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Sample records for acid sodium butyrate

  1. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Satoko; Sugano, Naoyuki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Arai, Noriyuki; Ota, Noriko; Ito, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Butyric acid is detected in periodontal pockets and is thought to be involved in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. We examined the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage. The human gingival carcinoma cell line Ca9-22 was cultured in medium that contained butyric acid with or without sodium bicarbonate. The viability of cells treated with sodium bicarbonate was significantly higher than that of cells treated with butyric acid alone. The effects of butyric acid on ICAM-1 expression were significantly improved by sodium bicarbonate. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, sodium bicarbonate was indicated to be a useful therapeutic agent to reduce the butyric acid-induced periodontal tissue damage.

  2. Chronic treatment with valproic acid or sodium butyrate attenuates novel object recognition deficits and hippocampal dendritic spine loss in a mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Yuta; Kataoka, Shunsuke; Kawanai, Takuya; Maeda, Yuko; Watanabe, Ryo; Takano, Erika; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ago, Yukio; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in mice causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities, including social interaction deficits, anxiety-like behavior and spatial learning disability, in male offspring. In the present study, we examined the effect of prenatal VPA on cognitive function and whether the effect is improved by chronic treatment with VPA and sodium butyrate, histone deacetylase inhibitors. In addition, we examined whether the cognitive dysfunction is associated with hippocampal dendritic morphological changes. Mice given prenatal exposure to VPA exhibited novel object recognition deficits at 9 weeks of age, and that the impairment was blocked by chronic (5-week) treatment with VPA (30 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or sodium butyrate (1.2g/kg/d, i.p.) starting at 4 weeks of age. In agreement with the behavioral findings, the mice prenatally exposed to VPA showed a decrease in dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region, and the spine loss was attenuated by chronic treatment with sodium butyrate or VPA. Furthermore, acute treatment with sodium butyrate, but not VPA, significantly increased acetylation of histone H3 in the hippocampus at 30 min, suggesting the difference in the mechanism for the effects of chronic VPA and sodium butyrate. These findings suggest that prenatal VPA-induced cognitive dysfunction is associated with changes in hippocampal dendritic spine morphology.

  3. All-Trans Retinoic Acid and Sodium Butyrate Enhance Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A Gene Transcription: Role of Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prerna; Periyasamy, Ramu; Das, Subhankar; Neerukonda, Smitha; Mani, Indra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to delineate the mechanisms of GC-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene (Npr1) expression in vivo. We used all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaBu) to examine the expression and function of Npr1 using gene-disrupted heterozygous (1-copy; +/−), wild-type (2-copy; +/+), and gene-duplicated heterozygous (3-copy; ++/+) mice. Npr1+/− mice exhibited increased renal HDAC and reduced histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity; on the contrary, Npr1++/+ mice showed decreased HDAC and enhanced HAT activity compared with Npr1+/+ mice. ATRA and NaBu promoted global acetylation of histones H3-K9/14 and H4-K12, reduced methylation of H3-K9 and H3-K27, and enriched accumulation of active chromatin marks at the Npr1 promoter. A combination of ATRA-NaBu promoted recruitment of activator-complex containing E26 transformation–specific 1, retinoic acid receptor α, and HATs (p300 and p300/cAMP response element–binding protein-binding protein–associated factor) at the Npr1 promoter, and significantly increased renal NPRA expression, GC activity, and cGMP levels. Untreated 1-copy mice showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) compared with 2- and 3-copy mice. Treatment with ATRA and NaBu synergistically attenuated the expression of α-SMA and PCNA and reduced systolic blood pressure in Npr1+/− mice. Our findings demonstrate that epigenetic upregulation of Npr1 gene transcription by ATRA and NaBu leads to attenuation of renal fibrotic markers and systolic blood pressure in mice with reduced Npr1 gene copy number, which will have important implications in prevention and treatment of hypertension-related renal pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24714214

  4. Pharmacokinetics of butyric acid derivative with xylitol.

    PubMed

    Desmet, G; Brazier, M; Cerutti, J; Chany, C; Arnould-Guerin, M L

    1991-01-01

    The short chain fatty acids, especially butyric acid salts have interesting biological properties. In some cases, transformed cells can recover a normal phenotype and in animal, butyrate salts increase antitumor resistance. Butyrate may be considered as possibly useful for antitumor therapy. But these products exhibit two essential disadvantages which restrict their clinical use in man: high concentrations required to achieve therapeutic effects and rapid excretion with short half life. In order to optimize the clinical use of butyrate, we studied a n-butyric acid ester obtained with xylitol selected for its physiological and metabolic inertia. Structure determination of tributyryl xylitol was carried out by mass and NMR spectrometry (MW = 344). The low toxicity and the antitumor effects of this ester, especially in association with Corynebacterium parvum and interferon, confirm its therapeutic interest. The slow excretion of this prodrug should make butyrate clinical use easier by preventing extensive systemic metabolism and metabolic side-effects due to cations of butyrate salts.

  5. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production.

  6. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Park, Jae-Yeon; Mitchell, Robert J.; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches. PMID:22593687

  7. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Methods Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5–5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Results Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin

  8. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  9. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  10. Sodium Butyrate Controls Cardiac Hypertrophy in Experimental Models of Rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhoomika M

    2017-04-07

    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on partial abdominal aorta constriction (PAAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and determine its mechanism of action. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to PAAC for eight weeks. After eight weeks, we carried out hypertrophic and hemodynamic evaluation and measured oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial DNA concentration. PAAC control animals exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, decreased hemodynamic functions and oxidative stress. Treatment with SB reduced hypertrophic indices, LV wall thickness, LV collagen levels, cardiomyocyte diameter, serum lipid levels and serum cardiac biomarkers. Treatment with SB also improved hemodynamic functions, prevented oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial DNA concentration. Improvement in hypertrophy due to HDAC inhibition was further confirmed by HDAC mRNA expression studies which revealed that SB decreases expression of prohypertrophic HDAC, i.e., HDAC2, without altering the expression of anti-hypertrophic HDAC5. Sodium butyrate produces beneficial effect on cardiac hypertrophy as is evident, specifically from reduction in hypertrophic parameters including collagen levels, improvement in mitochondrial DNA concentration and preservation of LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. This beneficial effect of sodium butyrate is mediated through downregulation of class I HDACs, specifically HDAC2 without any effect on class II HDAC, i.e., HDAC5. Thus, selective class I HDAC inhibition is required for controlling cardiac hypertrophy. Newer HDAC inhibitors which are class I inhibitor and class II promoter can be designed to obtain a 'pan' or 'dual' natural HDAC 'regulators.'

  11. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  12. Sodium Butyrate Reduces Colitogenic Immunoglobulin A-Coated Bacteria and Modifies the Composition of Microbiota in IL-10 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tenghui; Ding, Chao; Zhao, Mingli; Dai, Xujie; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Yi; Gu, Lili; Wei, Yao; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    High levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated bacteria may have a role in driving inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We therefore investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on microbiota in IBD prone interleukin (IL)-10−/− mice. At 8 weeks of age, mice were allocated into three groups (n = 4/group): normal (C57BL/6), IL-10−/−, and IL-10−/− treated with sodium butyrate (100 mM). Severity of colitis, inflammatory cytokine and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in proximal colon contents, the percentage of IgA-coated bacteria and microbiota composition by 16S ribosomal RNA assessment of stool were measured after 4 weeks of treatment. Sodium butyrate ameliorated histological colitis and decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in IL-10−/− mice compared with those without treatment. At the phylum level, a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Firmicutes in IL-10−/− mice treated with sodium butyrate were observed. Additionally, Prevotellaceae species were reduced in IL-10−/− mice treated with sodium butyrate as compared with those without treatment. The level of biodiversity was slightly increased and the amount of IgA-coated bacteria decreased in IL-10−/− mice treated with sodium butyrate compared with those without treatment. Our results indicate that sodium butyrate protects against colitis, possibly through modifying the gut microbiota, enriching biodiversity and reducing the amount of colitogenic IgA-coated bacteria in IL-10−/− mice. PMID:27886121

  13. The synergistic effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate on the death of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Rie; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Azuma, Hideki; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2014-04-05

    It has been suggested that the combined effect of natural products may improve the effect of treatment against the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the combination of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), obtained from Alpinia galangal, and sodium butyrate, a major short chain fatty acid, on the growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and found that treatment had a synergistic inhibitory effect. The number of HepG2 cells was synergistically decreased via apoptosis induction when cells were treated with both ACA and sodium butyrate. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and NADPH oxidase activities were increased significantly. The decrease in cell number after combined treatment of ACA and sodium butyrate was diminished when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that an increase in intracellular ROS levels is involved in cancer cell death. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, plays an essential role in controlling processes related to tumor development. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, AMPK phosphorylation was induced significantly, and this induction improved when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that the increase in intracellular ROS is involved in the increase of AMPK phosphorylation. In normal hepatocyte cells, treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate did not decrease cell numbers or increase ROS levels. In conclusion, combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically induced apoptotic cell death via an increase in intracellular ROS and phosphorylation of AMPK. Our findings may provide new insight into the development of novel combination therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of multifunctional alginate microspheres via the in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots and the graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid to sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guilin; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Yingying; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor-loaded fluorescent alginate microspheres, which can realise sustained growth factor release and fluorescence imaging, were synthesised by in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and covalent graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid (PBA). BSA was chosen as a growth factor model protein to study the release kinetic of growth factors from alginate microspheres. The microsphere size and fluorescent properties were also investigated. Investigations of cell culture were used for evaluating biocompatibility of BSA-loaded fluorescent microspheres and fluorescence imaging property of ZnO QDs and PBA-grafted sodium alginate from the microspheres. The results show that they have good fluorescent property either to microspheres or to cells and fluorescent microspheres have good biocompatibility and property in sustained release of growth factors. The obtained microspheres will be expected to realise the imaging of cells and materials and also the release of growth factor in tissue engineering or in cell culture.

  15. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  16. The enhancement of phase 2 enzyme activities by sodium butyrate in normal intestinal epithelial cells is associated with Nrf2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Enami, Yuka; Kurajyo, Chika; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Konishi, Yotaro; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-11-01

    Dietary fiber fermentation by the colonic bacterial flora produces short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate. Among them, butyrate is considered to be the major energy substrate for colonocytes and, at least in rats, seems to protect against colonic carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect and the mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids on the activity of phase 2 enzymes. Sodium butyrate increased phase 2 enzyme activities in normal rat small intestine epithelial cells, Glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in a dose-dependent manner(;) however, other short-chain fatty acids did not increase them. The mechanism of the induction of phase 2 enzymes with sodium butyrate sodium butyrate, but not other short-chain fatty acids was related to the increase of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and the decrease in the levels of nuclear fraction p53. Sodium butyrate also caused enhancement of Nrf2 mRNA levels and suppression of p53 mRNA levels. Sodium butyrate enhances the activities of phase 2 enzymes via an increase in the Nrf2 protein levels in the nucleus and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of p53.

  17. Two cytotoxic cell proteinase genes are differentially sensitive to sodium butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Frégeau, C J; Helgason, C D; Bleackley, R C

    1992-01-01

    The 5'-flanking regions of two cytotoxic cell protease genes, CCP1 and 2, are sufficient to confer cytotoxic T lymphocyte-specific expression when fused to a reporter gene. The two regulatory regions are, however, differentially sensitive to treatment of the recipient cell, MTL 2.8.2, with sodium butyrate. With CCP1 a six-fold increase in cat expression was observed, whereas CCP2 was insensitive to the butyrate treatment. One major butyrate-sensitive regions was defined in the CCP1 5'-flanking sequence between -243 to -112 and another less effective one between-682 to -427. These fragments of DNA were also able to confer responsiveness to butyrate when ligated to a heterologous fos promoter. These sequences within the 5' flank of CCP1 share homology with other elements that have been defined as butyrate-responsive. We believe that our results argue against a pleiotropic affect of butyrate such as histone acetylation. More likely sodium butyrate is mediating a specific stimulation of transcription through modification of the activities of selected transcriptional regulatory proteins that in turn affect their interactions with proteins bound to the promoter. Images PMID:1620608

  18. Effects of dietary sodium butyrate on hepatic biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of erythromycin in chickens.

    PubMed

    Csikó, G; Nagy, G; Mátis, G; Neogrády, Z; Kulcsár, Á; Jerzsele, A; Szekér, K; Gálfi, P

    2014-08-01

    Butyrate, a commonly applied feed additive in poultry nutrition, can modify the expression of certain genes, including those encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In comparative in vitro and in vivo experiments, the effect of butyrate on hepatic CYP genes was examined in primary cultures of chicken hepatocytes and in liver samples of chickens collected from animals that had been given butyrate as a feed additive. Moreover, the effect of butyrate on the biotransformation of erythromycin, a marker substance for the activity of enzymes of the CYP3A family, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Butyrate increased the expression of the avian-specific CYP2H1 both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the avian CYP3A37 expression was decreased in hepatocytes following butyrate exposure, but not in the in vivo model. CYP1A was suppressed by butyrate in the in vitro experiments, and overexpressed in vivo in butyrate-fed animals. The concomitant incubation of hepatocytes with butyrate and erythromycin led to an increased CYP2H1 expression and a less pronounced inhibition of CYP3A37. In in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments, butyrate-fed animals given a single i.m. injection of erythromycin, a slower absorption phase (longer T(half-abs) and delayed T(max)) but a rapid elimination phase of this marker substrate was observed. Although these measurable differences were detected in the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin, it is unlikely that a concomitant application of sodium butyrate with erythromycin or other CYP substrates will cause clinically significant feed-drug interaction in chickens.

  19. The inhibitor of histone deacetylases sodium butyrate enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Gospodinov, Anastas; Popova, Stanislava; Vassileva, Ivelina; Anachkova, Boyka

    2012-10-01

    The use of histone deacetylase inhibitors has been proposed as a promising approach to increase the cell killing effect of DNA damage-inducing drugs in chemotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism of their action remains understudied. In the present article, we have assessed the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate on the DNA damage response induced by the crosslinking agent mitomycin C. Sodium butyrate increased mitomycin C cytotoxicity, but did not impair the repair pathways required to remove mitomycin C-induced lesions as neither the rate of nucleotide excision repair nor the homologous recombination repair rate were diminished. Sodium butyrate treatment abrogated the S-phase cell-cycle checkpoint in mitomycin C-treated cells and induced the G(2)-M checkpoint. However, sodium butyrate treatment alone resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species, double-strand breaks in DNA, and apoptosis. These results imply that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species-mediated increase in DNA lesion burden may be the major mechanism by which sodium butyrate enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C.

  20. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, J.Y.; Takahashi, S.

    1987-06-16

    HeLa S/sub 3/ cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S/sub 3/ cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S/sub 3/ cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product.

  1. 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( MCPB ) ; CASRN 94 - 81 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  2. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  3. Inhibition of mouse B16 melanoma by sodium butyrate correlated to tumor associated macrophages differentiation suppression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fen; Mou, Yun-Zhu; Xiang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As one member of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) family, Sodium butyrate (NaB) was found out that could be used as a differentiation inducer of much cancer cell. But its effects on tumor microenvironment cells are not well recognized. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of NaB on B16 melanoma and analysis its relevant mechanism. Methods: We observed the effect of sodium butyrate on B16 melanoma in vivo and in vitro. MTT method was performed to detect cell apoptosis rate after treatment. Tumor associated macrophage infiltration condition was detected by flow cytometry. Western-blotting and immunohistochemical method were used to detect the expression of tumor associated macrophage cytokines. Results: A certain concentration of sodium butyrate could effectively inhibit B16 melanoma growth in vivo and in vitro, and this inhibition effects related to the suppression of tumor associated macrophage differentiation. At the same time we observed the relevant macrophage factors were down-regulated compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium butyrate could effectively inhibit B16 melanoma growth through suppressing tumor associated macrophage proliferation and reduce relevant pro-tumor macrophage factors expression, which may help to promote the clinical study of melanoma epigenetic therapy. PMID:26064327

  4. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  5. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Thirkill, Twanda L.; Ji, Jennifer; Monte, Louise H.; Douglas, Gordon C.

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator) induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion). Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNFα production. The

  6. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid.

  7. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  8. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  9. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  10. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  11. Enhancement of memory consolidation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, Martina; Werenicz, Aline; Velho, Luciana Azevedo; Pinto, Diana F; Fedi, Ana Cláudia; Lopes, Mark William; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Roesler, Rafael

    2015-05-06

    Here we show that a systemic injection of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate (NaB) immediately after training in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task produced an enhancement of memory consolidation that persisted across consecutive retention tests during 14 days in aged rats, while it did not significantly affect memory in young adults. Control aged and young adult rats showed comparable basal levels of memory retention. Our results suggest that HDACis can display memory-enhancing effects specific for aged animals, even in the absence of age-related memory impairment.

  12. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  13. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  14. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells: Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei Hua; Coviella, Ignacio Lopez G.; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, S-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells were studied. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for 3 days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine (10 micro-M) or L-DOPA (100 micro-M) markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation (e.g. treatment with sodium butyrate) can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 cells. The inhibition of melatonin release by dopamine supports the hypothesis that in these cells, melatonin and dopamine are components of a retinal feedback loop.

  15. Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the close-up diet on performance of dairy cows in the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P; Flaga, J; Barteczko, A; Burakowska, K; Oprządek, J; Zabielski, R

    2015-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium butyrate microencapsulated within triglyceride matrix (Na-butyrate) in the close-up period on performance of dairy cows and rumen papillae development. In trial 1, 26 Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 2 groups (13 cows/group) and fed prepartum a total mixed ration (TMR) without or with 300g of Na-butyrate/d from 30 d before expecting calving to parturition. After calving, the same lactational TMR without Na-butyrate was offered to both treatments. Dry matter intake and milk yield were monitored daily to 60 d in milk, and body condition of cows was scored on d 30, 21, and 4 before parturition and d 14, 31, and 60 after parturition. On d 15, 10, and 5 before parturition blood samples were collected from 6 cows randomly chosen from each group and analyzed for plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations. No differences in dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, body condition score, or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations was observed between treatments; however, in the last 5 d before parturition the cows receiving Na-butyrate ate 1.7kg of DM/d more, on average, as compared with control cows. In trial 2, 12 Holstein-Friesian growing bulls (404±48; body weight ± SD) were used to determine the effect of Na-butyrate inclusion in the diet on rumen papillae development. Bulls were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 bulls/group) and fed TMR without or with 2% (on a dry matter basis) of Na-butyrate for 21 d. At the end of the study, bulls were killed and rumen fluid and rumen tissue samples from dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen were collected. No effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on BW of bulls and DMI during the trial period was observed. Sodium butyrate supplementation increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration in the rumen but had no effect on rumen pH, molar proportions of short-chain fatty acids, and NH3-N concentration

  16. In vitro intestinal bioaccessibility of alkylglycerols versus triacylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Martín, Diana; Morán-Valero, María I; Señoráns, Francisco J; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2011-03-01

    Butyric acid has been the subject of much attention last years due to its bioactivity. However, the potential advantages of butyrate are limited by the problem to reach enough plasma concentrations; therefore, pro-drugs have been proposed as an alternative to natural butyrate. A comparative study on in vitro intestinal digestion of 2,3-dibutyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (D-SCAKG) and tributyrin (TB), as potential pro-drugs of butyric acid, was performed. Aliquots were taken at different times of digestion for studying the extent and rate of hydrolysis of both substrates. The micellar phase (MP) and oily phase (OP) formed in the digestion media were separated and their composition in lipid products was analyzed. Initially, it was confirmed that the in vitro model reproduced physiological results by testing against olive oil as a standard lipid. The progress of in vitro intestinal digestion of D-SCAKG was slower than that of TB. TB hydrolyzed completely to butyric acid, whereas D-SCAKG mainly yielded 2-butyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (M-SCAKG), followed by butyric acid and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol (AKG). The MP from both substrates mainly consisted of butyric acid. Minor levels of M-SCAKG and AKG were also found in the MP after hydrolysis of D-SCAKG, the M-SCAKG being mainly distributed in the OP. Therefore, D-SCAKG produced a stable form of esterified butyric acid as M-SCAKG after in vitro intestinal digestion, unlike TB. Additionally, such a product would integrate both bioactive compounds, butyric acid and alkylglycerol, within the same molecule. Free butyric acid and AKG would be also released, which are lipid products of interest as well.

  17. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  19. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate promotes the osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yutuo; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Linghui; Zhu, Jingxian; Bi, Zhenggang; Ao, Yingfang; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-04-01

    Adult stem cells hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were found to be an appealing alternative to bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering. The main benefit of ADSCs is that they can be easily and abundantly available from adipose tissue. However, our prior study discovered an important phenomenon that BMSCs have greater osteogenic potential than ADSCs in vitro and epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression and thus osteogenesis. In this study, we aimed to improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu). We found that NaBu promoted rat ADSC osteogenic differentiation by altering the epigenetic modifications on the Runx2 promoter.

  1. Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Sandra Leon; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentiation markers filaggrin and transglutaminase 1. Co-treatment with EGF significantly blunted these effects of SB. Combined treatment with SB and PD153035 alleviated these inhibitory actions of EGF, resulting in improved effects of decreased cell growth and increased terminal differentiation, relative to the individual treatments. These results indicate that the combined use of a differentiation-promoting agent and an EGFR inhibitor may offer an additional approach to the management of hyperproliferative skin diseases. PMID:24451036

  2. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.

  3. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  4. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  5. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  6. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  7. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  8. Sodium butyrate attenuates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice by improving gut microbiota and gastrointestinal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Da; Pan, Qin; Xin, Feng-Zhi; Zhang, Rui-Nan; He, Chong-Xin; Chen, Guang-Yu; Liu, Chang; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether gut microbiota metabolite sodium butyrate (NaB) is an effective substance for attenuating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the internal mechanisms. METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups, normal control were fed standard chow and model group were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk, the intervention group were fed HFD for 16 wk and treated with NaB for 8 wk. Gut microbiota from each group were detected at baseline and at 16 wk, liver histology were evaluated and gastrointestinal barrier indicator such as zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry and realtime-PCR, further serum or liver endotoxin were determined by ELISA and inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes were quantified by real-time PCR. RESULTS NaB corrected the HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalance in mice, while it considerably elevated the abundances of the beneficial bacteria Christensenellaceae, Blautia and Lactobacillus. These bacteria can produce butyric acid in what seems like a virtuous circle. And butyrate restored HFD induced intestinal mucosa damage, increased the expression of ZO-1 in small intestine, further decreased the levels of gut endotoxin in serum and liver compared with HF group. Endotoxin-associated genes such as TLR4 and Myd88, pro-inflammation genes such as MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in liver or epididymal fat were obviously downregulated after NaB intervention. Liver inflammation and fat accumulation were ameliorated, the levels of TG and cholesterol in liver were decreased after NaB intervention, NAS score was significantly decreased, metabolic indices such as FBG and HOMA-IR and liver function indicators ALT and AST were improved compared with HF group. CONCLUSION NaB may restore the dysbiosis of gut microbiota to attenuate steatohepatitis, which is suggested to be a potential gut microbiota modulator and therapeutic substance for NAFLD. PMID:28104981

  9. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  10. Sodium butyrate reverses the inhibition of Krebs cycle enzymes induced by amphetamine in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Calixto, Karen V; Budni, Josiane; Resende, Wilson R; Varela, Roger B; de Freitas, Karolina V; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the possibility that mitochondrial impairment may play an important role in bipolar disorder (BD). The Krebs cycle is the central point of oxidative metabolism, providing carbon for biosynthesis and reducing agents for generation of ATP. Recently, studies have suggested that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have antimanic effects. The present study aims to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a HDAC inhibitor, on Krebs cycle enzymes activity in the brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by D-amphetamine (D-AMPH). Wistar rats were first given D-AMPH or saline (Sal) for 14 days, and then, between days 8 and 14, rats were treated with SB or Sal. The citrate synthase (CS), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The D-AMPH administration inhibited Krebs cycle enzymes activity in all analyzed brain structures and SB reversed D-AMPH-induced dysfunction analyzed in all brain regions. These findings suggest that Krebs cycle enzymes' inhibition can be an important link for the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in BD and SB exerts protective effects against the D-AMPH-induced Krebs cycle enzymes' dysfunction.

  11. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells - Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei H.; Lopez G.-Coviella, Ignacio; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for three days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine or L-DOPA markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 ceils.

  12. Therapeutic Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Allergic Rhinitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wen, Liting; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-documented therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) on various diseases, including arthritis and asthma, the therapeutic effect of HDACi on allergic rhinitis remains unmentioned in the literature. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of sodium butyrate (SoB), a form of HDACi, on mice with allergic rhinitis. The results showed that the expression levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were significantly upregulated in mice with allergic rhinitis, whereas H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) was decreased. The intranasal application of SoB inhibited the expression levels of TSLP levels and upregulated the expression of H3AcK9 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, SoB treatment significantly decreased the increased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and improved clinical symptoms and nasal mucosa epithelial morphology in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In addition, we further demonstrated that SoB treatment significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and decreased the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, correcting the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Taken together, our study suggests that SoB has the potential to treat allergic rhinitis.

  13. Effects of sodium butyrate on aversive memory in rats submitted to sepsis.

    PubMed

    Steckert, Amanda V; Comim, Clarissa M; Igna, Dhébora M Dall; Dominguini, Diogo; Mendonça, Bruna P; Ornell, Felipe; Colpo, Gabriela D; Gubert, Carolina; Kapczinski, Flávio; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-05-19

    Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in normal behavior and are implicated in several brain neurodegenerative conditions, psychiatric and inflammatory diseases as well. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that sepsis lead to an imbalance in acetylation of histones and that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can reverse this condition. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a microinjection of sodium butyrate (SB, HDACi) into cerebral ventricle on aversive memory in rats submitted to the sepsis. Rats were given a single intraventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) or SB and immediately after the stereotaxic surgery and the drug infusion, the animals were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The animals were killed twenty four hours or ten days after sepsis induction and the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cortex were obtained to the determination of histone deacetylase activity. In a separate cohort of animals 10 days after sepsis induction, it was performed the inhibitory avoidance task. SB administration was able to reverse the impairment in aversive memory and inhibited the HDAC activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 10 days after CLP. These support a role for an epigenetic mechanism in the long-term cognitive impairments observed in sepsis survivors animals.

  14. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  15. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  16. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. PMID:27822203

  17. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  18. Modulation of microRNAs expression in hematopoietic stem cells treated with sodium butyrate in inducing fetal hemoglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Behnoosh; Abrishami, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Minayi, Neda; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Dehghanifard, Ali; Atwan, Hossein; Ajami, Monireh; Ajami, Mansoureh

    2017-02-01

    Context Inherited hemoglobin diseases are the most common single-gene disorders. Induction of fetal hemoglobin in beta hemoglobin disorders compensate for abnormal chain and ameliorate the clinical complications. Sodium butyrate is used conventionally for fetal hemoglobin induction; it can be replaced by safer therapeutic tools like microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that control number of epigenetic mechanisms. Objective In this study, we compared the changes in the microRNAs of differentiated erythroid cells between control and sodium butyrate treated groups. The objective is to find significant association between these changes and gamma chain up regulation. Materials and methods First, CD133(+ ) hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood by magnetic cell sorting (MACS) technique. After proliferation, the cells were differentiated to erythroid lineage in culture medium by EPO, SCF, and IL3. Meanwhile, the test group was treated with sodium butyrate. Then, gamma chain upregulation was verified by qPCR technique. Finally, microRNA profiling was performed through microarray assay and some of them confirmed by qPCR. Result Results demonstrated that gamma chain was 5.9-fold upregulated in the treated group. Significant changes were observed at 76 microRNAs, in which 20 were up-regulated and 56 were down-regulated. Discussion Five of these microRNAs including U101, hsa-miR-4726-5p, hsa-miR7109 5p, hsa-miR3663, and hsa-miR940 had significant changes in expression and volume. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be assumed that sodium butyrate can up-regulate gamma chain gene, and change miRNAs expression. These results can be profitable in future studies to find therapeutic goal suitable for such disorders.

  19. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zetang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-04-05

    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant contained in a hollow-fiber membrane extractor for selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The extractant was simultaneously regenerated by stripping with NaOH in a second membrane extractor. The fermentation pH was self-regulated by a balance between acid production and removal by extraction, and was kept at approximately pH 5.5 throughout the study. Compared with conventional fermentation, extractive fermentation resulted in a much higher product concentration (>300 g/L) and product purity (91%). It also resulted in higher reactor productivity (7.37 g/L. h) and butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g). Without on-line extraction to remove the acid products, at the optimal pH of 6.0, the final butyric acid concentration was only approximately 43.4 g/L, butyric acid yield was 0.423 g/g, and reactor productivity was 6.77 g/L. h. These values were much lower at pH 5.5: 20.4 g/L, 0.38 g/g, and 5.11 g/L. h, respectively. The improved performance for extractive fermentation can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition by selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The solvent was found to be toxic to free cells in suspension, but not harmful to cells immobilized in the fibrous bed. The process was stable and provided consistent long-term performance for the entire 2-week period of study.

  20. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, David E.; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2005-08-25

    as a chemical are at $3.00 per gallon – wholesaling in 55 gallon drums for $6.80, with a worldwide market of 1.4 billion gallon per year. The market demand is expected to increase dramatically since butanol can now be produced economically from low-cost biomass. Butanol’s application as a replacement for gasoline will outpace ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen when its safety and simplicity of use are seen. Butanol’s application for the Department of Defense as a clean-safe replacement for batteries when used in conjunction with fuel cell technology is seen as an application for the future. Disposable canisters made of PLA that carry butanol to be reformed and used to generate electricity for computers, night vision and stealth equipment can be easily disposed of. In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic and acetic acids are produced first by C. acetobutylicum; the culture then undergoes a metabolic shift and solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) are formed (Fond et al., 1985). In conventional ABE fermentations, the butanol yield from glucose is low, typically at ~15% (w/w) and rarely exceeds 25% (0.77–1.3 gallons per bushel corn respectfully). The production of butanol is also limited by severe product inhibition. Butanol at a concentration of 10 g/L can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation. Consequently, butanol titers in conventional ABE fermentations are usually lower than 13 g/L. The low butanol yield and butanol concentration made butanol production from glucose by ABE fermentation uneconomical.

  1. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  2. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  3. Effect of feeding sodium butyrate in the late finishing period on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Leonard, Finola C; Grant, Jim; Yearsley, Dermot; Kelly, Sinead; Duffy, Geraldine; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2016-09-01

    Pork is an important source of human salmonellosis and low-cost on-farm control measures may provide a useful element in reducing the prevalence of this pathogen in food. This study investigated the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate administered to finisher pigs for ∼4-weeks prior to slaughter to control Salmonella shedding on highly contaminated farms. Two trials (A and B) were conducted on two commercial pig farms, which had a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. In both trials, pens (14 pens of 12 pigs/pen in Trial A and 12 pens of 12-17 pigs/pen in Trial B) were randomly assigned to a control (finisher feed without additive) or a treatment group (the same feed with 3kg sodium butyrate/t) for 24-28days, depending on the trial. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 12 and 24/28, and blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal/mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the slaughterhouse. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trials, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter. In Trial A, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group at the end of the trial (30% versus 57% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p<0.001). This reflected the serology results, with detection of a lower seroprevalence in the treatment compared to the control group using the 20% optical density cut-off (69.5% versus 89%; p=0.001). However, no effect on faecal shedding or seroprevalance was observed in Trial B, which may be explained by the detection of a concomitant infection with Lawsonia intracellularis. No significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes in either trial. Furthermore, feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ between groups (p>0.05) in either trial. Numerical improvements in weight gain and FCE were found with sodium butyrate treatment

  4. Effect of sodium butyrate on induction of cellular and viral DNA syntheses in polyoma virus-infected mouse kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wawra, E; Pöckl, E; Müllner, E; Wintersberger, E

    1981-01-01

    Sodium butyrate inhibited initiation of viral and cellular DNA replication in polyoma virus-infected mouse kidney cells. Ongoing viral or cellular DNA replication, however, was not affected by the presence of the substance. Butyrate had no effect on T-antigen synthesis and on the stimulation of transcription, one of the earliest reactions of the infected cells to the appearance of T-antigen, nor did it inhibit expression of late viral genes (synthesis of viral capsid proteins). In addition to blocking the onset of DNA synthesis, butyrate also inhibited stimulation of the activities of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis. When butyrate was removed, viral and cellular DNA syntheses were induced in parallel after a lag period of approximately 4 h. At the same time, the activities of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis increase. If protein synthesis was inhibited during part of the lag period, the initiation of DNA synthesis was retarded for the same time interval, suggesting that the proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication had to be made. We have developed an in vitro system for measuring DNA synthesis in crude nuclear preparations which mimics the status of DNA replication in intact cells and may help in future experiments to study the requirements for initiation of cellular and viral DNA synthesis and the possible involvement of T-antigens in this reaction. Images PMID:6264167

  5. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  6. The impact of a specific blend of essential oil components and sodium butyrate in feed on growth performance and Salmonella counts in experimentally challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Marín, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Gómez, E A; de la Fuente, J M; Durán, R; Fernández, C

    2014-03-01

    Essential oils (EO) and short-chain fatty acids have potential antimicrobial activity in broilers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific blend of EO and a combination of this blend of EO with sodium-butyrate on growth performance and Salmonella colonization in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male broilers were distributed into 5 treatments (8 pens per treatment and 12 birds per pen) and reared during 42 d in experimental conditions. Dietary treatments consisted of the addition of different doses of EO (0 mg/kg, control; 50 mg/kg, EO50 and 100 mg/kg, EO100) or a combination of EO with 1 g/kg of sodium-butyrate (B; EO50 + B, EOB50 and EO100 + B, EOB100) to a basal diet. All birds were orally infected with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis on d 7 of study. Individual BW and feed intake per pen were measured at arrival and on a weekly basis. The prevalence and enumeration of Salmonella in feces was determined per treatment at 72 h postinfection and on d 23 and 37 of study. At slaughter, cecal content and liver samples from 16 birds per treatment were cultured for Salmonella and cecal pH was measured. No differences were observed on growth performance among treatments. All fecal samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella from d 10 to the end of the rearing period. At slaughter, Salmonella contamination (positive samples) in cecum was lower in birds fed EOB50 compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas birds fed the control diet showed the highest colonization rates. The pH of the cecal content was not different among treatments. Thus, EO or its combination with sodium-butyrate did not affect growth performance. However, a clear effectiveness of these products was observed in Salmonella control, especially when low doses of EO were combined with sodium-butyrate (EOB50).

