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Sample records for acid sodium butyrate

  1. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  2. Folic acid and sodium butyrate prevent tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rong; Wang, Xia; Sun, Dan-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Shu-Liang; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2008-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. The role of epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, has only recently been investigated. In this study, the effects of epigenetic agents such as folic acid (FA) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on the development of colorectal cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) using ICR mice was examined. Of the mice treated in a chemopreventive manner with epigenetic agents, FA and NaBu, 15-50% developed colorectal cancer at 24 weeks compared with a 95% incidence of colorectal cancer in DMH-treated control mice. Folate deficiency can alter cytosine methylation in DNA leading to inappropriate activation of the proto-oncogene c-myc. We detected lower levels of p21(WAF1) gene expression in colorectal cancer samples, as well as significantly lower levels of acetylated histone H3, compared with samples from corresponding normal colorectal mucosa. In contrast, administration of NaBu increased levels of p21(WAF1) mRNA and p21(WAF1) protein, and was associated with an accumulation of histone acetylation. In summary, our results show that FA and NaBu reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer induced by DMH-induced in ICR mice, and therefore we hypothesize that targeting epigenetic targets should be further investigated for the prevention of colorectal cancer in humans.

  3. Management of traveller's diarrhoea with a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Wejman-Matela, Anna; Krokowicz, Piotr; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Traveller's diarrhoea (TD), defined by UNICEF/WHO as three or more unformed stools with or without other symptoms, imposes a considerable burden on travellers from developed countries. Various efforts have focused on decreasing the prevalence and severity of this condition. Aim To assess the efficacy of a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide in treatment providing symptomatic relief of TD. Material and methods The study was conducted in accordance with a protocol presented to the Bioethical committee of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 278 patients travelling to countries with higher risk of diarrhoea for at least 10 days were divided into a study arm being administered, in case of TD, a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide (n = 139) and a placebo arm (n = 139) with placebo administration. Results Forty-seven patients completed the study (22 in the study arm and 25 in the placebo arm). The diarrhoea occurrence after initiation of treatment at first symptoms was significantly lower in the study arm as compared to the placebo arm (9% vs. 36%, p = 0.041). Also, subjects from the study arm more frequently reported that the regimen administered had been efficient for their symptoms in comparison to the placebo arm (72.7% vs. 32%, p = 0.008). No adverse effects of the administered medication were noted during the study. Conclusions Sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide can be successful in decreasing symptoms of TD. Because of its efficacy and lack of observed side effects it has a strong potential in the treatment of patients with TD. PMID:25396003

  4. Bile acids reduce the apoptosis-inducing effects of sodium butyrate on human colon adenoma (AA/C1) cells: implications for colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    McMillan, L; Butcher, S; Wallis, Y; Neoptolemos, J P; Lord, J M

    2000-06-24

    Butyrate is produced in the colon by fermentation of dietary fibre and induces apoptosis in colon adenoma and cancer cell lines, which may contribute to the protective effect of a high fibre diet against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, butyrate is present in the colon together with unconjugated bile acids, which are tumour promoters in the colon. We show here that bile acids deoxycholate (DCA) and chenodeoxycholate (CDCA), at levels present in the colon, gave a modest increase in cell proliferation and decreased spontaneous apoptosis in AA/C1 adenoma cells. Bile acids significantly inhibited the induction of apoptosis by butyrate in AA/C1 cells. However, the survival-inducing effects of bile acids on AA/C1 cells could be overcome by increasing the concentration of sodium butyrate. These results suggest that dysregulation of apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells by dietary factors is a key factor in the pathophysiology of CRC.

  5. Chronic treatment with valproic acid or sodium butyrate attenuates novel object recognition deficits and hippocampal dendritic spine loss in a mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Yuta; Kataoka, Shunsuke; Kawanai, Takuya; Maeda, Yuko; Watanabe, Ryo; Takano, Erika; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ago, Yukio; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in mice causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities, including social interaction deficits, anxiety-like behavior and spatial learning disability, in male offspring. In the present study, we examined the effect of prenatal VPA on cognitive function and whether the effect is improved by chronic treatment with VPA and sodium butyrate, histone deacetylase inhibitors. In addition, we examined whether the cognitive dysfunction is associated with hippocampal dendritic morphological changes. Mice given prenatal exposure to VPA exhibited novel object recognition deficits at 9 weeks of age, and that the impairment was blocked by chronic (5-week) treatment with VPA (30 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or sodium butyrate (1.2g/kg/d, i.p.) starting at 4 weeks of age. In agreement with the behavioral findings, the mice prenatally exposed to VPA showed a decrease in dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region, and the spine loss was attenuated by chronic treatment with sodium butyrate or VPA. Furthermore, acute treatment with sodium butyrate, but not VPA, significantly increased acetylation of histone H3 in the hippocampus at 30 min, suggesting the difference in the mechanism for the effects of chronic VPA and sodium butyrate. These findings suggest that prenatal VPA-induced cognitive dysfunction is associated with changes in hippocampal dendritic spine morphology.

