500 feet in the San Juan Mountain Range, the mine site is located two miles east of the Continental Divide. Mining at Summitville has occurred since 1870. The mine was most recently operated by Summitville Consolidated Mining Company, Inc. (SCMCI) as an open pit gold mine with extraction by means of a cyanide leaching process. In December of 1992, SCMCI declared bankruptcy and vacated the mine site. At that time, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took over operations of the water treatment facilities to prevent a catastrophic release of cyanide and metal-laden water from the mine site. Due to high operational costs of water treatment (approximately $50,000 per day), EPA established a goal to minimize active water treatment by reducing or eliminating acid mine drainage (AMD). All of the sources of AMD generation on the mine site were evaluated and prioritized. Of the twelve areas identified as sources of AMD, the Cropsy Waste Pile, the Summitville Dam Impoundment, the Beaver Mud Dump, the Reynolds and Chandler adits, and the Mine Pits were consider to be the most significant contributors to the generation of metal-laden acidic (low pH) water. A two part plan was developed to control AMD from the most significant sources. The first part was initiated immediately to control AMD being released from the Site. This part focused on improving the efficiency of the water treatment facilities and controlling the AMD discharges from the mine drainage adits. The second part of the plan was aimed at reducing the AMD generated in groundwater and surface water runoff from the mine wastes. A lined and capped repository located in the mine pits for acid generating mining waste and water treatment plant sludge was found to be the most feasible alternative.

  10. Moleculary imprinted polymers with metalloporphyrin-based molecular recognition sites coassembled with methacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Mukawa, T; Matsui, J; Higashi, M; Shimizu, K D

    2001-08-15

    A diastereoselective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for (-)-cinchonidine, PPM(CD), was prepared by the combined use of methacrylic acid and vinyl-substituted zinc(II) porphyrin as functional monomers. Compared to MIPs using only methacrylic acid or zinc porphyrin as a functional monomer, PM(CD) and PP(CD), respectively, PPM(CD) showed higher binding ability for (-)-cinchonidine in chromatographic tests using the MIP-packed columns. Scatchard analysis gave a higher association constant of PPM(CD) for (-)-cinchonidine (1.14 x 10(7) M(-1)) than those of PP(CD) (1.45 x 10(6) M(-1)) and PM(CD) (6.78 x 10(6) M(-1)). The affinity distribution of binding sites estimated by affinity spectrum analysis showed a higher percentage of high-affinity sites and a lower percentage of low-affinity sites in PPM(CD). The MIPs containing a zinc(II) porphyrin in the binding sites, PPM(CD) and PP(CD), showed fluorescence quenching according to the binding of (-)-cinchonidine, and the quenching was significant in the low-concentration range, suggesting that the high-affinity binding sites contain the porphyrin residue. The correlation of the relative fluorescence intensity against log of (-)-cinchonidine concentrations showed a linear relationship. These results revealed that the MIP having highly specific binding sites was assembled by the two functional monomers, vinyl-substituted zinc(II) porphyrin and methacrylic acid, and they cooperatively worked to yield the specific binding. In addition, the zinc(II) porphyrin-based MIPs appeared to act as fluorescence sensor selectively responded by binding events of the template molecule.

  11. Characterization of a broad-scope amino acid transport system in sand dollars

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.; Bellis, S.; Stephens, G.C. )

    1988-03-01

    Both echinoderm embryos and adults take up {sup 14}C-labelled-{alpha}-amino acids by an apparent broad-scope transport system. This transporter can be characterized as follows: alanine transport is not blocked by {alpha}-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. Leucine and other lipophilic neutral amino acids are preferentially transported. Transport is sodium dependent and blocked by 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxyclic acid. Lysine and aspartate transport is inhibited by lipophilic neutral amino acids. Taurine, a {beta}-neutral amino acid is translocated via a second and independent carrier.