  7. Use of Sodium Butyrate as an Alternative to Dietary Fiber: Effects on the Embryonic Development and Anti-Oxidative Capacity of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets—(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)—intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF. PMID:24852604

  8. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  9. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications. PMID:25414496

  10. 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( 2,4 - DB ) ; CASRN 94 - 82 - 6 Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of chronic toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several Program Offices and the Office of Research and

  11. Effects of sodium butyrate supplementation on reproductive performance and colostrum composition in gilts.

    PubMed

    He, B; Wang, M; Guo, H; Jia, Y; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients are essential for the health and survival of human beings and animals. Also, they play a major role in enhancing reproductive efficiency. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on reproductive performance and colostrum composition in gilts. A total of 40 Large White×Landrace replacement gilts (at the age of 160 to 175 days) were fed either a standard diet (control group, n=20) or standard diet top dressed with encapsulated SB at the level of 500 mg/kg (SB group, n=20) from 1 month before mating to 7 days after farrowing. The rate of gilts regular return to estrus after insemination was lower in SB group than the control group. The total number of piglets born (P=0.179) and the litter weight at birth (P=0.063) did not differ between the two treatment groups. However, the mean BW at day 7 tended to be greater in SB group (P=0.051) and average daily gain of piglets was greater (P=0.011) compared with control group. Colostrum samples were collected at parturition and the concentrations of total protein (P=0.197), cholesterol (P=0.161) and lactose (P=0.923) were not influenced by SB supplementation. However, compared with control gilts, colostrum from SB-treated gilts contained lower triglyceride (P=0.050). Moreover, colostrum concentrations of prolactin (P=0.005) and leptin (P=0.006) were significantly lower in SB group. No significant differences were noted for the colostral concentrations of cortisol (P=0.899), thyroxine (P=0.891) or triiodothyronine (P=0.194). The concentration of lipopolysaccharide in colostrum was not influenced by SB supplementation (P=0.972). However, colostrum from SB-treated gilts had significantly lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (P=0.030) and higher immunoglobulin A (IgA) (P=0.042). Collectively, SB supplementation could reduce the rate of gilts return to estrus, alter the composition of colostrum and enhance the growth rate of piglets. Moreover, SB could alter the immune function

  12. Sirtuin-2 inhibition affects hippocampal functions and sodium butyrate ameliorates the reduction in novel object memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Kim, Dae Won; Choi, Jung Hoon; Chung, Jin Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) inhibitor AK-7 on novel object memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, we also observed the relationships with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the hippocampal functions. To investigate the effects of AK-7 on hippocampal functions, 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg AK-7 alone or in combination with subcutaneous administration of 300 mg/kg sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 21 days. A novel object recognition test was conducted on days 20 (training) and 21 (testing) of treatment. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemistry for Ki67 (cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, neuroblast differentiation). AK-7 administration significantly reduced the time spent exploring new objects, while treatment in combination with sodium butyrate significantly alleviated this reduction. Additionally, AK-7 administration significantly reduced the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus, while the treatment in combination with sodium butyrate ameliorated these changes. This result suggests that the reduction of SIRT2 may be closely related to age-related phenotypes including novel object memory, as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, sodium butyrate reverses SIRT2-related age phenotypes. PMID:28053616

  13. Pretranslational regulation of ectopic hCG alpha production in ChaGo lung cancer cells by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Nagelberg, S B; Burnside, J; Maniatis, A; Lippman, S S; Weintraub, B D

    1985-12-31

    Ectopic production of hCG and its free alpha subunit by ChaGo lung cancer cells is stimulated by sodium butyrate. To investigate pretranslational regulation in this system, we examined the response of the hCG alpha and beta subunit mRNAs in ChaGo-K1 cells, a clone that produces free hCG alpha but no hCG or hCG beta in the basal state. When a Northern blot of total RNA from ChaGo cells was hybridized to a [32P]- labeled hCG alpha cDNA probe, a single band was detected that was identical in size (approximately 850 bases) to placental hCG alpha mRNA. RNA from butyrate-stimulated (5 mM, 24 h) ChaGo cells contained 7.7 times as much hCG alpha mRNA as RNA from control ChaGo cells. This increase appeared to be relatively selective since no difference in total polyA-containing mRNA levels was detected between butyrate-treated and control cells by [32P]oligo(dT) hybridization. In addition, no hCG beta mRNA was detected when Northern and dot blots were hybridized to an hCG beta cDNA probe. In a time course experiment, hCG alpha mRNA accumulation in butyrate-treated cells increased significantly by 8 h with a maximum increase of 6.1-fold at 24 h compared to control values. Major differences in immunoactive hCG alpha accumulation were not apparent, however, until after 24 h. These studies show that stimulation of ChaGo hCG alpha production by butyrate can be completely accounted for by pretranslational events and that failure to detect hCG or free hCG beta production by these cells is not due to poorly translatable RNA or post-translational protein degradation. Thus, exclusive ectopic production of only one of the hCG subunits is likely to be due to selective genomic expression.

  14. Cortical and subcortical gamma amino acid butyric acid deficits in anxiety and stress disorders: Clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress disorders are a major public health issue. However, their pathophysiology is still unclear. The gamma amino acid butyric acid (GABA) neurochemical system has been strongly implicated in their pathogenesis and treatment by numerous preclinical and clinical studies, the most recent of which have been highlighted and critical review in this paper. Changes in cortical GABA appear related to normal personality styles and responses to stress. While there is accumulating animal and human neuroimaging evidence of cortical and subcortical GABA deficits across a number of anxiety conditions, a clear pattern of findings in specific brain regions for a given disorder is yet to emerge. Neuropsychiatric conditions with anxiety as a clinical feature may have GABA deficits as an underlying feature. Different classes of anxiolytic therapies support GABA function, and this may be an area in which newer GABA neuroimaging techniques could soon offer more personalized therapy. Novel GABAergic pharmacotherapies in development offer potential improvements over current therapies in reducing sedative and physiologic dependency effects, while offering rapid anxiolysis. PMID:27014597

  15. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  16. Chlorambucil-sensitive and -resistant lymphoid cells display different responses to the histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Kwa, Faith A A; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole; Kapuscinski, Miroslav

    2010-12-17

    Clinical chemoresistance is a frequent complication of alkylating agent treatment of malignant tumours. Chromatin remodelling using histone deacetylase inhibitors (e.g., sodium butyrate, NaBu) may increase target cell chemosensitivity. Apoptotic responses and expression of chromatin modifying enzymes in lymphoid cell lines, LP-1 and NCI-H929, to chlorambucil (CLB) and/or NaBu were examined in this study. NaBu augmented the apoptotic response in CLB-resistant LP-1 cells but antagonised it in CLB-sensitive NCI-H929 cells. CLB increased expression of methyltransferase I and histone acetyltransferase I in both cell lines while NaBu had only small effect. CLB-induced increased gene expression was attenuated by NaBu in CLB-sensitive NCI-H929 cells but not in resistant LP-1 cells. These results suggest that chromatin modifying agents may have differential effects on cells depending on their chemosensitivity.

  17. Study of liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin with sodium butyrate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu

    2016-08-01

    The liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin and sodium butyrate with tetrabutylammonium bromide as a phase transfer catalyst was studied in this paper. The shrinking core model was applied. The analysis of the reaction based on the kinetic model showed a reaction-controlled regime at temperatures varying from 90 to 100°C. The exterior diffusivity was removed between 300 and 400 rpm. The internal diffusivity was removed when the particle size was 2 × 10-4 m. Reaction rate constants were calculated at different temperatures. The correlation was obtained when the proposed kinetic model was applied to all the experimental data for predictive evaluations and the activation energy was 37.01 kJ mol-1.

  18. Diclofenac sodium loaded-cellulose acetate butyrate: effect of processing variables on microparticles properties, drug release kinetics and ulcerogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Nahla S; Ahmad, Amany A E

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize diclofenac sodium loaded-cellulose acetate butyrate microparticles in order to obtain a controlled-release system. The influence of the type of polymer, the volume and composition of the internal phase, drug loading, surfactant concentration and additive added on microparticles characteristics (particle size, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology and in vitro release profiles) was studied to optimize the microparticles system. The resultant microparticles were evaluated for the recovery, average particle size, drug loading and incorporation efficiency. The microparticles exhibited good flowing nature and compressibility index when compared to pure drug. Dissolution rate of diclofenac sodium in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) increased with increases in initial drug loading, surfactant concentration and addition of alcohol as co-solvent but decreased with increases in the concentration of additives such as Gantrez AN or Eudragit S100 in the internal phase. The dissolution data showed a Higuchi diffusion pattern for most of the formulations. About 56-81% reduction in ulcerogenic activity was observed with microparticles containing Eudragit S100 17-25%, based on total polymer concentration, when compared with pure diclofenac sodium.

  19. Digital mRNA profiling of N-glycosylation gene expression in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Gyun Min

    2014-02-10

    To understand the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu) on protein glycosylation, recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing Fc-fusion glycoprotein were subjected to 3mM NaBu. The addition of NaBu to the cultures reduced the relative proportion of acidic isoforms and sialic acid content of the glycoprotein. Fifty-two N-glycosylation-related gene expressions were also assessed by the NanoString nCounter system, which can provide a direct digital readout using custom-designed color-coded probes. Among them, ten genes (ugp, slc35a2, ganc, man1a, man1c, mgat5a, st3gal5, glb1, neu1, and neu3) were up-regulated and three genes (b4galt2, st3gal3, and neu2) were down-regulated significantly. Altered expression patterns in st3gal3, neu1, and neu3, which have roles in the sialic acid biosynthesis pathway, correlated with reduced sialic acid content of the glycoprotein by NaBu. Taken together, the results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the detrimental effect of NaBu on N-glycosylation in rCHO cells.

  20. Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Its Synthetic Amide Derivative on Liver Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in an Animal Model of Steatosis Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Simeoli, Raffaele; Russo, Roberto; Iacono, Anna; Santoro, Anna; Paciello, Orlando; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Canani, Roberto Berni; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be critical in its pathogenesis. We evaluated the effects of sodium butyrate (butyrate) and its synthetic derivative N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA) in a rat model of insulin resistance and steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Methods After weaning, young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups receiving different diets for 6 weeks: 1. control group (standard diet); 2. HFD; 3. HFD plus butyrate (20 mg/kg/die) and 4. HFD plus FBA (42.5 mg/Kg/die, the equimolecular dose of butyrate). Liver tissues of the rats were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR. Insulin resistance, liver inflammation and Toll-like pattern modifications were determined. Results Evaluation of these two preparations of butyrate showed a reduction of liver steatosis and inflammation in HFD fed animals. The compounds showed a similar potency in the normalisation of several variables, such as transaminases, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index, and glucose tolerance. Both treatments significantly reduced hepatic TNF-α expression and restored GLUTs and PPARs, either in liver or adipose tissue. Finally, FBA showed a higher potency in reducing pro-inflammatory parameters in the liver, via suppression of Toll-like receptors and NF-κB activation. Conclusions Our results demonstrated a protective effect of butyrate in limiting molecular events underlying the onset of IR and NAFLD, suggesting a potential clinical relevance for this substance. In particular, its derivative, FBA, could represent an alternative therapeutic option to sodium butyrate, sharing a comparable efficacy, but a better palatability and compliance. PMID:23861927

  1. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation.

  2. Partition coefficients for acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in a crude oil/water system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.A.; Borkowski, J.J.; Sears, J.T. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic acid concentration on the partition coefficients for short-chain organic acids were measured in a crude oil/water system. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, as probable substrates for microbial souring of oil reservoirs, were used in conjunction with two types of crude oil. Temperatures of 35--75 C, pH values of 4.0--7.0, and acid concentrations of 10--1,000 mg/L were studied. Initial naturally occurring levels of organic acids in the crude oils were also determined. pH had by far the largest effect on the partition coefficient for all three organic acids for both types oil. At conditions normally seen in an oil reservoir (pH 5--7), the great percentage (85+%) of these acids were dissolved in the aqueous phase. The log of the partition coefficient K increased approximately linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the acid. It was seen that organic acids are readily available carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at normal reservoir conditions, and that crude oil may provide a source of organic acids in a low-pH, water-flooded reservoir.

  3. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  4. Effect of sodium butyrate on pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2 differential secretion in pediatric tumors and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salvador, J; Armas-Pineda, C; Perezpeña-Diazconti, M; Chico-Ponce de León, F; Sosa-Sáinz, G; Lezama, P; Recillas-Targa, F; Arenas-Huertero, F

    2005-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes responsible for extracellular matrix degradation and contribute to local and distant cell invasion during cancer progression or metastasis. The effects of chromatin structure on gene expression and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors such as sodium butyrate (NaBu) may directly influence pro-MMPs secretion. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of NaBu on pro-MMP-9 and pro-MMP-2 secretion in human Jurkat and HT1080 cells, and in 36 pediatric solid tumors. Cell lines and samples were exposed to 8 mM of NaBu and proteinase activity was evaluated in the supernatant by gelatin zymograms. Our results showed, for Jurkat cells treated with NaBu, increases of 2-fold and 1.5-fold in pro-MMP-9 and pro-MMP-2 secretion, respectively. A 50% decrease in pro-MMP-9 secretion due to NaBu was observed in HT1080 cells. NaBu induced a 0.62 reduction in levels of pro-MMP-9 secretion in untreated tumors. For cell lines and some NaBu-treated tumors we found histone H4 hyperacetylation. We conclude that pro-MMPs gene expression and their secretion can be epigenetically mis-regulated in tumoral processes.

  5. Butyrate induces ROS-mediated apoptosis by modulating miR-22/SIRT-1 pathway in hepatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kishor; Yadav, Ajay K; Gupta, Parul; Islam, Rakibul; Saraya, Anoop; Venugopal, Senthil K

    2017-03-07

    Butyrate is one of the short chain fatty acids, produced by the gut microbiota during anaerobic fermentation of dietary fibres. It has been shown that it can inhibit tumor progression via suppressing histone deacetylase and can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the comprehensive pathway by which butyrate mediates apoptosis and growth arrest in cancer cells still remains unclear. In this study, the role of miR-22 in butyrate-mediated ROS release and induction of apoptosis was determined in hepatic cells. Intracellular expression of miR-22 was increased when the Huh 7 cells were incubated with sodium butyrate. Over-expression of miR-22 or addition of sodium butyrate inhibited SIRT-1 expression and enhanced the ROS production. Incubation of cells with anti-miR-22 reversed the effects of butyrate. Butyrate induced apoptosis via ROS production, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3, whereas addition of N-acetyl cysteine or anti-miR-22 reversed these butyrate-induced effects. Furthermore, sodium butyrate inhibited cell growth and proliferation, whereas anti-miR-22 inhibited these butyrate-mediated changes. The expression of PTEN and gsk-3 was found to be increased while p-akt and β-catenin expression was decreased significantly by butyrate. These data showed that butyrate modulated both apoptosis and proliferation via miR-22 expression in hepatic cells.

  6. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals’ digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  7. Low Concentration of Sodium Butyrate from Ultrabraid+NaBu suture, Promotes Angiogenesis and Tissue Remodelling in Tendon-bones Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghui; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Castro, Pollyana Ribeiro; Treacy, John; Ashworth, Jason; Slevin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu), a form of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acts classically as a potent anti-angiogenic agent in tumour angiogenesis models, some authors demonstrated that low concentrations of NaBu may contribute to healing of tendon-bone injury in part at least through promotion of tissue remodelling. Here, we investigated the effects of low-range concentrations of NaBu using in vitro and in vivo assays using angiogenesis as the primary outcome measure and the mechanisms through which it acts. We demonstrated that NaBu, alone or perfused from the UltraBraid+NaBu suture was pro-angiogenic at very low-range doses promoting migration, tube formation and cell invasion in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Furthermore, cell exposure to low NaBu concentrations increased expression of proteins involved in angiogenic cell signalling, including p-PKCβ1, p-FAK, p-ERK1/2, p-NFκβ, p-PLCγ1 and p-VEGFR2. In addition, inhibitors of both VEGFR2 and PKCβ1 blocked the angiogenic response. In in vivo assays, low concentrations of NaBu induced neovascularization in sponge implants in mice, evidenced by increased numbers of vessels and haemoglobin content in these implants. The findings in this study indicate that low concentrations of NaBu could be an important compound to stimulate angiogenesis at a site where vasculature is deficient and healing is compromised. PMID:27694930

  8. Increased papillae growth and enhanced short-chain fatty acid absorption in the rumen of goats are associated with transient increases in cyclin D1 expression after ruminal butyrate infusion.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Moolchand; Gui, Hongbing; Yao, Lei; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Gäbel, Gotthold; Shen, Zanming

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the proliferative effects of intraruminal butyrate infusions on the ruminal epithelium are linked to upregulation in cyclin D1 (CCND1), the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and their possible association with enhanced absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Goats (n=23) in 2 experiments (Exp.) were fed 200 g/d concentrate and hay ad libitum. In Exp. 1, goats received an intraruminal infusion of sodium butyrate at 0.3 (group B, n=8) or 0 (group C, n=7) g/kg of body weight (BW) per day before morning feeding for 28 d and were slaughtered 8 h after the butyrate infusion. In Exp. 2, goats (n=8) received butyrate infusion and feeding as in Exp. 1. On d 28, epithelial samples were biopsied from the antrium ruminis at 0, 3, and 7 h after the last butyrate infusion. In Exp. 1, the ruminal molar proportional concentration of butyrate increased in group B by about 110% after butyrate infusion and remained elevated for 1.5 h; thereafter, it gradually returned to the baseline (preinfusion) level. In group C, the molar proportional concentration of butyrate was unchanged over the time points. The length and width of papillae increased in B compared with C; this was associated with increased numbers of cells and cell layers in the epithelial strata and an increase in the surface area of 82%. The mRNA expression of CCND1 increased transiently at 3 h but returned to the preinfusion level at 7 h following butyrate infusion in Exp. 2. However, it did not differ between B and C in Exp. 1, in which the ruminal epithelium was sampled at 8 h after butyrate infusion. The mRNA expression of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4, but not MCT1, was stably upregulated in B compared with C. The estimated absorption rate of total SCFA (%/h) increased in B compared with C. We conclude that transient increases in cyclin D1 transcription contribute to butyrate-induced papillae growth and subsequently to the increased absorption of SCFA in the ruminal epithelium

  9. Sodium butyrate enhances STAT 1 expression in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells and augments their responsiveness to interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hung, W C; Chuang, L Y

    1999-05-01

    Although interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has shown great promise in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, the anti-tumour effect of this agent in the therapy of liver cancer is unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that differentiation-inducing agents could modulate the responsiveness of cancer cells to IFN-alpha by regulating the expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, a group of transcription factors which play important roles in the IFN signalling pathway. We have reported that sodium butyrate is a potent differentiation inducer for human hepatoma cells. In this study, we investigated whether this drug could regulate the expression of STAT proteins and enhance the anti-tumour effect of IFN-alpha in hepatoma cells. We found that sodium butyrate specifically activated STAT1 gene expression and enhanced IFN-alpha-induced phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 proteins. Co-treatment with these two drugs led to G1 growth arrest, accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21WAF-1, and accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in hepatoma cells. Additionally, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, a biological hallmark of apoptosis, was detected in hepatoma cells after continuous incubation with a combination of these two drugs for 72 h. Our results show that sodium butyrate potently enhances the anti-tumour effect of IFN-alpha in vitro and suggest that a rational combination of these two drugs may be useful for the treatment of liver cancer.

  10. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  11. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp.

  12. [Sodium butyrate inhibits HMGB1 expression and release and attenuates concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Gong, Quan; Chen, Mao-Jian; Wang, Chao; Nie, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Xiang; Shu, Ke-Gang; Li, Gang

    2014-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the protective effects of sodium butyrate (SB) pretreatment on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced acute liver injury in mice. The model animals were first administered intraperitoneally with SB. Half an hour later, acute liver injury mouse model was established by caudal vein injection with Con A (15 mg/kg). Then, levels of serous alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured using standard clinical method by an automated chemistry analyzer, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were measured by ELISA, and pathological changes in hepatic tissue were observed by using HE staining and light microscopy. The expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were assessed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The results showed that the pretreatment of SB significantly protected Con A-treated mice from liver injury as evidenced by the decrease of serum ALT, AST (P < 0.01) and reduction of hepatic tissues necrosis. SB also decreased levels of serous TNF-α and IFN-γ (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the expression and release of HMGB1 were markedly inhibited by SB pretreatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These results suggest that the attenuating effect of SB on Con A-induced acute liver injury may be due to its role of reducing the TNF-α and IFN-γ production, and inhibiting HMGB1 expression and release.

  13. Sodium butyrate reduces insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat: A comparative study with metformin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-07-25

    Recent evidences highlighted that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can deacetylate the histone, various transcription factors and regulatory proteins, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) and metformin on the glucose homeostasis, insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg). NaB at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg twice daily as well as metformin (as a positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 consecutive weeks were administered by i.p. and oral route, respectively. NaB treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and gluconeogenesis, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, NaB treatment ameliorated the micro- and macro-vesicular steatosis in liver and fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (adipocytes hypertrophy) as well as pancreatic beta-cell damage. In the present study, both NaB and metformin inhibited the diabetes-associated increased HDACs activity, thereby increased the acetylation of histone H3 in liver. The present findings demonstrated that NaB and metformin reduced insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, fat accumulation and gluconeogenesis thereby improved the glucose homeostasis in rat. Thus, NaB might be a promising molecule for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  14. Sodium Butyrate Protects Against High Fat Diet-induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Metabolic Disorders in Type II Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Du, Jianfeng; Yano, Naohiro; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yu Tina; Patricia, Dubielecka-Szczerba; Zhuang, Shougang; Chin, Eugene Y; Qin, Gangjian; Zhao, Ting C

    2017-01-21

    Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively. Glucose intolerance, metabolic parameters, cardiac function, and remodeling were assessed. Histological analysis and cellular signaling were examined at 24 weeks following euthanization of mice. HFD-fed mice demonstrated myocardial dysfunction and profound interstitial fibrosis, which were attenuated by HDAC inhibition. HFD-induced metabolic syndrome features insulin resistance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, lipid accumulations, and cardiac hypertrophy, these effects were prevented by HDAC inhibition. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition attenuated myocyte apoptosis, reduced production of reactive oxygen species, and increased angiogenesis in the HFD-fed myocardium. Notably, HFD induced decreases in MKK3, p38, p38 regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) and Akt-1, but not p44/42 phosphorylation, which were prevented by HDAC inhibition. These results suggest that HDAC inhibition plays a critical role to preserve cardiac performance and mitigate metabolic disorders in obesity and diabetes, which is associated with MKK3/p38/PRAK pathway. The study holds promise in developing a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of type II diabetic-induced heart failure and metabolic disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ entry counteracts the apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells induced by sodium butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Ren, Caiping; Huang, Guoling; Liu, Jie; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Feng, Xiangling; Shi, Jia; Li, Jinlong; Xia, Xiaomeng; Jia, Wei; Chen, Jiawen; Chen, Yuxiang; Jiang, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated anti-tumor effects in several cancers, and is a promising candidate chemotherapeutic agent. However, its roles in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an endemic malignant disease in Southern China and Southeast Asia, has rarely been studied. In the present study, MTT assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry analysis and western blotting were performed to explore the influence of NaBu on NPC cells and its underlying mechanism. NaBu induced morphological changes and inhibited proliferation in 5–8F and 6–10B cells. MTT assay revealed that NaBu was cytotoxic to 5–8F and 6–10B cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis revealed that NaBu induced obvious cell apoptosis in 5–8F and 6–10B cells due to the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis axis. In addition, flow cytometry analysis and western blotting demonstrated that NaBu could enhance the Ca2+ influx by promoting store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in 5–8F and 6–10B cells. Inhibition of SOCE by specific inhibitors or downregulated expression of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 could counteract the apoptosis of NPC cells induced by NaBu. Thus, the current study revealed that enhanced SOCE and activated mitochondrial apoptosis axis may account for the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of NaBu in NPC cells, and that NaBu serves as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in NPC therapy. PMID:28356979

  16. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid.

  17. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  18. Butyric acid released during milk lipolysis triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Pasvolsky, Ronit; Zakin, Varda; Ostrova, Ievgeniia; Shemesh, Moshe

    2014-07-02

    Bacillus species form biofilms within milking pipelines and on surfaces of equipment in the dairy industry which represent a continuous hygiene problem and can lead to serious economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. Although much is known about the mechanism by which the model organism Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in laboratory mediums in vitro, little is known of how these biofilms are formed in natural environments such as milk. Besides, little is known of the signaling pathways leading to biofilm formation in other Bacillus species, such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis, both of which are known to contaminate milk. In this study, we report that milk triggers the formation of biofilm-related structures, termed bundles. We show this to be a conserved phenomenon among all Bacillus members tested. Moreover, we demonstrate that the tasA gene, which encodes a major portion of the matrix which holds the biofilm together, is vital for this process. Furthermore, we show that the free fatty acid (FFA) - butyric acid (BA), which is released during lipolysis of milk fat and demonstrates antimicrobial activity, is the potent trigger for biofilm bundle formation. We finally show that BA-triggered biofilm bundle formation is mediated by the histidine kinase, KinD. Taken together, these observations indicate that BA, which is a major FFA within milk triggers biofilm formation in a conserved mechanism among members of the Bacillus genus.

  19. Performance evaluation of biofilters and biotrickling filters in odor control of n-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Han, Zhiying; Wu, Weixiang; Shi, Dezhi; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Wenhong

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of swine production in China, odor pollution associated with piggery facilities has become an increasing environmental concern. N-butyric acid (n-BA) is one of the key odor compounds selected to represent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) found in piggery facilities. In this study, two biofilters (BFs) packed with compost (BFC) or sludge (BFS) and two biotrickling filters (BTFs) packed with pall rings (BTFP) or multidimensional hollow balls (BTFM), respectively, were compared with regard to their performances in the removal of n-BA. The non-biological removal capacities of packing material of the bioreactors on a per unit volume basis were BFS>BFC>BTFM>BTFP. Maximum biological removal capacities per unit volume of packing material of the bioreactors all exceeded 9.1 kg/m(3)·d and in the order of BFC>BTFM>BFS>BTFP. Kinetic analysis as well as overall evaluation by radar graphs showed that the BTFs achieved superior removal rates to the BFs in the order of BTFM>BTFP>BFC>BFS. The biotrickling filter packed with multidimensional hollow balls could be an effective technology for VFAs removal. Results from this research provide economical and effective alternatives for odor control in piggery facilities.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  1. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

  2. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  3. Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey A.; Rumbles, Garry; Kopidakis, Nikos; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2013-07-25

    The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; the reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.

  4. Sodium Butyrate Promotes Reassembly of Tight Junctions in Caco-2 Monolayers Involving Inhibition of MLCK/MLC2 Pathway and Phosphorylation of PKCβ2

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Wei; Wu, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Wang, Wenjing; Wang, Yumei; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Li; Peng, Luying

    2016-01-01

    As a physiological small molecular product from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, butyrate plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Our previous works have proved that the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the intestinal barrier function is mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the detailed pathway involved remains unknown. Using the calcium switch assay in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, we found here that NaB activated AMPK mainly by increasing the calcium level, but not the ATP concentration, via promoting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Upon the activation of AMPK, NaB promoted the reassembly of tight junctions (TJs) based on reducing the phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC2) at Ser19 and increasing phosphorylation of protein kinase C β2 (PKCβ2) at Ser660. Inhibiting (protein kinase C β) PKCβ blocked the reassembly of TJs induced by NaB in the barrier monolayer model. These results indicated that NaB could activate the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) pathway to mediate AMPK phosphorylating, which then inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC2 and promoted the phosphorylation of PKCβ2, respectively, so that the downstream molecules of AMPK coordinately contributed to the reassembly of TJs in the Caco-2 barrier model. These results suggested a potential mechanism of butyrate for intestine homeostasis and protection. PMID:27735862

  5. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  6. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  7. The effect of butyric acid with autogenous omental graft on healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, S; Moslemi, H. R.; Dehghan, M. M.; Sedaghat, R; Mazaheri Nezhad, R; Rezaee Moghaddam, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon. PMID:27175160

  8. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): modifying serotonin's downstream effects on glutamate and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) release.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-08-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. These actions modify the release of both glutamate and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) within various brain circuits.

  9. Effects of butyric acid and arsenic on isolated pancreatic islets and liver mitochondria of male mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Rezae, Mohsen; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Alboghobeish, Soheila; Zeinvand, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different doses of Butyric acid (BA) and Arsenic (As) in liver mitochondria oxidative stress and pancreatic islet insulin secretion of male mouse. Background: BA is found in many foods and As as a toxic metal is present in drinking water. They can induce oxidative stress in tissues. Methods: In this experimental study, Liver mitochondria were isolated by administration of the different centrifugation method and pancreatic islets were isolated by collagenase method. Mitochondria were incubated by BA (35, 75, 150, 300 μM) and As (20, 50, 100, 200 μM) as the islets were incubated by BA (250, 500, 1000, 1500 μM) and As (50, 100, 200 μM) for 1 hour. At the end of the experiment, mitochondrial viability and membrane potential, ROS, MDA, GSH and islets insulin secretion were measured by their specific methods. Results: BA and As administration increased mitochondrial levels of ROS, MDA and decreased GSH and pancreatic islet insulin secretion in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05). The doses of BA 75μM and As 100μM have been revealed the most mitochondria toxic concentrations. Also, the doses of 1000μM for BA and 100μM for As were considered as reducing concentrations for islets insulin secretion. Additionally, co administration of them intensified more these effects Conclusion: Alone or in combination administration of BA and As induced oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and decreased insulin secretion of pancreatic islets. PMID:28331564

  10. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    DOE PAGES

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; ...

    2014-12-12

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C2–C4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO2. Infrared measurements of Au2C=C=O formation asmore » a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.« less

  11. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  12. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  13. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  14. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  15. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  16. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  19. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with... residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. The interaction of propionic and butyric acids with ice and HNO₃-doped ice surfaces at 195-212 K.

    PubMed

    Romanias, Manolis N; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos

    2014-12-04

    The interaction of propionic and butyric acids on ice and HNO3-doped ice were studied between 195 and 212 K and low concentrations, using a Knudsen flow reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial uptake coefficients (γ0) of propionic and butyric acids on ice as a function of temperature are given by the expressions: γ0(T) = (7.30 ± 1.0) × 10(-10) exp[(3216 ± 478)/T] and γ0(T) = (6.36 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) exp[(3810 ± 434)/T], respectively; the quoted error limits are at 95% level of confidence. Similarly, γ0 of propionic acid on 1.96 wt % (A) and 7.69 wt % (B) HNO3-doped ice with temperature are given as γ(0,A)(T) = (2.89 ± 0.26) × 10(-8) exp[(2517 ± 266)/T] and γ(0,B)(T) = (2.77 ± 0.29) × 10(-7) exp[(2126 ± 206)/T], respectively. The results show that γ0 of C1 to C4 n-carboxylic acids on ice increase with the alkyl-group length, due to lateral interactions between alkyl-groups that favor a more perpendicular orientation and well packing of H-bonded monomers on ice. The high uptakes (>10(15) molecules cm(-2)) and long recovery signals indicate efficient growth of random multilayers above the first monolayer driven by significant van der Waals interactions. The heterogeneous loss of both acids on ice and HNO3-doped ice particles in dense cirrus clouds is estimated to take a few minutes, signifying rapid local heterogeneous removal by dense cirrus clouds.

  14. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover.

  15. A probe on the intermolecular forces in diisopropyl ether-n-butyric acid mixture by dielectric, FTIR studies and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, G; Shanmugam, R; Elangovan, A

    2013-03-15

    The results of FTIR spectral measurement on equimolar diisopropyl ether-butyric acid binary mixture and quantum chemical calculations on the complex molecule have been presented. Dielectric studies have been carried out on the binary mixture over the entire composition range and at four different temperatures 303 K, 308 K, 313 K and 318 K. n-Butyric acid seems to prefer less polar ether to interact with it. It appears that the usual interpretation of variation of static dielectric constant and positive deviation of excess permittivity from ideal mixture behavior needs to be relooked.

  16. Expression of beta-catenin is regulated by PI-3 kinase and sodium butyrate in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Turecková, Jolana; Kucerová, Dana; Vojtechová, Martina; Sloncová, Eva; Tuhácková, Zdena

    2006-01-01

    beta-catenin has a dual function; it is implicated in intercellular junctions and transcriptional co-activation. Here we examined the regulation of the expression and localization of beta-catenin in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Our results showed that inhibition of PI-3 kinase with wortmannin was accompanied by a considerably reduced expression of beta-catenin. This effect was overcome by butyrate and occurred at the protein level, not at the level of mRNA. Moreover, NaBT significantly increased the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein, S6, known to participate in the translational control of gene expression. This was accompanied by the increased phosphorylation of p70 S6K and MAPKs, the effector proteins that are upstream of protein S6 in the distinct signaling pathways. These facts indicate that different signaling pathways may be involved in the regulation of beta-catenin synthesis. Modulation of beta-catenin expression induced by NaBT appeared to occur at the level of protein translation, suggesting that NaBT may act as a translational regulator.

  17. Mechanism of butyrate-induced vasorelaxation of rat mesenteric resistance artery.

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, P. I.; McKinnon, W.; Poston, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The vasorelaxant effect of the sodium salt of the short chain fatty acid, butyrate, on preconstricted rat small mesenteric arteries (mean inner diameter approximately 300 microns) was characterized. Isometric force development was measured with a myograph, and intracellular pH (pHi) was simultaneously monitored, in arteries loaded with the fluorescent dye BCECF in its acetomethoxy form. Sodium butyrate (substituted isosmotically for NaCl) was applied to arteries after noradrenaline (NA) or high K+ contractures were established. 2. Arteries preconstricted with a concentration of NA inducing an approximately half maximal contraction were relaxed by 91.5 +/- 6.3% by 50 mmol l-1 butyrate. This concentration of butyrate did not, however, cause a significant relaxation of contractures to a maximal (5 mumol l-1) NA concentration, and also failed to relax significantly contractures stimulated by high (45 and 90 mmol l-1) K+ solutions. Contractures elicited with a combination of NA (at a submaximal concentration) and 45 mmol l-1 K+ were, however, markedly relaxed by butyrate. 3. Investigation of the concentration-dependency of the butyrate-induced relaxation of the half maximal NA response revealed an EC50 for butyrate of approximately 22 mmol l-1. 4. Sodium butyrate (50 mmol l-1) caused pHi to decrease from 7.25 +/- 0.02 to 6.89 +/- 0.08 (n = 4, P < 0.001). However, the vasorelaxant effect of butyrate on the submaximal NA contracture was not significantly modified when this fall in intracellular pH was prevented by the simultaneous application of NH4Cl. 5. Butyrate-induced relaxation was also unaffected by endothelial denudation and inhibition of NO synthase with N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 mumol l-1). 6. The relaxation of the NA contracture by 50 mmol l-1 sodium butyrate was abolished in arteries pretreated with the cyclic AMP antagonist Rp-cAMPS (25 mumol l-1). 7. We conclude that the butyrate-induced relaxation of the NA contracture is independent of

  18. Fermentation of sweet sorghum derived sugars to butyric acid at high titer and productivity by a moderate thermophile Clostridium thermobutyricum at 50°C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Ou, Mark S; Nieves, Ismael; Erickson, John E; Vermerris, Wilfred; Ingram, L O; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a moderate thermophile Clostridium thermobutyricum is shown to ferment the sugars in sweet sorghum juice treated with invertase and supplemented with tryptone (10 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (10 g L(-1)) at 50°C to 44 g L(-1) butyrate at a calculated highest volumetric productivity of 1.45 g L(-1)h(-1) (molar butyrate yield of 0.85 based on sugars fermented). This volumetric productivity is among the highest reported for batch fermentations. Sugars from acid and enzyme-treated sweet sorghum bagasse were also fermented to butyrate by this organism with a molar yield of 0.81 (based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose). By combining the results from juice and bagasse, the calculated yield of butyric acid is approximately 90 kg per tonne of fresh sweet sorghum stalk. This study demonstrates that C. thermobutyricum can be an effective microbial biocatalyst for production of bio-based butyrate from renewable feedstocks at 50°C.

  19. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  20. Radiation-sensitive indicator based on radiation-chemical formation of acids in polyvinyl butyral films containing chloral hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Atef A.; El-Kelany, M.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation-sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl butyral (PVB) containing acid-sensitive dye (bromophenol blue, BPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl 3CH(OH) 2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1, 1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo colour change from blue (the alkaline form of BPB) to yellow (the acidic form of BPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation-formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. The kinetics of the acid-formation reaction is discussed, indicating a half-order reaction with respect to chloral hydrate concentration. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maxima of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 4 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The response of these films depends on temperature during irradiation; therefore a correction should be applied. These films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 10 to 70% as well as good post-irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature.

  1. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid combination powder is used to empty the colon (large ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium picosulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Hyper-thermal acid hydrolysis and adsorption treatment of red seaweed, Gelidium amansii for butyric acid production with pH control.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2017-03-01

    Optimal hyper-thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis conditions for Gelidium amansii were determined to be 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content and 144 mM H2SO4 at 150 °C for 10 min. HT acid hydrolysis-treated G. amansii hydrolysates produced low concentrations of inhibitory compounds and adsorption treatment using 3% activated carbon. An adsorption time of 5 min was subsequently used to remove the inhibitory 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the medium. A final maximum monosaccharide concentration of 44.6 g/L and 79.1% conversion from 56.4 g/L total fermentable monosaccharides with 120 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained from HT acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification, and adsorption treatment. This study demonstrates the potential for butyric acid production from G. amansii hydrolysates under non-pH-controlled as well as pH-controlled fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum KCTC 1790. The activated carbon treatment and pH-controlled fermentation showed synergistic effects and produced butyric acid at a concentration of 11.2 g/L after 9 days of fermentation.

  3. Partial molar volumes of some alpha-amino acids in aqueous sodium acetate solutions at 308.15 K.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yan, Z; Zhuo, K; Lu, J

    1999-08-30

    The apparent molar volumes V(2,phi) have been determined for glycine, DL-alpha-alanine, DL-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid, DL-valine and DL-leucine in aqueous solutions of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol kg(-1) sodium acetate by density measurements at 308.15 K. These data have been used to derive the infinite dilution apparent molar volumes V(0)(2,phi) for the amino acids in aqueous sodium acetate solutions and the standard volumes of transfer, Delta(t)V(0), of the amino acids from water to aqueous sodium acetate solutions. It has been observed that both V(0)(2,phi) and Delta(t)V(0) vary linearly with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids. These linear correlations have been utilized to estimate the contributions of the charged end groups (NH(3)(+), COO(-)), CH(2) group and other alkyl chains of the amino acids to V(0)(2,phi) and Delta(t)V(0). The results show that V(0)(2,phi) values for (NH(3)(+), COO(-)) groups increase with sodium acetate concentration, and those for CH(2) are almost constant over the studied sodium acetate concentration range. The transfer volume increases and the hydration number of the amino acids decreases with increasing electrolyte concentrations. These facts indicate that strong interactions occur between the ions of sodium acetate and the charged centers of the amino acids. The volumetric interaction parameters of the amino acids with sodium acetate were calculated in water. The pair interaction parameters are found to be positive and decreased with increasing alkyl chain length of the amino acids, suggesting that sodium acetate has a stronger dehydration effect on amino acids which have longer hydrophobic alkyl chains. These phenomena are discussed by means of the co-sphere overlap model.