  6. All-Trans Retinoic Acid and Sodium Butyrate Enhance Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A Gene Transcription: Role of Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prerna; Periyasamy, Ramu; Das, Subhankar; Neerukonda, Smitha; Mani, Indra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to delineate the mechanisms of GC-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene (Npr1) expression in vivo. We used all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaBu) to examine the expression and function of Npr1 using gene-disrupted heterozygous (1-copy; +/−), wild-type (2-copy; +/+), and gene-duplicated heterozygous (3-copy; ++/+) mice. Npr1+/− mice exhibited increased renal HDAC and reduced histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity; on the contrary, Npr1++/+ mice showed decreased HDAC and enhanced HAT activity compared with Npr1+/+ mice. ATRA and NaBu promoted global acetylation of histones H3-K9/14 and H4-K12, reduced methylation of H3-K9 and H3-K27, and enriched accumulation of active chromatin marks at the Npr1 promoter. A combination of ATRA-NaBu promoted recruitment of activator-complex containing E26 transformation–specific 1, retinoic acid receptor α, and HATs (p300 and p300/cAMP response element–binding protein-binding protein–associated factor) at the Npr1 promoter, and significantly increased renal NPRA expression, GC activity, and cGMP levels. Untreated 1-copy mice showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) compared with 2- and 3-copy mice. Treatment with ATRA and NaBu synergistically attenuated the expression of α-SMA and PCNA and reduced systolic blood pressure in Npr1+/− mice. Our findings demonstrate that epigenetic upregulation of Npr1 gene transcription by ATRA and NaBu leads to attenuation of renal fibrotic markers and systolic blood pressure in mice with reduced Npr1 gene copy number, which will have important implications in prevention and treatment of hypertension-related renal pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24714214

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitors sodium butyrate and valproic acid delay spontaneous cell death in purified rat retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer; Pielen, Amelie; Lagrèze, Wolf Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have neuroprotective effects under various neurodegenerative conditions, e.g., after optic nerve crush (ONC). HDACi-mediated protection of central neurons by increased histone acetylation has not previously been demonstrated in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), although epigenetic changes were shown to be associated with cell death after ONC. We investigated whether HDACi can delay spontaneous cell death in purified rat RGCs and analyzed concomitant histone acetylation levels. Methods RGCs were purified from newborn (postnatal day [P] 0–P2) rat retinas by immunopanning with antibodies against Thy-1.1 and culturing in serum-free medium for 2 days. RGCs were treated with HDACi, each at several different concentrations: 0.1–10 mM sodium butyrate (SB), 0.1–2 mM valproic acid (VPA), or 0.5–10 nM trichostatin A (TSA). Negative controls were incubated in media alone, while positive controls were incubated in 0.05–0.4 IU/µl erythropoietin. Survival was quantified by counting viable cells using phase-contrast microscopy. The expression of acetylated histone proteins (AcH) 3 and 4 was analyzed in RGCs by immunohistochemistry. Results SB and VPA enhanced RGC survival in culture, with both showing a maximum effect at 0.1 mM (increase in survival to 188% and 163%, respectively). Their neuroprotective effect was comparable to that of erythropoietin at 0.05 IU/µl. TSA 0.5–1.0 nM showed no effect on RGC survival, and concentrations ≥5 nM increased RGC death. AcH3 and AcH4 levels were only significantly increased in RGCs treated with 0.1 mM SB. VPA 0.1 mM produced only a slight effect on histone acetylation. Conclusions Millimolar concentrations of SB and VPA delayed spontaneous cell death in purified RGCs; however, significantly increased histone acetylation levels were only detectable in RGCs after SB treatment. As the potent HDACi TSA was not neuroprotective, mechanisms other than histone acetylation may be the

  8. Oral administration of sodium butyrate attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesion in experimental acute ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Erica L M; Leonel, Alda J; Sad, Alexandre P; Beltrão, Nathália R M; Costa, Thaís F; Ferreira, Talita M R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Faria, Ana M C; Peluzio, Maria C G; Cara, Denise C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2012-05-01