  12. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  13. Recognition of protein phosphorylation site based on amino acids sequence features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important reversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), and the theoretical recognition of the phosphorylation site is one of the important content of the computational biology. In the paper, we use the amino acid component, the position-dependent residue statistics and the non-adjacent residue pair frequency as the recognition parameters, and use Jensen-Shannon Divergence with Quadratic Discriminant analysis(JSDQD) as the method for predicting the phosphorylation sites. The 7-fold cross-validation test accuracies for the CK2, PKA and PKC kinase families are 90%, 90% and 86%, respectively.

  14. Estimates of cloud water deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program sites in the Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Ralph E; Isil, Selma S; Lavery, Thomas F; Rogers, Christopher M; Mohnen, Volker A

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman's Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO4(2-) greater than 50 kg/ha and NO3(-) rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) on the order of 6-20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80-90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition.

  15. Characterization of ascorbic acid uptake by isolated rat kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers-Komro, D.M.; McCormick, D.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Isolated kidney cells accumulated L(1-14C)ascorbic acid in a time-dependent manner and reached a steady state after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Initial velocity for uptake was over 300 pmol/mg protein per min when cells were separated from the bathing solution using a density gradient established during centrifugation. The uptake process was saturable with an apparent concentration at half maximal uptake of 36 mumols/L. Ascorbate uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent. Although ascorbic acid is an acid anion at pH 7.4, uptake did not appear to be inhibited by other acid anions such as p-aminohippurate and probenecid; however, involvement of the ion gradient established by Na+, H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase could not be confirmed. Replacing the sodium ion with other monovalent ions reduced the accumulation of ascorbate significantly. Isoascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids inhibited ascorbate uptake (34 and 13 mmol/L, respectively), whereas high concentrations of glucose showed some stimulation. These findings indicated that ascorbic acid is reabsorbed by the kidney in a sodium-dependent active transport process that is not common to other acid anions and has some specificity for the ascorbic acid structure.

  16. Structure and functional characterization of a bile acid 7α dehydratase BaiE in secondary bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Jones, David H; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D; Xu, Qingping; Farr, Carol L; Ridlon, Jason M; Wells, James E; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Hylemon, Phillip B; Lesley, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound [3-oxo-Δ(4,6) -lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)] complex are reported. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α + β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35, and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirm that these residues are essential for catalysis and also the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic studies reveal that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway. PMID:26650892

  17. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    SciTech Connect

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE`s Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report.

  18. Electrokinetic characterization of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Viota, J L; Arroyo, F J; Delgado, A V; Horno, J

    2010-04-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles consisting of a magnetite core coated with one or more layers of amino acid (L-arginine, L-lysine, glycine, and L-glutamine) is described in this paper. For all the amino acids it is found that adsorption increases with concentration in solution in the range 0.5-10 mg/mL. The adsorption, however, differs substantially from one amino acid to another, depending on the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the polarity and charge of the side group. Thus, for given concentration and pH, adsorption is found to increase in the order L-arginine < L-lysine < L-glutamine < glycine. This order corresponds roughly to amino acids with decreasing chain length; in addition, the presence of the less polarizable guanidine group in the arginine molecule may explain why this amino acid is slightly less adsorbed than lysine. The pH dependence of the adsorption of each amino acid is reasonably explained considering the surface charge of magnetite and the charge of the amino acid molecules for different pHs, indicating a significant role of electrostatics in adsorption. This is further checked by means of determinations of the electrophoretic mobility of amino acid-coated magnetite as a function of pH: the results indicate a shift of the isoelectric point of the raw magnetite toward more basic pHs, an indication of adsorption of positive species, as confirmed by the tendency of the mobility of amino acid-coated magnetite toward more positive values below neutral pH. The electrophoretic mobility of coated particles was also measured as a function of the concentration of amino acid, and it was found that for low concentrations the four amino acids provoke charge inversion and overcharging of the magnetite surface at pH 6. Finally, the dependence of the electrophoretic mobility on the ionic strength indicated that from an electrophoretic point of view, the functionalized magnetite-amino acid particles do not behave as soft particles, and that the amino acid

  19. Site-specific incorporation of keto amino acids into functional G protein-coupled receptors using unnatural amino acid mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shixin; Köhrer, Caroline; Huber, Thomas; Kazmi, Manija; Sachdev, Pallavi; Yan, Elsa C Y; Bhagat, Aditi; RajBhandary, Uttam L; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2008-01-18