  4. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

  5. Effects of the differentiating agents sodium butyrate and N-methylformamide on the oxygen enhancement ratio of human colon tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallows, K.R.; Bliven, S.F.; Leith, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously shown that chronic adaptation of human tumor cells to the differentiation-inducing agents N-methylformamide (NMF) and sodium butyrate (NAB) increases the sensitivity of oxic cells to graded single doses of X rays. These studies were carried out to define the sensitivity of hypoxic cells after adaptation. Clone A colon tumor cells were grown for three passages in medium containing 170 mM NMF or 2 mM NAB and irradiated in suspension culture, after gassing with either oxygen (60 min) or ultrapure nitrogen (90 min), and complete survival curves were generated. Using the linear-quadratic equation to describe the data, it was found that NMF and NAB produced increased X-ray killing of hypoxic cells. At the 10% level of survival, the dose-modifying factors were about 1.20 and 1.25 for NMF- and NAB-adapted hypoxic cells, respectively, as compared to hypoxic control cells. However, since both oxic and hypoxic cells exhibited increased sensitivity after NMF and NAB adaptation, there was no major change in the oxygen enhancement ratio.

  6. Sodium butyrate functions as an antidepressant and improves cognition with enhanced neurotrophic expression in models of maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira Silva; Varela, Roger Bitencourt; Arent, Camila Orlandi; Dal-Pont, Gustavo Colombo; Bobsin, Tamara Sarate; Budni, Josiane; Reus, Gislaine Zilli; Quevedo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are affected in depression. Several authors have described histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a class of drugs that improves long-term memory formation. The current study examined the effects of maternal deprivation (MD) and chronic mild stress (CMS), which have been shown as animal models of depression, and the effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a HDAC inhibitor, on recognition memory. Considering that neurotrophic factors has been pointed as a key event involved with cognition and depressive disorder, levels of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF and GDNF) were also investigated. MD and CMS induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) and memory impairment in the object recognition (OR) test, without altering locomotor activity of rats. In addition, SB was able to reverse the stress-induced neurotrophic factors decrease and reversed memory impairment. The results indicate that the stress both at early and later stage of life may induce cognitive impairment in animals and neurotrofic factors (BDNF, NGF and GDNF) levels decrease. SB treatment improved the recognition memory and reversed the neurotrophins levels decreased in the hippocampus of rats submitted to the MD and CMS models. Together, our results reinforce the notion that SB displays a specific antidepressant profile and improve cognition in MD and CMS rats that may be, at least in part, due to its upregulation of neurotrophic factors.

  7. Antidepressant-Like Effect of Sodium Butyrate is Associated with an Increase in TET1 and in 5-Hydroxymethylation Levels in the Bdnf Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ya Bin; Melas, Philippe A.; Wegener, Gregers; Mathé, Aleksander A.; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epigenetic drugs like sodium butyrate (NaB) show antidepressant-like effects in preclinical studies, but the exact molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects remain unknown. While research using NaB has mainly focused on its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), there is also evidence that NaB affects DNA methylation. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine NaB’s putative antidepressant-like efficacy in relation to DNA methylation changes in the prefrontal cortex of an established genetic rat model of depression (the Flinders Sensitive Line [FSL]) and its controls (the Flinders Resistant Line). Results: The FSL rats had lower levels of ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1), which catalyzes the conversion of DNA methylation to hydroxymethylation. As indicated by the behavioral despair test, chronic administration of NaB had antidepressant-like effects in the FSL and was accompanied by increased levels of TET1. The TET1 upregulation was also associated with an increase of hydroxymethylation and a decrease of methylation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), a gene associated with neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. These epigenetic changes were associated with a corresponding BDNF overexpression. Conclusions: Our data support the antidepressant efficacy of HDACis and suggest that their epigenetic effects may also include DNA methylation changes that are mediated by demethylation-facilitating enzymes like TET1. PMID:25618518

  8. Demonstration of in situ product recovery of butyric acid via CO2 -facilitated pH swings and medium development in two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Production of organic acids in solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) is challenging, and highly pH-dependent, as cell growth occurs near neutral pH, while acid sorption occurs only at low pH conditions. CO2 sparging was used to achieve acidic pH swings, facilitating undissociated organic acid uptake without generating osmotic stress inherent in traditional acid/base pH control. A modified cultivation medium was formulated to permit greater pH reduction by CO2 sparging (pH 4.8) compared to typical media (pH 5.3), while still possessing adequate nutrients for extensive cell growth. In situ product recovery (ISPR) of butyric acid (pKa = 4.8) produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was achieved through intermittent CO2 sparging while recycling reactor contents through a column packed with absorptive polymer Hytrel® 3078. This polymer was selected on the basis of its composition as a polyether copolymer, and the use of solubility parameters for predicting solute polymer affinity, and was found to have a partition coefficient for butyric acid of 3. Total polymeric extraction of 3.2 g butyric acid with no CO2 mediated pH swings was increased to 4.5 g via CO2 -facilitated pH shifting, despite the buffering capacity of butyric acid, which resists pH shifting. This work shows that CO2 -mediated pH swings have an observable positive effect on organic acid extraction, with improvements well over 150% under optimal conditions in early stage fermentation compared to CO2 -free controls, and this technique can be applied other organic acid fermentations to achieve or improve ISPR.

  9. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  10. Short-term infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several previous studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in pre-ruminants. These encouraging findings have led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the maximum tolerable dosage rate of...

  11. Sodium butyrate epigenetically modulates high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation, obesity and insulin resistance through nucleosome positioning

    PubMed Central

    Henagan, Tara M; Stefanska, Barbara; Fang, Zhide; Navard, Alexandra M; Ye, Jianping; Lenard, Natalie R; Devarshi, Prasad P

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sodium butyrate (NaB), an epigenetic modifier, is effective in promoting insulin sensitivity. The specific genomic loci and mechanisms underlying epigenetically induced obesity and insulin resistance and the targets of NaB are not fully understood. Experimental Approach The anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of NaB treatment were measured by comparing phenotypes and physiologies of C57BL/6J mice fed a low-fat diet (LF), high-fat diet (HF) or high-fat diet plus NaB (HF + NaB) for 10 weeks. We determined a possible mechanism of NaB action through induction of beneficial skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations and applied microccocal nuclease digestion with sequencing (MNase-seq) to assess whole genome differences in nucleosome occupancy or positioning and to identify associated epigenetic targets of NaB. Key Results NaB prevented HF diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity without altering food intake or energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity as measured by glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and decreased respiratory exchange ratio. In skeletal muscle, NaB increased the percentage of type 1 fibres, improved acylcarnitine profiles as measured by metabolomics and produced a chromatin structure, determined by MNase-seq, similar to that seen in LF. Targeted analysis of representative nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes showed specific repositioning of the −1 nucleosome in association with altered gene expression. Conclusions and Implications NaB treatment may be an effective pharmacological approach for type 2 diabetes and obesity by inducing −1 nucleosome repositioning within nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, causing skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations that result in more complete β-oxidation and a lean, insulin sensitive phenotype. PMID:25559882

  12. Improvement of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by the previous administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Perona, M; Rodríguez, C; Carpano, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Kahl, S; Pisarev, M; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa, A

    2013-08-01

    We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) like sodium butyrate (NaB) cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and show capacity to increase the gamma irradiation effect. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the use of the NaB as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT for PDTC. Follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO) and rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were incubated with 1 mM NaB and then treated with boronophenylalanine ¹⁰BPA (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with 2, 4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ¹⁰BOPP (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with a neutron beam alone. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10¹⁰ n cm⁻² s⁻¹). Cell survival decreased as a function of the physical absorbed dose in both cell lines. Moreover, the addition of NaB decreased cell survival (p < 0.05) in WRO cells incubated with both boron compounds. NaB increased the percentage of necrotic and apoptotic cells in both BNCT groups (p < 0.05). An accumulation of cells in G2/M phase at 24 h was observed for all the irradiated groups and the addition of NaB increased this percentage. Biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) 24 h after NaB injection were performed. The in vivo studies showed that NaB treatment increases the amount of boron in the tumor at 2-h post-BPA injection (p < 0.01). We conclude that NaB could be used as a radiosensitizer for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma by BNCT.

  13. Epigenetic modulation of AR gene expression in prostate cancer DU145 cells with the combination of sodium butyrate and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Fialova, Barbora; Luzna, Petra; Gursky, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Kolar, Zdenek; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of androgen deprivation therapy. Unchecked CRPC followed by metastasis is lethal. Some CRPCs show decreased AR gene expression due to epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The aim of this study was to epigenetically modulate the methylated state of the AR gene leading to targeted demethylation and AR gene expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancer DU145 cell line, representing the CRPC model with very low or undetectable AR levels. The cell treatment was based on single and combined applications of two epigenetic inhibitors, sodium butyrate (NaB) as histone deacetylases inhibitor and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferases inhibitor. We found that the Aza-dC in combination with NaB may help reduce the toxicity of higher NaB concentrations in cancer cells. In normal RWPE-1 cells and even stronger in cancer DU145 cells, the combined treatment induced both AR gene expression on the mRNA level and increased histone H4 acetylation in AR gene promoter. Also activation and maintenance of G2/M cell cycle arrest and better survival in normal RWPE-1 cells compared to cancer DU145 cells were observed after the treatments. These results imply the selective toxicity effect of both inhibitors used and their potentially more effective combined use in the epigenetic therapy of prostate cancer patients.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product....

  2. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  5. Interactions between lead-zirconate titanate, polyacrylic acid, and polyvinyl butyral in ethanol and their influence on electrophoretic deposition behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuscer, Danjela; Bakarič, Tina; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Kosec, Marija

    2013-02-14

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for the fabrication of a few tens of micrometer-thick piezoelectric layers on complex-shape substrates that are used for manufacturing high-frequency transducers. Niobium-doped lead-zirconate titanate (PZT Nb) particles were stabilized in ethanol using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). With Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we found that the deprotonated carboxylic group from the PAA is coordinated with the metal in the perovskite PZT Nb structure, resulting in a stable ethanol-based suspension. The hydroxyl group from the polyvinyl butyral added into the suspension to prevent the formation of cracks in the as-deposited layer did not interact with the PAA-covered PZT Nb particles. PVB acts as a free polymer in ethanol-based suspensions. The electrophoretic deposition of micro- and nanometer-sized PZT Nb particles from ethanol-based suspensions onto electroded alumina substrates was attempted in order to obtain uniform, crack-free deposits. The interactions between the PZT Nb particles, the PAA, and the PVB in ethanol will be discussed and related to the properties of the suspensions, the deposition yield and the morphology of the as-deposited PZT Nb thick film.

  6. Optimization of γ-amino butyric acid production in a newly isolated Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Binh, Tran Thi Thanh; Ju, Wan-Taek; Jung, Woo-Jin; Park, Ro-Dong

    2014-01-01

    An isolate from kimchi, identified as Lactobacillus brevis, accumulated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the culture medium. Optimal culture conditions for growth of L. brevis and production of GABA were 6 % (w/v) l-glutamic acid, 4 % (w/v) maltose, 2 % (w/v) yeast extract, 1 % (w/v) NaCl, 1 % (w/v) CaCl2, 2 g Tween 80/l, and 0.02 mM pyridoxal 5′-phosphate at initial pH 5.25 and 37 °C. GABA reached 44.4 g/l after 72 h cultivation with a conversion rate 99.7 %, based on the amount (6 %) of l-glutamic acid added. GABA was purified using ion exchange column chromatography with 70 % recovery and 97 % purity.

  7. Na-H Exchanger Isoform-2 (NHE2) Mediates Butyrate-dependent Na+ Absorption in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced Colitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M.; Nanda Kumar, Navalpur S.; Tse, Chung M.; Binder, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs primarily as a result of reduced Na+ absorption. Although colonic Na+ absorption is mediated by both epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and Na-H exchangers (NHE), inhibition of NHE-mediated Na+ absorption is the primary cause of diarrhea in UC. As there are conflicting observations reported on NHE expression in human UC, the present study was initiated to identify whether NHE isoforms (NHE2 and NHE3) expression is altered and how Na+ absorption is regulated in DSS-induced inflammation in rat colon, a model that has been used to study UC. Western blot analyses indicate that neither NHE2 nor NHE3 expression is altered in apical membranes of inflamed colon. Na+ fluxes measured in vitro under voltage clamp conditions in controls demonstrate that both HCO3−-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na+ absorption are inhibited by S3226 (NHE3-inhibitor), but not by HOE694 (NHE2-inhibitor) in normal animals. In contrast, in DSS-induced inflammation, butyrate-, but not HCO3−-dependent Na+ absorption is present and is inhibited by HOE694, but not by S3226. These observations indicate that in normal colon NHE3 mediates both HCO3−-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na+ absorption, whereas DSS-induced inflammation activates NHE2, which mediates butyrate-dependent (but not HCO3−-dependent) Na+ absorption. In in vivo loop studies HCO3−-Ringer and butyrate-Ringer exhibit similar rates of water absorption in normal rats, whereas in DSS-induced inflammation luminal butyrate-Ringer reversed water secretion observed with HCO3−-Ringer to fluid absorption. Lumen butyrate-Ringer incubation activated NHE3-mediated Na+ absorption in DSS-induced colitis. These observations suggest that the butyrate activation of NHE2 would be a potential target to control UC-associated diarrhea. PMID:26350456

  8. Effects of seasonal changes in food quality and food intake on the transport of sodium and butyrate across ruminal epithelium of reindeer.

    PubMed

    Storeheier, P V; Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Sundset, M A; Mathiesen, S D

    2003-07-01

    Transport of 22Na and 14C-butyrate across the ruminal epithelium of captive reindeer fed a concentrate diet in summer (n=5) and in winter (n=5) and from free-ranging reindeer taken from summer (n=3) and winter pasture (n=5) was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. Significant amounts of both Na+ and butyrate were transported across the isolated epithelium without any external driving force. The ruminal transport of Na+ and butyrate were interacting, as evidenced by both the observed amiloride-induced reduction of net butyrate-transport and by the positive correlation between net transport of butyrate and Na+. Amiloride also reduced the net transport of Na+ without significantly affecting the short-circuit current, indicating the presence of an apical Na+/H+ exchanger in the ruminal epithelium of reindeer. The captive reindeer increased the dry matter intake of a constant quality concentrate from winter to summer, but this neither affected their ruminal transport capacity nor their ruminal surface enlargement factor (SEF). Free-ranging reindeer increased their ruminal transport capacity for Na+ and butyrate from summer to winter but simultaneously reduced their ruminal SEF. The present data indicate that this food-induced increase in transport capacity was attributed to changes in the nutrient composition of the diet.

  9. Genetic differences in the modulation of accumbal glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid levels after cocaine-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Miguéns, Miguel; Botreau, Fanny; Olías, Oscar; Del Olmo, Nuria; Coria, Santiago M; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    The Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rat strains are frequently used to study the role of genetic factors in vulnerability to drug addiction and relapse. Glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission are significantly altered after cocaine-induced reinstatement, although whether LEW and F344 rats differ in their accumbal glutamate and GABA responsiveness to cocaine-induced reinstatement remains unknown. To investigate this, we measured by in vivo microdialysis extracellular glutamate and GABA levels in the core division of the nucleus accumbens after extinction of cocaine self-administration and during cocaine-induced reinstatement (7.5mg/kg, i.p.) in these two strains of rats. No strain differences were evident in cocaine self-administration or extinction behavior, although cocaine priming did induce a higher rate of lever pressing in LEW compared with F344 rats. After extinction, F344 rats that self-administered cocaine had less GABA than the saline controls, while the glutamate levels remained constant in both strains. There was more accumbal glutamate after cocaine priming in LEW rats that self-administered cocaine, while GABA levels were unaffected. By contrast, GABA increased transiently in F344 rats that self-administered cocaine, while glutamate levels were unaltered. In F344 saline controls, cocaine priming provoked contrasting effects in glutamate and GABA levels, inducing a delayed increase in glutamate and a delayed decrease in GABA levels. These amino acids were unaffected by cocaine priming in LEW saline rats. Together, these results suggest that genetic differences in cocaine-induced reinstatement reflect different responses of the accumbal GABA and glutamate systems to cocaine priming.

  10. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Qaisrani, S. N.; van Krimpen, M. M.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P = 0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P > 0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. PMID:26175052

  11. Role of indole-3-butyric acid or/and putrescine in improving productivity of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Amin, A A; Gharib, F A; Abouziena, H F; Dawood, Mona G

    2013-12-15

    The response of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. cv. Giza 3) to treatment with two plant growth regulators putrescine (Put) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) applied either alone or in combinations was studied. Spraying of Put and IBA either individually or in combination significantly increased the plant height, number and dry weight of branches, leaves and pods/plant and leaf area/plant at the two growth stages. Total photosynthetic pigments in fresh leaves were significantly promoted as a result of application of Put or IBA. Generally, application of Put and/or IBA at 100 mg L(-1) produced the highest numbers of pods which resulted in substantially the highest seed yield. Put and IBA increased the seed yield by 21.3 and 19.2%, respectively, while the combination of Put at 100 mgL(-1) and IBA at 50 mgL(-1) increased it by 27.4%. Greatest increases in straw and biological yield/fed (38.3 and 30.4%, respectively) were noted with the combination treatment of IBA 100 mg L(-1) plus Put at 100 mg L(-1). Put and IBA significantly increased the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids in chickpea seeds over control, but the effects were less marked than those of their combination. This response was greater following treatment with IBA than with Put. It could be conclude that spraying Put or/and IBA on chickpea plants have promotion effects on the seeds yield criteria which have promising potential as sources of low-cost protein and minerals for possible use as food/feed supplements.

  12. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P<0.001), BW gain (P=0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P=0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P<0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  13. Homology Modeling of Human γ-Butyric Acid Transporters and the Binding of Pro-Drugs 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Methyl Aminolevulinic Acid Used in Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baglo, Yan; Gabrielsen, Mari; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Gederaas, Odrun A.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a safe and effective method currently used in the treatment of skin cancer. In ALA-based PDT, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), or ALA esters, are used as pro-drugs to induce the formation of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Activation of PpIX by light causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and toxic responses. Studies have indicated that ALA and its methyl ester (MAL) are taken up into the cells via γ-butyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs). Uptake via GATs into peripheral sensory nerve endings may also account for one of the few adverse side effects of ALA-based PDT, namely pain. In the present study, homology models of the four human GAT subtypes were constructed using three x-ray crystal structures of the homologous leucine transporter (LeuT) as templates. Binding of the native substrate GABA and the possible substrates ALA and MAL was investigated by molecular docking of the ligands into the central putative substrate binding sites in the outward-occluded GAT models. Electrostatic potentials (ESPs) of the putative substrate translocation pathway of each subtype were calculated using the outward-open and inward-open homology models. Our results suggested that ALA is a substrate of all four GATs and that MAL is a substrate of GAT-2, GAT-3 and BGT-1. The ESP calculations indicated that differences likely exist in the entry pathway of the transporters (i.e. in outward-open conformations). Such differences may be exploited for development of inhibitors that selectively target specific GAT subtypes and the homology models may hence provide tools for design of therapeutic inhibitors that can be used to reduce ALA-induced pain. PMID:23762315

  14. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  18. Protective role of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor on beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis through modulation of p38/ERK MAPK and apoptotic pathways: study in juvenile diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Jena, G B

    2014-04-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) also known as juvenile diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disorder that precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals by environmental factors particularly during early age. Both genetic and epigenetic factors are implicated in the beta-cell development, proliferation, differentiation and function. Recent evidences suggested that there is a link between diabetes and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote beta-cell development, proliferation and function as well as improve glucose homeostasis. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a short chain fatty acid having HDAC inhibition activity. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective role of NaB treatment on the beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis as well as apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) in chilled citrate buffer, while NaB (500 mg/kg/day) was administrated by i.p. route for 21 days as pre- and post-treatment schedule. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, HbA1c, glucose tolerance, apoptosis, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p38, p53, caspase-3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) as well as histone acetylation were evaluated. NaB treatment decreased plasma glucose, HbA1c, beta-cell apoptosis and improved plasma insulin level and glucose homeostasis through HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation in diabetic animal as compared to control. NaB treatment improved the beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis as well as reduced beta-cell apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat by the modulation of p38/ERK MAPK and apoptotic pathway.

  19. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate sensitizes E1A+Ras-transformed cells to DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

    PubMed

    Abramova, Maria V; Svetlikova, Svetlana B; Kukushkin, Alexander N; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A

    2011-12-15

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) suppress the growth of tumor cells due to induction of cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Recent data demonstrate that HDACi can interfere with DNA Damage Response (DDR) thereby sensitizing the cells to DNA damaging agents. Here, we show that HDACi sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiates the formation of γH2AX foci predominantly in S-phase E1A+Ras cells. Accumulation of γH2AX foci sensitizes the cells toward such DNA damaging agents as irradiation (IR) and adriamycin. In fact, NaBut potentiates the persistence of γH2AX foci induced by genotoxic agents. The synergizing effects depend on DNA damaging factors and on the order of NaBut treatment. Indeed, NaBut treatment for 24 h leads to an accumulation of G 1-phase cells and a lack of S-phase cells, therefore, adriamycin, a powerful S-phase-specific inhibitor, when added to NaBut-treated cells, is unable to substantially add γH2AX foci. In contrast, IR produces both single- and double-strand DNA breaks at any stage of the cell cycle and was shown to increase γH2AX foci in NaBut-treated cells. Further, a lifetime of IR-induced γH2AX foci depends on the subsequent presence of HDACi. Correspondingly, NaBut withdrawal leads to the extinction of IR-induced γH2AX foci. This necessitates HDACi to hold the IR-induced γH2AX foci unrepaired. However, the IR-induced γH2AX foci persist after long-term NaBut treatment (72 h) even after washing the drug. Thus, although signaling pathways regulating H2AX phosphorylation in NaBut-treated cells remain to be investigated, the obtained results show that NaBut potentiates effects of DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

  20. Relieving occupational fatigue by consumption of a beverage containing γ-amino butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Kenji; Horie, Kenji; Horie, Noriko; Furugori, Kaori; Sauchi, Yusuke; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on both psychological and physical fatigue and on the performance advances for task solving, we assigned an arithmetic task for the Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test (UKT) to 30 healthy Japanese subjects, 9 of whom were diagnosed as having chronic fatigue. The subjects were administered 250 mL of a test beverage containing GABA at the dose of 0, 25, and 50 mg before assigning task for the UKT. Psychological fatigue assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was significantly lower in the group administrated the beverage containing 50 mg GABA than in the control group (p<0.05). The results of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) also indicated that psychological fatigue was significantly reduced in the 50-mg-GABA group. The salivary secretion levels of chromogranin A and cortisol-markers of physical fatigue-in both 25-mg and 50-mg-GABA groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The 50-mg-GABA group also showed higher score on UKT by solving the arithmetic task more accurately than the control group (p<0.01). The results suggest that intake of GABA-containing beverages, especially those containing 50 mg of GABA, may help reduce both psychological and physical fatigue and improve task-solving ability.

  1. Hydrogen bonding and molecular association in 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and potentiometric titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.; Barczyński, P.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate (QNBu·H 2O·HBr, 3) has been determined by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Crystals of 3 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The water molecule interacts with the carboxylic group of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid and with the bromide anion by the COOH⋯OH 2 and HOH⋯Br hydrogen bonds of 2.575(3) and 3.293(2) Å, respectively. The structures of monomer ( 4) and dimeric cation ( 5) of the title complex have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, yielding conformations consistent with this in the crystal. The solid-state FTIR spectra of 3 and its deuterated analogue have been measured and compared with the theoretical spectrum of 4. The assignments of the observed and predicted bands have been proposed. The molecule of 3 has a chiral center at the C(9) atom, which is responsible for the non-magnetically equivalence of the α-ring and C(11)H 2 methylene protons in 1H NMR spectrum. The values of p Ka of quinuclidinium-acetate (quinuclidine betaine), 2-(quinuclidinium)-propionate and 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyrate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  2. Negative polarity of phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, Olivia J.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez; Katz, Howard E.; Wu, Meng-Yin; Johns, Gary L.; Markovic, Nina; Arnold, Michael S.

    2015-01-19

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the V{sub oc}, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased V{sub oc}, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions.

  3. Photophysics and morphology of poly (3-dodecylthienylenevinylene)-[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lafalce, E.; Toglia, P.; Jiang, X.; Zhang, C.

    2012-05-21

    A series of low band gap poly(3-dodecylthienylenevinylene) (PTV) with controlled morphological order have been synthesized and blended with the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) for organic photovoltaic devices. Two polymers with the most and least side chain regioregularity were chosen in this work, namely the PTV010 and PTV55, respectively. Using photoluminescence, photo-induced absorption spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, we find no direct evidence of photoinduced charge transfer between the two constituents, independent of the bulk-heterojunction morphology of the film, although the possibility of formation of P{sup +}/C{sub 60}{sup -} charge transfer complex was not completely ruled out. The large exciton binding energy (E{sub b} = 0.6 eV) in PTV inhibits the photoinduced electron transfer from PTV to PCBM. In addition, excitons formed on polymer chains suffer ultrafast (

  4. Brain manganese accumulation is inversely related to gamma-amino butyric acid uptake in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel G; Cooney, Paula T; Erikson, Keith M

    2007-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace metal involved in numerous cellular processes. Iron deficiency (ID) is reported as the most prevalent nutritional problem worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that ID is associated with altered neurotransmitter metabolism and a risk factor for manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity. Though recent studies have established differences in which the female brain responds to ID-related neurochemical alterations versus the male brain, little is known about the interactions of dietary ID, Mn exposure, and sex on gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four dietary treatment groups: control (CN), control/Mn supplemented, ID, and ID/Mn supplemented. After 6 weeks of treatment, both ID diets caused a highly significant decrease in Fe concentrations across all brain regions compared to CN in both sexes. Both ID and Mn supplementation led to significant accumulation of Mn across all brain regions in both sexes. There was no main effect of sex on Fe or Mn accumulation. Striatal synaptosomes were utilized to examine the effect of dietary intervention on (3)H-GABA uptake. At 4 weeks, there was a significant correlation between Fe concentration and (3)H-GABA uptake in male rats (p < 0.05). At 6 weeks, there was a significant inverse correlation between Mn concentration and (3)H-GABA uptake in male and female rats and a postitive correlation between Fe concentration and (3)H-GABA uptake in female rats (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ID-associated Mn accumulation is similar in both sexes, with Mn levels affecting GABA uptake in both sexes in a comparable fashion.

  5. Verification of γ-Amino-Butyric Acid (GABA) Signaling System Components in Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Konermann, Anna; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Wilbert, Steven; Van Dyke, Thomas; Jäger, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    CNS key neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and its signaling components are likewise detectable in non-neuronal tissues displaying inter alia immunomodulatory functions. This study aimed at identifying potential glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GABA receptor expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vivo and in vitro, with particular regard to inflammation and mechanical loading. Gene expression was analyzed in human PDL cells at rest or in response to IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) or TNFα (5 ng/ml) challenge via qRT-PCR. Western blot determined constitutive receptor expression, and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy visualized expression changes induced by inflammation. ELISA quantified GAD65 release. Immunocytochemistry was performed for GABA component detection in vitro on mechanically loaded PDL cells, and in vivo on rat upper jaw biopsies with mechanically induced root resorptions. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. GABAB1, GABAB2, GABAA1, and GABAA3 were ubiquitously expressed both on gene and protein level. GABAA2 and GAD65 were undetectable in resting cells, but induced by inflammation. GABAB1 exhibited the highest basal gene expression (6.97 % ± 0.16). IL-1ß markedly increased GABAB2 on a transcriptional (57.28-fold ± 12.40) and protein level seen via fluorescence microscopy. TNFα-stimulated PDL cells released GAD65 (3.68 pg/ml ± 0.17 after 24 h, 5.77 pg/ml ± 0.65 after 48 h). Immunocytochemistry revealed GAD65 expression in mechanically loaded PDL cells. In vivo, GABA components were varyingly expressed in an inflammatory periodontal environment. PDL cells differentially express GABA signaling components and secrete GAD65. Inflammation and mechanical loading regulate these neurotransmitter molecules, which are also detectable in vivo and are potentially involved in periodontal pathophysiology.

  6. Effect of γ-amino butyric acid on limpet populations: towards the future management and conservation of endangered patellid species.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Espinosa, F; García-Gómez, J C

    2011-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, such as γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), can act as chemical cues influencing settlement and metamorphosis in benthic marine invertebrates. This effect has been described especially in mollusks, such as mussels, clams, or haliotids. This study describes the first record of the effect of GABA on patellogastropod populations. Special attention was paid to the effect of the compound on recruitment processes. The experiment was carried out using 10 × 10 cm artificial limestone plates that were drilled into intertidal rocks at different inclinations, and periodically treated with a 1 mM GABA solution. A total of five limpet species was considered (four patellid limpet species and the pulmonate Siphonaria pectinata). Each individual recorded on the plates as well as within a 20 × 20 cm quadrant was measured, identified to species level, and its straight-line distance to the application point was registered. Treated surfaces were the first to possess both adults and recruits. Individuals also were found in a higher number around GABA-treated plates than around controls. The results indicated that the compound may not only enhance recruitment, but also might accelerate it. Recruits were located at higher distances from GABA treated plates than from control surfaces. This supports the hypothesis that this is the life history stage most sensitive to the compound. The behavior shown by the individuals belonging to the two endangered patellid species present in the study area (Patella ferruginea and Cymbula nigra) also were analyzed. For the former, the results indicated that the use of GABA may have similar effects on recruitment similar to the presence of adult conspecifics. This is the first report of the effect of GABA on patellid limpet recruitment and population dynamics. Conservational implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences.

  8. Bacteria and acid drainage from coal refuse: inhibition by sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, P.R.; Apel, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Studies have shown that the application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulphur coal refuse inhibits the activity of iron- and sulphur-oxidising chemo-autotrophic bacteria and reduces the amount of acid drainage from the refuse. Further studies are recommended to assess the usefulness of this method for controlling formation of acid mine drainage in the field.

  9. Butyrate and glucose metabolism by colonocytes in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M; Krishnan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Mathan, M; Pulimood, A; Murthy, S

    2000-01-01

    oxidation.


Keywords: butyrate; colonocytes; dextran sulphate sodium; cell metabolism; short chain fatty acids; ulcerative colitis PMID:10716678

  10. 76 FR 41135 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... and sodium 2-methyl-2- -1- propanesulfonate (1:1), peroxydisulfuric acid ( 202) sodium salt (1:2...-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-methyl- 2- -1-propanesulfonate (1:1), peroxydisulfuric acid ( 202) sodium salt (1:2)-initiated (also known here as: ``the...

  11. Colonic butyrate- algesic or analgesic?

    PubMed

    Kannampalli, P; Shaker, R; Sengupta, J N

    2011-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common health issue that is characterized by abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, and altered visceral perception. The complexity and variability in symptoms pose serious challenges in treating IBS. Current therapy for IBS is primarily focused on reducing the abdominal pain, thereby improving the quality of life to a significant extent. Although the use of fiber rich diet is widely recommended in treating IBS, some studies have questioned its use. Intra-colonic butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is primarily produced by the fermentation of dietary fibers in the colon. In the existing literature there are conflicting reports about the function of butyrate. In rats it is known to induce visceral hypersensitivity without altered pathology, whereas in humans it has been reported to reduce visceral pain. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for this contrasting effect of butyrate is important before recommending fiber rich diet to IBS patients.

  12. Preparation of highly conjugated water-dispersible graphene-butyric acid for the enhancement of electron transfer within polyamic acid-benzoxazole: potential applications in electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-15

    To break through the long time and complex procedures for the preparation of highly conjugated reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) in developing electrochemical sensor, a time-saving and simple method is investigated in this study. One novel step of the exfoliated accompanying carboxylated graphene sheet from pristine is achieved via Friedel-Crafts acylation. By electrophilic aromatic substitution, the succinic anhydride ring is opened and attaches covalently to the graphene sheet (Gs) to form exfoliated graphene with grafted 1-one-butyric acid (Gs-BA). The grafting chain converts anions in aqueous solution to maintain Gs-BA in a stable dispersion and noticeably decreases the π-π stacking of the exfoliated Gs during the drying process. The analytical results of the absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the conjugation of Gs-BA is not significantly destroyed by this chemical modification; Gs-BA retains the Gs electrical properties favorable for developing electrochemical sensors. When polyamic acid-benzoxazole (PAA-BO), a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-sensitive probe, hybridizes with Gs-BA to form Gs-BA-PAA-BO, the electron transfer rate relating to the response time improves markedly from 1.09 s(-1) to 38.8 s(-1). Additionally, it offers a high performance for H₂O₂ sensing in terms of sensitivity and response time, making this method applicable for developing glucose and choline biosensors.

  13. The human clotting factor VIII cDNA contains an autonomously replicating sequence consensus- and matrix attachment region-like sequence that binds a nuclear factor, represses heterologous gene expression, and mediates the transcriptional effects of sodium butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fallaux, F J; Hoeben, R C; Cramer, S J; van den Wollenberg, D J; Briët, E; van Ormondt, H; van Der Eb, A J

    1996-01-01

    Expression of the human blood-clotting factor VIII (FVIII) cDNA is hampered by the presence of sequences located in the coding region that repress transcription. We have previously identified a 305-bp fragment within the FVIII cDNA that is involved in the repression (R.C. Hoeben, F.J. Fallaux, S.J. Cramer, D.J.M. van den Wollenberg, H. van Ormondt, E. Briet, and A.J. van der Eb, Blood 85:2447-2454, 1995). Here, we show that this 305-bp region of FVIII cDNA contains sequences that resemble the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) autonomously replicating sequence consensus. Two of these DNA elements coincide with AT-rich sequences that are often found in matrix attachment regions or scaffold-attached regions. One of these elements, consisting of nucleotides 1569 to 1600 of the FVIII cDNA (nucleotide numbering is according to the system of Wood et al. (W.I. Wood, D.J. Capon, C.C. Simonsen, D.L. Eaton, J. Gitschier, D. Keyt, P.H. Seeburg, D.H. Smith, P. Hollingshead, K.L. Wion, et al., Nature [London] 312:330-337,1984), binds a nuclear factor in vitro but loses this capacity after four of its base pairs have been changed. A synthetic heptamer of this segment can repress the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene and also loses this capacity upon mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that repression by FVIII sequences can be relieved by sodium butyrate. We demonstrate that the synthetic heptamer (FVIII nucleotides 1569 to 1600), when placed upstream of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat promoter that drives the CAT reporter, can render the CAT reporter inducible by butyrate. This effect was absent when the same element was mutated. The stimulatory effect of butyrate could not be attributed to butyrate-responsive elements in the studied long terminal repeat promoters. Our data provide a functional characterization of the sequences that repress expression of the FVIII cDNA. These data also suggest a link between

  14. Acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Miao, Xiaolou; Lv, Huiping; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiqin; He, Hua; Yang, Zhiqiang; Pan, Hu

    2014-06-01

    Usnic acid, a major active compound in lichens, was first isolated in 1884. Since then, usnic acid and its sodium salt (sodium usnic acid) have been used in medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, and other industries due to its extensive biological activities. However, its acaricidal activity has not been studied. In this paper, we investigated the acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. After evaluating the acaricidal activity and toxicity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid in vitro, the results showed that at doses of 250, 125, and 62.5 mg/ml, usnic acid and sodium usnic acid can kill mites with 91.67, 85.00, and 55.00% and 100, 100, and 60.00% mortality after treatment 24 h. The LT50 values were 4.208, 8.249, and 16.950 h and 3.712, 7.339, and 15.773 h for usnic acid and sodium usnic acid, respectively. Sodium usnic acid has a higher acaricidal activity than usnic acid, which may be related to the difference in their structures.

  15. Effect of feeding an encapsulated source of butyric acid (ButiPEARL) on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age.