    Butyrate is a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid that improves colonic trophism. Although several studies have shown the benefits of butyrate enemas in ulcerative colitis (UC), studies using the oral route are rare in the literature. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of butyrate intake in the immune response associated to UC. For that, mice were fed control or butyrate (0.5% sodium butyrate) diets for 14 days. Acute UC was induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS, 2.5%), replacing drinking water. The results showed that, in UC animals, oral butyrate significantly improved trophism and reduced leukocyte (eosinophil and neutrophil) infiltration in the colon mucosa and improved the inflammatory profile (activated macrophage, B and T lymphocytes) in cecal lymph nodes. In the small intestine, although mucosa histology was similar among groups, DSS treatment reduced duodenal transforming growth factor-β, increased interleukin-10 concentrations and increased memory T lymphocytes and dendritic cells in Peyer's patches. Butyrate supplementation was able to revert these alterations. When cecal butyrate concentration was analyzed in cecal content, it was still higher in the healthy animals receiving butyrate than in the UC+butyrate and control groups. In conclusion, our results show that oral administration of sodium butyrate improves mucosa lesion and attenuates the inflammatory profile of intestinal mucosa, local draining lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of DSS-induced UC. Our results also highlight the potential use of butyrate supplements as adjuvant in UC treatment.

  9. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W H; Jiang, Y; Zhu, Q F; Gao, F; Dai, S F; Chen, J; Zhou, G H

    2011-06-01

    1. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 240 1-d-old chickens were allocated into 4 dietary groups (0, 0·25, 0·50 or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg) with 6 replicates each. In experiment 2, 120 1-d-old chickens were fed a control diet (without sodium butyrate) or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg diet. Half of the chickens fed on each diet were injected intra-peritoneally with 0·5 g/kg body weight of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. 2. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance. On d 21, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were decreased in chickens given 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were significantly increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by dietary sodium butyrate at 0·50 or 1·00 g/kg. On d 42, serum IL-6 was markedly decreased by dietary sodium butyrate, while 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg greatly reduced MDA and increased catalase. 3. LPS challenge significantly reduced the growth performance of chickens. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, corticosterone, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were increased in LPS-challenged chickens. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation maintained the body weight gain and feed intake. Sodium butyrate supplementation inhibited the increase in IL-6 and AGP in serum at 16 d of age and TNF-α, corticosterone, AGP and PGE(2) at 20 d of age. Similar inhibitory effects of sodium butyrate in serum glucose and total protein concentrations were also found at 20 d of age. 4. The results indicated that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation can improve the growth performance in chickens under stress and that this may be used to moderate the immune response and reduce tissue damage.

  10. The important role of caspase-10 in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Kazunari; Yokoyama, Yoshiko; Kano, Kazutaka

    2007-01-01

    Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid, exhibits a wide variety of biological effects including the inhibition of cell growth, change of cellular morphology and the induction of apoptosis. Sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis has been reported to associate with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expressions. However, in some cases, butyrate has also been shown to cause apoptosis without change in Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and/or Bax. This study investigates the detailed mechanisms of sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis. The effect of sodium butyrate was analyzed in the induction of caspase activities, formation of caspase active forms and mRNA levels in human breast cancer cell line MRK-nu-1. Induction of activities of caspase-3, -10 and, to some extent, -8 and formation of DNA fragmentation were observed with sodium butyrate in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner. The levels of caspase-10 mRNA expression markedly increased in a time-dependent manner by the treatment of sodium butyrate, whereas caspase-8 mRNA expression was not changed. Inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-10 reduced caspase-3 activity and subsequent DNA fragmentation induced by sodium butyrate. These caspase inhibitors also inhibited the cleavage of pro-caspase-3 to the active forms indicated by Western blotting analysis. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate also inhibited the induction of caspase-10 mRNA expression and caspase-3 activation. Contrary to other reports, levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax mRNA expressions were not distinctly changed by even 5 mM sodium butyrate treatment. Our results suggest that sodium butyrate may trigger apoptosis via the induction of the caspase-10 expression.

  11. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production. PMID:27154844

  12. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production.

  13. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Park, Jae-Yeon; Mitchell, Robert J.; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches. PMID:22593687

  14. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  15. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  16. Liquid Crystals and Glasses in Binary Systems from Sodium and Alkali-Earth Metal Butyrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Bereznitski, Y. V.; Volkov, S. V.

    1996-07-01

    The temperature and composition ranges of liquid crystal and glass formation have been established for the binary mixtures of mesogenic sodium butyrate with non-mesogenic magnesium, calcium and strontium butyrates by means of differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. The formation of a vitreous optically anisotropic mesophase has been found for binaries of sodium butyrate with calcium and strontium butyrates.

  17. Sodium butyrate stimulates expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in liver by inhibition of histone deacetylase 3.