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitous heptahelical transmembrane proteins involved in a wide variety of signaling pathways. The work described here on application of unnatural amino acid mutagenesis to two GPCRs, the chemokine receptor CCR5 (a major co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus) and rhodopsin (the visual photoreceptor), adds a new dimension to studies of GPCRs. We incorporated the unnatural amino acids p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine (Acp) and p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bzp) into CCR5 at high efficiency in mammalian cells to produce functional receptors harboring reactive keto groups at three specific positions. We obtained functional mutant CCR5, at levels up to approximately 50% of wild type as judged by immunoblotting, cell surface expression, and ligand-dependent calcium flux. Rhodopsin containing Acp at three different sites was also purified in high yield (0.5-2 microg/10(7) cells) and reacted with fluorescein hydrazide in vitro to produce fluorescently labeled rhodopsin. The incorporation of reactive keto groups such as Acp or Bzp into GPCRs allows their reaction with different reagents to introduce a variety of spectroscopic and other probes. Bzp also provides the possibility of photo-cross-linking to identify precise sites of protein-protein interactions, including GPCR binding to G proteins and arrestins, and for understanding the molecular basis of ligand recognition by chemokine receptors. PMID:17993461

  20. Ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock investigation of a zeolite acid site

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, J.B.; Hess, A.C. )

    1994-06-15

    We have studied theoretical models of a zeolite Bronsted acid site using ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock (PHF) theory. We present results for both one and two acid sites inside a sodalite structure ([beta]-cage). We optimized the geometry of the bridging hydroxyl groups using the STO-3G basis set. All other reported crystal properties were evaluated using the more complete 6-21G (in which the outermost orbital exponents were reoptimized for the solid) level of theory. The results of the periodic calculations are compared to available experimental data, similar periodic calculations of silica sodalite in which there are no acid sites, and calculations of clusters that mimic parts of the periodic structure. The optimized geometry of the single bridging hydroxyl group has internal coordinates of Si-O = 1.64 [angstrom], Al-O = 1.72 [angstrom], O-H = 0.97 [angstrom], Si-O(H)-Al = 136.3[degree], and Si-O-H = 110.7[degree], and the hydrogen is bent 25.2[degrees] out of the Si-O-Al plane. The optimized geometry of the bridging hydroxyl group in the two-acid site model is very similar, with Si-O = 1.65 [angstrom], Al-O = 1.72 [angstrom], O-H = 0.97 [angstrom], Si-O(H)-Al = 135.5[degree], Si-O-H = 112.7[degree], and an out-of-plane angle of 21.5[degree]. 42 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes. PMID:19754879

  2. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  3. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 3: Corrosion and data modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    This three-volume report serves several purposes. The first volume provides an introduction to the engineered materials effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. It defines terms and outlines the history of selection and characterization of these materials. A summary of the recent engineered barrier materials characterization workshop is presented, and the current candidate materials are listed. The second volume tabulates design data for engineered materials, and the third volume is devoted to corrosion data, radiation effects on corrosion, and corrosion modeling. The second and third volumes are intended to be evolving documents, to which new data will be added as they become available from additional studies. The initial version of Volume 3 is devoted to information currently available for environments most similar to those expected in the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This is volume three.

  4. DNA adducts of aristolochic acid II: total synthesis and site-specific mutagenesis studies in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Attaluri, Sivaprasad; Bonala, Radha R.; Yang, In-Young; Lukin, Mark A.; Wen, Yujing; Grollman, Arthur P.; Moriya, Masaaki; Iden, Charles R.; Johnson, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Aristolochic acids I and II (AA-I, AA-II) are found in all Aristolochia species. Ingestion of these acids either in the form of herbal remedies or as contaminated wheat flour causes a dose-dependent chronic kidney failure characterized by renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In ∼50% of these cases, the condition is accompanied by an upper urinary tract malignancy. The disease is now termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). AA-I is largely responsible for the nephrotoxicity while both AA-I and AA-II are genotoxic. DNA adducts derived from AA-I and AA-II have been isolated from renal tissues of patients suffering from AAN. We describe the total synthesis, de novo, of the dA and dG adducts derived from AA-II, their incorporation site-specifically into DNA oligomers and the splicing of these modified oligomers into a plasmid construct followed by transfection into mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Analysis of the plasmid progeny revealed that both adducts blocked replication but were still partly processed by DNA polymerase(s). Although the majority of coding events involved insertion of correct nucleotides, substantial misincorporation of bases also was noted. The dA adduct is significantly more mutagenic than the dG adduct; both adducts give rise, almost exclusively, to misincorporation of dA, which leads to AL-II-dA→T and AL-II-dG→T transversions. PMID:19854934