    PubMed

    Levy, April Waguespack; Kessler, James W; Fuller, Lorraine; Williams, Susan; Mathis, Greg F; Lumpkins, Brett; Valdez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of an encapsulated butyric acid (ButiPEARL) based on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age and to investigate its effects on intestinal morphology. Experiment 1 ( EXP 1: ) consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replicate pens that contained 45 broilers, and Experiment 2 ( EXP 2: ) consisted of 6 treatments with 8 replicate pens that contained 50 broilers. Birds were weighed by pen on d 0, 21, 35, and 42. In EXP 1, the treatments were as follows: 1) control ( C: ); 2) C + 100 g ButiPEARL/ton; 3) C + 200 g ButiPEARL/ton; and 4) C + 300 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 2, the treatments were identical to EXP 1, with 2 additional treatments: 5) C + 400 g ButiPEARL/ton and 6) C + 500 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 1, two 42-d-old broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal and jejunal tissue collection. Only the samples from the broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments were analyzed for histology in EXP 1. For EXP 2, on d 21 and 35, two broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissue collection. For EXP 1 and 2, BW gain increased linearly with increasing butyric acid levels (P < 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively). For EXP 1 and 2, feed conversion linearly improved with increasing butyric acid from 0 to 42 d (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In EXP 1, there were no differences in any intestinal morphology at 42 d between broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments. In EXP 2, there were no differences in villus height at 21 or 35 d of age with any level of butyric acid. Based on the results of this research related to BW gain and feed conversion, the recommended optimum dosage level for ButiPEARL in broilers reared to 42 d of age is up to 500 g/ton.

  16. Butyrate Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Boosalis, Michael S.; Perrine, Susan P.; Sangerman, José

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In addition to being a part of the metabolic fatty acid fuel cycle, butyrate is also capable of inducing growth arrest in a variety of normal cell types and senescence-like phenotypes in gynecological cancer cells, inhibiting DNA synthesis and cell growth in colonic tumor cell lines, suppressing hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in human prostate cancer cells, and inducing stem cell differentiation and apoptosis by DNA fragmentation. It regulates gene expression by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhances memory recovery and formation in mice, stimulates neurogenesis in the ischemic brain, promotes osteoblast formation, selectively blocks cell replication in transformed cells (compared to healthy cells), and can prevent and treat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mouse models of obesity, as well as stimulate fetal hemoglobin expression in individuals with hematologic diseases such as the thalassemias and sickle-cell disease, in addition to a multitude of other biochemical effects in vivo. However, efforts to exploit the potential of butyrate in the clinical treatment of cancer and other medical disorders are thwarted by its poor pharmacological properties (short half-life and first-pass hepatic clearance) and the multigram doses needed to achieve therapeutic concentrations in vivo. Herein, we review some of the methods used to overcome these difficulties with an emphasis on HDAC inhibition. PMID:23514803

  17. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; Yates, Jr., John T.

    2014-12-12

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C2–C4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO2. Infrared measurements of Au2C=C=O formation as a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification... adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer,...

  19. Transcriptome characterization by deep-RNA-sequencing underlies the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate), especially butyrate, alter cell differentiation, proliferation, motility, and in particular, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition activity. Butyrate is a great inducer of ...

  20. Sodium and Potassium Interactions with Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, Pascal; D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Ennifar, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions are essential cofactors for the structure and functions of nucleic acids. Yet, the early discovery in the 70s of the crucial role of Mg(2+) in stabilizing tRNA structures has occulted for a long time the importance of monovalent cations. Renewed interest in these ions was brought in the late 90s by the discovery of specific potassium metal ions in the core of a group I intron. Their importance in nucleic acid folding and catalytic activity is now well established. However, detection of K(+) and Na(+) ions is notoriously problematic and the question about their specificity is recurrent. Here we review the different methods that can be used to detect K(+) and Na(+) ions in nucleic acid structures such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance or molecular dynamics simulations. We also discuss specific versus non-specific binding to different structures through various examples.

  1. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  2. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid amounts locally administered in the rat gingival mucosa induce ER stress in the systemic blood.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Saito, Yuko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    Periodontal diseases have long been postulated to contribute to systemic diseases and, likewise, it has been proposed that periodontal disease treatment may ameliorate certain systemic diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are major secondary metabolites produced by oral anaerobic bacteria and, among the SCFAs, butyric acid (BA) in high amounts contribute to periodontal disease development. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid (PDL-BA) is found among patients suffering from periodontal disease and has previously shown to induce oxidative stress, whereas, oxidative stress is correlated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This would imply that PDL-BA may likewise stimulate ER stress, however, this was never elucidated. A better understanding of the correlation between PDL-BA and systemic ER stress stimulation could shed light on the possible systemic effects of PDL-BA-related periodontal diseases. Here, PDL-BA was injected into the gingival mucosa and the systemic blood obtained from the rat jugular was collected at 0, 15, 60, and 180 min post-injection. Collected blood samples were purified and only the blood cytosol was used throughout this study. Subsequently, we measured blood cytosolic GADD153, Ca(2+), representative apoptotic and inflammatory caspases, and NF-κB amounts. We found that PDL-BA presence increased blood cytosolic GADD153 and Ca(2+) amounts. Moreover, we observed that blood cytosolic caspases and NF-κB were activated only at 60 and 180 min post-injection in the rat gingival mucosa. This suggests that PDL-BA administered through the gingival mucosa may influence the systemic blood via ER stress stimulation and, moreover, prolonged PDL-BA retention in the gingival mucosa may play a significant role in ER stress-related caspase and NF-κB activation. In a periodontal disease scenario, we propose that PDL-BA-related ER stress stimulation leading to the simultaneous activation of apoptosis and inflammation may contribute to periodontal disease

  3. Broadband gain in poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester photodetectors enabled by a semicontinuous gold interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, Justin M.; Živanović, Sandra R.

    2014-10-20

    Substantial broadband photoconductive gain has been realized for organic, thin-film photodetectors with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (P3HT:PCBM) active layer at low bias voltages. External quantum efficiencies upwards of 1500% were achieved when a semicontinuous gold layer was introduced at the anode interface. Significant gain was also observed in the sub-band gap, near infrared region where the external quantum efficiency approached 100% despite the lack of a sensitizer. The gain response was highly dependent on the thickness of the active layer of the photodetector with the best results achieved with the thinnest devices. The gain is the result of the injection of secondary electrons due to hole charge trapping at the semicontinuous gold layer.

  4. Organic Nano-Floating-Gate Memory with Polymer:[6,6]-Phenyl-C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Composite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang-Jun Baeg,; Dongyoon Khim,; Dong-Yu Kim,; Soon-Won Jung,; Jae Bon Koo,; Yong-Young Noh,

    2010-05-01

    Here, we report on a pentacene-based, nonvolatile transistor memory device with poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nano-composite films as the charge storage site. Incorporation of PCBM molecules into PVP dielectric materials as charge storage sites for electrons resulted in a reversible shift in the threshold voltage (VTh) and reliable memory characteristics. The characteristics of the pentacene memory device were as follows: a relatively high field-effect mobility (μFET) (0.2-0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1) with a large memory window (ca. 20 V), a high on/off ratio (˜104) during writing and erasing with application of an operating gate voltage of 60 V for a short duration time (˜1 ms), and a retention time of about 40 h.

  5. Organic Nano-Floating-Gate Memory with Polymer:[6,6]-Phenyl-C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Composite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeg, Kang-Jun; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Jung, Soon-Won; Bon Koo, Jae; Noh, Yong-Young

    2010-05-01

    Here, we report on a pentacene-based, nonvolatile transistor memory device with poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nano-composite films as the charge storage site. Incorporation of PCBM molecules into PVP dielectric materials as charge storage sites for electrons resulted in a reversible shift in the threshold voltage (VTh) and reliable memory characteristics. The characteristics of the pentacene memory device were as follows: a relatively high field-effect mobility (µFET) (0.2-0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1) with a large memory window (ca. 20 V), a high on/off ratio (˜104) during writing and erasing with application of an operating gate voltage of 60 V for a short duration time (˜1 ms), and a retention time of about 40 h.

  6. Selected biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase in butter lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) elicited with dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    The study concentrated on changes in certain biochemical parameters of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lettuce leaves caused by dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) elicitation. PPO from control plants demonstrated the highest affinity toward catechol, whereas PPO from BABA-elicited lettuce showed the highest affinity to 4-methylcatechol. The optimum temperature for enzymes from control plants was 35°C, whereas from plants elicited with 1mM BABA this was 25°C. PPO from plants elicited with BABA was also more sensitive to the tested inhibitors than PPO from control plants. l-Cysteine was the most effective inhibitor. Native gel stained for PPO activity in control samples showed two isoforms. However, in BABA-treated lettuce three bands visualising PPO activity were observed. The information obtained in this study will be valuable for the development of treatment technology and storage conditions to control undesirable browning reactions in elicited lettuce.

  7. On the Inapplicability of Electron-Hopping Models for the Organic Semiconductor Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM).

    PubMed

    Gajdos, Fruzsina; Oberhofer, Harald; Dupuis, Michel; Blumberger, Jochen

    2013-03-21

    Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is one of the most popular semiconductors in organic photovoltaic cells, but the electron-transport mechanism in the microcrystalline domains of this material as well as its preferred packing structure remain unclear. Here we use density functional theory to calculate electronic-coupling matrix elements, reorganization energies, and activation energies for available experimental and model crystal structures. We find that the picture of an excess electron hopping from one fullerene to another does not apply for any of the crystalline phases, rendering traditional rate equations inappropriate. We also find that the cohesive energy increases in the order body-centered-cubic < hexagonal < simple cubic < monoclinic < triclinic, independently of the type of dispersion correction used. Our results indicate that the coupled electron-ion dynamics needs to be solved explicitly to obtain a realistic description of charge transfer in this material.

  8. Dependence of protein binding capacity of dimethylamino-γ-butyric-acid (DMGABA)-immobilized porous membrane on composition of solvent used for DMGABA immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanade, Akio; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu

    2013-06-01

    Dimethylamino-γ-butyric acid (DMGABA) as an ampholite was reacted with the epoxy group of the poly-glycidyl methacrylate chain grafted onto the pore surface of a porous hollow-fiber polyethylene membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization. DMGABA was dissolved in a mixture of dioxane and water at various dioxane volume fractions, defined by dividing the dioxane volume by the total volume. The equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) of the DMGABA-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane for lysozyme was evaluated in the permeation mode. The EBC was varied from a 1/50-fold monolayer binding capacity to a 10-fold monolayer binding capacity by controlling the composition of the solvent used for DMGABA immobilization and the molar conversion of the epoxy group into the DMGABA group.

  9. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  10. Interactions of sodium montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen H; Dennis, Gary R; Milev, Adriyan S; Kannangara, G S Kamali; Wilson, Michael A; Lamb, Robert N

    2005-10-15

    The chemical-structural modifications of the natural clay sodium montmorillonite during interaction with poly(acrylic acid) were studied mainly by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Samples of modified montmorillonite were prepared from the reaction of sodium montmorillonite ( approximately 0.5 g) and an aqueous solution of poly(acrylic acid) (pH approximately 1.8, 50 g) at varying temperatures. X-ray diffraction indicated that the montmorillonite interlayer space ( approximately 13 A), formed by regular stacking of the silicate layers (dimension approximately 1x1000 nm), expanded to approximately 16 A as the reaction was carried out at room temperature and at 30 degrees C. At 60 degrees C, the interlayer space further expanded to approximately 20 A. The results of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicated that poly(acrylic acid) molecules exchange sodium ions on the surface of the silicate layers. These combined results allowed development of a reaction model that explains the dependency of the interlayer expansion with temperature. Information concerning the surface chemical reactions and systematic increases in the interlayer distances is particularly useful if montmorillonite and poly(acrylic acid) are to be used for formation of nanocomposite materials.

  11. Phosphoric Acid-Mediated Synthesis of Vinyl Sulfones through Decarboxylative Coupling Reactions of Sodium Sulfinates with Phenylpropiolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rong, Guangwei; Mao, Jincheng; Yan, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Guoqi

    2015-08-07

    A novel phosphoric acid -mediated synthesis of vinyl sulfones through decarboxylative coupling reactions of sodium sulfinates with phenylpropiolic acids is described. This transformation is efficient and environmentally friendly.

  12. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  17. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.45 Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4) may be safely used in food...

  18. Limiting values of diffusion coefficients of glycine, alanine, [Formula: see text]-amino butyric acid, norvaline and norleucine in a relevant physiological aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Diana M; Verissimo, Luis M P; Barros, Marisa C F; Rodrigues, Daniela F S L; Rodrigo, Maria Melia; Esteso, Miguel A; Romero, Carmen M; Ribeiro, Ana C F

    2017-02-01

    The side chain effect on transport in ionic aqueous salt solutions was investigated for [Formula: see text]-amino acids glycine, alanine, [Formula: see text]-amino butyric acid, norvaline, and norleucine --that together define a chemical homologous series based on the length of the characteristic side chain which increases from zero to four carbons, respectively. Binary mutual diffusion coefficients at infinitesimal concentration in aqueous solutions of NaCl (0.15 mol kg (-1)) are measured by means of Taylor dispersion technique for this series and significant differences were found against previous published results for identical systems in pure water. In this way, NaCl effect on the transport of each amino acid is thus assessed and discussed in terms of salting-out effects. Also, solvated Stokes hydrodynamic radii were computed for the series showing comparable results in water and NaCl solution. The new information should prove useful in the design and characterization of transport-controlled systems in physiological and pharmacological studies.

  19. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  20. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  1. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4)...

  2. 77 FR 68686 - Xylenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Xylenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt (also known as sodium xylene sulfonate) (CAS Reg. No. 1300-72-7) when used as an inert ingredient...

  3. 76 FR 52875 - 2-Propenoic Acid, Polymer With Ethenylbenzene and (1-methylethenyl) Benzene, Sodium Salt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ..., Sodium Salt; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...-Propenoic acid, polymer with ethenylbenzene and (1-methylethenyl) benzene, sodium salt when used as an inert... residues of 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with ethenylbenzene and (1- methylethenyl) benzene, sodium salt...

  4. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  6. Perturbation of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Homeostasis by the UDP-Glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 Modulates Arabidopsis Architecture and Water Stress Tolerance[W

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Vanesa B.; Van Aken, Olivier; Morreel, Kris; Vandenbroucke, Korneel; van de Cotte, Brigitte; De Clercq, Inge; Chiwocha, Sheila; Fenske, Ricarda; Prinsen, Els; Boerjan, Wout; Genty, Bernard; Stubbs, Keith A.; Inzé, Dirk; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and redox signaling undergo synergistic and antagonistic interactions with phytohormones to regulate protective responses of plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, molecular insight into the nature of this crosstalk remains scarce. We demonstrate that the hydrogen peroxide–responsive UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the modulation of plant architecture and water stress response through its activity toward the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Biochemical characterization of recombinant UGT74E2 demonstrated that it strongly favors IBA as a substrate. Assessment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), IBA, and their conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT74E2 indicated that the catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. In these transgenic plants, not only were IBA-Glc concentrations increased, but also free IBA levels were elevated and the conjugated IAA pattern was modified. This perturbed IBA and IAA homeostasis was associated with architectural changes, including increased shoot branching and altered rosette shape, and resulted in significantly improved survival during drought and salt stress treatments. Hence, our results reveal that IBA and IBA-Glc are important regulators of morphological and physiological stress adaptation mechanisms and provide molecular evidence for the interplay between hydrogen peroxide and auxin homeostasis through the action of an IBA UGT. PMID:20798329

  7. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Kannan; Perumal, Perumal; Sundarabaalaji, Narayanan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid (AMSB) was synthesized in good yield. AMSB was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H and 13C) and Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay of AMSB was assessed using 1-1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and was found to be 44.1, 34.71 and 41.7 μg/ml respectively. The compound showed effective inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. AMSB was identified to be a reversible mixed noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The molecular docking study was carried out to evaluate the specific groove binding properties and affords valuable information of AMSB binding mode in the active site of α-glucosidase the study may lead to the which leads to the rational design of new class of antidiabetic drugs targeting α-glucosidase based on AMSB in near future.

  8. [Study on THz spectra and vibrational modes of benzoic acid and sodium Benzoate].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhuan-Ping; Fan, Wen-Hui; Yan, Hui; Liu, Jia; Xu, Li-Min

    2013-03-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was employed to measure the terahertz absorption spectra of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate at room temperature. The origins of the measured features of benzoic acid were summarized based on previous study. Density functional theory was used to compute and analyze the molecular structure and vibrational modes of sodium benzoate in monomer. Based on the obtained results, the authors found that the THz spectral features can be used to distinguish benzoic acid and sodium benzoate totally; the essential reason for the THz spectral difference between benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is that the electrovalent bond of sodium benzoate affects the values of covalent bond lengths and bond angles, as well as the molecular interactions and arrangement in unit cell; the measured features of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate come from the collective vibrations except the peaks located at 107 cm-1 of benzoic acid and 54 cm-1 of sodium benzoate.

  9. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  10. The effect of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough have been studied in conscious tracheostomised dogs. 2. Nedocromil sodium (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) and codeine phosphate (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly increased the time to the first cough when dogs were challenged with citric acid aerosol. The mean number of coughs in the initial period of coughing fell after treatment of dogs with nedocromil sodium or with codeine phosphate, but this reduction in mean cough number was not statistically significant. 3. Neither sodium cromoglycate (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) nor saline had significant effect on a citric acid challenge. 4. It is concluded that nedocromil sodium, but not sodium cromoglycate, possesses an anti-tussive action that may result from inhibition of sensory nerve activity in the lung. Nedocromil sodium may prove useful in the treatment of unproductive cough in situations where the use of a centrally-acting antitussive is undesirable. PMID:2836011

  11. Gabapentin inhibits γ-Amino butyric acid release in the locus coeruleus but not in the spinal dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizumi, Masaru; Parker, Renee A.; Eisenach, James C.; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Gabapentin reduces acute postoperative and chronic neuropathic pain, but its sites and mechanisms of action are unclear. Based on previous electrophysiologic studies, we tested whether gabapentin reduced γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) release in the locus coeruleus (LC), a major site of descending inhibition, rather than in the spinal cord. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were used. Immunostaining for glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA release in synaptosomes and microdialysates were examined in the LC and spinal dorsal horn. Results Basal GABA release and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase increased in the LC but decreased in the spinal dorsal horn following SNL. In microdialysates from the LC, intravenously administered gabapentin decreased extracellular GABA concentration in normal and SNL rats. In synaptosomes prepared from the LC, gabapentin and other α2δ ligands inhibited KCl-evoked GABA release in normal and SNL rats. In microdialysates from the spinal dorsal horn, intravenous gabapentin did not alter GABA concentrations in normal rats but slightly increased them in SNL rats. In synaptosomes from the spinal dorsal horn, neither gabapentin nor other α2δ ligands affected KCl-evoked GABA release in normal and SNL rats. Discussion These results suggest that peripheral nerve injury induces plasticity of GABAergic neurons differently in the LC and spinal dorsal horn, and that gabapentin reduces pre-synaptic GABA release in the LC but spinal dorsal horn. The present study supports the idea that gabapentin activates descending noradrenergic inhibition via disinhibition of LC neurons. PMID:22487864

  12. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco; Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  13. On the inapplicability of electron-hopping models for the organic semiconductor Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdos, Fruzsina; Oberhofer, Harald; Dupuis, Michel; Blumberger, Jochen

    2013-03-21

    Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) is one of the most popular semiconductors in organic photovoltaic cells, but the electron transport mechanism in the microcrystalline domains of this material as well as its preferred packing structure remains unclear. Here we use density functional theory to calculate electronic coupling matrix elements, reorganization energies and activation energies for available experimental and model crystal structures. We find that the picture of an excess electron hopping from one fullerene to another does not apply for any of the crystalline phases, rendering traditional rate equations inappropriate. We also find that the cohesive energy increases in the order body-centred-cubic < hexagonal < simple cubic < monoclinic < triclinic, independently on the type of dispersion correction used. Our results indicate that the electron-ion dynamics needs to be solved explicitly in order to obtain a realistic description of charge transfer in this material. M.D. was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  14. Fast assembly of cyanine dyes into aggregates onto [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester surfaces from organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Heier, Jakob; Steiger, Rolf; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2010-03-16

    Supramolecular agglomerates of organic colorants based on noncovalent interactions are promising candidates for the development of sensors, optoelectronics, lighting, or photovoltaics. However, their fast and defect-free fabrication on large scales using low-cost technologies has proven elusive so far. Here, we introduce a so far unreported mechanism to induce molecular order in cyanine dyes within minutes from organic solvents by self-assembly. Spin coating blends of a cyanine dye and a soluble fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)) from apolar, aprotic solvents leads to phase-separated structures on the micrometer scale. With this superordinated phase structure, adjustment of dye aggregation is possible, leading to novel optical properties of the film emerging from dye self-assembly on the nanometer scale. In the primary process, semiporous PCBM domains act as nucleation sites for H-aggregates. H-aggregates can then be reconstructed into J-aggregates by dissolving PCBM from the film. Unexpectedly, the method even works for sterically hindered cyanine dyes that are known for their reduced tendency to aggregate. Additionally, selective removal of H-aggregates leaves a template of PCBM nanocrystals, onto which cyanine dye monomers readsorb from solution, forming H-aggregates of similar quality.

  15. Noncovalent functionalization of graphene attaching [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and application as electron extraction layer of polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shuxuan; Li, Minghua; Xie, Lixin; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Jinguo; Wang, Nan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2013-05-28

    A new graphene-fullerene composite (rGO-pyrene-PCBM), in which [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was attached onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via the noncovalent functionalization approach, was reported. The pyrene-PCBM moiety was synthesized via a facile esterification reaction, and pyrene was used as an anchoring bridge to link rGO and PCBM components. FTIR, UV-vis, and XPS spectroscopic characterizations were carried out to confirm the hybrid structure of rGO-pyrene-PCBM, and the composite formation is found to improve greatly the dispersity of rGO in DMF. The geometric configuration of rGO-pyrene-PCBM was studied by Raman, SEM, and AFM analyses, suggesting that the C60 moiety is far from the graphene sheet and is bridged with the graphene sheet via the pyrene anchor. Finally rGO-pyrene-PCBM was successfully applied as electron extraction layer for P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell (BHJ-PSC) devices, affording a PCE of 3.89%, which is enhanced by ca. 15% compared to that of the reference device without electron extraction layer (3.39%). Contrarily, the comparative devices incorporating the rGO or pyrene-PCBM component as electron extraction layer showed dramatically decreased PCE, indicating the importance of composite formation between rGO and pyrene-PCBM components for its electron extraction property.

  16. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism.

  17. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Ann-Caroline; Jacobs, Fernando Alvarado; Eliasson, Lennart

    1991-01-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  18. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  19. Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yanou; Zhang, Jianli; Gatlin, Delbert M; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-07-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary sustained-release microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) products (0 (non-supplement), 1·5 and 3·0 h) for a control or oxidised soyabean oil (SBO) diet on fish production, intestinal mucosal condition, immunity and intestinal bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dietary MSB increased weight gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio within the control and oxidised SBO groups. Gut mucosa was damaged in the oxidised SBO group fed without MSB, in contrast to a normal appearance found in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group. Microvillus density increased in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group (P< 0·001); however, microvillus density was affected by the different pre-fed diets in the midgut (P< 0·001) and by the different sustained-release times of MSB in the distal gut (DG) (P= 0·003). The interaction between the pre-fed diets and the sustained-release times of dietary MSB was significant for the relative gene expression levels of gut heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-β) within each gut segment, except for HSP70 in the DG and IL-1β in the foregut. Modulation of adherent bacterial communities within each gut segment investigated was not obvious when the common carp were fed the diets with MSB, as similarity coefficients of >0·79 were observed. These results indicated that MSB can be used as a dietary supplement to repair or prevent intestinal damage in carp fed oxidised SBO.

  20. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  1. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  2. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  3. Effect of sodium taurolithocholate on bile flow and bile acid excretion

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Norman B.; Emerman, Sidney

    1968-01-01

    Sodium taurolithocholate and sodium taurocholenate were infused intravenously into rats and hamsters. Each bile acid salt was given alone or in combination with varying amounts of a primary bile salt, either sodium taurocholate or sodium taurochenodeoxycholate. Bile flow, total bile acid salt excretion, and the excretion of sodium taurolithocholate were quantitatively determined. In addition, mannitol excretion in bile was determined at various flow rates. Sodium taurolithocholate was found to be rapidly excreted in bile in concentrations greater than its aqueous solubility. When the endogenous excretion rate of bile salt or the infusion of primary bile salt was less than the molar amount of administered sodium taurolithocholate, cholestasis always occurred. Increasing molar amounts of primary bile salt prevented cholestasis and enhanced the excretion rate of sodium taurolithocholate. Infusion of sodium taurocholenate, a nonhemolytic bile salt, caused an effect on bile flow and bile acid salt excretion qualitatively similar to sodium taurolithocholate. The induction of cholestasis can be attributed to the physical properties of these poorly water soluble bile salts. The reduction in bile flow could not be shown to be related to water reabsorption from the biliary tree since there was no increase in mannitol concentration in bile during cholestasis. Reduction in bile flow may be related to obstruction of segments of the biliary tree by precipitates of sodium taurolithocholate and possibly to a decrease in water entry into the biliary tree during infusion of this bile acid salt. PMID:5645847

  4. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  5. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  6. Mechanism of block of single protopores of the Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0 by 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB).

    PubMed

    Pusch, M; Accardi, A; Liantonio, A; Ferrera, L; De Luca, A; Camerino, D C; Conti, F

    2001-07-01

    We investigated in detail the mechanism of inhibition by the S(-) enantiomer of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB) of the Torpedo Cl(-)channel, ClC-0. The substance has been previously shown to inhibit the homologous skeletal muscle channel, CLC-1. ClC-0 is a homodimer with probably two independently gated protopores that are conductive only if an additional common gate is open. As a simplification, we used a mutant of ClC-0 (C212S) that has the common gate "locked open" (Lin, Y.W., C.W. Lin, and T.Y. Chen. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:1-12). CPB inhibits C212S currents only when applied to the cytoplasmic side, and single-channel recordings at voltages (V) between -120 and -80 mV demonstrate that it acts independently on individual protopores by introducing a long-lived nonconductive state with no effect on the conductance and little effect on the lifetime of the open state. Steady-state macroscopic currents at -140 mV are half-inhibited by approximately 0.5 mM CPB, but the inhibition decreases with V and vanishes for V > or = 40 mV. Relaxations of CPB inhibition after voltage steps are seen in the current responses as an additional exponential component that is much slower than the gating of drug-free protopores. For V = 60 mV) with an IC50 of approximately 30-40 mM. Altogether, these findings support a model for the mechanism of CPB inhibition in which the drug competes with Cl(-) for binding to a site of the pore where it blocks permeation. CPB binds preferentially to closed channels, and thereby also strongly alters the gating of the single protopore. Since the affinity of CPB for open WT pores is extremely low, we cannot decide in this case if it acts also as an open pore blocker. However, the experiments with the mutant K519E strongly support this interpretation. CPB block may become a useful tool to study the pore of ClC channels. As a first application, our results provide additional evidence for a double-barreled structure of ClC-0 and ClC-1.

  7. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  8. Epithelial Sodium and Acid-Sensing Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellenberger, Stephan

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are non-voltage-gated Na+ channels that form their own subfamilies within the ENaC/degenerin ion channel family. ASICs are sensors of extracellular pH, and ENaC, whose main function is trans-epithelial Na+ transport, can sense extra- and intra-cellular Na+. In aldosterone-responsive epithelial cells of the kidney, ENaC plays a critical role in the control of sodium balance, blood volume and blood pressure. In airway epithelia, ENaC has a distinct role in controlling fluid reabsorption at the air-liquid interface, thereby determining the rate of mucociliary transport. In taste receptor cells of the tongue, ENaC is involved in salt taste sensation. ASICs have emerged as key sensors for extracellular protons in central and peripheral neurons. Although not all of their physiological and pathological functions are firmly established yet, there is good evidence for a role of ASICs in the brain in learning, expression of fear, and in neurodegeneration after ischaemic stroke. In sensory neurons, ASICs are involved in nociception and mechanosensation. ENaC and ASIC subunits share substantial sequence homology and the conservation of several functional domains. This chapter summarises our current understanding of the physiological functions and of the mechanisms of ion permeation, gating and regulation of ENaC and ASICs.

  9. Swelling assisted photografting of itaconic acid onto sodium alginate membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkın, Gülşen; Şanlı, Oya; Asman, Gülsen

    2011-09-01

    Grafting of itaconic acid (IA) was achieved onto sodium alginate (NaAlg) membranes by using UV-radiation. Process was performed under nitrogen atmosphere and benzophenone (BP) was used as a photoinitiator. Membranes were preswelled before the polymerization process and ethanol was determined as the best swelling agent among the studied solvents. The effect of polymerization time, initiator and monomer concentrations on the grafting efficiency were investigated. The best conditions for optimum grafting were obtained with IA concentration of 1.0 M, a BP concentration of 0.1 M and a reaction time of 4 h at 25 °C. Under these conditions grafting efficiency for NaAlg-g-IA membranes was found to be 14% (w/w). To obtain further increase in grafting efficiency membranes were also preswelled in IA and BP solutions and polymerization was carried out at different temperatures after UV polymerization. Grafted membranes were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effect of grafting on membrane properties such as intrinsic viscosity and swelling percentage were also determined.

  10. The dominant glutamic acid metabolic flux to produce γ-amino butyric acid over proline in Nicotiana tabacum leaves under water stress relates to its significant role in antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuili; Zhao, Li; Yu, Guanghui

    2011-08-01

    γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and proline play a crucial role in protecting plants during various environmental stresses. Their synthesis is from the common precursor glutamic acid, which is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase and Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase respectively. However, the dominant pathway under water stress has not yet been established. To explore this, excised tobacco leaves were used to simulate a water-stress condition. The results showed GABA content was much higher than that of proline in leaves under water-deficit and non-water-deficit conditions. Specifically, the amount of GABA significantly increased compared to proline under continuous water loss for 16 h, indicating that GABA biosynthesis is the dominant pathway from glutamic acid metabolism under these conditions. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein Western gel-blot analysis further confirmed this. To explore the function of GABA accumulation, a system producing superoxide anion (O(2) (-) ), peroxide hydrogen (H(2) O(2) ), and singlet oxygen ((1) O(2) ) was employed to investigate the scavenging role on free-radical production. The results demonstrated that the scavenging ability of GABA for O(2) (-) , H(2) O(2) , and (1) O(2) was significantly higher than that of proline. This indicated that GABA acts as an effective osmolyte to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species under water stress.

  11. Nanofibrillar self-organization of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester by dip-coating: a simple method to obtain efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Valentini, L; Bagnis, D; Kenny, J M

    2009-03-04

    In this paper the dip-coating technique has been investigated as a method for the production of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based solar cells. We found that the utilization of the dip-coating technique for the RR-P3HT:PCBM system can facilitate its self-assembly into a nanofibrillar lamellar structure after evaporation of the solvent. The condition for the formation of the nanofibrillar structures leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.6% by using only this approach without thermal treatment.

  12. Microbial metabolite butyrate facilitates M2 macrophage polarization and function.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Shu, Dingming; Zheng, Mingzhu; Wang, Jie; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Yan; Guo, Fuyou; Zou, Xian; Lv, Xiaohui; Li, Ying; Liu, Tianfei; Qu, Hao

    2016-04-20

    Metabolites from intestinal microbes modulate the mucosal immune system by regulating the polarization and expansion of T cells. Whether the microbial metabolites influence macrophage polarization, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that the large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, facilitates M2 macrophage polarization, in vitro and in vivo. The supernatant from butyrate-treated M2 macrophage increased the migration and enhanced the wound closure rate of MLE-12 cells. Butyrate attenuated intestinal inflammation in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with a significant increase in colonic expression of the M2 macrophage-associated protein, Arg1. M2 macrophage treated with butyrate, had increased activation of the H3K9/STAT6 signaling pathway, suggesting a mechanism for butyrate facilitated M2 macrophage polarization. Collectively, our study indicated that commensal microbe-derived butyrate is a novel activator of STAT6-mediated transcription through H3K9 acetylation driving M2 macrophage polarization, and delineated new insights into the immune interplay underlying inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Deliquescence and crystallization of ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Atul; Fok, Abel; Parsons, Matthew T.; Mak, Jackson; Bertram, Allan K.

    2004-06-01

    In the following, we report the deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) of mixed inorganic-organic particles, specifically ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles. Knowledge of the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic particles is crucial for predicting the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Our DRH results are in good agreement with previous measurements, but our CRH results are significantly lower than some of the previous measurements reported in the literature. Our studies show that the DRH and CRH of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride only decreased slightly when the mole fraction of the acid was less than 0.4. If other organics in the atmosphere behave in a similar manner, then the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic atmospheric particles will only be slightly less than the DRH and CRH of pure inorganic particles when the organic mole fraction is less than 0.4. Our results also show that if the particles contain a significant amount of organics (mole fraction > 0.5) the crystallization relative humidity decreases significantly and the particles are more likely to remain in the liquid state. Further work is needed to determine if other organics species of atmospheric importance have a similar effect.

  14. Butyrate production under aerobic growth conditions by engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Naoya; Vangnai, Alisa S; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2017-01-11

    Butyrate is an important industrial platform chemical. Although several groups have reported butyrate production under oxygen-limited conditions by a native producer, Clostridium tyrobutylicum, and by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, efforts to produce butyrate under aerobic growth conditions have met limited success. Here, we constructed a novel butyrate synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic growth conditions in E. coli, by modifying the 1-butanol synthetic pathway reported previously. The pathway consists of phaA (acetyltransferase) and phaB (NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) from Ralstonia eutropha, phaJ ((R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae, ter (trans-enoyl-CoA reductase) from Treponema denticola, and endogenous thioesterase(s) of E. coli. To evaluate the potential of this pathway for butyrate production, culture conditions, including pH, oxygen supply, and concentration of inorganic nitrogen sources, were optimized in a mini-jar fermentor. Under the optimal conditions, butyrate was produced at a concentration of up to 140 mM (12.3 g/L in terms of butyric acid) after 54 h of fed-batch culture.

  15. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  18. Barley malt increases hindgut and portal butyric acid, modulates gene expression of gut tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors in rats fed high-fat diets, but high advanced glycation end-products partially attenuate the effects.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yadong; Teixeira, Cristina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Sae-Lim, Watina; Tareke, Eden; Andersson, Roger; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of butyrate glycerides toward Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Namkung, H; Yu, H; Gong, J; Leeson, S

    2011-10-01

    The antimicrobial activities of n-butyric acid and its derivatives against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium perfringens were studied. n-Butyric acid and its derivatives (monobutyrin and a mixture of mono-, di-, and tri-glycerides of butyric acid) were added at different concentrations (ranging from 250 to 7,000 mg/kg to a media inoculated with either Salmonella Typhimurium or C. perfringens. The antimicrobial activity of butyric acid against C. perfringens was measured at 2 bacterium concentrations and 2 inoculations involving ambient aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The most effective antimicrobial activity for Salmonella Typhimurium was observed with n-butyric acid, with 90% inhibition rate at a concentration of 1,500 mg/kg. Although minimal inhibition for Salmonella Typhimurium was observed with butyric acid glycerides, lipase addition to a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of butyric acid increased (P < 0.01) antimicrobial activity of these derivatives. Antimicrobial activity of butyric acid and its derivative against C. perfringens was higher when using a moderate initial inoculation concentration (10(5)) compared with a higher initial concentration (10(7)) of this bacterium. At a lower inoculation of C. perfringens (10(5)), >90% inhibition rate by all butyric acid glycerides was observed with prior aerobic inoculation at 2,000 mg/kg, whereas using anaerobic inoculation, only 50% monobutyrin maintained >90% inhibitory effect at 3,000 mg/kg. The antimicrobial effect of monobutyrin against C. perfringens was generally higher (P < 0.01) for 50% monobutyrin than for 100% monobutyrin. Either a mixture of butyric acid derivatives or 50% monobutyrin decreased (P < 0.01) C. perfringens in a media containing intestinal contents whereas only 50% monobutyrin decreased (P < 0.01) Salmonella Typhimurium within a media containing cecal contents from mature Leghorns. These results show that n-butyric acid and 50% monobutyrin could be used to control Salmonella

  20. Hyperargininemia: clinical course and treatment with sodium benzoate and phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, N; Maehara, M; Hayakawa, C; Kato, T; Watanabe, K; Suzuki, S

    1983-01-01

    In a patient with hyperargininemia, oral administration of sodium benzoate or phenylacetic acid together with an essential amino acid mixture was used to prevent hyperammonemia and to decrease plasma and CSF concentrations of arginine. Sodium benzoate reduced the plasma ammonia levels, which was confirmed by the increase of urinary excretion of hippuric acid. Phenylacetic acid also controlled hyperammonemia, and EEG findings also improved. By these treatments, plasma and CSF concentrations of arginine showed a slight decrease, but were far above the normal range. There was no clinical improvement, and spasticity of the lower and upper extremities was progressive with mental deterioration.

  1. In vitro and in vivo study of transcriptome alternation induced by butyrate in cattle using deep RNA-seq

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs,), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Furthermore, butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells a...