    PubMed

    Li, Huating; Gao, Zhanguo; Zhang, Jin; Ye, Xin; Xu, Aimin; Ye, Jianping; Jia, Weiping

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) stimulates fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production in animals. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF21 in the metabolic activity of sodium butyrate, a dietary histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. FGF21 expression was examined in serum and liver after injection of sodium butyrate into dietary obese C57BL/6J mice. The role of FGF21 was determined using antibody neutralization or knockout mice. FGF21 transcription was investigated in liver and HepG2 hepatocytes. Trichostatin A (TSA) was used in the control as an HDAC inhibitor. Butyrate was compared with bezafibrate and fenofibrate in the induction of FGF21 expression. Butyrate induced FGF21 in the serum, enhanced fatty acid oxidation in mice, and stimulated ketone body production in liver. The butyrate activity was significantly reduced by the FGF21 antibody or gene knockout. Butyrate induced FGF21 gene expression in liver and hepatocytes by inhibiting HDAC3, which suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α function. Butyrate enhanced bezafibrate activity in the induction of FGF21. TSA exhibited a similar set of activities to butyrate. FGF21 mediates the butyrate activity to increase fatty acid use and ketogenesis. Butyrate induces FGF21 transcription by inhibition of HDAC3.

  18. Feeding trial in pigs with a diet containing sodium n-butyrate.

    PubMed

    Gálfi, P; Bokori, J

    1990-01-01

    Pigs weighing 7 to 102 kg were fed a diet containing 0.17% sodium n-butyrate. The diet increased the average daily body mass gain of pigs by 23.5%. Due to its dietetic effect, feed consumption increased by 8.9%. However, owing to the higher feed conversion, specific feed utilization was reduced by 11.8%. The experimental diet markedly reduced the percentile proportion of coliform bacteria in the ileum as compared to Lactobacillus ssp.: it decreased the coliform count and increased the counts of Lactobacillus spp. The diet increased the length of ileal microvilli and the depth of caecal crypts. It raised the concentration of immunoreactive insulin in the blood plasma. The feed supplemented with sodium butyrate did not alter adversely the clinical indices tested. It reduced feed costs by 9% and increased the returns from sales by 13%. As the additive is normally produced by microbial fermentation in the large intestine, it is not alien to the body. Sodium butyrate exerted its favourable effect in 3.6- to 24.2-fold lower concentrations than the organic acids (citric acid, fumaric acid, propionic acid) used earlier. With respect to its favourable biological and economic effect, sodium n-butyrate can be recommended for use in pig feeding as a growth promoter.

  19. Butyric acid-based feed additives help protect broiler chickens from Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rubio, C; Ordóñez, C; Abad-González, J; Garcia-Gallego, A; Honrubia, M Pilar; Mallo, J Jose; Balaña-Fouce, R

    2009-05-01

    Sodium butyrate is a sodium salt of a volatile short-chain fatty acid (butyric acid) used to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds. Three groups of fifty 1-d-old broilers each were fed the following diets: T0 = standard broiler diet (control); T1 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with free sodium butyrate (Gustor XXI B92); and T2 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats (Gustor XXI BP70). Twenty percent of the birds were orally infected with Salmonella Enteritidis at d 5 posthatching and fecal Salmonella shedding was assessed at d 6, 9, 13, 20, 27, 34, and 41 of the trial. At d 42, all birds were slaughtered and 20 of them dissected: crop, cecum, liver, and spleen were sampled for bacteriological analyses. Both butyrate-based additives showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds from d 27 onward. However, the partially protected butyrate additive was more effective at the late phase of infection. Partially protected butyrate treatment successfully decreased infection not only in the crop and cecum but also in the liver. There were no differences in the spleen. These results suggest that sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats offers a unique balance of free and protected active substances effective all along the gastrointestinal tract because it is slowly released during digestion.

  20. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  1. Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Kerr, B J

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In a 28-d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg of dietary tylosin. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate or tylosin on overall G:F, but there was a linear trend (P < 0.07) toward decreased ADFI and ADG as levels of sodium butyrate increased. In a second 28-d experiment, 108 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) no antibiotics, 2) 0.2% sodium butyrate, or 3) 55 mg/kg of carbadox. On d 14, a subset of pigs from the no-antibiotic and butyrate treatment groups was challenged with E. coli LPS or injected with sterile saline in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (+/-LPS challenge; +/-dietary butyrate; n = 6 pigs/treatment group). Four hours after LPS challenge, blood samples were obtained, and samples of LM, liver, and ileum were collected for gene expression analysis. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, cortisol, IGF-I, insulin, and metabolites. The relative abundance of tissue cytokine and IGF-I mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. Feeding diets containing sodium butyrate or carbadox did not alter ADG or ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed diets containing 0.2% sodium butyrate had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased G:F compared with animals fed diets containing carbadox. Challenge with LPS increased (P < 0.05) serum cytokines and cortisol and decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose and triglycerides. Injection with LPS increased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of hepatic IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA, increased (P < 0.05) LM TNFalpha mRNA content, and decreased (P < 0.05) IGF-I mRNA in LM. For serum cortisol, there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between dietary