  5. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1986-01-01

    A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forests. The number of lakes affected in northeastern United States and on the Canadian Shield is thought to be enormous. Seasonal changes in lake transparency are examined relative to annual acidic load. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units is being examined. Finally, the utility of Thematic Mapper (TM) based observations is being used to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes.

  6. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1986-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollutants is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern United States and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. The principle objective is to examine how seasonal changes in lake water transparency are related to annual acidic load. Further, the relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units is being examined. Finally, the utility of Thematic Mapper (TM) based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes is being investigated.

  7. Characterization of chicken-liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-1 and A2-2 isoenzymes and their site-directed mutants heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli: identification of Lys-15 and Ser-208 on cGSTA1-1 as residues interacting with ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L F; Liaw, Y C; Tam, M F

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli-expressed chicken-liver glutathione S-transferase, cGSTA1-1, displays high ethacrynic acid (EA)-conjugating activity. Molecular modelling of cGSTA1-1 with EA in the substrate binding site reveals that the side chain of Phe-111 protrudes into the substrate binding site and possibly interacts with EA. Replacement of Phe-111 with alanine resulted in an enzyme (F111A mutant) with a 4.5-fold increase in EA-conjugating activity (9.2 mmol/min per mg), and an incremental Gibbs free energy (DeltaDeltaG) of 4.0 kJ/mol lower than that of the wild-type cGSTA1-1. Two other amino acid residues that possibly interact with EA are Ser-208 and Lys-15. Substitution of Ser-208 with methionine generated a cGSTA1-1(F111AS208M) double mutant that has low EA-conjugating activity (2.0 mmol/min per mg) and an incremental Gibbs free energy of +3.9 kJ/mol greater than the cGSTA1-1(F111A) single mutant. The cGSTA1-1(F111A) mutant, with an additional Lys-15-to-leucine substitution, lost 90% of the EA-conjugating activity (0.55 mmol/min per mg). The Km values of the cGSTA1-1(F111A) and cGSTA1-1(F111AK15L) mutants for EA are nearly identical. The wild-type cGSTA2-2 isoenzyme has a low EA-conjugating activity (0.56 mmol/min per mg). The kcat of this reaction can be increased 2. 5-fold by substituting Arg-15 and Glu-104 with lysine and glycine respectively. The KmEA of the cGSTA2-2(R15KE104G) double mutant is nearly identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. Another double mutant, cGSTA2-2(E104GL208S), has a KmEA that is 3.3-fold lower and a kcat that is 1.8-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results, taken together, illustrate the interactions of Lys-15 and Ser-208 on cGSTA1-1 with EA. PMID:9359434

  8. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  9. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANING UP BROWNFIELDS SITES: GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1741 SAIC. Technical Approaches to Characterizing and Cleaning up Brownfields Sites. EPA/625/R/00/009 (NTIS PB2002-105021) , Available: 68-C7-0011. The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the p...

  10. Design, synthesis, and characterization of nucleosomes containing site-specific DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John-Stephen

    2015-12-01

    How DNA damaged is formed, recognized, and repaired in chromatin is an area of intense study. To better understand the structure activity relationships of damaged chromatin, mono and dinucleosomes containing site-specific damage have been prepared and studied. This review will focus on the design, synthesis, and characterization of model systems of damaged chromatin for structural, physical, and enzymatic studies.