  2. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rafael; Nissen, Scott J.; Sutter, Ellen G.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 13[C6]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 ± 6.5 versus 166.6 ± 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 ± 4.4 versus 263.7 ± 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  3. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  4. Butyrate influences intracellular levels of adenine and adenine derivatives in the fungus Penicillium restrictum.

    PubMed

    Zutz, Christoph; Chiang, Yi Ming; Faehnrich, Bettina; Bacher, Markus; Hellinger, Roland; Kluger, Bernhard; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Butyrate, a small fatty acid, has an important role in the colon of ruminants and mammalians including the inhibition of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation. There is also growing evidence that butyrate is influencing the histone structure in mammalian cells by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Butyrate shows furthermore an antimicrobial activity against fungi, yeast and bacteria, which is linked to its toxicity at a high concentration. In fungi there are indications that butyrate induces the production of secondary metabolites potentially via inhibition of histone deacetylases. However, information about the influence of butyrate on growth, primary metabolite production and metabolism, besides lipid catabolism, in fungi is scarce. We have identified the filamentous fungus Penicillium (P.) restrictum as a susceptible target for butyrate treatment in an antimicrobial activity screen. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in the mycelium of the butyrate treated culture. We investigated the effect of butyrate ranging from low (0.001mM) to high (30mM), potentially toxic, concentrations on biomass and antimicrobial activity. Butyrate at high concentrations (3 and 30mM) significantly reduced the fungal biomass. In contrast P. restrictum treated with 0.03mM of butyrate showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We isolated three antimicrobial active compounds, active against Staphylococcus aureus, from P. restrictum cellular extracts treated with butyrate: adenine, its derivate hypoxanthine and the nucleoside derivate adenosine. Production of all three compounds was increased at low butyrate concentrations. Furthermore we found that butyrate influences the intracellular level of the adenine nucleoside derivate cAMP, an important signalling molecule in fungi and various organisms. In conclusion butyrate treatment increases the intracellular levels of adenine and its respective derivatives.

  5. Amended safety assessment of tall oil acid, sodium tallate, potassium tallate, and ammonium tallate.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Valerie; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    Tall oil acid is a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids (fatty acids) and rosin acids derived from tall oil, a by-product of pulp from resinous woods, used in cosmetic products as a surfactant at concentrations up to 8%. Ammonium, potassium, and sodium salts also are listed as cosmetic ingredients. In addition to the studies summarized in this report, extensive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity studies in animals are available for oleic, lauric, palmitic, myristic, and stearic fatty acids as published earlier by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR). These data may be extrapolated to tall oil acid and its salts. There are no reports of current uses or use concentration data for ammonium tallate, nor are use concentration data available for the other salts. The CIR Expert Panel found tall oil acid, ammonium tallate, potassium tallate, and sodium tallate to be safe cosmetic ingredients in the given practices of use and concentration.

  6. The Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    A method for carrying out the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclopentanone to [delta]-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course is reported. The oxidizing agent is trifluoroperoxyacetic acid generated in situ from trifluoroacetic acid and household sodium percarbonate such as OxiClean, Oxi Magic, or…

  7. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  8. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  9. Studies of single aerosol particles containing malonic acid, glutaric acid, and their mixtures with sodium chloride. I. Hygroscopic growth.

    PubMed

    Pope, Francis D; Dennis-Smither, Ben J; Griffiths, Paul T; Clegg, Simon L; Cox, R Anthony

    2010-04-29

    We describe a newly constructed electrodynamic balance with which to measure the relative mass of single aerosol particles at varying relative humidity. Measurements of changing mass with respect to the relative humidity allow mass (m) growth factors (m(aqueous)/m(dry)) and diameter (d) growth factors (d(aqueous)/d(dry)) of the aerosol to be determined. Four aerosol types were investigated: malonic acid, glutaric acid, mixtures of malonic acid and sodium chloride, and mixtures of glutaric acid and sodium chloride. The mass growth factors of the malonic acid and glutaric acid aqueous phase aerosols, at 85% relative humidity, were 2.11 +/- 0.08 and 1.73 +/- 0.19, respectively. The mass growth factors of the mixed organic/inorganic aerosols are dependent upon the molar fraction of the individual components. Results are compared with previous laboratory determinations and theoretical predictions.

  10. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours.

  11. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A. K. E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  12. Ultrafast transient optical studies of charge pair generation and recombination in poly-3-hexylthiophene(P3ht):[6,6]phenyl C61 butyric methyl acid ester (PCBM) blend films.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, James; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E; Bruno, Annalisa; Ma, Fei; Haque, Saif A; Yarstev, Arkady; Sundstrom, Villy; Nelson, Jenny

    2011-12-29

    Charge generation and recombination are studied in blend films of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6']phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. We find that the charge generation yield depends upon both blend film composition and thermal annealing. The data suggest that recombination occurs over a wide range of time scales and that, in the least favorable cases, the fastest charge recombination occurs on a time scale similar to exciton diffusion. The results are explained using a simple model that incorporates the effect of P3HT domain size on exciton diffusion and uses empirical models of recombination kinetics. We propose our method as a route to interpretation of spectroscopic data where different processes occur on similar time scales.

  13. Mechanism of chemical activation of sodium chloride in the presence of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anja K K; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been shown to promote chlorination of glycerol during thermal processing. However, the detailed mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Preliminary experiments have indicated that the reaction mixture should contain an amino acid and it should be dissolved thoroughly in water in order to induce chlorination. These observations are consistent with the process of dissociation of sodium chloride and its re-association with amino acid and eventual formation of the chlorinating agent in the form of the hydrochloride salt. Release of HCl from this salt can be manifested in chlorination and hydrolytic reactions occurring during thermal processing. The generation of HCl at room temperature from a mixture of sodium chloride and glycine was confirmed through spectrophotometric monitoring of the pH. Hydrolytic and chlorination reactions were demonstrated through monitoring of formation of HMF and chlorinated products under pyrolytic conditions using glucose or sucrose and amino acid mixtures.

  14. Evaluation of sodium bisulphate and phosphoric acid as urine acidifiers for cats.

    PubMed

    Spears, Julie K; Grieshop, Christine M; Fahey, G C

    2003-10-01

    Eighteen cats were used to compare the urine acidifying properties of sodium bisulphate to phosphoric acid. Acidifying agents were added at one of three concentrations (0.4, 0.6, or 0.8%, as-is basis). Cats were offered a commercial diet to determine basal urinary pH, and then again for a 1 week period between blocks 1 and 2. Cats were acclimated to the diets for 6 days, and urine samples were collected on day 7 at 0, 4, and 8 h postfeeding to obtain pre- and postprandial urinary pH. Intakes of diets containing sodium bisulphate tended (P < 0.07) to be lower than intakes of diets containing phosphoric acid. Cats consuming the 0.8% phosphoric acid diet had higher (P < 0.05) food intakes than cats consuming either the 0.4 or 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diets. There was significant (P = 0.01) linear and quadratic response for food intake in cats consuming the sodium bisulphate-containing diet. Cats consuming the 0.4 and 0.8% phosphoric acid-containing diets tended (P = 0.07) to have higher water intakes than cats consuming the 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diet. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in urine pH and specific gravity between cats fed the different acidifier types. Cats consuming the 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diet tended (P = 0.07) to have a higher urine pH 8 h post-feeding than cats consuming the 0.4 and 0.8% phosphoric acid-containing diets. Urine pH was highest at 4 h post-feeding except for cats fed the 0.4% sodium bisulphate- and the 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diets. No differences (P > 0.05) between acidifiers were found in faecal score or in faecal dry matter and organic matter concentrations. A quadratic response was detected in faecal score for cats consuming the phosphoric acid-containing diets. Cats consuming the 0.6% phosphoric acid diet tended (P = 0.06) to have a lower faecal score than cats consuming the 0.4 and 0.8% phosphoric acid diets. For faecal dry matter, a linear trend was detected in cats consuming the sodium

  15. Pd/C synthesized with citric acid: an efficient catalyst for hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H(2) mol(-1) catalyst h(-1), respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells.

  16. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  17. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Klocke, Arndt; Mihailova, Boriana; Tosheva, Lubomira; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2008-07-24

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and complementary scanning electron microscopy were applied to analyze the surface structure of enamel apatite exposed to citric acid and to investigate the protective potential of fluorine-containing reagents against citric acid-induced erosion. Enamel and, for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2.0% for fluoride solutions. The two solutions were applied either simultaneously or consecutively. The citric acid-induced structural modification of apatite increases with the increase in the citric acid concentration and the number of treatments. The application of sodium fluoride alone does not suppress the atomic level changes in apatite exposed to acidic agents. The addition of sodium fluoride to citric acid solutions leads to formation of surface CaF2 and considerably reduces the changes in the apatite P-O-Ca framework. However, the CaF2 globules deposited on the enamel surface seem to be insufficient to prevent the alteration of the apatite structure upon further exposure to acidic agents. No evidence for fluorine-induced recovery of the apatite structure was found.

  18. Influence of Sodium Carbonate on Decomposition of Formic Acid by Discharge inside Bubble in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2015-09-01

    An influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubble in water was investigated. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of addition of sodium carbonate, the pH value increased with decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the increase of pH value contributed to improve an efficiency of the formic acid decomposition because the reaction rate of ozone and formic acid increased with increasing pH value. In the case of argon injection, the decomposition rate was not affected by the pH value owing to the high rate constants for loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  19. Efficient hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis using silica sulfuric acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Joydev; Roy, Binayak; Sharma, Pratibha

    2015-02-01

    A heterogeneous acid catalyst, silica sulfuric acid, was prepared from silica gel (SiO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Addition of SO3H functional group to SiO2 has been confirmed through various characterization techniques. The effect of this heterogeneous acid catalyst on hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction was studied for different ratios of catalyst to NaBH4 and at different temperatures. The catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity towards sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction. The activation energy of the NaBH4 hydrolysis reaction in the presence of silica sulfuric acid was calculated to be the lowest (17 kJ mol-1) among reported heterogeneous catalysts till date.

  20. Flufenamic acid decreases neuronal excitability through modulation of voltage-gated sodium channel gating.

    PubMed

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Baranauskas, Gytis; Martina, Marco

    2010-10-15

    The electrophysiological phenotype of individual neurons critically depends on the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated channels they express. Differences in sodium channel gating are instrumental in determining the different firing phenotypes of pyramidal cells and interneurons; moreover, sodium channel modulation represents an important mechanism of action for many widely used CNS drugs. Flufenamic acid (FFA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been long used as a blocker of calcium-dependent cationic conductances. Here we show that FFA inhibits voltage-gated sodium currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons; this effect is dose-dependent with IC(50) = 189 μm. We used whole-cell and nucleated patch recordings to investigate the mechanisms of FFA modulation of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium current. Our data show that flufenamic acid slows down the inactivation process of the sodium current, while shifting the inactivation curve ~10 mV toward more hyperpolarized potentials. The recovery from inactivation is also affected in a voltage-dependent way, resulting in slower recovery at hyperpolarized potentials. Recordings from acute slices demonstrate that FFA reduces repetitive- and abolishes burst-firing in CA1 pyramidal neurons. A computational model based on our data was employed to better understand the mechanisms of FFA action. Simulation data support the idea that FFA acts via a novel mechanism by reducing the voltage dependence of the sodium channel fast inactivation rates. These effects of FFA suggest that it may be an effective anti-epileptic drug.

  1. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  2. The selective activation of the cardiac sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger by plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Hale, C C; Ebeling, E G; Hsu, F F; Ford, D A

    1998-01-30

    Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of proteoliposomes resulted in 1 mol % conversion of plasmenylcholine or phosphatidylcholine to their respective phosphatidic acid molecular species with a concomitant 8-fold or 2-fold activation of sodium-calcium exchange activity, respectfully. Thus, phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of plasmalogens to phosphatidic acid may be an important mechanism for the regulation of the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  3. Tandem ring-opening decarboxylation of cyclopropane hemimalonates with sodium azide: a short route to γ-aminobutyric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Michael R; Grover, Huck K; Kerr, Michael A

    2012-08-03

    Cyclopropane hemimalonates, when treated with sodium azide, undergo a tandem ring-opening decarboxylation to produce γ-azidobutyric acids in good yields. These adducts were hydrogenated to form γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) methyl esters.

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Malic Acid and Sodium Malate.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Z

    2001-01-01

    Malic Acid functions in cosmetic formulations as a pH adjuster, and Sodium Malate functions as a skin conditioning agent-humectant. Malic Acid is reportedly used in almost 50 cosmetic formulations across a range of product types at low concentrations, whereas Sodium Malate is used in only one. As a pH adjuster, Malic Acid is used at low concentrations. One commercial method of preparing Malic Acid is hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid, and then purified to limit the amount of the starting material present. Because Malic Acid is a component of the Kreb's cycle, another method is fermentation. Malic Acid was relatively nontoxic in acute toxicity studies using animals. In a chronic oral study, feeding Malic Acid to rats resulted only in weight gain changes and changes in feed consumption. Malic Acid did not cause reproductive toxicity in mice, rats, or rabbits. Malic Acid was a moderate to strong skin irritatant in animal tests, and was a strong ocular irritant. Malic Acid was not mutagenic across a range of genotoxicity tests. Malic Acid was irritating in clinical tests, with less irritation seen as pH of the applied material increased. Patients patch tested with Malic Acid, placed on a diet that avoided foods containing Malic or citric acid, and then challenged with a diet high in Malic and citric acid had both immediate urticarial and delayed contact dermatitis reactions. These data were considered sufficient to determine that Malic Acid and Sodium Malate would be safe at the low concentrations at which these ingredients would be used to adjust pH (even though Sodium Malate is not currently used for that purpose). The data, however, were insufficient to determine the safety of these ingredients when used in cosmetics as other than pH adjusters and specifically, the data are insufficient to determine the safety of Sodium Malate when used as a skin conditioning agent-humectant. The types of data required for the Expert Panel to determine the safety of Sodium

  5. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.

  6. Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p≤0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry.

  7. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    PubMed Central

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules. PMID:27869768

  8. Induction of fatty acid synthesis by pravastatin sodium in rat liver and primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, T; Tsujita, Y; Shimotsu, H

    1997-06-11

    We examined the effect of pravastatin sodium (pravastatin), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, on fatty acid synthesis in rat liver. The repeated administration of pravastatin to rats at 250 mg/kg for 7 days led to a 2.8-fold increase in fatty acid synthesis in the liver. The diurnal change of fatty acid synthesis was not affected by the treatment. Hepatic fatty acid synthase activity was increased 3.2-fold, while acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was not changed by the repeated administration of pravastatin. In rat hepatocytes, the incubation with 2 microg/ml pravastatin for 24 h increased fatty acid synthase activity 1.5-fold, as well as HMG-CoA reductase activity 2.8-fold. These results suggest that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors might increase fatty acid synthesis in vivo through the induction of hepatic fatty acid synthase.

  9. Pyruvate sparing by butyrate and propionate in proliferating colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Butler, R N; Stafford, I; Triantafillos, E; O'Dee, C D; Jarrett, I G; Fettman, M J; Roberts-Thomson, I C

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of fasting and fasting followed by refeeding on the relative activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in isolated rat colonocytes were estimated by the rate of production of 14CO2 from [1-14C]pyruvate and [3-14C]pyruvate, respectively. 2. Decarboxylation of pyruvate by the PDH complex exceeded that by the TCA cycle in both fasted and fasted/refed colonocytes, was higher in distal than in proximal colon, and was stimulated by refeeding following a fast. 3. Oxidation of pyruvate by both the PDH complex and the TCA cycle was inhibited by butyrate. 4. Propionate alone had no effect, but synergized with butyrate to further reduce pyruvate decarboxylation by the TCA cycle. 5. Preferential utilization of butyrate by proliferating colonic epithelial cells is postulated to maximize the energy yield and spare pyruvate and its precursors for alternative synthetic roles necessary for active cell division.

  10. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-11-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at -20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at -20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose.

  11. Virucidal effects of bleach activators, sodium alkyl acyloxybenzene sulfonate and acyloxybenzoic acid, against Feline calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Hoshi, Marika; Iizuka, Kinue; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Takaoka, Hiromitsu; Komoriya, Tomoe; Kohno, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are major causative pathogens of gastroenteritis. The disinfection of contaminated clothing during common household washing is desirable. The virucidal effects of 2 bleach activators, sodium alkyl acyloxybenzene sulfonate (OBS) and alkyl acyloxybenzoic acid (OBC), were studied using Feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for NVs. FCV was added to solutions containing either OBS or OBC and sodium percarbonate at various temperatures and for varying lengths of time. OBS and OBC, which generate long carbon chain peroxy acids, enhanced the virucidal effect of sodium percarbonate (PC). In particular, sodium lauroyloxybenzene sulfonate (OBS-12) and decanoyloxybenzoic acid (OBC-10) showed superior virucidal effects. Although the virucidal effect of 38-200 mg/L OBS-12 was maintained with 2-5% (v/v) horse serum, there was less of an effect with the same concentration of available chlorine. OBS and OBC have been used as ingredients in some laundry products to increase bleaching activity. It is expected that the use of OBS and OBC is also effective for the inactivation of NVs under common household washing conditions.

  12. Antioxidative effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate and encapsulated sodium acid pyrophosphate in ground beef patties cooked immediately after antioxidant incorporation and stored.

    PubMed

    Sickler, Marsha L; Claus, James R; Marriott, Norman G; Eigel, William N; Wang, Hengjian

    2013-07-01

    Ground beef with 1% NaCl was incorporated with 0.5% unencapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (uSTP), 0.5% encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (eSTP), 0.5% unencapsulated sodium acid pyrophosphate (uSAPP), or 0.5% encapsulated sodium acid pyrophosphate (eSAPP) prior to being cooked and stored (0 or 6 d, 3 °C). The pH was higher (P<0.05) for sodium tripolyphosphate samples (6 d: uSTP 5.98; eSTP 5.89) and lower (P<0.05) for sodium acid pyrophosphate (6 d: uSAPP 5.31, eSAPP 5.33) samples than control sample (6 d, 5.50). Overall, samples with uSTP had the least cooking loss and lowest TBARS values. TBARS (mg/kg) for the phosphate treatments were lower (P<0.05; ave. 1.78, 0 d; 3.49, 6 d) than for the control samples (3.07, 0 d; 22.85, 6 d). Therefore, phosphate incorporation into ground beef prior to cooking aids in the reduction of oxidation in the cooked, stored product, although a longer period of time before thermal processing may be necessary for the encapsulated phosphate to have significant benefits.

  13. Higher hypochlorous acid scavenging activity of ethyl pyruvate compared to its sodium salt.

    PubMed

    Olek, Robert Antoni; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Wierzba, Tomasz Henryk; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have focused on the higher ethyl pyruvate antioxidative activity than its sodium salt under various stress conditions, and the greater protective properties of the ester form have been suggested as the effect of better cell membrane penetration, the molecular mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to compare the antioxidative activities of sodium and ethyl pyruvate under in vitro conditions by using a liver homogenate as the model for cell membrane transport deletion. The potential effect of ethanol was also evaluated, and hypochlorous acid was used as an oxidant. Our data indicate the concentration-dependent scavenging potency of both sodium and ethyl pyruvate, with the ester having higher activity. This effect was not related to the presence of ethanol. Better protection of the liver homogenate by ethyl pyruvate was also apparent, despite the fact that cell membrane transport was omitted.

  14. Poly[(μ(5)-5-carboxylatotetrahydrofuran-2,3,4-tricarboxylic acid)sodium].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Chai, Wenxiang; Lin, Jian; Shi, Hongsheng; Shu, Kangying

    2009-10-23

    The search for the novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials using tetra-hydro-furan-2,3,4,5-tetra-carboxylic acid (THFTCA) as a versatile multi-carboxyl ligand, lead to the synthesis and the structure determination of the title compound, [Na(H(3)THFTCA)] or [Na(C(8)H(7)O(9))](n), which was obtained by a solution reaction at room temperature. The ligand is mono-deprotonated, coordinating five sodium ions through one furan oxygen atom and six carboxyl oxygen atoms. The sodium ion exhibits a distorted penta-gonal-bipyramidal NaO(7) geometry consisting of seven O atoms derived from five surrounding ligands. Two adjacent pentagonal bipyramids share an O-O edge, forming a dinuclear sodium cluster. Finally, these clusters are effectively linked by the carboxyl groups of THFTCA ligands, forming a firm metal organic framework and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds contribute to the crystal packing.

  15. Butyrate as preferred substrate for polyhydroxybutyrate production.

    PubMed

    Marang, Leonie; Jiang, Yang; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the suitability of butyrate as substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by microbial enrichment cultures was assessed. Two sequencing batch reactors were operated under feast-famine conditions: one fed with butyrate, and another with mixed acetate and butyrate. The obtained results were compared to previous results with acetate as sole substrate. In all three reactors Plasticicumulans acidivorans dominated the enrichment culture. The carbon uptake rate and PHA yield were significantly higher on butyrate than on acetate, resulting in a higher PHA production rate. When both substrates were available the bacteria strongly preferred the uptake of butyrate. Only after butyrate depletion acetate was taken up at a high rate. The molar substrate uptake rate remained the same, suggesting that substrate uptake is the rate-limiting step. The results show that for optimized waste-based PHA production the pre-fermentation process should be directed towards butyrate production.

  16. Enhancement of ursodeoxycholic acid bioavailability by cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Scalia, S; Giunchedi, P; Pazzi, P; Conte, U

    2000-04-01

    The bioavailability of ursodeoxycholic acid from a new formulation based on drug-loaded cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was studied in man. The plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization and sample purification by solid-phase extraction. Capsules containing the drug/polymer system were prepared and compared with conventional commercial ursodeoxycholic acid capsules after single oral administration using a randomized crossover experimental design. Although the drug/polymer system improved the in-vitro dissolution rate of ursodeoxycholic acid in simulated intestinal fluid, statistical evaluation of the area under the plasma concentration curves indicated no significant difference in the extent of bioavailability between the two formulations (14.93+/-4.43 vs 14.95+/-5.79 microM h; P > 0.2). However, following the administration of the ursodeoxycholic acid/cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose system with an enteric-coated capsule, the mean area under the plasma concentration curve (27.60+/-10.11 microM h) was significantly higher than that obtained after treatment with the commercially available ursodeoxycholic acid capsule (16.24+/-8-38 microM h; P < 0.05). We concluded that improved intestinal absorption of the drug was obtained with enteric-coated capsules filled with the ursodeoxycholic acid/polymer system. Moreover, the simplicity of the preparation and the non-toxicity of the polymer used as the carrier represented additional advantages of this dosage form.

  17. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  18. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  19. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

  20. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way.

  1. Cellular Metabolism and Dose Reveal Carnitine-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms of Butyrate Oxidation in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; MacDonald, Amber; Johnstone, Megan; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2016-08-01

    Dietary fiber has been suggested to suppress colorectal cancer development, although the mechanisms contributing to this beneficial effect remain elusive. Butyrate, a fermentation product of fiber, has been shown to have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. The metabolic fate of butyrate in the cell is important in determining whether, it acts as an HDAC inhibitor or is consumed as a short-chain fatty acid. Non-cancerous colonocytes utilize butyrate as the primary energy source whereas cancerous colonocytes increase glucose utilization through the Warburg effect. In this study, we show that butyrate oxidation is decreased in cancerous colonocytes compared to non-cancerous colonocytes. We demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells utilize both a carnitine-dependent and carnitine-independent mechanism that contributes to butyrate oxidation. The carnitine-dependent mechanism is contingent on butyrate concentration. Knockdown of CPT1A in colorectal cancer cells abolishes butyrate oxidation. In terms of selectivity, the carnitine-dependent mechanism only regulated butyrate oxidation, as acetate and propionate oxidation were carnitine-independent. Carnitine decreased the action of butyrate as an HDAC inhibitor and suppressed induction of H3 acetylation by butyrate in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, diminished oxidation of butyrate is associated with decreased HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. In relation to the mechanism, we find that dichloroacetate, which decreases phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, increased butyrate oxidation and that this effect was carnitine-dependent. In conclusion, these data suggest that colorectal cancer cells decrease butyrate oxidation through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is carnitine-dependent, and provide insight into why butyrate shows selective effects toward colorectal cancer cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1804-1813, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  3. Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation.

  4. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-21

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  5. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid, nicotinamide and calcium glucarate against the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis attained by enhancing the induction of intrinsic apoptotic events.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2015-01-25

    We explored the basis of the combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) on mouse skin exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). We studied the effects of topical application of DMBA in the presence or absence of BA, NA and CAG on the regulators of apoptosis. DMBA treatment suppressed Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, Apaf1, caspase-9, -3 mediated apoptosis. Downregulation of p21 and upregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53 were also observed in only DMBA treated mice. Simultaneous application of BA, NA and CAG induced a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, characterized by a rise in the Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, upregulation of Apaf1 with down-stream activation of caspase-9, -3. Furthermore treatment with BA, NA and CAG demonstrated an upregulation of p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53. But this effect was enhanced in the presence of all the three compounds together in combination. Chemoprevention by a combination of BA, NA and CAG by inducing the apoptosis, the natural cell death, suggest the importance of the potential combinational strategies capable of preventing skin tumor development.

  6. The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzia, Vivi; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Yahya, Muhammad

    2010-10-24

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

  7. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-08-31

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when /sup 3/H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    PubMed

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate.

  9. Induction of porcine host defense peptide gene expression by short-chain fatty acids and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Jiang, Weiyu; Bible, Megan; Carter, Scott; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan; Zhang, Guolong

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2), pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C), and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3-8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs.

  10. Induction of Porcine Host Defense Peptide Gene Expression by Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Their Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Sunkara, Lakshmi T.; Jiang, Weiyu; Bible, Megan; Carter, Scott; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan; Zhang, Guolong

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2), pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C), and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3–8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs. PMID:24023657

  11. [High molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate effect on secretory acid proteinase of Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Calamari, Silvia; Bojanich, Alejandra; Barembaum, Silvina; Azcurra, Ana; Virga, Carolina; Dorronsoro, Susana

    2004-12-01

    The effect of high molecular weight chitosan (HMWCh) and sodium alginate (NaAL) on acid proteinase secretion of Candida albicans (one of culture collection and five isolates) was evaluated. The secretion of acid proteinase was induced in the presence and the absence of these polymers in different concentrations and their enzymatic activity was determined. HMWCh and NaAL significantly diminished the enzymatic activity (>76% for the collection strains and > 89% for the isolates, p < 0.05). HMWCh did not modify protein concentrations, but NaAL did. It can be concluded that both polymers can inhibit the proteinase activity of Candida albicans.

  12. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hui; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

    2015-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26713737

  13. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  14. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies of a series of quinazolinonyl analogues as inhibitors of gamma amino butyric acid aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Abdulfatai, Usman; Uzairu, Adamu; Uba, Sani

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies were carried out on a series of quinazolinonyl analogues as anticonvulsant inhibitors. Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculation method was used to find the optimized geometry of the anticonvulsants inhibitors. Four types of molecular descriptors were used to derive a quantitative relation between anticonvulsant activity and structural properties. The relevant molecular descriptors were selected by Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA). The best model was validated and found to be statistically significant with squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.934, adjusted squared correlation coefficient (R(2)adj) value of 0.912, Leave one out (LOO) cross validation coefficient (Q(2)) value of 0.8695 and the external validation (R(2)pred) of 0.72. Docking analysis revealed that the best compound with the docking scores of -9.5 kcal/mol formed hydrophobic interaction and H-bonding with amino acid residues of gamma aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABAAT). This research has shown that the binding affinity generated was found to be better than the commercially sold anti-epilepsy drug, vigabatrin. Also, it was found to be better than the one reported by other researcher. Our QSAR model and molecular docking results corroborate with each other and propose the directions for the design of new inhibitors with better activity against GABAAT. The present study will help in rational drug design and synthesis of new selective GABAAT inhibitors with predetermined affinity and activity and provides valuable information for the understanding of interactions between GABAAT and the anticonvulsants inhibitors.

  16. Water uptake properties of internally mixed sodium halide and succinic acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols include appreciable fractions of organic material, that can affect properties such as hygroscopicity, phase transition or chemical reactivity. Although sodium chloride is the major component of marine salt, bromide and iodide ions tend to accumulate onto particle surfaces and influence their behaviour. The hygroscopic properties of internally mixed submicrometric particles composed of succinic acid (SA) and NaX (where X = F, Cl, Br or I) have been studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell at ambient temperature for different relative succinic acid/NaX compositions. The results show that deliquescence relative humidities of SA/NaF and SA/NaCl are equal to those of the pure sodium halides. SA/NaBr particles, on the other hand, deliquesce at lower relative humidities than pure NaBr particles, the effect being more marked as the SA/NaBr mass ratio approaches unity. The SA/NaI system behaves as a non-deliquescent system, absorbing liquid water at all relative humidities, as in pure NaI. Succinic acid phase in the particles has been spectroscopically monitored at given values of both RH and SA/NaX solute mass ratio. The different hygroscopic properties as the halogen ion is changed can be rationalized in terms of simple thermodynamic arguments and can be attributed to the relative contributions of ion-molecule interactions in the solid particles. The observed behaviour is of interest for tropospheric sea salt aerosols mixed with organic acids.

  17. Preparation of Coated Valproic Acid and Sodium Valproate Sustained-release Matrix Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, T.; Mueannoom, W.; Tuntarawongsa, S.; Chitrattha, S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the technique for preparation of coated valproic acid and sodium valproate sustained-release matrix tablets. Different diluents were tested and selected as the effective absorbent for oily valproic acid. Effect of the amount of absorbent and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose on drug release from valproic acid-sodium valproate matrix tablets prepared with wet granulation technique was evaluated in pH change system. Colloidal silicon dioxide effectively adsorbed liquid valproic acid during wet granulation and granule preparation. The amounts of colloidal silicon dioxide and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose employed in tablet formulations affected drug release from the tablets. The drug release was prominently sustained for over 12 h using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-based hydrophilic matrix system. The mechanism of drug release through the matrix polymer was a diffusion control. The drug release profile of the developed matrix tablet was similar to Depakine Chrono®, providing the values of similarity factor (f2) and difference factor (f1) of 85.56 and 2.37, respectively. Eudragit® L 30 D-55 was used as effective subcoating material for core matrix tablets before over coating with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose film with organic base solvent. Drug release profile of coated matrix tablet was almost similar to that of Depakine Chrono®. PMID:20838520

  18. Formation of propionate and butyrate by the human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2017-01-01

    The human gut microbiota ferments dietary non-digestible carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). These microbial products are utilized by the host and propionate and butyrate in particular exert a range of health-promoting functions. Here an overview of the metabolic pathways utilized by gut microbes to produce these two SCFA from dietary carbohydrates and from amino acids resulting from protein breakdown is provided. This overview emphasizes the important role played by cross-feeding of intermediary metabolites (in particular lactate, succinate and 1,2-propanediol) between different gut bacteria. The ecophysiology, including growth requirements and responses to environmental factors, of major propionate and butyrate producing bacteria are discussed in relation to dietary modulation of these metabolites. A detailed understanding of SCFA metabolism by the gut microbiota is necessary to underpin effective strategies to optimize SCFA supply to the host.

  19. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhova, Elena N.; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.; Patsenker, Leonid D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Marynin, Andriy I.; Krasovitskii, Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR+ ⇄ R + H+) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R±. The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR+ with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKaapp = 5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators.

  20. A novel approach for the characterization of a bilayer of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester and pentacene using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and argon gas cluster ion beam sputtering process

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Chung, JaeGwan; Jung, Changhoon; Chung, Yeonji; Kim, SeongHeon; Lee, Seunghyup; Kim, Ki-Hong; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, SungHoon

    2013-09-07

    The material arrangement and energy level alignment of an organic bilayer comprising of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM-71) and pentacene were studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and the argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering process. Although there is a small difference in the full width at half maximum of the carbon C 1s core level peaks and differences in the oxygen O 1s core levels of an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectra, these differences are insufficient to clearly distinguish between PCBM-71 and pentacene layers and to classify the interface and bulk regions. On the other hand, the valence band structures in the UPS spectra contain completely distinct configurations for the PCBM-71 and pentacene layers, even when they have similar atomic compositions. According to the valence band structures of the PCBM-71/pentacene/electrodes, the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) region of pentacene is at least 0.8 eV closer to the Fermi level than that of PCBM-71 and it does not overlap with any of the chemical states in the valence band structure of PCBM-71. Therefore, by just following the variations in the area of the HOMO region of pentacene, the interface/bulk regions of the PCBM/pentacene layers were distinctly categorized. Besides, the variation of valence band structures as a function of the Ar GCIB sputtering time fully corroborated with the surface morphologies observed in the atomic force microscope images. In summary, we believe that the novel approach, which involves UPS analysis in conjunction with Ar GCIB sputtering, can be one of the best methods to characterize the material distribution and energy level alignments of stacks of organic layers.

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a phenyl butyric acid derivative, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-phenylbutanamide: A HDAC6 inhibitor with anti-proliferative activity on cervix cancer and leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Rodríguez-Fonseca Rolando; Yudibeth, Sixto-López; Jonathan, Fragoso-Vázquez M; Raúl, Flores-Mejía; Cristina, Cabrera-Pérez Laura; Ismael, Vázquez-Moctezuma; Cecilia, Rosales-Hernández Martha; Martiniano, Bello; Martínez-Archundia, M; Guadalupe, Trujillo-Ferrara José; Elvia, Becerra-Martínez; José, Correa-Basurto

    2017-01-02

    The epigenetic regulation of genes in cancer could be targeted by inhibiting Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), an enzyme involved in several types of cancer such as lymphoma, leukemia, ovarian cancer, etc. Through in silico methods, a set of Phenyl butyric acid derivatives with possible HDAC6 inhibitory activity were designed, rendering monophenylamides and biphenylamides using tubacin (HDAC6 selective inhibitor) as reference. The target compounds were submitted to theoretical ADMET analyses and their binding properties on different HDAC6 conformers were evaluated through docking calculations. These in silico studies allowed us to identify a compound named B-R2B. In order to have more information about the B-R2B binding recognition properties on HDAC6, the B-R2B-HDAC6 complex was submitted through 100 ns-long Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation coupled to MMGBSA approach, revealing that B-R2B is located at the entrance of HDAC6 active pocket, blocking the passage of the substrate without reaching the HDAC6 binding site. Based on these results, B-R2B was synthesized, characterized and biologically tested. The HDAC6 fluorometric drug discovery kit Fluor-de-Lys (ENZO Life Sciences Inc.) was used to determine the HDAC6 human inhibitory activity (IC50 value) of B-R2B compound. In addition, B-R2B show IC50 values on cancer cell lines (HeLa; IC50 = 72.6 µM), acute myeloid leukemia (THP-1; IC50 = 16.5 µM), human mast leukemia (HMC; IC50 = 79.29 µM) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (Kasumi; IC50 = 101 µM). In conclusion, these results show that B-R2B is a HDAC6 inhibitor, specifically a non-competitive type in a similar way that tubacin does, according to MD simulations.

  2. Ondansetron reverses anti-hypersensitivity from clonidine in rats following peripheral nerve injury: Role of γ-amino butyric acid in α2-adrenoceptor and 5-HT3 serotonin receptor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Kimura, Masafumi; Yoshizumi, Masaru; Hobo, Shotaro; Obata, Hideaki; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Monoaminergic pathways, impinging an α2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors, modulate nociceptive transmission, but their mechanisms and interactions after neuropathic injury are unknown. Here we examine these interactions in rodents after nerve injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats following L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were used for either behavioral testing, in vivo microdialysis for γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine release, or synaptosome preparation for GABA release. Results Intrathecal administration of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist (clonidine) and 5-HT3 receptor agonist (chlorophenylbiguanide) reduced hypersensitivity in SNL rats via GABA receptor-mediated mechanisms. Clonidine increased GABA and acetylcholine release in vivo in the spinal cord of SNL rats but not in normal rats. Clonidine-induced spinal GABA release in SNL rats was blocked by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron decreased and chlorophenylbiguanide increased spinal GABA release in both normal and SNL rats. In synaptosomes from the spinal dorsal horn of SNL rats, pre-synaptic GABA release was increased by nicotinic agonists and decreased by muscarinic and α2-adrenergic agonists. Spinally administered ondansetron significantly reduced clonidine-induced anti-hypersensitivity and spinal GABA release in SNL rats. Conclusion These results suggest that spinal GABA contributes to anti-hypersensitivity from intrathecal α2-adrenergic and 5-HT3 receptor agonists in the neuropathic pain state, that cholinergic neuroplasticity after nerve injury is critical for α2-adrenoceptor-mediated GABA release, and that blockade of spinal 5-HT3 receptors reduces α2-adrenoceptor-mediated anti-hypersensitivity via reducing total GABA release. PMID:22722575

  3. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Protocols to Induce Human CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells by Combinations of IL-2, TGF-beta, Retinoic Acid, Rapamycin and Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Angelika; Eriksson, Matilda; Shang, Ming-Mei; Weyd, Heiko; Tegnér, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other immune cells and are critical mediators of peripheral tolerance. Therapeutic manipulation of Tregs is subject to numerous clinical investigations including trials for adoptive Treg transfer. Since the number of naturally occurring Tregs (nTregs) is minute, it is highly desirable to develop a complementary approach of inducing Tregs (iTregs) from naïve T cells. Mouse studies exemplify the importance of peripherally induced Tregs as well as the applicability of iTreg transfer in different disease models. Yet, procedures to generate iTregs are currently controversial, particularly for human cells. Here we therefore comprehensively compare different established and define novel protocols of human iTreg generation using TGF-β in combination with other compounds. We found that human iTregs expressed several Treg signature molecules, such as Foxp3, CTLA-4 and EOS, while exhibiting low expression of the cytokines Interferon-γ, IL-10 and IL-17. Importantly, we identified a novel combination of TGF-β, retinoic acid and rapamycin as a robust protocol to induce human iTregs with superior suppressive activity in vitro compared to currently established induction protocols. However, iTregs generated by these protocols did not stably retain Foxp3 expression and did not suppress in vivo in a humanized graft-versus-host-disease mouse model, highlighting the need for further research to attain stable, suppressive iTregs. These results advance our understanding of the conditions enabling human iTreg generation and may have important implications for the development of adoptive transfer strategies targeting autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26886923

  5. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  6. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing.