  2. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  3. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  4. Sodium butyrate activates ERK to regulate differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Chen, Wei-Ming; Hsu, Ke-Hsun; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2007-04-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as sodium butyrate are known to regulate the differentiation of a variety of cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes under transcriptional control of Runx2 and PPARgamma2, respectively. How these two transcription factors are regulated by sodium butyrate in order to specify the alternate cell fates remains a pivotal question. Sodium butyrate stimulated osteogenic differentiation and increased expression of Runx2 and genes regulated by Runx2 when cells were induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Sodium butyrate suppressed the adipogenic differentiation and decreased the expression of PPARgamma2 and LPL when MSCs were treated under conditions that promote adipogenic differentiation. Sodium butyrate also decreased the ratio of RANKL/OPG gene expression by MSCs. Analysis of MSCs induced in the presence of sodium butyrate revealed an immediate increase in ERK phosphorylation by sodium butyrate. The MEK-specific inhibitor, PD98059 but not p38- or JNK-specific inhibitor and the transfection with dominant negative ERK expressing plasmids blocked the sodium butyrate-induced regulation of MSC differentiation and increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio. Our results suggest that sodium butyrate modulates MSC differentiation and the RANKL/OPG ratio via activating ERK, and could be applied for in vivo bone growth using MSCs.

  5. Sodium butyrate-induced DAPK-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunsoo; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan

    2012-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms of histone acetylation/deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression associated with the cell cycle and apoptosis. Recently, sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been shown to exhibit anticancer effects via differentiation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Sodium butyrate may be a potential anticancer chemotherapeutic drug; however, the precise mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of sodium butyrate has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) on the apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells induced by sodium butyrate. We observed that sodium butyrate induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Treatment with the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate increased the expression of caspase-3 and DAPK1/2 genes but decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in human gastric cancer cells. The expression of DAPK3, p53 and p21 were not altered by sodium butyrate treatment. Analysis of the general expression patterns revealed that sodium butyrate increased the expression of DAPK1/2 but decreased the expression of FAK and induced changes in the proliferation of apoptosis-related genes in human gastric cancer cells. These data suggest that DAPK expression prompts apoptosis by reducing the FAK protein level in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells.

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of multifunctional alginate microspheres via the in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots and the graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid to sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guilin; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Yingying; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor-loaded fluorescent alginate microspheres, which can realise sustained growth factor release and fluorescence imaging, were synthesised by in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and covalent graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid (PBA). BSA was chosen as a growth factor model protein to study the release kinetic of growth factors from alginate microspheres. The microsphere size and fluorescent properties were also investigated. Investigations of cell culture were used for evaluating biocompatibility of BSA-loaded fluorescent microspheres and fluorescence imaging property of ZnO QDs and PBA-grafted sodium alginate from the microspheres. The results show that they have good fluorescent property either to microspheres or to cells and fluorescent microspheres have good biocompatibility and property in sustained release of growth factors. The obtained microspheres will be expected to realise the imaging of cells and materials and also the release of growth factor in tissue engineering or in cell culture. PMID:25265058

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of multifunctional alginate microspheres via the in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots and the graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid to sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guilin; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Yingying; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor-loaded fluorescent alginate microspheres, which can realise sustained growth factor release and fluorescence imaging, were synthesised by in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and covalent graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid (PBA). BSA was chosen as a growth factor model protein to study the release kinetic of growth factors from alginate microspheres. The microsphere size and fluorescent properties were also investigated. Investigations of cell culture were used for evaluating biocompatibility of BSA-loaded fluorescent microspheres and fluorescence imaging property of ZnO QDs and PBA-grafted sodium alginate from the microspheres. The results show that they have good fluorescent property either to microspheres or to cells and fluorescent microspheres have good biocompatibility and property in sustained release of growth factors. The obtained microspheres will be expected to realise the imaging of cells and materials and also the release of growth factor in tissue engineering or in cell culture.