  11. Characterization of insertion sites in Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic tree-fruit crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, commercial papaya line 55-1 derivatives Rainbow and SunUp were characterized as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA t...

  12. New copper(II) complexes with dopamine hydrochloride and vanillymandelic acid: Spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; El-Nahas, R. G.

    2011-10-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. The Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of dopamine hydrochloride (DO.HCl) and vanillymandelic acid (VMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical techniques namely IR, magnetic and UV-vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Cu(II) forms 1:1 (Cu:DO) and 1:2 (Cu:VMA) chelates. DO behave as a uninegative tridentate ligand in binding to the Cu(II) ion while VMA behaves as a uninegative bidentate ligand. IR spectra show that the DO is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in a tridentate manner with ONO donor sites of the phenolic- OH, -NH and carbonyl- O, while VMA is coordinated with OO donor sites of the phenolic- OH and -NH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Cu(II) chelates in octahedral and square planar geometries with DO and VMA, respectively. The thermal decomposition of Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Novel Single-Site and Nanosized Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Matteo L.M.; Douglas, Thomas M.; Gaemers, Sander; Guo, Neng

    2013-01-10

    Novel single-site platinum catalysts have been synthesized by reacting platinum(II) organometallics with partially dehydroxylated silica. The resulting materials have been characterized by various methods such as IR, MAS NMR, and EXAFS. Further, the single-site platinum catalysts were calcined in air to remove the ligand and produce nanosized platinum particles, that were characterized by TEM and H{sub 2} chemisorption. All catalysts were tested for the hydrogenation of toluene. The single-site platinum catalysts were less active than a commercial Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst with comparable platinum loading, and this has been ascribed to ligand effects. Conversely, the nanosized platinum catalysts were more active than the commercial Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst due to their high dispersion and small particle sizes.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Materials characterization of phosphoric acid fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesh, Srinivasan

    1986-01-01

    The component materials used in the fabrication of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) must have mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical stability to withstand the moderately high temperature (200 C) and pressure (500 kPa) and highly oxidizing nature of phosphoric acid. This study discusses the chemical and structural stability, performance and corrosion data on certain catalysts, catalyst supports, and electrode support materials used in PAFC applications.

  16. Characterization of the hyperline of D1/D0 conical intersections between the maleic acid and fumaric acid anion radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Sumita, Masato

    2004-10-01

    The cation and anion radicals of symmetrical 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes are expected to have a symmetry-allowed conical intersection (CI) between the ground doublet state (D0) and the lowest excited doublet state (D1) near a 90°-twisted geometry. By the complete active space self-consistent field method, we characterized the hyperline formed by D1/D0 CIs between the anion radicals of maleic acid (cis) and fumaric acid (trans). An implication of the results for the known one-way cis→trans photoisomerization of the maleic acid anion radical and other related ion radicals is presented.

  17. Surface site density, silicic acid retention and transport properties of compacted magnetite powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayant, C.; Grambow, B.; Abdelouas, A.; Ribet, S.; Leclercq, S.

    In France, within the framework of investigations of the feasibility of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, studies on corrosion products of steel over packs are ongoing. Such studies concern silica and radionuclide retention. The objective of the present work is to study sorption of silicic acid on compacted magnetite in percolation cells to attempt to simulate confined site conditions. Potentiometric titration of commercial magnetite was carried out with both dispersed and compacted magnetite. The titration of the magnetite suspension has been made with two different methods: a batch method (several suspensions) and a direct fast method (one suspension). The Gran’s function gave 1.7 (±0.4) and 2.4 (±0.5) sorption sites nm -2 with these respective methods but site densities as high as 20/nm 2 could be obtained by modelling. The titration of magnetite compacted at 120 bars showed that the evolution of charge density on magnetite surfaces is similar for compacted and dispersed magnetite. Silicic acid sorption onto dispersed and compacted magnetite was similar with sorption site densities ranging between 2.2 and 4.4/nm 2.