  7. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  8. Nadroparin sodium activates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yalniz, Mehmet; Demirel, Ulvi; Orhan, Cemal; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Aygun, Cem; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Kazim

    2012-06-01

    Effects of nadroparin sodium, a low molecular weight heparin, in colitis was investigated by analyzing proteins implicated in nuclear factor E2-related factor-2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Twenty-eight rats were used. Colitis was induced by acetic acid (AA). Nadroparin sodium was given to prevention and treatment groups in addition to AA. Colitis was assessed histologically and levels of proteins were analyzed with Western blot. Nadroparin not only prevented and ameliorated the AA-induced colitis histopathologically but also decreased expression of colon NF-κB, activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6, which were significantly increased in group AA compared to control. The accumulation of Nrf2 in nuclear fraction and HO-1 found low in group AA was increased with nadroparin (p < 0.05). The mean malondialdehyde level increased with AA and was decreased significantly with nadroparin prevention and treatment (p < 0.001). Nadroparin sodium has both protective and therapeutic effects against colonic inflammation via exerting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by modulating Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  10. Butyrate Protects Rat Liver against Total Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury with Bowel Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingbao; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation. PMID:25171217

  11. Characterization of a Clostridium beijerinckii spo0A mutant and its application for butyl butyrate production.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Oh; Wang, Yi; Lu, Ting; Jin, Yong-Su; Blaschek, Hans P

    2017-01-01

    Spo0A is a master regulator that governs the metabolic shift of solventogenic Clostridium species such as Clostridium beijerinckii. Its disruption can thus potentially cause a significant alteration of cellular physiology as well as metabolic patterns. To investigate the specific effect of spo0A disruption in C. beijerinckii, a spo0A mutant of C. beijerinckii was characterized in this study. In a batch fermentation with pH control at 6.5, the spo0A mutant accumulated butyrate and butanol up to 8.96 g/L and 3.32 g/L, respectively from 60 g/L glucose. Noticing the unique phenotype of the spo0A mutant accumulating both butyrate and butanol at significant concentrations, we decided to use the spo0A mutant for the production of butyl butyrate that can be formed by the condensation of butyrate and butanol during the ABE fermentation in the presence of the enzyme lipase. Butyl butyrate is a value-added chemical that has numerous uses in the food and fragrance industry. Moreover, butyl butyrate as a biofuel is compatible with Jet A-1 aviation kerosene and used for biodiesel enrichment. In an initial trial of small-scale extractive batch fermentation using hexadecane as the extractant with supplementation of lipase CalB, the spo0A mutant was subjected to acid crash due to the butyrate accumulation, and thus produced only 98 mg/L butyl butyrate. To alleviate the butyrate toxicity, the biphasic medium was supplemented with 10 g/L CaCO3 and 5 g/L butanol. The butyl butyrate production was then increased up to 2.73 g/L in the hexadecane layer. When continuous agitation was performed to enhance the esterification and extraction of butyl butyrate, 3.32 g/L butyl butyrate was obtained in the hexadecane layer. In this study, we successfully demonstrated the use of the C. beijerinckii spo0A mutant for the butyl butyrate production through the simultaneous ABE fermentation, condensation, and extraction. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 106-112. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  2. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W; Larsen, Claus; Lenke, Jim

    2014-11-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved. Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing.

  3. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Imam, Mustapha Umar

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), gamma-oryzanol (ORZ), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR) on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx), periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn), collagen 1&2 (Col1&2), calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP); body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg); estrogen (0.2 mg/kg), or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg), compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham) group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the bone tissue was determined using the Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA). Results The results indicate that groups treated with GABA (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant upregulation of SPARC, calcitonin receptor, and BMP-2 genes (P < 0.05), while the ORZ-treated group (100 and 200 mg/kg) revealed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of Osx, Postn, RUNX-2, and Col1&2. Similarly, IL-6 concentration decreased, while osteocalcin levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups as compared to ovariectomized non

  4. Comparative In silico Analysis of Butyrate Production Pathways in Gut Commensals and Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Swadha; Kaur, Harrisham; Mande, Sharmila S.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals. The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine) which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria (Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio, and commensal species of Clostridia etc) ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate) and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens (Porphyromonas and Filifactor) which showed presence of pyruvate as well as

  5. Electrochemical performance of fulvic acid-based electrospun hard carbon nanofibers as promising anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pin-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qi; Wang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical performance of fulvic acid-based electrospun hard carbon nanofibers (PF-CNFs) as anodes for sodium-ion batteries is reported. PF-CNFs were prepared, stabilization in air at 280 °C and then carbonized in N2 at 800, 1000, 1300 or 1500 °C. The PF-CNFs prepared at 1300 °C had abundant oxygen functional groups, large interlayer spaces and stable morphologies and when used as anodes in sodium-ion batteries, a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 248 mAh g-1 was obtained with capacity retention ratio of 91% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. This large capacity combined with the superior cycling performance indicates that fulvic acid-based carbon nanofibers are promising electrode materials for use in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

  6. Ninhydrin-sodium molybdate chromogenic analytical probe for the assay of amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Shivakumar; Padmarajaiah, Nagaraja; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghllab Saeed; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2017-02-15

    A sensitive method has been proposed for the quantification of amino acids and proteins using ninhydrin and sodium molybdate as chromogenic substrates in citrate buffer of pH5.6. A weak molybdate-hydrindantin complex plays the role in the formation of Ruhemann's purple. The linear response for the amino acid, amino acid mixture and Bovine serum albumin is between 0.999 and 66.80μM, 1.52 and 38μM and 5 and 100μg/L, respectively. The molar absorptivity of the individual amino acid by the proposed reaction extends from 0.58×10(4) to 2.86×10(4)M(-1)cm(-1). The linearity equations for the proposed ninhydrin-molybdate for amino acid mixture is Abs=0.021×Conc (μM)-0.002. The applicability of the proposed method has been justified in food and biological samples in conjunction with Kjeldahl method.

  7. Ninhydrin-sodium molybdate chromogenic analytical probe for the assay of amino acids and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaman, Shivakumar; Padmarajaiah, Nagaraja; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghllab Saeed; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A sensitive method has been proposed for the quantification of amino acids and proteins using ninhydrin and sodium molybdate as chromogenic substrates in citrate buffer of pH 5.6. A weak molybdate-hydrindantin complex plays the role in the formation of Ruhemann's purple. The linear response for the amino acid, amino acid mixture and Bovine serum albumin is between 0.999 and 66.80 μM, 1.52 and 38 μM and 5 and 100 μg/L, respectively. The molar absorptivity of the individual amino acid by the proposed reaction extends from 0.58 × 104 to 2.86 × 104 M- 1 cm- 1. The linearity equations for the proposed ninhydrin-molybdate for amino acid mixture is Abs = 0.021 × Conc (μM) - 0.002. The applicability of the proposed method has been justified in food and biological samples in conjunction with Kjeldahl method.

  8. An NMR study of structure and dynamics of hydrated poly (aspartic acid) sodium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pixin; Ando, Isao

    1998-06-01

    High-resolution 13C CP/MAS NMR and pulse 1H NMR experiments were carried out for hydrated poly(aspartic acid) sodium salt, in order to investigate the conformation and molecular motion of the polymer. From these experimental results, it is found that the main-chain conformation of poly(aspartic acid) sodium salt which takes an α-helix form in the dry state is not drastically affected by an addition of water. In the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectrum, a new peak at ca. 184 ppm appears, which comes from the formation of hydrogen bond between the carbonyl carbon of the side chains and water, and the intensity of the peak is associated with the water content. The 13C spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1) experiments show that the T1 values for the individual carbons of the polymer are decreased with an increase in the water content. This shows that the mobility of the polymer is increased with an increase in the water content. Further, the 1H spin-spin relaxation time ( T2) experiments show that the polymer has the two or three components with different molecular motion. With an increase in the water content or temperature, the T2 values of hydrated PAANa are increased. This shows that the molecular motion is increased. In the high water content, the polymer has a signal component in the molecular motion. This shows that the polymer is uniformly hydrated.

  9. Restricted distribution of the butyrate kinase pathway among butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon.

    PubMed

    Louis, Petra; Duncan, Sylvia H; McCrae, Sheila I; Millar, Jacqueline; Jackson, Michelle S; Flint, Harry J

    2004-04-01

    The final steps in butyrate synthesis by anaerobic bacteria can occur via butyrate kinase and phosphotransbutyrylase or via butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. Degenerate PCR and enzymatic assays were used to assess the presence of butyrate kinase among 38 anaerobic butyrate-producing bacterial isolates from human feces that represent three different clostridial clusters (IV, XIVa, and XVI). Only four strains were found to possess detectable butyrate kinase activity. These were also the only strains to give PCR products (verifiable by sequencing) with degenerate primer pairs designed within the butyrate kinase gene or between the linked butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes. Further analysis of the butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes of one isolate, L2-50, revealed similar organization to that described previously from different groups of clostridia, along with differences in flanking sequences and phylogenetic relationships. Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase activity was detected in all 38 strains examined, suggesting that it, rather than butyrate kinase, provides the dominant route for butyrate formation in the human colonic ecosystem that contains a constantly high concentration of acetate.

  10. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  11. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J. . E-mail: gerhard.zlabinger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-10-20

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-{alpha} transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling.

  12. Influence of water-soluble flavonoids, quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt and morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt, on antioxidant parameters in the subacute cadmium intoxication mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chlebda, Ewa; Magdalan, Jan; Merwid-Lad, Anna; Trocha, Małgorzata; Kopacz, Maria; Kuźniar, Anna; Nowak, Dorota; Szelag, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Water-soluble quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaQSA) and morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMSA) could exert an antagonistic effect on cadmium intoxication. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of these substances on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the mouse liver in the subacute cadmium intoxication model. NaQSA and NaMSA significantly counteracted cadmium-induced decreases in SOD and GSH levels. No significant differences in SOD and GSH levels between groups exposed to cadmium receiving NaQSA or/and NaMSA were observed.

  13. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

    2005-05-01

    The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl

  14. Development and validation of dissolution testings in acidic media for rabeprazole sodium delayed-release capsules

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yinhe; Si, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lulu; Feng, Xin; Yang, Xinmin; Huang, Min; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rabeprazole sodium (RAB) dissolved in acidic media is accompanied by its degradation in the course of dissolution testing. To develop and establish the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX® Sprinkle (RAB) delayed-release capsules (ACIPHEX® Sprinkle) in acidic media using USP apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) as a dissolution tester, the issues of determination of accumulative release amount of RAB in these acidic media and interference of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate were solved by adding appropriate hydrochloric acid (HCl) into dissolution samples coupled with centrifugation so as to remove the interference and form a solution of degradation products of RAB, which is of a considerably stable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at the wavelength of 298 nm within 2.0 h. Therefore, the accumulative release amount of RAB in dissolution samples at each sample time points could be determined by UV-spectrophotometry, and the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX® Sprinkle in the media of pH 1.0, pH 6.0, and pH 6.8 could be established. The method was validated per as the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines and demonstrated to be adequate for quality control of ACIPHEX® Sprinkle and the accumulative release profiles can be used as a tool to guide the formulation development and quality control of a generic drug for ACIPHEX® Sprinkle. PMID:27066697

  15. A defect in sodium-dependent amino acid uptake in diabetic rabbit peripheral nerve. Correction by an aldose reductase inhibitor or myo-inositol administration.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D A; Lattimer, S A; Carroll, P B; Fernstrom, J D; Finegold, D N

    1990-01-01

    A myo-inositol-related defect in nerve sodium-potassium ATPase activity in experimental diabetes has been suggested as a possible pathogenetic factor in diabetic neuropathy. Because the sodium-potassium ATPase is essential for other sodium-cotransport systems, and because myo-inositol-derived phosphoinositide metabolites regulate multiple membrane transport processes, sodium gradient-dependent amino acid uptake was examined in vitro in endoneurial preparations derived from nondiabetic and 14-d alloxan diabetic rabbits. Untreated alloxan diabetes reduced endoneurial sodium-gradient dependent uptake of the nonmetabolized amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid by greater than 50%. Administration of an aldose reductase inhibitor prevented reductions in both nerve myo-inositol content and endoneurial sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. Myo-inositol supplementation that produced a transient pharmacological elevation in plasma myo-inositol concentration, but did not raise nerve myo-inositol content, reproduced the effect of the aldose reductase inhibitor on endoneurial sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. Phorbol myristate acetate, which acutely normalizes sodium-potassium ATPase activity in diabetic nerve, did not acutely correct 2-aminoisobutyric uptake when added in vitro. These data suggest that depletion of a small myo-inositol pool may be implicated in the pathogenesis of defects in amino acid uptake in diabetic nerve and that rapid correction of sodium-potassium ATPase activity with protein kinase C agonists in vitro does not acutely normalize sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. PMID:2185278

  16. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  17. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  18. Selective inhibition of sweetness by the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Gibes, K M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (Na-PMP) reduced sweet intensity ratings of 15 sweeteners in mixtures. Na-PMP has been approved for use in confectionary/frostings, soft candy and snack products in the USA at concentrations up to 150 p.p.m. A trained panel evaluated the effect of Na-PMP on the intensity of the following 15 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), 1 dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), one protein (thaumatin) and one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate). Sweeteners were tested at concentrations isosweet with 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% sucrose in mixtures with two levels of Na-PMP: 250 and 500 p.p.m. In addition, the 15 sweeteners were tested either immediately or 30 s after a pre-rinse with 500 p.p.m. Na-PMP. In mixtures, Na-PMP at both the 250 and 500 p.p.m. levels significantly blocked sweetness intensity for 12 of the 15 sweeteners. However, when Na-PMP was mixed with three of the 15 sweeteners (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin), there was little reduction in sweetness intensity. Pre-rinsing with Na-PMP both inhibited and enhanced sweetness with the greatest enhancements found for monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin, which were not suppressed by Na-PMP in mixtures. The mixture data suggest that Na-PMP is a selective competitive inhibitor of sweet taste. The finding that pre-treatment can produce enhancement may be due to sensitization of sweetener receptors by Na-PMP.

  19. Molecular Switch Controlling the Binding of Anionic Bile Acid Conjugates to Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; Tririya, Gasirat; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) may serve as a prodrug target for oral drug absorption. Synthetic, biological, NMR and computational approaches identified the structure-activity relationships of mono- and dianionic bile acid conjugates for hASBT binding. Experimental data combined with a conformationally-sampled pharmacophore/QSAR modeling approach (CSP-SAR) predicted that dianionic substituents with intramolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyls on the cholane skeleton and the acid group on the conjugate's aromatic ring increased conjugate hydrophobicity and improved binding affinity. Notably, the model predicted the presence of a conformational molecular switch, where shifting the carboxylate substituent on an aromatic ring by a single position controlled binding affinity. Model validation was performed by effectively shifting the spatial location of the carboxylate by inserting a methylene adjacent to the aromatic ring, resulting in the predicted alteration in binding affinity. This work illustrates conformation as a determinant of ligand binding affinity to a biological transporter. PMID:20504026

  20. Effect of partially protected butyrate used as feed additive on growth and intestinal metabolism in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Robles, R; Lozano, A B; Sevilla, A; Márquez, L; Nuez-Ortín, W; Moyano, F J

    2013-12-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid extensively used in animal nutrition since it promotes increases in body weight and other multiple beneficial effects on the intestinal tract. Although such effects have been demonstrated in several species, very few studies have assessed them in fish. On the other hand, little is known about the metabolic processes underlying these effects. In the present work, growth parameters and changes in more than 80 intestinal metabolites (nucleotides, amino acids and derivatives, glycolytic intermediates, redox coenzymes and lipid metabolism coenzymes) have been quantified in juvenile sea bream fed a butyrate-supplemented diet. Results showed a significant increase in the weight of fish receiving butyrate, while metabolomics provided some clues on the suggested effects of this feed additive. It seems that butyrate increased the availability of several essential amino acids and nucleotide derivatives. Also, the energy provision for enteric cells might have been enhanced by a decrease in glucose and amino acid oxidation related to the use of butyrate as fuel. Additionally, butyrate might have increased transmethylation activity. This work represents an advance in the knowledge of the metabolic consequences of using butyrate as an additive in fish diets.

  1. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  2. Supplementing the maternal diet of rats with butyrate enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscles of weaned offspring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Jun, Guo; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight. However, the protein expressions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 43 and 41 were significantly enhanced in offspring skeletal muscle of the maternal butyrate-supplemented group. The ATP content, most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene expressions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 4 protein contents and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were significantly higher in the butyrate group than in the control group. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of type 1 myosin heavy chain, mitochondrial transcription factor A, PPAR-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 3 were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of the treatment group compared with the control group. These results indicate for the first time that maternal butyrate supplementation during the gestation and lactation periods influenced energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through the GPR and PGC-1α pathways in offspring skeletal muscle at weaning.

  3. Dietary protocatechuic acid ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Awoyemi, Omolola V; Njoku, Chinonye R; Micah, Gabriel O; Esogwa, Cynthia U; Owumi, Solomon E; Olopade, James O

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of dietary protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple hydrophilic phenolic compound commonly found in many edible vegetables, on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and its associated hepatotoxicity in rats. PCA was administered orally at 10 mg kg(-1) to dextran sulphate sodium exposed rats for five days. The result revealed that administration of PCA significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the incidence of diarrhea and bleeding, the decrease in the body weight gain, shortening of colon length and the increase in colon mass index in DSS-treated rats. Furthermore, PCA prevented the increase in the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of liver toxicity and markedly suppressed the DSS-mediated elevation in colonic nitric oxide concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the treated rats. Administration of PCA significantly protected against colonic and hepatic oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant status and concomitantly decreased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the DSS-treated rats. Moreover, histological examinations confirmed PCA chemoprotection against colon and liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in the colon of DSS-treated rats. In conclusion, the effective chemoprotective role of PCA in colitis and the associated hepatotoxicity is related to its intrinsic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of norepinephrine with sodium iodate and determination of its acidity constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, E. Y.; Youssef, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of norepinephrine (NE) and its bitartrate salts. The method was based on the development of a red color (λmax = 495 nm) with sodium iodate in aqueous alcoholic medium at pH 5. The color was stable for at least 4 hrs. The molar reacting ratio of NE to sodium iodate was 1:4. A linear relationship was obtained between the absorption intensity and NE concentration in the range of 3.384-37.224 μg/ml with detection limit of 0.067 μg/ml and correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The present work facilitated the determination of the three acidity constants, 7.564 ± 0.02, 9.036 ± 0.034, and 10.761 ± 0.023. The reaction mechanism was also described. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of NE in pharmaceutical formulations. Results for analysis of bulk drugs and injections agree with those of official methods.

  5. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    PubMed Central

    CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; LEITE, Fábio Renato Manzolli; ZANDIM, Daniela Leal; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; RACHED, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; SAMPAIO, José Eduardo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. Material and Methods A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group). After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. Results Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning. PMID:22858707

  6. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  7. Graphene oxide wrapped croconic acid disodium salt for sodium ion battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao; Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Gao, Tao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-03-01

    Croconic acid disodium salt (CADS), a renewable or recyclable organic compound, is investigated as an anode material in sodium ion battery for the first time. The pristine micro-sized CADS delivers a high capacity of 246.7 mAh g-1, but it suffers from fast capacity decay during charge/discharge cycles. The detailed investigation reveals that the severe capacity loss is mainly attributed to the pulverization of CADS particles induced by the large volume change during sodiation/desodiation rather than the generally believed dissolution of CADS in the organic electrolyte. Minimizing the particle size can effectively suppress the pulverization, thus improving the cycling stability. Wrapping CADS with graphene oxide by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can enhance the integration and conductivity of CADS electrodes, thus providing a high capacity of 293 mAh g-1.

  8. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  9. Fluorescence quenching method for the determination of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate with aromatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Shao-Pu; Liu, Zhong-Fang; Hu, Xiao-Li; Tian, Jing; Xue, Jia-Xing

    2013-01-01

    In Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium (pH 3.3), carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) can react with some aromatic amino acids such as tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) to form a 1:1 complex by electrostatic attraction, aromatic stacking interaction and Van der Waals' force, resulting in fluorescence quenching of these amino acids. Maximum quenching wavelengths were located at 352 nm (CSS-Trp system), 303 nm (CSS-Tyr system) and 284 nm (CSS-Phe system), respectively. The fluorescence quenching value (ΔF) was proportional to the concentration of CSS in a certain range. The fluorescence quenching method for the determination of CSS showed high sensitivity, with detection limits of 31.3 ng/mL (CSS-Trp system), 44.6 ng/mL (CSS-Tyr system) and 315.0 ng/mL (CSS-Phe system), respectively. The optimum conditions of the reaction conditions and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and results showed that the method had good selectivity. The method was successfully applied for the rapid determination of CSS in blood and urine samples. Based on the bimolecular quenching constant Kq , the effect of temperature and Stern-Volmer plots, this study showed that quenching of fluorescence of amino acids by CSS was a static quenching process.

  10. Antioxidant activities of a polyglucuronic acid sodium salt obtained from TEMPO-mediated oxidation of xanthan.

    PubMed

    Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Gardarin, C; Traikia, M; Elboutachfaiti, R; Isogai, A; Michaud, P

    2015-02-13

    A xanthouronic acid sodium salt called xanthouronan was produced from xanthan by regioselective oxidation with NaOCl/NaBr using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) as catalyst. The efficiency of the one pot TEMPO-mediated oxidation was confirmed by HPAEC-PAD, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR. The oxidation degree was close to 98% and the mass yield of this new polyglucuronic acid was higher than 90% (w/w). The macromolecular characterization of xanthouronan using SEC-MALLS showed a molecular size reduced by a third due to the oxidation treatment and the degree of polymerization (DP) of the xanthouronan form was about 665. The evaluation of the enzymatic degradation of this C-6 carboxylated xanthan by various polysaccharide hydrolases and one polysaccharide lyase showed its high resistant to biodegradation. The antioxidant activity of xanthouronan was also tested by using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical procedures. At 1 g/L, xanthouronan presented 75% of the ascorbic acid antioxidant activity.

  11. Role of sodium ion in transport of folic acid in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, J.; Selhub, J.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of sodium on folate transport across the intestinal luminal membrane was analyzed using two techniques: the influx chamber and isoalted brush-border membrane vesicles. Preincubation of tissue in Na -free medium did not have a consistent effect on folic acid influx provided that Na was present in the test solution. Replacement of Na in the test solution by choline resulted in a significant reduction of folic acid influx. However, when intestinal sheets that had been equilibrated in Na -free solution were exposed to test solutions containing either Na , Li , K , Rb , Cs , Tris , or guanidinium as main cations, folic acid influx was not significantly decreased. Concentration-dependence studies showed that replacement of Na by Rb did not affect the saturable mechanism of folate transport. Rather, a decrease in nonsaturable folic acid uptake accounted for the slightly reduced influx observed in the presence of Rb . Experiments with brush-border membrane vesicles revealed that methotrexate uptake was significantly higher in the presence of external Na than in the presence of K , but was not different from uptake in the presence of K plus valinomycin. These data suggest that 1) the saturable component of folate transport is not Na dependent, and 2) nonsaturable transport of folic acid across the luminal membrane occurs in part through a conductive pathway that involves a negatively charged species of folate and a cation whose membrane permeability affects the rate of folate transport. The importance of Na in this process in vivo derives from the fact that Na is the most permeant cation available at the absorptive site in the small intestine.

  12. Acridone acetic acid, sodium salt, as an agent to stop vitiligo progression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Korobko, Igor V; Lomonosov, Konstantin M

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo progression is attributed to immune system malfunctioning, thus immunomodulating compounds might be beneficial in stopping vitiligo progression which is a prerequisite for successful repigmentation. The goal of this study was to assess efficacy of acridone acetic acid, sodium salt (Na-AAA), an immunomodulating compound with favorable safety profile, in stabilizing active vitiligo, and to reveal prognostic factors of treatment outcome. Sixty consecutive patients with progressing nonsegmental vitiligo were treated with 10 i.m. injections of Na-AAA every other day. Disease stability was assessed in 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate treatment outcome and available clinical parameters. Of the 60 patients treated, vitiligo stopped progression in 44 patients (73.3%). Older age (p = 0.0219), age of 35 and older (p = 0.0189, odds ratio (OR) = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-20.84) or age of 40 and older (p = 0.0039, OR = 6.48, 95% CI 1.86-22.61), longer disease duration (p = 0.0234), pre-treatment interleukin-6 level over 2 pg/mL (p = 0.0005, OR = 13.7, 95% CI 2.97-63), and over the reference threshold value 5.9 pg/mL (p = 0.0009, OR = 25.8, 95% CI 2.8-239) as well as presence of other autoimmune diseases (p = 0.038, OR = 7.0, 95% CI 1.14-42.97) were negative prognostic factors of treatment success. In conclusion, acridone acetic acid, sodium salt, emerges as an efficient option for stopping vitiligo progression.

  13. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (p<0.05) differential negative effects on the A549 cell line in comparison to its unexposed control as well as to their effects on the MRC-5 cell line, presenting a potential promise for their use as cancer biotherapeutics.

  14. Genetically Targeted Radiotherapy Utilizing the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    several histone deactylase inhibitors ( HDACi ), including sodium butyrate (SB), trichostatin A (TSA), in conjunction with the DNA methyltransferase...breast cancer cell lines and increase the tumor response, several ne deactylase inhibitors ( HDACi ), were tested. The HDACi including sodium butyrate (SB

  15. Drug release behavior of poly (lactic-glycolic acid) grafting from sodium alginate (ALG-g-PLGA) prepared by direct polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gang; Ding, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Luyan; He, Fei; Ni, Caihua

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobically modified sodium alginate, poly (lactic-glycolic acid) grafting from sodium alginate (ALG-g-PLGA), was successfully synthesized through direct one-step polymerization of sodium alginate, glycolic acid, and lactic acid. ALG-g-PLGA self-assembled to colloidal nanoparticles and subsequently hydrogel microspheres were obtained by crosslinking ALG-g-PLGA nanoparticles in the solution of calcium chloride. The modified hydrogel microspheres could be used as the drug delivery vehicles for a hydrophobic ibuprofen. Compared with sodium alginate, ALG-g-PLGA demonstrated an improved drug loading rate, encapsulation efficiency, and prolonged release speed. The products, as novel and highly promising biomaterials, have potential applications.

  16. Butyrate: A dietary inhibitor of histone deacetylases and an epigenetic regulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, also known as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation. Consumption of dietary fibers has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as increasing satiety, an...

  17. Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression.

    PubMed

    Klampfer, Lidija; Huang, Jie; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2004-08-27

    Activation of Ras promotes oncogenesis by altering a multiple of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. Oncogenic Ras can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cell type and the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The response of normal and transformed colonic epithelial cells to the short chain fatty acid butyrate, a physiological regulator of epithelial cell maturation, is also divergent: normal epithelial cells proliferate, and transformed cells undergo apoptosis in response to butyrate. To investigate the role of k-ras mutations in butyrate-induced apoptosis, we utilized HCT116 cells, which harbor an oncogenic k-ras mutation and two isogenic clones with targeted inactivation of the mutant k-ras allele, Hkh2, and Hke-3. We demonstrated that the targeted deletion of the mutant k-ras allele is sufficient to protect epithelial cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this, we showed that apigenin, a dietary flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling and to reverse transformation of cancer cell lines, prevented butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. To investigate the mechanism whereby activated k-ras sensitizes colonic cells to butyrate, we performed a genome-wide analysis of Ras target genes in the isogenic cell lines HCT116, Hkh2, and Hke-3. The gene exhibiting the greatest down-regulation by the activating k-ras mutation was gelsolin, an actin-binding protein whose expression is frequently reduced or absent in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We demonstrated that silencing of gelsolin expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cells to butyrate-induced apoptosis through amplification of the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7. These data therefore demonstrate that gelsolin protects cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis and suggest that Ras promotes apoptosis, at least in part, through its ability to down-regulate the expression of gelsolin.

  18. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out < in) and is not Na(+) dependent. Moreover, butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1.

  19. Effect of Butyrate on Collagen Expression, Cell Viability, Cell Cycle Progression and Related Proteins Expression of MG-63 Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Ling; Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Tang, Chia-Mei; Wang, Tong-Mei; Liu, Hsin-Cheng; Liao, Ming-Wei; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Chan, Chiu-Po; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Aims Butyric acid is one major metabolic product generated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of periodontal and root canal infection. Butyric acid affects the activity of periodontal cells such as osteoblasts. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of butyrate on MG-63 osteoblasts. Methods MG-63 cells were exposed to butyrate and cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mRNA and protein expression of type I collagen and cell cycle-related proteins were measured by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting or immunofluorescent staining. Cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence flow cytometry. Results Exposure to butyrate suppressed cell proliferation, and induced G2/M (8 and 16 mM) cell cycle arrest of MG-63 cells. Some cell apoptosis was noted. The mRNA expression of cdc2 and cyclin-B1 decreased after exposure to butyrate. The protein expression of type I collagen, cdc2 and cyclin B1 were decreased, whereas the expression of p21, p27 and p57 was stimulated. Under the treatment of butyrate, ROS production in MG-63 cells markedly increased. Conclusions The secretion of butyric acid by periodontal and root canal microorganisms may inhibit bone cell growth and matrix turnover. This is possibly due to induction of cell cycle arrest and ROS generation and inhibition of collagen expression. These results suggest the involvement of butyric acid in the pathogenesis of periodontal and periapical tissue destruction by impairing bone healing responses. PMID:27893752

  20. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  1. Ameliorative potential of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Rajneet K; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in acute stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats subjected to restraint stress. The rats were placed in the restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using the hole-board, social interactions and open field tests. Restraint stress resulted in a decrease in the frequency of head dips, rearing in the hole board, line crossings and rearings in the open field, and an increase in avoidance behaviors in the social interaction tests. Sodium cromoglycate (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, ip), a mast cell stabilizer, and diethyldithiocarbamic acid (75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, ip), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, were employed to modulate restraint stress-induced behavioral changes. The administration of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid significantly attenuated the restraint stress-induced behavioral changes. The noted beneficial effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid may possibly be attributed to mast cell stabilization and inhibition of NF-κB activity, respectively.

  2. Preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives from glycosyl azides using sulfamic acid and sodium iodide in one-pot.

    PubMed

    Gucchait, Arin; Jana, Manas; Jana, Kuladip; Misra, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-03

    Novel one-pot reaction conditions have been developed for the preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives directly from glycosyl azides mediated by a combination of sulfamic acid and sodium iodide. The reaction conditions were clean, non-toxic and the products were isolated in good to excellent yield.

  3. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  4. Improved Synthesis of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles via the [3+2] Cycloaddition of Nitriles and Sodium Azide Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhenting; Si, Changmei; Li, Youqiang; Wang, Yin; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A silica supported sulfuric acid catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide to form 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles is described. The protocol can provide a series of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles using silica sulfuric acid from nitriles and sodium azide in DMF in 72%–95% yield. PMID:22606004

  5. Improved synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles via the [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhenting; Si, Changmei; Li, Youqiang; Wang, Yin; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A silica supported sulfuric acid catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide to form 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles is described. The protocol can provide a series of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles using silica sulfuric acid from nitriles and sodium azide in DMF in 72%-95% yield.

  6. Effects of short chain fatty acids on gut morphology and function.

    PubMed Central

    Scheppach, W

    1994-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the products of colonic bacterial degradation of unabsorbed starch and non-starch polysaccharide (fibre). They are important anions in the colonic lumen, affecting both colonocyte morphology and function. The three main acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) stimulate colonic sodium and fluid absorption and exert proliferative effects on the colonocyte. Experimental animal studies have shown that they promote adaptive responses to small intestinal resection and colonic anastomosis. Acetate increases colonic blood flow and enhances ileal motility. Butyrate has been shown to be the preferred energy substrate for the colonocyte and to be a potent differentiating agent in cell culture. Butyrate may also have a role in preventing certain types of colitis. A diet low in resistant starch and fibre, which will result in a low production of SCFAs in the colon, may explain the high occurrence of colonic disorders seen in the Western civilization. PMID:8125387

  7. Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H; Nagamani, Sandesh C S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we evaluated whether treatment with NaPBA leads to a decrease in plasma BCAA levels. Our analysis shows that NaPBA use independently affects the plasma BCAA levels even after accounting for multiple confounding covariates. Moreover, NaPBA use increases the risk for BCAA deficiency. This effect of NaPBA seems specific to plasma BCAA levels, as levels of other essential amino acids are not altered by its use. Our study, in an unselected population of UCD subjects, is the largest to analyze the effects of NaPBA on BCAA metabolism and potentially has significant clinical implications. Our results indicate that plasma BCAA levels should to be monitored in patients treated with NaPBA since patients taking the medication are at increased risk for BCAA deficiency. On a broader scale, these findings could open avenues to explore NaPBA as a therapy in maple syrup urine disease and other common complex disorders with dysregulation of BCAA metabolism.

  8. Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Rocha, J B T

    2008-06-01

    One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

  9. Sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: protective role of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Nagalakshmi; Krishnan, Dhanalakshmi Navaneethan; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the ameliorative role of p-coumaric acid against sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/b.wt) was orally administered once a day for 30 days to the animals to induce cardiotoxicity. After the experimental period, cardiotoxicity was assessed by estimating the levels of lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, total reduced glutathione, protein sulfyhydryl and non-protein sulfhydryl groups) and DNA fragmentation in the cardiac tissue of control and experimental rats. In addition, cardiac tissue specific serum markers (triacylglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol) in serum and histopathological changes in the cardiac tissue were also evaluated. From the results obtained in our study, sodium arsenite administration to the rats increased lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, triacylglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas antioxidant status and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found to be reduced. However, p-coumaric acid (75 and100 mg/kg/b.wt) treatment orally once per day for 30 days, immediately before a daily administration of sodium arsenite protected the abnormal biochemical abnormalities observed in the cardiac tissue of sodium arsenite treated rats as evidenced by the cardiac histopathology. For comparison purpose, a standard antioxidant vitamin C (100 mg/kg/b.wt) was used. In conclusion, this study concluded that p-coumaric acid could be a promising candidate for protecting the sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats through its antioxidant character.

  10. Computational models for drug inhibition of the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Ekins, Sean; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E

    2009-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) is the primary mechanism for intestinal bile acid reabsorption. In the colon, secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, drugs that inhibit ASBT have the potential to increase the risk of colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify FDA-approved drugs that inhibit ASBT and to derive computational models for ASBT inhibition. Inhibition was evaluated using ASBT-MDCK monolayers and taurocholate as the model substrate. Computational modeling employed a HipHop qualitative approach, a Hypogen quantitative approach, and a modified Laplacian Bayesian modeling method using 2D descriptors. Initially, 30 compounds were screened for ASBT inhibition. A qualitative pharmacophore was developed using the most potent 11 compounds and applied to search a drug database, yielding 58 hits. Additional compounds were tested, and their K(i) values were measured. A 3D-QSAR and a Bayesian model were developed using 38 molecules. The quantitative pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic features, and five excluded volumes. Each model was further validated with two external test sets of 30 and 19 molecules. Validation analysis showed both models exhibited good predictability in determining whether a drug is a potent or nonpotent ASBT inhibitor. The Bayesian model correctly ranked the most active compounds. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, we found that many FDA-approved drugs from diverse classes, such as the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors, are ASBT inhibitors.