  8. The synergistic effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate on the death of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Rie; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Azuma, Hideki; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that the combined effect of natural products may improve the effect of treatment against the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the combination of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), obtained from Alpinia galangal, and sodium butyrate, a major short chain fatty acid, on the growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and found that treatment had a synergistic inhibitory effect. The number of HepG2 cells was synergistically decreased via apoptosis induction when cells were treated with both ACA and sodium butyrate. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and NADPH oxidase activities were increased significantly. The decrease in cell number after combined treatment of ACA and sodium butyrate was diminished when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that an increase in intracellular ROS levels is involved in cancer cell death. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, plays an essential role in controlling processes related to tumor development. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, AMPK phosphorylation was induced significantly, and this induction improved when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that the increase in intracellular ROS is involved in the increase of AMPK phosphorylation. In normal hepatocyte cells, treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate did not decrease cell numbers or increase ROS levels. In conclusion, combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically induced apoptotic cell death via an increase in intracellular ROS and phosphorylation of AMPK. Our findings may provide new insight into the development of novel combination therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Transport of butyrate across the isolated bovine rumen epithelium--interaction with sodium, chloride and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Møller, P D; Skadhauge, E

    1999-08-01

    The Ussing chamber technique was used for studying unidirectional fluxes of 14C-butyrate across the bovine rumen epithelium in vitro. Significant amounts of butyrate were absorbed across the bovine rumen epithelium in vitro, without any external driving force. The paracellular pathway was quantitatively insignificant. The transcellular pathway was predominately voltage-insensitive. The serosal to mucosal (SM) pathway was regulated by mass action, whereas the mucosal to serosal (MS) pathway further includes a saturable process, which accounted for 30 to 55% of the MS flux. The studied transport process for 14C-butyrate across the epithelium could include metabolic processes and transport of 14C-labelled butyrate metabolites. The transport of butyrate interacted with Na+, Cl- and HCO3-, and there was a linear relationship between butyrate and sodium net transport. Lowering the sodium concentration from 140 to 10 mmol l-1 decreased the butyrate MS flux significantly. Amiloride (1 mmol l-1) did, however, not reduce the butyrate flux significantly. Chloride concentration in itself did not seem to influence the transport of butyrate, but chloride-free conditions tended to increase the MS and SM flux of butyrate by a DIDS-sensitive pathway. DIDS (bilateral 0.5 mmol l-1) did further decrease the butyrate SM flux significantly at all chloride concentrations. Removing bicarbonate from the experimental solutions decreased the MS and increased the SM flux of butyrate significantly, and abolished net butyrate flux. There were no significant effects of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamide (bilateral 1.0 mmol l-1). The results can be explained by a model where butyrate and butyrate metabolites are transported both by passive diffusion and by an electroneutral anion-exchange with bicarbonate. The model couples sodium and butyrate via CO2 from metabolism of butyrate, and intracellular pH.

  10. Sodium butyrate regulates androgen receptor expression and cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonga; Park, Hyeyoung; Im, Ji Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to modify the expression of a variety of genes related to cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, the precise mode of action of HDAC inhibitors in prostate cancer cells is not completely understood. This study examined whether an HDAC inhibitor affects cell death in human prostate cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression. The molecular mechanism of the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate, on the epigenetic alterations of cell cycle regulators was evaluated in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. The expression levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 increased significantly after 48 h treatment with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate induced the expression of AR after 48 h treatment. In addition, immunofluorescence assay revealed the nuclear localization of the AR after sodium butyrate treatment. Sodium butyrate also significantly decreased the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)4, CDK6, and cyclin E/CDK2) in the LNCaP cells after 48 h treatment. Furthermore, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 were upregulated as a result of the sodium butyrate treatment. These results suggest that sodium butyrate effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells by altering the expression of cell cycle regulators and AR. This study indicated that sodium butyrate may be a potential agent in prostate cancer treatment.

  11. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  12. Sodium butyrate stimulates monoclonal antibody over-expression in CHO cells by improving gene accessibility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2008-05-01

    Sodium butyrate treatment can increase the specific productivity of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells; however, it dramatically decreases cell growth and frequently leads to apoptosis. We have studied the responses of several Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lines with different specific productivities (qP) to sodium butyrate treatment. Cell clones with lower productivities exhibited greater enhancement from butyrate treatment than cells with higher productivities. As we observed previously in cell clone characterization (Jiang et al., 2006. Biotechnol Prog 22: 313-318), heavy chain (HC) mRNA levels correlate very well with specific productivity and are amplified by butyrate treatment, indicating that sodium butyrate regulates the HC transcription. Sodium butyrate is an inhibitor of histone deacetylation, and possibly, increases gene transcription by enhancing gene accessibility to transcription factors. In this study, we applied DNase I footprinting to probe the HC and LC gene accessibility. We determined that more HC and LC gene copies are accessible by DNase I in sodium butyrate-treated CHO cells than in untreated controls, demonstrating that sodium butyrate regulates gene transcription by improving gene accessibility. However, the increase in accessibility did not correlate with the increase in transcript abundance, suggesting that butyrate enhances transcription by other mechanisms as well.