  18. SOHPRED: a new bioinformatics tool for the characterization and prediction of human S-sulfenylation sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Renxiang; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-08-16

    Protein S-sulfenylation (SOH) is a type of post-translational modification through the oxidation of cysteine thiols to sulfenic acids. It acts as a redox switch to modulate versatile cellular processes and plays important roles in signal transduction, protein folding and enzymatic catalysis. Reversible SOH is also a key component for maintaining redox homeostasis and has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, due to redox imbalance. Despite its significance, the in situ trapping of the entire 'sulfenome' remains a major challenge. Yang et al. have recently experimentally identified about 1000 SOH sites, providing an enriched benchmark SOH dataset. In this work, we developed a new ensemble learning tool SOHPRED for identifying protein SOH sites based on the compositions of enriched amino acids and the physicochemical properties of residues surrounding SOH sites. SOHPRED was built based on four complementary predictors, i.e. a naive Bayesian predictor, a random forest predictor and two support vector machine predictors, whose training features are, respectively, amino acid occurrences, physicochemical properties, frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs and sequence profiles. Benchmarking experiments on the 5-fold cross validation and independent tests show that SOHPRED achieved AUC values of 0.784 and 0.799, respectively, which outperforms several previously developed tools. As a real application of SOHPRED, we predicted potential SOH sites for 193 S-sulfenylated substrates, which had been experimentally detected through a global sulfenome profiling in living cells, though the actual SOH sites were not determined. The web server of SOHPRED has been made publicly available at for the wider research community. The source codes and the benchmark datasets can be downloaded from the website. PMID:27364688

  19. SOHPRED: a new bioinformatics tool for the characterization and prediction of human S-sulfenylation sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Renxiang; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-08-16

    Protein S-sulfenylation (SOH) is a type of post-translational modification through the oxidation of cysteine thiols to sulfenic acids. It acts as a redox switch to modulate versatile cellular processes and plays important roles in signal transduction, protein folding and enzymatic catalysis. Reversible SOH is also a key component for maintaining redox homeostasis and has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, due to redox imbalance. Despite its significance, the in situ trapping of the entire 'sulfenome' remains a major challenge. Yang et al. have recently experimentally identified about 1000 SOH sites, providing an enriched benchmark SOH dataset. In this work, we developed a new ensemble learning tool SOHPRED for identifying protein SOH sites based on the compositions of enriched amino acids and the physicochemical properties of residues surrounding SOH sites. SOHPRED was built based on four complementary predictors, i.e. a naive Bayesian predictor, a random forest predictor and two support vector machine predictors, whose training features are, respectively, amino acid occurrences, physicochemical properties, frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs and sequence profiles. Benchmarking experiments on the 5-fold cross validation and independent tests show that SOHPRED achieved AUC values of 0.784 and 0.799, respectively, which outperforms several previously developed tools. As a real application of SOHPRED, we predicted potential SOH sites for 193 S-sulfenylated substrates, which had been experimentally detected through a global sulfenome profiling in living cells, though the actual SOH sites were not determined. The web server of SOHPRED has been made publicly available at for the wider research community. The source codes and the benchmark datasets can be downloaded from the website.

  20. Limestone characterization to model damage from acidic precipitation: Effect of pore structure on mass transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, S.D.; Reddy, M.M.; Irez, W.F.; Heymans, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The pore structure of Salem limestone is investigated, and conclusions regarding the effect of the pore geometry on modeling moisture and contaminant transport are discussed based on thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption analyses. These investigations are compared to and shown to compliment permeability and capillary pressure measurements for this common building stone. Salem limestone exhibits a bimodal pore size distribution in which the larger pores provide routes for convective mass transfer of contaminants into the material and the smaller pores lead to high surface area adsorption and reaction sites. Relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements of the air/water system indicate that Salem limestone exhibits high capillarity end low effective permeability to water. Based on stone characterization, aqueous diffusion and convection are believed to be the primary transport mechanisms for pollutants in this stone. The extent of contaminant accumulation in the stone depends on the mechanism of partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. The described characterization techniques and modeling approach can be applied to many systems of interest such as acidic damage to limestone, mass transfer of contaminants in concrete and other porous building materials, and modeling pollutant transport in subsurface moisture zones.