  11. Computational Models for Drug Inhibition of the Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Ekins, Sean; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) is the primary mechanism for intestinal bile acid re-absorption. In the colon, secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, drugs that inhibit ASBT have the potential to increase the risk of colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify FDA-approved drugs that inhibit ASBT and to derive computational models for ASBT inhibition. Inhibition was evaluated using ASBT-MDCK monolayers and taurocholate as the model substrate. Computational modeling employed a HipHop qualitative approach, a Hypogen quantitative approach, as well as a modified Laplacian Bayesian modeling method using 2D descriptors. Initially, 30 compounds were screened for ASBT inhibition. A qualitative pharmacophore was developed using the most potent 11 compounds and applied to search a drug database, yielding 58 hits. Additional compounds were tested and their Ki values were measured. A 3D-QSAR and a Bayesian model were developed using 38 molecules. The quantitative pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic features, and five excluded volumes. Each model was further validated with two external test sets of 30 and 19 molecules. Validation analysis showed both models exhibited good predictability in determining whether a drug is a potent or non-potent ASBT inhibitor. The Bayesian model correctly ranked the most active compounds. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, we found that many FDA-approved drugs from diverse classes, such as the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors, are ASBT inhibitors. PMID:19673539

  12. Effects of sodium arsenate exposure on liver fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Dhibi, Madiha; Haouas, Zohra; Chreif, Imed; Neffati, Fadoua; Hammami, Mohamed; Sakly, Rachid

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of arsenic on liver fatty acids (FA) composition, hepatotoxicity and oxidative status markers in rats. Male rats were randomly devised to six groups (n=10 per group) and exposed to sodium arsenate at a dose of 1 and 10 mg/l for 45 and 90 days. Arsenate exposure is associated with significant changes in the FA composition in liver. A significant increase of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all treated groups (p<0.01) and trans unsaturated fatty acids (trans UFA) in rats exposed both for short term for 10 mg/l (p<0.05) and long term for 1 and 10 mg/l (p<0.001) was observed. However, the cis UFA were significantly decreased in these groups (p<0.05). A markedly increase of indicator in cell membrane viscosity expressed as SFA/UFA was reported in the treated groups (p<0.001). A significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde by 38.3 % after 90 days of exposure at 10 mg/l was observed. Compared to control rats, significant liver damage was observed at 10 mg/l of arsenate by increasing plasma marker enzymes after 90 days. It is through the histological investigations in hepatic tissues of exposed rats that these damage effects of arsenate were confirmed. The antioxidant perturbations were observed to be more important at groups treated by the high dose (p<0.05). An increase in the level of protein carbonyls was observed in all treated groups (p<0.05). The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of arsenite on FA composition disturbance causing an increase of SFA and TFAs isomers, liver dysfunction and oxidative stress. Therefore, arsenate can lead to hepatic damage and propensity towards liver cancer.

  13. Relative hypoglycemia of rectal insulin suppositories containing deoxycholic acid, sodium taurocholate, polycarbophil, and their combinations in diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hosny, E A

    1999-06-01

    In this study, insulin suppositories containing 50 U insulin incorporated with 50 mg of deoxycholic acid, sodium taurocholate, or both were placed in the rectum of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rabbits. A large decrease in plasma glucose concentrations was observed, and the relative hypoglycemias were calculated to be 38.0%, 34.9%, and 44.4%, respectively, compared with insulin subcutaneous (s.c.) injection (40 U). Insulin suppositories containing 50 mg polycarbophil alone or mixed with 50 mg deoxycholic acid produced relative hypoglycemia of 43.1% and 42.2%, respectively. The most pronounced effect was observed with the addition of polycarbophil to the suppository formulation containing a combination of deoxycholic acid and sodium taurocholate, which produced a 56% relative hypoglycemia compared with subcutaneous injection. These suppository formulations could be very promising alternatives to the current insulin injections, being roughly half as efficacious as subcutaneous injection.

  14. Evaluation of Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Sodium 2,2 Dimethylbutyrate, a Novel Short Chain Fatty Acid Derivative, in a Phase 1, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single- and Repeat-Dose Studies in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Susan P.; Wargin, William A.; Boosalis, Michael S.; Wallis, Wayne J.; Case, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey R.; Faller, Douglas V.; Welch, William C.; Berenson, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacologic induction of fetal globin synthesis is an accepted therapeutic strategy for treatment of the beta hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias, as even small increases in hemoglobin F (HbF) levels reduce clinical severity in sickle cell disease and reduce anemia in beta thalassemia. Prior generation short chain fatty acid therapeutics, arginine butyrate and phenylbutyrate, increased fetal and total hemoglobin levels in patients, but were limited by high doses or intravenous infusion. A fetal globin-inducing therapeutic with convenient oral dosing would be an advance for these classic molecular diseases. Healthy adult human subjects were treated with a novel SCFA derivative, sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (SDMB), or placebo, with one of four single dose levels (2, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or daily doses (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) over 14 days, and monitored for adverse clinical and laboratory events, drug levels, reticulocytes, and HbF assays. SDMB was well-tolerated with no clinically significant adverse events related to study medication. The terminal half-life ranged from 9–15 hours. Increases in mean absolute reticulocytes were observed at all dose levels in the 14-day study. The favorable PK profiles and safety findings indicate that SDMB warrants further investigation for treatment of anemic subjects with beta hemoglobinopathies. PMID:21422239

  15. Effect of boric acid on intergranular corrosion and on hideout return efficiency of sodium in the tube support plate crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, J.P.N.; Shoemaker, C.E.; Campan, J.L.; Brunet, J.P.; Schindler, P.; Stutzmann, A.

    1995-12-31

    Sodium hydroxide is one of the main causes of intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) of alloy 600 steam generator (S.G.) tubes. Boric acid appears to be one of the possible remedies for intergranular corrosion process inhibition. In order to obtain data on boric acid injection efficiency, an experimental program was performed on previously corroded tubes. To prevent premature tube wall cracking, samples were sleeved on alloy 690 tubes. The objective of the tests was to evaluate, on a statistically valid number of samples, the effectiveness of boric acid and tube sleeving as possible remedies for IGA/SCC extension. Another independent experimental program was initiated to determine the hideout return efficiency in the tube support plate (TSP) and tubesheet (TS) crevices after a significant duration ({<=} 180 hours) of sodium hideout. The main objective of the first tests being a statistical evaluation of the efficiency of boric acid treatment, was not achieved. The tests did demonstrate that sleeving effectively reduces IGA/SCC growth. In an additional program, cracks were obtained on highly susceptible tubes when specimens were not sleeved. The companion tests performed in the same conditions but with an addition of boric acid did not show any IGA or cracks. These results seem to demonstrate the possible effect of boric acid in preventing the corrosion process. Results of the second tests did not demonstrate any difference in the amount of sodium piled up in the crevices before and after boric acid injection. They however showed an increase of the hideout return efficiency at the tube support plate level from 78 % without boric acid to 95 % when boric acid is present in the feed water.

  16. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  17. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet.

  18. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  19. Continuous process for preparing sodium orthophosphate slurries from natural soda ash orthophosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Stahiheber, N.E.; Lyon, J.E.

    1989-08-01

    This patent describes a batch-wide or semi-continuous slurry process for the preparation of pentasodium tripolyphosphate precursor. It comprises: providing a reaction medium at a temperature above about 80{sup 0}C. having a molar Na:P ratio in the range of about 1.42 to about 1.58 and uncombined water content of about 7% to about 20% by weight; adding to the reaction medium with agitation granular natural soda ash and a mixture consisting essentially of 75-92% by weight H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 8-25% by weight H{sub 2}O substantially simultaneously in such proportions, rate and acid concentrations to maintain the molar Na:P ratio and the uncombined water content and to provide a sojourn time of at least 12 minutes at a temperature about 80{sup 0}C. thereby forming a slurry product; passing the slurry to a separate mixer; and reacting the slurry in the separate mixer with aqueous sodium hydroxide to provide a resultant slurry having a molar Na:P ratio of about 1.64 to about 1.70.

  20. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  1. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  2. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination.

  3. Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.

    PubMed

    Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M

    2004-12-15

    Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation.

  4. Pervaporation dehydration of ethanol by hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate two-active-layer composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengyun; Zhang, Minhua; Ding, Jianwu; Pan, Fusheng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Li, Yifan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The composite membranes with two-active-layer (a capping layer and an inner layer) were prepared by sequential spin-coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support layer. The SEM showed a mutilayer structure and a distinct interface between the HA layer and the NaAlg layer. The coating sequence of two-active-layer had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. When the operation temperature was 80 °C and water concentration in feed was 10 wt.%, the permeate fluxes of HA/Alg/PAN membrane and Alg/HA/PAN membrane were similar, whereas the separation factor were 1130 and 527, respectively. It was found that the capping layer with higher hydrophilicity and water retention capacity, and the inner layer with higher permselectivity could increase the separation performance of the composite membranes. Meanwhile, effects of operation temperature and water concentration in feed on pervaporation performance as well as membrane properties were studied.

  5. Oxidative aging of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.

  6. The Vibrational Spectra and Structures of Organic Acids and Their Derivatives. 1. Bromoacetic Acid and Sodium Bromoacetate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    polymorph stable at ambient conditions is a cyclic hydrogen bonded dimer. In addition, the complete vibrational spectra of crystalline sodium ...bromoacetate and sodium bromoacetate-d2 have been recorded and a vibrational assignment proposed. The intermolecular coupling of these compounds is quite

  7. Enzymology of butyrate formation by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Jenesel, S E

    1979-04-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is a major butyrate-forming species in the bovine and ovine rumen. The enzymology of butyrate formation from pyruvate was investigated in cell-free extracts of B. fibrisolvens D1. Pyruvate owas oxidized to acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) in the presence of CoA.SH and benzyl viologen or flavin nucleotides. The bacterium uses thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, and crotonyl-CoA reductase to form butyryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA. Reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was faster with NADH than with NADPH. Crotonyl-CoA was reduced to butyryl-CoA by NADH, but not by NADPH, only in the presence of flavin nucleotides. Reduction of flavin nucleotides by NADH was much slower than the flavin-dependent reduction of crotonyl-CoA. This indicates that flavoproteins rather than free flavin participated in the reduction of crotonyl-CoA. Butyryl-CoA was converted to butyrate by phosphate butyryl transferase and butyrate kinase.

  8. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P < 0.05 in Exp. 2) the proportion of rumen butyrate, and acetate infusion increased (P < 0.05) rumen acetate. All animals were in positive N balance (4.2 g N/d in Exp. 1; 7.0 g N/d in Exp. 2), but no difference in N retention was observed between treatments. In Exp. 2, urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( < 0.05) by Na-But compared with the Na-Ac control. In Exp. 1, although But-Buf infusion increased the FSR of rumen papillae (35.3% ± 1.08%/d vs. 28.7% ± 1.08%/d; P < 0.05), urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on

  9. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-04-16

    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  10. Inhibition of several enzymes by gold compounds. II. beta-Glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and L-malate dehydrogenase by sodium thiomalatoraurate (I), sodium thiosulfatoaurate (I) and thioglucosoaurate (I).

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Ahmed, T; Haddad, R; Friedman, M E

    1989-01-01

    Bovine liver beta-D-glucuronide glucuronohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.32), wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoesterphosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) and bovine liver L-malate dehydrogenase (L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) were inhibited by a series of gold (I) complexes that have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Both sodium thiosulfatoaurate (I) (Na AuTs) and sodium thiomalatoraurate (NaAuTM) effectively inhibited all three enzymes, while thioglucosoaurate (I) (AuTG) only inhibited L-malate dehydrogenase. The equilibrium constants (K1) ranged from nearly 4000 microM for the NaAuTM-beta-glucuronidase interaction to 24 microM for the NaAuTS-beta-glucuronidase interaction. The rate of covalent bond formation (kp) ranged from 0.00032 min-1 for NaAuTM-beta-glucuronidase formation to 1.7 min-1 for AuTG-L-malate dehydrogenase formation. The equilibrium data shows that the gold (I) drugs bind by several orders lower than the gold (III) compounds, suggesting a significantly stronger interaction between the more highly charged gold ion and the enzyme. Yet the rate of covalent bond formation depends as much on the structure of the active site as upon the lability of the gold-ligand bond. It was also observed that the more effective the gold inhibition the more toxic the compound.

  11. Effects of water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on in-shell hazelnuts inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama.

    PubMed

    Weller, Lisa D; Daeschel, Mark A; Durham, Catherine A; Morrissey, Michael T

    2013-12-01

    Recent foodborne disease outbreaks involving minimally processed tree nuts have generated a need for improved sanitation procedures. Chemical sprays and dips have shown promise for reducing pathogens on fresh produce, but little research has been conducted for in-shell hazelnuts. This study analyzed the effectiveness of 3 chemical sanitizers for reducing Salmonella on in-shell hazelnuts. Treatments of water, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 25 and 50 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 80 and 120 ppm), and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 450, 830, and 1013 ppm) were sprayed onto hazelnut samples inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama. Hazelnut samples were immersed in liquid cultures of S. Panama for 24 h, air-dried, and then sprayed with water and chemical treatments. Inoculation achieved S. Panama populations of approximately 8.04 log CFU/hazelnut. Surviving S. panama populations were evaluated using a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar), incubated 3 h, and then overlaid with selective media (xylose lysine deoxycholate agar). All of the chemical treatments significantly reduced S. Panama populations (P ≤ 0.0001). The most effective concentrations of ASC, PAA, and NaOCl treatments reduced populations by 2.65, 1.46, and 0.66 log units, respectively. ASC showed the greatest potential for use as a postharvest sanitation treatment.

  12. Effects of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Dias-Morse, P N; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-05-01

    Beef trimmings were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 0.02% peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or left untreated (CON). Beef trimmings were ground, pattied, and sampled for 7 days. Under simulated retail display, instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS, pH, and Lee-Kramer shear force were measured to evaluate the impact of the treatments on the quality attributes. The NMS and PAA patties were redder (a(∗), P<0.05) than CON on days 0-3. Panelists found KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC patties to have less (P<0.05) or similar (P>0.05) off odor to CON on days 0-3. The NMS and PAA treated patties had lower (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than the CON at days 0, 3, and 7. Therefore, KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC treatments on beef trimmings can potentially improve or maintain quality attributes of beef patties.

  13. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Phyla were identified in ...

  14. Genome Sequence of the Butyrate-Producing Anaerobic Bacterium Anaerostipes hadrus PEL 85.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Rasinkangas, Pia; Satokari, Reetta; Pietilä, Taija E; Palva, Airi

    2015-04-02

    Anaerostipes hadrus PEL 85, which was isolated from human feces, is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. The species may play an important role in gut health, as it was previously reported to produce butyric acid. Here, we present the genome assembly of PEL 85, a novel strain of A. hadrus.

  15. Searching for Synbiotics to increase Colonic Butyrate Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is produced by microbial fermentation of plant fiber in the gut and a preferred substrate for gut epithelial cells. In ruminants, butyrate contributes to 70% of energy metabolism. In monogastric species, butyrate also plays an important role in energy metabolism in the hindgut. Moreover, bu...

  16. Effect of acid stress on sodium transport by isolated skins and on osmotic permeability of intact frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, P.O.

    1981-08-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to determine the effects of increased external hydrogen ion concentrations on the ion transport capability of isolated frog skins measured as short-circuit current and to determine the nature of the interaction of hydrogen ions to sodium transport. Results from a study of the effects of acid exposure on the osmotic permeability of intact frogs are also reported.

  17. Enhanced Butanol Production Through Adding Organic Acids and Neutral Red by Newly Isolated Butanol-Tolerant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ying; Song, Jinzhu; Cong, Hua; Zhang, Junzheng; Yang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    As alternative microorganisms for butanol production with high butanol tolerant and productivity are in high demand, one excellent butanol-tolerant bacterium, S10, was isolated and identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum S10. In order to enhance the performance of butanol production, organic acids and neutral red were added during butanol fermentation. Synergistic effects were exhibited in the combinations of organic acids and neutral red to promote butanol production. Consequently, the optimal concentrations of combined acetate, butyrate, and neutral red were determined at sodium acetate 1.61 g/L, sodium butyrate 1.88 g/L, and neutral red 0.79 g/L, respectively, with the butanol yield of 6.09 g/L which was 20.89 % higher than that in control. These results indicated that combination of adding organic acid and neutral red is a potential effective measure to improve butanol production.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of different stress response genes in Escherichia coli strains subjected to sodium chloride and lactic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai

    2014-12-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese.

  19. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. )

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  20. Continuous esterification of free fatty acids in crude biodiesel by an integrated process of supercritical methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan; Li, Ruosong; Feng, Mingjun; Fang, Tao

    2014-10-01

    An integrated process of supercritical methanol (SCM) and sodium methoxide catalyst was developed to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) via continuous esterification from crude biodiesel. The crude biodiesel with high free fatty acid (FFA) content must be refined to reduce the acid value (AV) for meeting the quality standards. The process parameters were studied by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental results revealed that the AV of crude biodiesel decreased from 18.66 to 0.55 mg KOH g(-1) at the reaction conditions of 350 °C, 0.5 % amount of sodium methoxide catalyst, and 10 MPa. Temperature shows the most significant effect on the esterification, followed by pressure and amount of sodium methoxide catalyst. This integrated process proved to be a potential route to refine the crude biodiesel because of its continuity, high efficiency, and less energy consumption with relatively moderate reaction conditions compared with conventional methods.

  1. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid.

    PubMed

    James, W M; Emerick, M C; Agnew, W S

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including alpha-(2----8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis alpha-(2----8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3200 pmol of [3H]TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of approximately 285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. We further describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  2. Inhibition of boric acid and sodium borate on the biological activity of microorganisms in an aerobic biofilter.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Y

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the inhibition effect of boric acid and sodium borate on the treatment of boron containing synthetic wastewater by a down flow aerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor at various chemical oxygen demand (COD)/boron ratios (0.47-20.54). The inhibitory effect of boron on activated sludge was evaluated on the basis of COD removal during the experimental period. The biofilter (effective volume = 2.5 L) was filled with a ring of plastic material inoculated with acclimated activated sludge. The synthetic wastewater composed of glucose, urea, KH2PO4, MgSO4, Fe2 SO4, ZnSO4 x 7H20, KCl, CaCl2, and di-sodium tetraborate decahydrate or boric acid (B = 100-2000 mg L(-1)). The biological treatment of boron containing wastewater resulted in a low treatment removal rate due to the reduced microbial activity as a result of toxic effects of high boron concentrations. The decrease in the COD removal rate by the presence of either boric acid or sodium borate was practically indistinguishable. It was observed from the experiments that about 90-95% of COD removal was possible at high COD/boron ratios.

  3. Collagen-Immobilized Lipases Show Good Activity and Reusability for Butyl Butyrate Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewei, Song; Min, Chen; Haiming, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Candida rugosa lipases were immobilized onto collagen fibers through glutaraldehyde cross-linking method. The immobilization process has been optimized. Under the optimal immobilization conditions, the activity of the collagen-immobilized lipase reached 340 U/g. The activity was recovered of 28.3 % by immobilization. The operational stability of the obtained collagen-immobilized lipase for hydrolysis of olive oil emulsion was determined. The collagen-immobilized lipase showed good tolerance to temperature and pH variations in comparison to free lipase. The collagen-immobilized lipase was also applied as biocatalyst for synthesis of butyl butyrate from butyric acid and 1-butanol in n-hexane. The conversion yield was 94 % at the optimal conditions. Of its initial activity, 64 % was retained after 5 cycles for synthesizing butyl butyrate in n-hexane.

  4. Dietary fibres modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunlong; Zhang, Lingli; He, Xiangyu; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-02-04

    Dietary fibres have been shown to affect early-life microbiota colonization in the large intestine of suckling piglets, however, much less is known as to whether they also modulate the composition and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary fibres on the abundance, composition, and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed a control diet or creep feeds containing alfalfa, wheat bran, or pure cellulose, respectively, from postnatal day 7 to 22. Large intestinal digesta and mucosa samples were collected for quantitative analysis of bacterial group-specific 16S ribosomal RNA- and butyrate production-related genes, and digesta samples for quantification of short-chain fatty acids. The alfalfa diet increased (P < 0.05) Clostridium cluster XIVa abundance, copies of genes encoding proteins involved in butyrate production (butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, butyrate kinase), and butyrate concentration compared to the wheat bran diet in the digesta of the proximal colon. In the distal colonic digesta, animals fed the alfalfa diet had the highest number of butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene copies (P < 0.05) and numerically the highest butyrate concentration, albeit not significant (P > 0.05), compared to other groups. In the distal colonic mucosa, the cellulose diet increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Clostridium cluster XIVa and copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene compared to the alfalfa diet. These results indicated that dietary fibres modulate the abundance and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria in the large intestine of suckling piglets, and that a moderate supplementation of alfalfa and cellulose may benefit early-life gut health through the delivery of butyrate to the mucosa.

  5. Partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in dry fermented sausages: Influence on carbohydrate fermentation and the nitrosation process.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, C; Quintanilla, L; Irigoyen, A; Garcia-Jalón, I; Cid, C; Astiasarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-01-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausages were manufactured: type A with traditional formulation and type B with reduced sodium content. pH and a(w) values and the counts of aerobic mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae and lactobacilli micro-organisms during the ripening of both fermented sausages were similar. Final lactic acid contents were also similar, but carbohydrate content was significantly lower in type B sausage. Content of acetic, propionic and butyric acids were significantly higher in type B, suggesting a higher heterofermentative activity. Also type B sausage showed lower nitrate level and higher chemical conversion percentage, suggesting a higher nitrosation intensity.

  6. Synthesis of hollow silver spheres using poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ge, Chen; Ren, Min; Liu, Yumin; Jiang, Tingshun

    2010-02-01

    Hollow silver spheres were successfully prepared by reducing AgNO 3 with ascorbic acid and using negatively charged poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) (PSA) spheres as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate as a stabilizer. Firstly, silver cations adsorbed on the surface of PSA spheres via electrostatic attraction between the carboxyl groups and silver cations were reduced in situ by ascorbic acid. The silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface of PSA spheres served as seeds for the further growth of silver shells. After that, extra amount of AgNO 3 and ascorbic acid solutions were added to form PSA/Ag composites with thick silver shells. In order to obtain compact silver shells, the as-prepared PSA/Ag composites were heated at 150 °C for 3 h. Then hollow silver spheres were prepared by dissolving PSA templates with tetrahydrofuran.

  7. Potentiated antitumor effects of a combination therapy with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 and butyrate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Maciej; Strusinska, Katarzyna; Legat, Magdalena; Makowski, Marcin; Jakobisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub

    2004-05-01

    Farnesyltransferase inhibitors, butyrate and butyric acid derivatives have previously been reported to exert anti-tumor activity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo and have recently gained acceptance as potential anticancer agents. In our study, we examined antitumor effects of a combination of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 and butyrate in vitro against MDA-MB-231 and MIA PaCa-2 human cancer cells. This combination therapy showed synergistic antitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 cells, which was at least in part due to induction of p27KIP1 expression. Both drugs increased intracellular levels of p53 as well but there was no significant difference between the groups treated with single drugs and the group treated with their combination. In MIA PaCa-2 cells, the combination therapy exerted additive antitumor activity. Our results illustrate possible application of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 and butyrate as a combination therapy of cancer.

  8. Effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and fucidic acid on the gel characterization of polyvinylalcohol-based wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Piao, Ming Guan; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Hwang, Du Hyung; Quan, Qi Zhe; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) and fucidic acid on the gel characterization for the development of sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing. The cross-linked hydrogel films were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method. Their gel properties such as gel fraction, swelling, water vapor transmission test, morphology, tensile strength and thermal property were investigated. In vitro protein adsorption test and release were performed. Na-CMC decreased the gel fraction and tensile strength of the hydrogels, but increased the swelling ability, water vapor transmission rate, elasticity and porosity of hydrogels. Thus, the wound dressing developed with PVA and Na-CMC was more swellable, flexible and elastic than that with only PVA because of its cross-linking interaction with PVA. However, the drug had a negative effect on the gel properties of hydrogels but there were no significant differences. In particular, the hydrogel composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug might give an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, this sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel could be a potential candidate for wound dressing with excellent forming.

  9. Osteoblast protects osteoclast devoid of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters from oxidative cytotoxicity of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Kambe, Yuki; Sahara, Koichi; Kurokawa, Shintaro; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    The view that ascorbic acid indirectly benefits osteoclastogenesis through expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts is prevailing. In this study, we have examined the direct effect of ascorbic acid on osteoclastogenesis in cultured mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow precursors. The absence of alkaline phosphatase and osteoblastic marker genes validated the usefulness of isolation procedures. Sustained exposure to ascorbic acid, but not to dehydroascorbic acid, significantly reduced the number of multinucleated cells positive to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. In cultured osteoclasts, mRNA expression was seen for glucose transporter-1 involved in membrane transport of dehydroascorbic acid, but not for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters-1 and -2 that are both responsible for the transport of ascorbic acid. The inhibition by ascorbic acid was completely prevented by catalase, while ascorbic acid or hydrogen peroxide drastically increased the number of cells stained with propidium iodide and the generation of reactive oxygen species, in addition to inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured osteoclasts. In pre-osteoclastic cell line RAW264.7 cells, ascorbic acid similarly inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, with a significant decrease in RANKL-induced NF-kappaB transactivation. Moreover, co-culture with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells significantly prevented the ascorbic acid-induced decrease in the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that ascorbic acid may play a dual repulsive role in osteoclastogenesis toward bone remodeling through the direct cytotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress to osteoclasts, in addition to the indirect trophism mediated by RANKL from osteoblasts.

  10. Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate: a review of the preparations, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    El-Sakhawy, Mohamed; Kamel, Samir; Salama, Ahmed; Sarhan, Hebat-Allah

    2014-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW) thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg). CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) formulations.

  11. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Samir; Salama, Ahmed; Sarhan, Hebat-Allah

    2014-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW) thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg). CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) formulations. PMID:25548679

  12. Thermodynamics of aqueous borate solutions I. Mixture of boric acid with sodium or potassium borate and chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Roy, R.N.; Roy, L.N.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Potentials for the cell without liquid junction H/sub 2/, Ptlt. slashB(OH)/sub 3/(m/sub 1/),MB(OH)/sub 4/(m/sub 2/),MCl(m/sub 3/)lt. slashAgCl,Ag where M is sodium or potassium are reported over a range of ionic strength to I = 3 mol-kg/sup -1/ at 5 to 55/sup 0/C. Total boron concentration in the solutions was restricted to low levels to minimize formation of polynuclear boron species. Cell potentials are treated with the Pitzer ion interaction treatment for mixed electrolytes, with linear ionic strength dependence assumed for the activity coefficient of undissociated boric acid. Trace activity coefficients of sodium and potassium borates in chloride media are calculated at various temperatures.

  13. Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-04-15

    The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations.

  14. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  15. Lovastatin and sodium phenylacetate normalize the levels of very long chain fatty acids in skin fibroblasts of X- adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Pahan, K; Khan, M

    1998-04-24

    The present study underlines the importance of lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and the sodium salt of phenylacetic acid (NaPA), an inhibitor of mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase, in normalizing the pathognomonic accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in cultured skin fibroblasts of X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) in which the ALD gene is either mutated or deleted. Lovastatin or NaPA alone or in combination stimulated the beta-oxidation of lignoceric acid (C24:0) and normalized the elevated levels of VLCFA in skin fibroblasts of X-ALD. Ability of lovastatin and NaPA to normalize the pathognomonic accumulation of VLCFA in skin fibroblasts of X-ALD may identify these drugs as possible therapeutics for X-ALD.

  16. Simultaneous determination of EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Naleini, Nasim

    2013-06-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sorbic acid, and diclofenac sodium was developed and validated. Separation was achieved on a C(18) column (10 cm×4.6 mm) using gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (0.01 M, pH=2.5, containing 0.8% tetra-n-butyl ammonium hydroxide). The detector wavelength was set at 254 nm. Under these conditions, separation of three compounds was achieved in less than 10 min. The effect of two metal salts and metal concentration on peak area of EDTA was investigated. The pH effect on retention of EDTA and sorbic acid was studied. The method showed linearity for EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac in the ranges of 2.5-100.0, 5.0-200.0, and 20.0-120.0 μg/mL, respectively. The within- and between-day relative standard deviations ranged from 0.52 to 1.94%, 0.50 to 1.34%, and 0.78 to 1.67% for EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac, respectively. The recovery of EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac from pharmaceutical preparation ranged from 96.0-102.0%, 99.7-101.5%, to 97.0-102.5%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about simultaneous determination of EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac.

  17. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn’t induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates. PMID:27264309

  18. Inhibition of antibacterial activity of himastatin, a new antitumor antibiotic from Streptomyces hygroscopicus, by fatty acid sodium salts.

    PubMed Central

    Mamber, S W; Brookshire, K W; Dean, B J; Firestone, R A; Leet, J E; Matson, J A; Forenza, S

    1994-01-01

    Himastatin, a cyclohexadepsipeptide antibiotic, had in vivo antitumor activity against localized P388 leukemia and B16 melanoma but had no distal site antitumor activity. An in vitro Bacillus subtilis well-agar diffusion assay was employed to test the hypothesis that himastatin was enzymatically inactivated. The activity of himastatin against B. subtilis was inhibited when himastatin was mixed with mouse liver S9 fraction and microsomes. However, subsequent investigations demonstrated that the markedly decreased antibacterial activity was not enzymatic in nature but was related to the presence of certain fatty acid salts. Saturated fatty acid sodium salts with a carbon chain number of 8 or more reduced the antimicrobial activity of himastatin 50 to 100 times. If antibiotics such as ampicillin, bacitracin, chloramphenicol, and tunicamycin were used in place of himastatin, no meaningful reduction in antibacterial activity occurred. However, the antibacterial activity of the membrane-active peptide antibiotic polymyxin B, but not that of polymyxin E (colistin), was reduced in a manner similar to that of himastatin. Importantly, the activity of himastatin against HCT-116 colon adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar was markedly reduced in the presence of sodium palmitate as the reference fatty acid salt. The data indicate that himastatin may be trapped in micelles in vitro. It may be speculated that the lack of distal site antitumor activity resulted from similar complex formation between himastatin and lipids in vivo. The results also suggest that the cancer cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of himastatin may result from interactions with the cell membrane. PMID:7872760

  19. Enhancement of In Situ Enzymatic Saccharification of Corn Stover by a Stepwise Sodium Hydroxide and Organic Acid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    A stepwise pretreatment method that combines sodium hydroxide and organic acid pretreatments was proposed and investigated to maximize the recovery of main constituents of lignocellulose. The sodium hydroxide pretreatment was firstly optimized by a designed orthogonal experiment with the optimum pretreatment conditions determined as 1 wt% NaOH at 70 °C for 1 h, and 60.42 % of lignin was successfully removed during this stage. In the second stage, 0.5 % acetic acid was selected to pretreat the first-stage solid residue at 80 °C for 40 min in order to decompose hemicelluloses to soluble oligomers or monomers. Then, the whole slurry was subjected to in situ enzymatic saccharification by cellullase with a supplementation of xylanase to further degrade the xylooligosaccharides generated during the acetic acid pretreatment. The maximum reducing sugar and glucose yields achieved were 20.74 and 12.03 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, rapid ethanol fermentation and a yield of 80.3 % also testified this pretreatment method, and the in situ saccharification did not bring any negative impact on ethanol fermentation and has a broad application prospect.

  20. An Sp1 response element in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 50 promoter mediates lytic cycle induction by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjiang; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-02-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can be driven into the lytic cycle in vitro by phorbol esters and sodium butyrate. This report begins to analyze the process by which butyrate activates the promoter of KSHV open reading frame 50 (ORF50), the key viral regulator of the KSHV latency to lytic cycle switch. A short fragment of the promoter, 134 nucleotides upstream of the translational start of ORF50, retained basal uninduced activity and conferred maximal responsiveness to sodium butyrate. The butyrate response element was mapped to a consensus Sp1-binding site. By means of electrophoretic mobility shift assays, both Sp1 and Sp3 were shown to form complexes in vitro with the ORF50 promoter at the Sp1 site. Butyrate induced the formation of a group of novel complexes, including several Sp3-containing complexes, one Sp1-containing complex, and several other complexes that were not identified with antibodies to Sp1 or Sp3. Formation of all butyrate-induced DNA-protein complexes was mediated by the consensus Sp1 site. In insect and mammalian cell lines, Sp1 significantly activated the ORF50 promoter linked to luciferase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a PEL cell line showed that butyrate induced Sp1, CBP, and p300 binding to the ORF50 promoter in vivo in an on-off manner. The results suggest that induction of the KSHV lytic cycle by butyrate is mediated through interactions at the Sp1/Sp3 site located 103 to 112 nucleotides upstream of the translational initiation of ORF50 presumably by enhancing the binding of Sp1 to this site.

  1. Purification and identification of the functional sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid transport glycoprotein from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Radian, R; Bendahan, A; Kanner, B I

    1986-11-25

    Using the reconstitution conditions developed recently (Radian, R., and Kanner, B. I. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11859-11865) we have now purified the sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter from rat brain to apparent homogeneity. A partially purified transporter preparation was passed over wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose 6MB and non-bound proteins were washed away. The transport activity, as expressed upon reconstitution of the protein into liposomes, was eluted by a solution containing Triton X-100 and N-acetylglucosamine. The specific transport activity was increased almost 400-fold over that of the crude extract. Taking into account an approximately 2.5-fold inactivation during the lectin column chromatography, the actual purification is about 1000-fold. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the active fractions revealed one band of 80 kDa and small amounts of a band which ran at an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa. The ratio between the two could be experimentally changed such as, for instance, by lyophilization. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the 80-kDa band which also cross-reacted with the 160-kDa band, indicating that the latter apparently represents a dimer form of the first. Using Protein A-Sepharose Cl-4B and the antibody against the 80-kDa band, we were able to quantitatively immunoprecipitate the potential gamma-aminobutyric acid transport activity from a crude transporter preparation. The pure transporter preparation exhibited the same features of the transporter in synaptic plasma membrane vesicles, namely dependence on sodium and chloride, electrogeneity, affinity, and efflux and exchange properties. We conclude that the 80-kDa band represents the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter.

  2. Steering Endogenous Butyrate Production in the Intestinal Tract of Broilers as a Tool to Improve Gut Health

    PubMed Central

    Onrust, Lonneke; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Driessche, Karolien; De Maesschalck, Celine; Vermeulen, Karen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that are sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate-producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate, which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies. PMID:26734618

  3. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  4. Short-term adaptation of the ruminal epithelium involves abrupt changes in sodium and short-chain fatty acid transport.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Brittney L; Walpole, Matthew E; Górka, Pawel; Ching, John C H; Loewen, Matthew E; Penner, Gregory B

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an increase in diet fermentability on 1) the rate and extent to which short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption pathways adapt relative to changes in Na(+) transport, 2) the epithelial surface area (SA), and 3) the barrier function of the bovine ruminal epithelium. Twenty-five Holstein steer calves were assigned to either the control diet (CON; 91.5% hay and 8.5% supplement) or a moderately fermentable diet (50% hay; 41.5% barley grain (G), and 8.5% supplement) fed for 3 (G3), 7 (G7), 14 (G14), or 21 days (G21). All calves were fed at 2.25% body weight at 0800. Calves were killed (at 1000), and ruminal tissue was collected to determine the rate and pathway of SCFA transport, Na(+) transport and barrier function in Ussing chambers. Tissue was also collected for SA measurement and gene expression. Mean reticular pH decreased from 6.90 for CON to 6.59 for G7 and then increased (quadratic P < 0.001). While effective SA of the ruminal epithelium was not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary treatment, the net Na(+) flux increased by 125% within 7 days (quadratic P = 0.016). Total acetate and butyrate flux increased from CON to G21, where passive diffusion was the primary SCFA absorption pathway affected. Increased mannitol flux, tissue conductance, and tendencies for increased expression of IL-1β and TLR2 indicated reduced rumen epithelium barrier function. This study indicates that an increase in diet fermentability acutely increases Na(+) and SCFA absorption in the absence of increased SA, but reduces barrier function.

  5. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.

    PubMed

    Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-05-15

    Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest.