  13. Neutrophilic differentiation modulates the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Dolezel, P; Ulrichova, J

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells may result in less sensitivity to various apoptotic stimuli. We examined whether human leukemia HL-60 cells differentiating by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) acquired resistance to the apoptogenic activity of two histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, butyrate and valproate. In undifferentiated cells, the cytotoxicity of both butyrate and valproate was associated with activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway since we observed dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities, appearance of sub-G1 DNA and loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and/or integrity. Both HDAC inhibitors were also able to induce accumulation of undifferentiated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. ATRA was found to enhance the apoptotic effect of both butyrate and valproate in undifferentiated cells. This aside, ATRA appeared to synergize with butyrate in the induction of the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In cells pretreated for 72 h with ATRA, butyrate and valproate in combination with ATRA induced lower dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and weaker apoptotic and/or necrotic changes in plasma membrane, whereas DNA fragmentation was not diminished compared to undifferentiated cells. Similar results were also obtained when butyrate or valproate were combined with another neutrophilic differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide. We conclude that neutrophilic differentiation modulates but does not abrogate the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to butyrate and valproate, and nuclei are preferentially affected during apoptosis in differentiated cells.

  14. Carboplatin and sodium butyrate, separate--yes, but combined--never.

    PubMed

    Gurtowska, Natalia; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Olkowska, Joanna; Bajek, Anna; Debski, Robert; Zielaskowska, Jowita; Drewa, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    With the object of improving the effectiveness of a malignant melanoma's treatment and a patients' quality of life, there is a serious need to identify new anticancer compounds, for example, among naturally derived compounds such as sodium butyrate. The aim of this study was to assess the combined impact of carboplatin (C) and sodium butyrate on the B16 melanoma viability by in vitro. B16 cell line was exposed to various concentrations of carboplatin (0.001-10 micromol/L) and sodium butyrate (1 to 100 mmol/L) for 24 h. LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The influence of carboplatin and sodium butyrate on the cell cycle and apoptosis was assessed. Additionally, magnetic stem cell sorting was performed, positive melanoma CD133 cells were isolated and the effects of carboplatin and sodium butyrate on cell viability with heterogeneous population of melanoma cells (CD133+/CD133-) was compared. For carboplatin LC50 and LC90 were 1.2 micromol/L and 4.58 pmol/L, respectively. For sodium butyrate LC50 and LC90 were 65.73 mmol/L and 275.06 mmol/L. The value for LC10 could not be determined. Sodium butyrate at the highest concentration (100.0 mmol/L) resulted in only 57.36% mortality of cells. A synergistic effect of both compounds was observed in low concentrations of sodium butyrate and carboplatin. That synergism disappeared at concentrations corresponding to LC50. At the concentration corresponding to LC50 C and high concentration of sodium butyrate, a decrease of cell numbers in phase G2/M was observed (r = -0.97). Cells were arrested in phase G1/G0 and S. The presented results exclude the possibility of the combined application of sodium butyrate and carboplatin in cancer therapy.

  15. Dietary sodium gluconate protects rats from large bowel cancer by stimulating butyrate production.

    PubMed

    Kameue, Chiyoko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yamada, Kouji; Koyama, Hironari; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Nakayama, Keizo; Ushida, Kazunari

    2004-04-01

    Butyrate has an antitumorigenic effect on colorectal cancer cell lines. Dietary sodium gluconate (GNA) promotes butyrate production in the large intestine. Accordingly, we examined the effect of dietary GNA on tumorigenesis in the large intestine in rats. Male Fisher-344 rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups: 2 diets (with or without 50 g GNA/kg basal diet) x 2 treatments (with or without carcinogen administration). Colonic tumors were induced by 3 intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body wt, 1 time/wk) and dietary deoxycholic acid (2 g/kg basal diet). The experiment was conducted for 33 wk except for a few rats. Ingestion of GNA increased cecal butyrate concentration at the end of experiment (P < 0.01). No tumor development occurred in the untreated groups. Ingestion of GNA decreased the incidence of tumors in rats administered the carcinogen (37.5 vs. 100%, P < 0.05). Ingestion of GNA also decreased the mean number of tumors per rat (0.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 2.8 +/- 1.5, P < 0.01). beta-Catenin accumulation and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in tumors were histochemically examined. The results of this study suggested that the antitumorigenic effect of GNA may involve the stimulation of apoptosis through enhanced butyrate production in the large intestine.