  6. Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway by Butyrate Improves Corneal Wound Healing in Corneal Alkali Burn

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Fang; Xiao, Yangyan; Zaheer, Mahira; Volpe, Eugene A.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial cells are involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in response to different stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if alkali-injured corneal epithelia activate innate immunity through the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway. A unilateral alkali burn (AB) was created in the central cornea of C57BL/6 mice. Mice received either no topical treatment or topical treatment with sodium butyrate (NaB), β-hydroxybutyric acid (HBA), dexamethasone (Dex), or vehicle (balanced salt solution, BSS) quater in die (QID) for two or five days (d). We evaluated the expression of inflammasome components including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1, as well as the downstream cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. We found elevation of NLRP3 and IL-1β messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, as well as levels of inflammasome component proteins in the alkali-injured corneas compared to naïve corneas. Treatment with NLRP3 inhibitors using NaB and HBA preserved corneal clarity and decreased NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β mRNA transcripts, as well as NLRP3 protein expression on post-injury compared to BSS-treated corneas. These findings identified a novel innate immune signaling pathway activated by AB. Blocking the NLRP3 pathway in AB mouse model decreases inflammation, resulting in greater corneal clarity. These results provide a mechanistic basis for optimizing therapeutic intervention in alkali injured eyes. PMID:28273882

  7. Mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport is mediated by a low-affinity form of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Montesino, Carola; Roa, Francisco J; Peña, Eduardo; González, Mauricio; Sotomayor, Kirsty; Inostroza, Eveling; Muñoz, Carolina A; González, Iván; Maldonado, Mafalda; Soliz, Carlos; Reyes, Alejandro M; Vera, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Coralia I

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of the redox metabolism of mitochondria under normal and pathological conditions, our knowledge regarding the transport of vitamin C across mitochondrial membranes remains far from complete. We report here that human HEK-293 cells express a mitochondrial low-affinity ascorbic acid transporter that molecularly corresponds to SVCT2, a member of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter family 2. The transporter SVCT1 is absent from HEK-293 cells. Confocal colocalization experiments with anti-SVCT2 and anti-organelle protein markers revealed that most of the SVCT2 immunoreactivity was associated with mitochondria, with minor colocalization at the endoplasmic reticulum and very low immunoreactivity at the plasma membrane. Immunoblotting of proteins extracted from highly purified mitochondrial fractions confirmed that SVCT2 protein was associated with mitochondria, and transport analysis revealed a sigmoidal ascorbic acid concentration curve with an apparent ascorbic acid transport Km of 0.6mM. Use of SVCT2 siRNA for silencing SVCT2 expression produced a major decrease in mitochondrial SVCT2 immunoreactivity, and immunoblotting revealed decreased SVCT2 protein expression by approximately 75%. Most importantly, the decreased protein expression was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport rate. Further studies using HEK-293 cells overexpressing SVCT2 at the plasma membrane revealed that the altered kinetic properties of mitochondrial SVCT2 are due to the ionic intracellular microenvironment (low in sodium and high in potassium), with potassium acting as a concentration-dependent inhibitor of SVCT2. We discarded the participation of two glucose transporters previously described as mitochondrial dehydroascorbic acid transporters; GLUT1 is absent from mitochondria and GLUT10 is not expressed in HEK-293 cells. Overall, our data indicate that intracellular SVCT2 is localized in mitochondria, is

  8. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  9. In vitro release control of ketoprofen from pH-sensitive gels consisting of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) and saturated fatty acid sodium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, M.; Hiroki, A.; Miyajima, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Katakai, R.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of saturated fatty acid sodium salts (C n), sodium laurate (C 12), sodium myristate (C 14), sodium palmitate (C 16), and sodium stearate (C 18), on the swelling of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) (A-ProOMe) gel was investigated in different pH solutions. The C n-loaded gels collapsed in a buffer solution with pH 3.0, while they expanded in a buffer solution with pH 6.5. This effect was strongly influenced by the number of methylene units in C n, as the threshold for causing this sensitivity existed between C 12 and C 14. On the other hand, a pulsatile release of ketoprofen occurred when the gel was cycled in buffer solutions between pH 3.0 and pH 6.5. This behavior may be attributable to the surface-regulated mechanism.

  10. In vitro influence of D/L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite on the infectivity of feline calicivirus and of ECHO virus as potential surrogates for foodborne viruses.

    PubMed

    Straube, J; Albert, T; Manteufel, J; Heinze, J; Fehlhaber, K; Truyen, U

    2011-11-15

    The importance of foodborne viruses is increasingly recognized. Thus, the effect of commonly used food preservation methods on the infectivity of viruses is questioned. In this context, we investigated the antiviral properties of D,L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite by in vitro studies. Two model viruses, Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Enteric Cytophatic Human Orphan (ECHO) virus, were chosen for this study simulating important foodborne viruses (human noroviruses (NoV) and human enteroviruses, resp.). The model viruses were exposed to different solutions of D,L-lactic acid (0.1-0.4% w/w, pH 6.0-3.2), of sodium chloride (2-20%, w/v) and of sodium nitrite (100, 150 and 200 ppm) at 4 and 20 °C for a maximum of 7 days. Different results were obtained for the two viruses. ECHO virus was highly stable against D,L-lactic acid and sodium chloride when tested under all conditions. On the contrary, FCV showed less stability but was not effectively inactivated when exposed to low acid and high salt conditions at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C). FCV titers decreased more markedly at 20 °C than 4 °C in all experiments. Sodium nitrite did not show any effect on the inactivation of both viruses. The results indicate that acidification, salting or curing maybe insufficient for effective inactivation of foodborne viruses such as NoV or human enteroviruses during food processing. Thus, application of higher temperature during fermentation and ripening processes maybe more effective toward the inactivation kinetics of less stable viruses. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to examine the antiviral properties of these preserving agents on virus survival and inactivation kinetics in the complex food matrix.

  11. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    PubMed

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential.

  12. Enantioselective Crystallization of Sodium Chlorate in the Presence of Racemic Hydrophobic Amino Acids and Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorzano, María-Paz; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, Cesar; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2014-06-01

    We study the bias induced by a weak (200 mT) external magnetic field on the preferred handedness of sodium chlorate crystals obtained by slow evaporation at ambient conditions of its saturated saline solution with 20 ppm of added racemic (dl) hydrophobic amino acids. By applying the Fisher test to pairs of experiments with opposing magnetic field orientation we conclude, with a confidence level of 99.7%, that at the water-air interface of this saline solution there is an enantioselective magnetic interaction that acts upon racemic mixtures of hydrophobic chiral amino acids. This interaction has been observed with the three tested racemic hydrophobic amino acids: dl-Phe, dl-Try and dl-Trp, at ambient conditions and in spite of the ubiquitous chiral organic contamination. This enantioselective magnetic dependence is not observed when there is only one handedness of added chiral amino-acid, if the added amino acid is not chiral or if there is no additive. This effect has been confirmed with a double blind test. This novel experimental observation may have implications for our view of plausible initial prebiotic scenarios and of the roles of the geomagnetic field in homochirality in the biosphere.

  13. Effect of sodium metabisulfite on hydrogen peroxide production in light-exposed pediatric parenteral amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1998-06-15

    The effect of sodium metabisulfite (MBS) on hydrogen peroxide (HP) production in model and commercial amino acid solutions exposed to phototherapy light was studied. Model and commercial pediatric amino acid solutions were prepared such that the amino acid concentration was 1%. MBS concentration, riboflavin concentration, and duration of exposure to phototherapy light were varied to determine the effect on HP production. Control solutions were kept in the dark. HP production was assayed in the model amino acid solutions by using potassium iodide in the presence of ammonium molybdate. In all experiments, HP production was measured at 360 nm in the presence and absence of catalase. In light-exposed solutions, HP production increased linearly for several hours and reached a plateau by eight hours. A mean maximum of 940 microM was produced (data pooled for all solutions). No detectable HP was generated in the solutions kept in the dark. After two hours of light exposure, it was necessary to add at least 10 times more MBS than is typically found in commercial total parenteral nutrient solutions to scavenge all the HP produced. An average of up to 940 microM of HP was produced in model and commercial pediatric parenteral 1% amino acid solutions in the presence of phototherapy light and clinically relevant concentrations of riboflavin and MBS. Light exposure decreased the antioxidant effect of MBS.

  14. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena

    2015-01-15

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed.

  15. Utilization of multiple substrates by butyrate kinase from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Galva, Charitha; Saunders, Lauren P; Sen, Suranjana; Jayaswal, Radheshyam; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gatto, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, can build up to dangerous levels in refrigerated foods potentially leading to expensive product recalls. An important aspect of the bacterium's growth at low temperatures is its ability to increase the branched-chain fatty acid anteiso C15:0 content of its membrane at lower growth temperatures, which imparts greater membrane fluidity. Mutants in the branched-chain α-keto dehydrogenase (bkd) complex are deficient in branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs,) but these can be restored by feeding C4 and C5 branched-chain carboxylic acids (BCCAs). This suggests the presence of an alternate pathway for production of acyl CoA precursors for fatty acid biosynthesis. We hypothesize that the alternate pathway is composed of butyrate kinase (buk) and phosphotransbutyrylase (ptb) encoded in the bkd complex which produce acyl CoA products by their sequential action through the metabolism of carboxylic acids. We determined the steady state kinetics of recombinant His-tagged Buk using 11 different straight-chain and BCCA substrates in the acyl phosphate forming direction. Buk demonstrated highest catalytic efficiency with pentanoate as the substrate. Low product formation observed with acetate (C2) and hexanoate (C6) as the substrates indicates that Buk is not involved in either acetate metabolism or long chain carboxylic acid activation. We were also able to show that Buk catalysis occurs through a ternary complex intermediate. Additionally, Buk demonstrates a strong preference for BCCAs at low temperatures. These results indicate that Buk may be involved in the activation and assimilation of exogenous carboxylic acids for membrane fatty acid biosynthesis.

  16. Identification and quantitation of extractables from cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and estimation of their in vivo exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Decheng; Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Beasley, Christopher; Zhao, Zhongxi Zack; Harmon, Paul A; Ballard, John M; Pitzenberger, Steven M; Varga, Sandor L; Reed, Robert A

    2004-06-29

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine potential cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) extractables in a way to meaningfully predict the in vivo exposure resulting from clinical administration. Extractions of CAB-381-20 were performed in several solvent systems, consistently resulting in the detection of three extractables. The extractables have been identified as acetic acid, butyric acid, and E-2-ethyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-EHA) by LC/UV, LC/MS and NMR. Extraction studies of CAB powders in acetonitrile/phosphate buffer demonstrated quantitative extraction in 1 h for acetic acid (approximately 150 microg/g), butyric acid (approximately 200 microg/g), and EHA (approximately 20 microg/g). Subsequently, extraction studies for CAB powders and coated tablets in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were performed to evaluate potential in vivo exposure. Similarly, acetic and butyric acids were quantitatively extracted from CAB-381-20 powder after 24 h exposure in both USP simulated fluids. The amounts of EHA extracted from CAB powder after 24 h were determined to be 2 and 16 microg/g in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. After 24 h exposure in USP simulated fluids, the maximum amount of EHA extracted corresponds to < 0.3 microg of EHA per tablet. Pepsin and pancreatin in USP simulated fluids had no effect on EHA extraction and quantitation.

  17. The influence of polymeric component of bioactive glass-based nanocomposite paste on its rheological behaviors and in vitro responses: hyaluronic acid versus sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mehri; Hesaraki, Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Asghar

    2014-04-01

    Different biocomposite pastes were prepared from a solid phase that was nanoparticles of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass and different liquid phases including 3% hyaluronic acid solution, sodium alginate solutions (3% and 10 %) or mixtures of hyaluronic acid and sodium alginate (3% or 10 %) solutions in 50:50 volume ratio. Rheological properties of the pastes were measured in both rotatory and oscillatory modes. The washout behavior and in vitro apatite formation of the pastes were determined by soaking them in simulated body fluid under dynamic situation for 14 days. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MG-63 osteoblastic cells were also determined using extracts of the pastes. All pastes could be easily injected from the standard syringes with different tip diameters. All pastes exhibited visco-elastic character, but a nonthixotropic paste was obtained using hyaluronic acid in which the loss modulus was higher than the storage modulus. The thixotropy and storage modulus were increasingly improved by adding/using sodium alginate as mixing liquid. Moreover, the pastes in which the liquid phase was sodium alginate or mixture of hyaluronic acid and 10% sodium alginate solution revealed better apatite formation ability and washout resistance than that made of hyaluronic acid alone. No cytotoxicity effects were observed by extracts of the pastes on osteoblasts but better alkaline phosphatase activity was found for the pastes containing hyaluronic acid. Overall, injectable biocomposites can be produced by mixing bioactive glass nanoparticles and sodium alginate/hyaluronic acid polymers. They are potentially useful for hard and even soft tissues treatments.

  18. Chemiluminescence behaviour of CdTe-potassium permanganate enhanced by sodium hexametaphosphate and sensitized sensing of L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongqi; Ling, Bo; Yuan, Fei; Zhou, Cailing; Chen, Jingguo; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FIA-CL) method based on the CdTe nanocrystals and potassium permanganate chemiluminescence system was developed for the determination of L-ascorbic acid. It was found that sodium hexametaphosphate (SP), as an enhancer, could increase the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the redox reaction of CdTe quantum dots with potassium permanganate in near-neutral pH conditions. L-ascorbic acid is suggested as a sensitive enhancer for use in the above energy-transfer excitation process. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graph of emission intensity against logarithmic l-ascorbic acid concentration was linear in the range 1.0 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-6)  mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969 and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.3% (n = 7) at 5.0 × 10(-7)  mol/L. The method was successfully used to determine L-ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets. The possible mechanism of the chemiluminescence in the system is also discussed.

  19. Study of nucleic acid-gold nanorod interactions and detecting nucleic acid hybridization using gold nanorod solutions in the presence of sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Kanjanawarut, Roejarek; Su, Xiaodi

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors report that sodium citrate can aggregate hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium ion(+)-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs), and nucleic acids of different charge and structure properties, i.e., single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and PNA-DNA complex, can bind to the AuNRs and therefore retard the sodium citrate-induced aggregation to different extents. The discovery that hybridized dsDNA (and the PNA-DNA complex) has a more pronounced protection effect than ssDNA (and PNA) allows the authors to develop a homogeneous phase AuNRs-based UV-visible (UV-vis) spectral assay for detecting specific sequences of oligonucleotides (20 mer) with a single-base-mismatch selectivity and a limit of detection of 5 nM. This assay involves no tedious bioconjugation and on-particle hybridization. The simple "set and test" format allows for a highly efficient hybridization in a homogeneous phase and a rapid display of the results in less than a minute. By measuring the degree of reduction in AuNR aggregation in the presence of different nucleic acid samples, one can assess how different nucleic acids interact with the AuNRs to complement the knowledge of spherical gold nanoparticles. Besides UV-vis characterization, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements were conduced to provide visual evidence of the particle aggregation and to support the discussion of the assay principle.

  20. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscapes alteration in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are nutrients especially critical to ruminants. Beyond their nutritional impact, clear evidence is beginning to link modifications in chromatin structure induced by butyrate to cell cycle progression, DNA replication and over...

  1. Propionate Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ling-chang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-bin; Liu, Wei-ye; Sun, Sheng; Li, Ling; Su, Ding-feng; Zhang, Li-chao

    2016-01-01

    Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days. Animals in DSS+propionate (DSS+Prop) group were given 1% sodium propionate for 14 consecutive days and supplemented with 3% DSS solution on day 7–14. Intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the colon were determined. It was found that sodium propionate ameliorated body weight loss, colon-length shortening and colonic damage in colitis mice. Sodium propionate significantly inhibited the increase of FITC-dextran in serum and the decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin expression in the colonic tissue. It also inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT3 in colitis mice markedly, reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase level in colon and serum compared with DSS group. Sodium propionate inhibited macrophages with CD68 marker infiltration into the colonic mucosa of colitis mice. These results suggest that oral administration of sodium propionate could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis mainly by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress via the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27574508

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  3. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  4. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  5. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  6. Structural characterization of hydrated poly(aspartic acid) sodium and poly(aspartic acid) sodium/poly(vinyl alcohol) blends by high-resolution solid-state 23Na NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Ando, I.

    1999-09-01

    The structure of hydrated poly(aspartic acid) sodium (PAANa) and in blended PAANa, which was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), is characterized by means of high-resolution solid-state 23Na NMR. There are two peaks in dried pure PAANa, which are assigned to associated ions (about -16 ppm) and isolated ions or end group ions of PAANa (7.2 ppm), respectively. With an increase in hydration, the 23Na chemical shifts of these two peaks are changed to tend toward 0 ppm, and the line width at half the height of the 23Na resonance decreases. In contrast, in the blended samples, the 23Na resonance shapes and chemical shift values are significantly changed depending on the ratio of the PAANa/PVA blends and the temperature. On the basis of these experimental results, the structure of the blends was elucidated.

  7. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  8. Quantification of toxin-encoding mRNA from Clostridium botulinum type E in media containing sorbic acid or sodium nitrite by competitive RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Freddie H; Markos, Spiros I; Haylock, Richard W

    2004-03-19

    Competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) was used to quantify the toxin-encoding mRNA production of a Clostridium botulinum type E strain in media containing either sorbic acid or sodium nitrite. A 10-fold reduction in toxin mRNA production and a 25-fold reduction in the proportion of toxin mRNA to total RNA, was estimated when either 1 mg ml(-1) sorbic acid or 100 microg ml(-1) sodium nitrite were added to the medium at pH 7.0.

  9. Bioavailability of oxalic acid from spinach, sugar beet fibre and a solution of sodium oxalate consumed by female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hanson, C F; Frankos, V H; Thompson, W O

    1989-03-01

    Oxalate bioavailability from sugar beet fibre (40 g), spinach (25 g) and a solution of sodium oxalate (182 mg) was tested in nine women using a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square arrangement. Each test substance provided 120 mg oxalic acid. Throughout the study the volunteers consumed a control diet and the test substances were administered at breakfast on specified days. After an initial 2-day control period, oxalate was administered in three test periods that consisted of one test day followed by one control day. Urine collected during 24-hr periods was analysed daily for oxalate. Oxalate excretion did not differ among the five control days and was not increased significantly following the ingestion of sugar beet fibre by the volunteers. Oxalate excretion was greater (P less than 0.0001) for the mean of the spinach and sodium oxalate solution diets than for the mean of the sugar beet fibre and control diets. Oxalate bioavailability from sugar beet fibre was 0.7% compared with bioavailabilities of 4.5 and 6.2% for spinach and oxalate solutions, respectively. The low bioavailability of oxalate from sugar beet fibre may be attributable to its high ratio of minerals (calcium and magnesium) to oxalate, its complex fibre matrix or the loss of the soluble oxalate during processing of sugar beets.

  10. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra.

  11. Molecular structure and spectroscopic analysis of homovanillic acid and its sodium salt - NMR, FT-IR and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonowicz, M.; Kowczyk-Sadowy, M.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of the electronic charge distribution in metal complex or salt allows to predict what kind of deformation of the electronic system of ligand would undergo during complexation. It also permits to make more precise interpretation of mechanism by which metals affect the biochemical properties of ligands. The influence of sodium cation on the electronic system of homovanillic acid was studied in this paper. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G** method. Mulliken, MK and ChelpG atomic charges were analyzed. The theoretical NMR and IR spectra were obtained. 1H and 13C NMR as well as FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of studied compounds were also recorded and analyzed. The calculated parameters are compared with experimental characteristics of these molecules.

  12. CP-MLR/PLS directed QSAR study on apical sodium-codependent bile acid transporter inhibition activity of benzothiepines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Kishore; Singh, Prithvi; Pilania, Pradeep; Sarbhai, Kirti; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S

    2011-02-01

    The apical sodium-codependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibition activity of benzothiepine derivatives have been analyzed based on topological and molecular features. Analysis of the structural features in conjunction with the biological endpoints in Combinatorial Protocol in Multiple Linear Regression (CP-MLR) led to the identification of 21 descriptors for modeling the activity. The study clearly suggested that the role of Randic shape index (path/walk ratio 3) and topological charges of 2-, 5-, and 6-orders to optimize the ASBT inhibitory activity of titled compounds. The influence of atomic van der Waals volumes, masses, Sanderson electronegativities, and polarizabilities are indicated via different lags of Moran and Geary autocorrelations. Presence of tertiary aromatic amine functionality in molecular structure has also shown its relevance in rationalizing the biological actions of benzothiepines. The PLS analysis has confirmed the dominance of information content of CP-MLR identified descriptors for modeling the activity when compared to those of the leftover ones.

  13. Effects of N-acetyl-aspartyl glutamic acid and sodium cromoglycate on leukotriene B4 secretion by human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, P L; Vulliez-Le Normand, B; Briquet, I; Dray, F

    1990-07-01

    Peripheral leukocytes from allergic subjects were treated for 30 min with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) or with N-acetyl-aspartyl glutamic acid (NAAGA) and challenged for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production with calcium ionophore A 23187. NAAGA significantly inhibits LTB4 release at concentrations of 10(-2) M (-86%), 5 x 10(-3) M (-49%) and 10(-3) M (-34%), while SCG was not able to block LTB4 production within the range of 10(-2)-10(-4) M. In spite of the fact that SCG and NAAGA are chemically unrelated and that both show antiallergic properties, only NAAGA is able in this model to block production of LTB4, a chemical mediator strongly involved in inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions.

  14. Isolation and in vivo and in vitro antifungal activity of phenylacetic acid and sodium phenylacetate from Streptomyces humidus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, B K; Lim, S W; Kim, B S; Lee, J Y; Moon, S S

    2001-08-01

    The antifungal substances SH-1 and SH-2 were isolated from Streptomyces humidus strain S5-55 cultures by various purification procedures and identified as phenylacetic acid and sodium phenylacetate, respectively, based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization mass spectral, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectral data. SH-1 and SH-2 completely inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae at concentrations from 10 to 50 microg/ml. The two compounds were as effective as the commercial fungicide metalaxyl in inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth of P. capsici. However, the in vivo control efficacies of the two antifungal compounds against P. capsici infection on pepper plants were similar to those of H(3)PO(3) and fosetyl-AI but less than that of metalaxyl.

  15. Isolation and In Vivo and In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Phenylacetic Acid and Sodium Phenylacetate from Streptomyces humidus

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byung Kook; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Jung Yeop; Moon, Surk Sik

    2001-01-01

    The antifungal substances SH-1 and SH-2 were isolated from Streptomyces humidus strain S5-55 cultures by various purification procedures and identified as phenylacetic acid and sodium phenylacetate, respectively, based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization mass spectral, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectral data. SH-1 and SH-2 completely inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae at concentrations from 10 to 50 μg/ml. The two compounds were as effective as the commercial fungicide metalaxyl in inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth of P. capsici. However, the in vivo control efficacies of the two antifungal compounds against P. capsici infection on pepper plants were similar to those of H3PO3 and fosetyl-AI but less than that of metalaxyl. PMID:11472958

  16. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  17. Influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, C; Palop, L; Sánchez, I

    1999-12-01

    The effect of a commercial Lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. The results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. Fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched under identical conditions. Temperature in the fermenters was 32+/-2 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that addition of a suitable starter shortened the fermentation process, provided the salt concentration in the brine did not exceed 6%. In the conditions tested, the eggplants obtained after fermentation were found to be of good quality though somewhat bitter which may explained by the starter employed.

  18. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee

    2015-01-01

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. PMID:26637600

  19. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-04

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.

  20. The effect of butyrate concentration on hydrogen production via photofermentation for use in a Martian habitat resource recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jackson Z.; Klaus, David M.; Maness, Pin-Ching; Spear, John R.

    2007-10-01

    Biological hydrogen production from waste biomass has both terrestrial and Martian advanced life support applications. Several forms of this process exist, but one process, indirect biophotolysis, is suitable for a potential Mars mission. This process is two-stage, combining a dark fermentation of starch or sugars with photofermentation of the remaining waste organic acids to produce hydrogen gas. Since butyrate is expected as one of the major inputs into photofermentation from the first stage, Rhodobacter sphaeroides SCJ, a photoheterotrophic purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium was examined for its potential in hydrogen production at 10–100 mM butyrate concentrations. As butyrate levels increased, hydrogen production increased up to 25 mM butyrate, and then decreased and ceased by 100 mM. Additionally, lag phase increased with butyrate concentration, possibly indicating substrate inhibition. Maximal substrate conversion efficiency was 8.0%; maximal light efficiency was 0.89%; and maximal hydrogen production rate was 7.7 μmol/(mg cdwh) (173 μL/ (mg cdwh)).These are generally lower than values reported in the literature.

  1. Further work on sodium montmorillonite as catalyst for the polymerization of activated amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eirich, F. R.; Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1986-01-01

    When the polycondensation of amino acid acylates was catalyzed with Na-montmorillonite, the polypeptides were consistently found to exhibit a distribution of discrete molecular weights, for as yet undiscovered reasons. One possible explanation was connected to the stepwise mode of monomer addition. New experiments have eliminated this possibility, so that there is the general assumption that this discreteness is the result of a preference of shorter oligomers to add to others of the same length, a feature that could be attributed to some structure of the platelet aggregates of the montmorillonite. The production of optical stereoisomers is anticipated when D,L-amino acids are polymerized on montmorillonite. Having used an optically active surface, the essence of the results lies not only in the occurrence of optically active oligomers and polymers, but also in the fact that the latter exhibit the same molecular weight characteristics as the D,L-polymers. Preparatory to work contemplated on a parallel synthesis of amino acid and nucleotide oligomers, studies were continued on the co-adsorption of amino acids, nucleotides, and amino acid-nucleotides on montmorillonite.

  2. The polymerization of amino acid adenylates on sodium-montmorillonite with preadsorbed polypeptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, Mella; Eirich, Frederick R.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous polymerization of amino acid adenylates on Na-montmorillonite in dilute, neutral suspension, after polypeptides were adsorbed on the clay, is studied. It is found that the degrees of polymerization of the oligopeptides and polypeptides obtained is dependent on the amounts of polypeptides that were preadsorbed. It is concluded that a catalytic activity may derive from c-spacings that offer adsorption sites for the reagent amino acid adenylate within the peripheral recesses of irregularly stacked clay platelets by bringing the anhydride bonds and neutral amino groups into favorable reaction distances.

  3. Butyrate Infusions in the Ovine Fetus Delay the Biologic Clock for Globin Gene Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrine, Susan P.; Rudolph, Abraham; Faller, Douglas V.; Roman, Christine; Cohen, Ruth A.; Chen, Shao-Jing; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1988-11-01

    The switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin expression is regulated in many mammalian species by a developmental clock-like mechanism and determined by the gestational age of the fetus. Prolonging fetal globin gene expression is of considerable interest for therapeutic potential in diseases caused by abnormal β -globin genes. Butyric acid, which is found in increased plasma concentrations in infants of diabetic mothers who have delayed globin gene switching, was infused into catheterized fetal lambs in utero during the time of the normal globin gene switch period. The globin gene switch was significantly delayed in three of four butyrate-treated fetuses compared with controls and was entirely prevented in one fetus in whom the infusion was begun before the globin switch was under way. These data provide a model for investigating and arresting the biologic clock of hemoglobin switching.

  4. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical...

  5. A new way to do an old reaction: highly efficient reduction of organic azides by sodium iodide in the presence of acidic ion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Suthagar, Kajitha; Fairbanks, Antony J

    2017-01-05

    Organic azides are readily reduced to the corresponding amines by treatment with sodium iodide in the presence of acidic ion exchange resin. The process, optimal when performed at 40 °C and 200 mbar pressure on a rotatory evaporator, is extremely efficient, clean, and tolerant of a variety of functional groups.

  6. Effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 18% etidronic acid on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Karale, Rupali; Odedra, Kamal Maldebhai; Srirekha, A.; Champa, C.; Shetty, Ashwija; Pushpalatha, S; Sharma, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid against C. albicans. Methodology: Dentin powder was prepared from mandibular first premolar using electrical grinder and sterilized. 3% NaOCl, 2%CHX, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid were tested against C. albicans in the presence and absence of dentin, in eppendorf tubes. Group 1 (presence of dentin):- 100ul dentin powder + 100ul C. albicans suspension + 100ul irrigating solution. Group 2 (absence of dentin):- 100ul C. albicans suspension+ 100ul irrigating solution. Control group:- 100ul C. albicans suspension.+ 100ul sterile saline Suspension was thoroughly mixed, submitted for serial dilution upto10-5 after 1 min and colony forming units were counted. Results: In group 2 (without dentin powder), 3% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed the lowest bacterial count compared to group 1 (with dentin powder). Dentin had a significant inhibitory effect on 3% NaOCl (P < 0.001) and 2% CHX (P<0.001). 17% EDTA showed lowest bacterial count in group 1 (with dentin powder) compared to group 2 (without dentin powder). 18% Etidronic acid showed similar bacterial counts in the both the groups. No reduction was observed in the control group. Conclusion: NaOCl & EDTA showed measurable antimicrobial effect even in the presence of dentin which can be promising in the reduction of C. albicans in root canal therapy. PMID:27656066

  7. [Safe improvement of drug absorption by combinatorial use of sodium laurate with amino acids: cytoprotection by amino acids and its mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Higaki, Kazutaka

    2007-04-01

    The development of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening techniques has made it possible to generate many new drug candidates very rapidly, but it has also resulted in a number of poorly soluble and/or poorly absorbable candidates. A new trend in drug development based on pharmacogenomics or the development of molecular-targeted drugs is also spurring the tendency, and it does not necessarily lead to good output in terms of the development of new drugs. It is attractive to improve membrane permeability as well as solubility by using adjuvants, because this method could be applicable for various drugs. However, the practical use of absorption-enhancing adjuvants has been limited because of the potential local toxicity. Therefore suppressing the potential local toxicity would lead to the successful development of safe preparations with improved absorption using adjuvants. Our biochemical and histopathologic studies showed that several amino acids such as taurine and L-glutamine had cytoprotective activity, and it has been found that the combinatorial use of sodium laurate (C12) with these amino acids could maintain the absorption-enhancing ability of C12. A suppository preparation containing C12 and taurine remarkably improved the rectal absorption of rebamipide, classified as BCS class IV, and the preparation was safe to the rectal mucosa. For the mechanisms of cytoprotective action by these amino acids, it has been found that they suppress the intracellular calcium level, induce the expression of heat-shock protein 70, and inhibit the release of histamine and apoptosis.

  8. 1,4-Dihydroxy fatty acids: Artifacts by reduction of di- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with sodium borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemt, Simone; Spiteller, Gerhard

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to detect lipid peroxidation products in human blood plasma, samples were treated with NaBH4 to reduce the reactive hydroperoxides to hydroxy compounds. After saponification of the lipids, the free fatty acid fraction obtained by extraction was methylated and separated by TLC. The fractions containing polar compounds were trimethylsilylated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Mass spectra allowed us to detect previously unknown 1,4-dihydroxy fatty acids due to their typical fragmentation pattern. If the reduction was carried out with NaBD4 instead of NaBH4, incorporation of two deuterium atoms was observed (appropriate mass shift). The two oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups were incorporated from air as shown by an experiment in 18O2 atmosphere. The reaction required the presence of free acids, indicating that BH3 was liberated, added to a 1,4-pentadiene system, and finally produced 1,4-diols by air oxidation.

  9. Butyrate-producing probiotics reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression in rats: new insight into the probiotics for the gut-liver axis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hitoshi; Niioka, Maki; Kobayashi, Noriko; Tanaka, Mamoru; Watanabe, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The gut-derived endotoxin plays an essential role in the pathophysiological development and progression of NAFLD. By using rat models of choline-deficient/L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet-induced NAFLD, we examined whether MIYAIRI 588--a butyrate-producing probiotic--prevents the progression of pathophysiological changes from steatosis to hepatocarcinogenesis. In vivo experiments showed that treatment with MIYAIRI 588 reduced CDAA-diet-induced hepatic lipid deposition and significantly improved the triglyceride content, insulin resistance, serum endotoxin levels, and hepatic inflammatory indexes. We also found that MIYAIRI 588 substantially increased the activation of hepatic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AKT and the expression of lipogenesis- or lipolysis-related proteins. MIYAIRI 588 also improved CDAA-diet-induced delocalization and substantially decreased the expression of the tight-junction proteins intestinal zonula occluden-1 and occludin in CDAA-diet-fed rats. Further, the MIYAIRI 588-treated rats also showed remarkable induction of nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its targeted antioxidative enzymes, which suppressed hepatic oxidative stress. In vitro studies revealed that treatment with sodium butyrate (NaB) also activated AMPK and AKT and enhanced Nrf2 expression by precluding ubiquitination, thereby increasing the half-life of the Nrf2 protein. Pharmacological studies and siRNA knockdown experiments showed that NaB-mediated AMPK activation induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Sirtuin 1, leading to the increased assembly of mammalian TOR complex 2 and phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 and subsequent induction of Nrf2 expression and activation. These favorable changes caused an obvious decrease in hepatic fibrous deposition, GST

  10. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. 721...+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated (PMN P-09-388; CAS...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. 721...+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated (PMN P-09-388; CAS...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. 721...+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc salt, hydrogen peroxide-initiated (PMN P-09-388; CAS...

  13. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  14. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by the sodium salt of the maleic acid-allylpropionate-styrene terpolymer.

    PubMed

    Akperov, Elchin; Akperov, Oktay; Jafarova, Elnara; Gafarova, Sabahiye

    2016-09-01

    The sodium salt of the maleic acid-allylpropionate-styrene terpolymer was used for recovery of copper ions from aqueous solution. Effects of contact time, sorbent weight and initial Cu(2+) ion concentrations on removal efficiency were tested. The maximum experimental sorption capacity of the sorbent for copper ions is 0.71 g g(-1). The sorption isotherm of copper ions onto a prepared polymer sorbent has been studied and the equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption isotherm data showed that copper ions adsorption on the sorbent was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The Lagergren pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to examine the kinetics of the copper ions sorption by the synthesized sorbent. The kinetic data are best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The calculated value of the maximum sorption capacity by the pseudo-second-order equation (0.62 g g(-1)) corresponds well with its experimentally found value (0.71 g g(-1)). Considering the obtained kinetic data, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-vis spectra of the sorbent after the sorption, it is possible to come to the conclusion that during the sorption process Cu(2+) ions enter a complex with the carboxylic groups of the maleic acid units of the sorbent.

  15. Translational and rotational diffusion of flexible PEG and rigid dendrimer probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels.

    PubMed

    Salami, Souad; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Barhoum, Myriam; van Duynhoven, John; Mariette, François

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of rigid dendrimer and flexible PEG probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels, including both translational diffusion and rotational diffusion, were studied by NMR. Above the onset of the close-packing limit (C ∼ 10 g/100 g H2 O), translational diffusion of the probe depended on its flexibility and on the fluctuations of the matrix chains. The PEG probe diffused more rapidly than the spherical dendrimer probe of corresponding hydrodynamic radius. The greater conformational flexibility of PEG facilitated its motion through the crowded casein matrix. Rotational diffusion was, however, substantially less hindered than the translational diffusion and depended on the local protein-probe friction which became high when the casein concentration increased. The coagulation of the matrix led to the formation of large voids, which resulted in an increase in the translational diffusion of the probes, whereas the rotational diffusion of the probes was retarded in the gel, which could be attributed to the immobilized environment surrounding the probe. Quantitative information from PFG-NMR and SEM micrographs have been combined for characterizing microstructural details in SC acid gels.

  16. The quantitative monitoring of mechanochemical reaction between solid L-tartaric acid and sodium carbonate monohydrate by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Guifeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Zengyang; Wei, Yongbo; Liu, Min; Wen, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2011-11-01

    The solid-state reaction of chiral tartaric acid and alkali carbonate was studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The sodium tartrate dihydrate was synthesized with high efficiency by mechanical grinding in the solid-state without waste that is particularly sustainable and environmentally benign. Distinct THz absorptions were observed for reactants and products. It indicates that THz spectroscopy is sensitive to different materials and crystal structures. The characteristic THz absorption peak at 1.09 THz of L (+)-Tartaric acid was selected for quantitative analysis. The reaction kinetics could be expressed by the Second-order equation and the Jander equation, which is consistent with a three-dimensional diffusion mechanism. The combination of multi-techniques including synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SRXRPD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the grinding process and presented supporting evidences. The results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy technique has great potential applications in process monitoring and analysis in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis industry.

  17. Structure and properties of the sodium, potassium and calcium salts of 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)aminobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszynski, Rafal; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Majewski, Piotr; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Majewska, Kamila; Sierański, Tomasz; Lewiński, Bartłomiej

    2010-04-01

    The mefenamic acid sodium, potassium, and calcium salts with general formulae [Na(mef)(H 2O) 2] n· nH 2O, [K(mef)(H 2O)] n and [Ca(mef) 2(H 2O) 2] n· nH 2O have been synthesised, studied by X-ray crystallography, 1H and 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. The complex salts are air stable and soluble in water. During heating the Na and K complexes melt in the complexed water and next recrystallise in anhydrous form. In the solid state all salts create one-dimensional coordination polymers. The central atoms are five, six and seven coordinated, respectively, for Na, K and Ca complexes. In all structures exist O sbnd H⋯O, N sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The vibrational analysis has been carried out for mefenamic acid and its three coordination polymer compounds on the basis of experimental results as well as quantum mechanical calculations. The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies are similar and reveal characteristic vibrations for all IR active oscillators. In the IR spectra of salts exist strong bands at ca. 1365 and 1600 cm -1 typical for carboxylate groups.

  18. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  19. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appeari