  16. The enhancement of phase 2 enzyme activities by sodium butyrate in normal intestinal epithelial cells is associated with Nrf2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Enami, Yuka; Kurajyo, Chika; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Konishi, Yotaro; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-11-01

    Dietary fiber fermentation by the colonic bacterial flora produces short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate. Among them, butyrate is considered to be the major energy substrate for colonocytes and, at least in rats, seems to protect against colonic carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect and the mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids on the activity of phase 2 enzymes. Sodium butyrate increased phase 2 enzyme activities in normal rat small intestine epithelial cells, Glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in a dose-dependent manner(;) however, other short-chain fatty acids did not increase them. The mechanism of the induction of phase 2 enzymes with sodium butyrate sodium butyrate, but not other short-chain fatty acids was related to the increase of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and the decrease in the levels of nuclear fraction p53. Sodium butyrate also caused enhancement of Nrf2 mRNA levels and suppression of p53 mRNA levels. Sodium butyrate enhances the activities of phase 2 enzymes via an increase in the Nrf2 protein levels in the nucleus and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of p53.

  17. Intraperitoneal administration of butyrate prevents the severity of acetic acid colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malago, Joshua J.; Sangu, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrarectal infusion of butyrate improves colorectal disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it is not established whether systemically administered butyrate benefits such patients. The current study aimed at exploring and comparing the potential of intraperitoneally, intrarectally, and orally administered butyrate against acetic acid (AA)-induced UC in rats. Intrarectal administration of 2 ml of 50% AA was done after or without prior treatment of rats for 7 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB) intraperitoneally, intrarectally, or orally. Rats were sacrificed after 48 h of AA-treatment. Subsequently, colon sections were processed routinely for histopathological examination. We clinically observed diarrhea, loose stools, and hemoccult-positive stools, and histologically, epithelial loss and ulceration, crypt damage, goblet cell depletion, hemorrhage, and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. The changes were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intrarectal, or oral butyrate, with intraperitoneal butyrate exhibiting the highest potency. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of butyrate abrogates the lesions of AA-induced UC and its potency surpasses that of intrarectal or oral butyrate. PMID:25743124

  18. Sodium butyrate inhibits the enhancing effect of high fat diet on mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, S; Yamashita, M; Imai, S

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effect of butyrate on mammary tumorigenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. As reported previously, a high incidence of mammary tumors was observed in rats fed a basal diet containing 20% margarine. However, the enhancing effect of margarine was inhibited when sodium butyrate was supplemented in the high margarine diet. Sodium butyrate did not cause any effect when it was supplemented in the basal diet. The result suggests a possibility that a part of the inhibitory effect of butter on mammary tumorigenesis, which we had previously reported, was caused by butyrate milk lipids.

  19. Targeting cyclooxygenase-2 with sodium butyrate and NSAIDs on colorectal adenoma/carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Ouyang, Qin; Gan, Hua-Tian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The protective effects of sodium butyrate and NSAIDs (especially the highly selective COX-2 inhibitors) have attracted considerable interest recently. In this study, primary adenoma cells and HT-29 were used to investigate whether the above drugs would be effective for reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, it was investigated whether NSAIDs would strengthen the effects of sodium butyrate and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: In vitro primary cell culture of colorectal adenomas and HT-29 were used for this investigation. PGE2 isolated from HT-29 cell culture supernatants was investigated by ELISA. MTT was employed to detect the anti-proliferative effects on both adenoma and HT-29 culture cells. FCM was used for apoptosis rate and cell cycle analysis. The morphology of apoptotic cells was investigated by means of electromicroscopy. RESULTS: Sodium butyrate could stimulate the secretion of PGE2, while NSAIDs inhibited it to below 30 pg/106 cells. Both butyrate and NSAIDs could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The effects were time- and dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Aspirin and NS-398 could enhance the effects of sodium butyrate. The effects were stronger while sodium butyrate was used in combination with NS-398 than it was used in combination with Aspirin. CONCLUSION: Butyrate and NSAIDs could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis respectively. NSAIDs could enhance the effects of sodium butyrate by down-regulating COX-2 expression. Selective COX-2 inhibitor is better than traditional NSAIDs. PMID:15378772

  20. Sodium butyrate stimulates NHE8 expression via its role on activating NHE8 basal promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; McCoy, Anthony; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2015-09-15

    Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen. It is produced from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate has been shown to stimulate electroneutral sodium absorption through its regulation on sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3). Although NHE8, the newest addition of intestinal NHE family, is involved in sodium absorption in the intestinal tract, whether butyrate modulates NHE8 expression in the intestinal epithelial cells is not known. In the current study, we showed that butyrate treatment strongly induced NHE8 protein and NHE8 mRNA expression in human intestinal epithelial cells. Transfection with the human NHE8 promoter reporter constructs showed that butyrate treatment stimulated reporter gene expression at an amount comparable with its stimulation of NHE8 mRNA expression. Interestingly, a similar result was also observed in human NHE8 promoter transfected cells after trichostatin (TSA) treatment. Gel mobility shift assay identified an enhanced Sp3 protein binding on the human NHE8 basal promoter region upon butyrate stimulation. Furthermore, Sp3 acetylation modification is involved in butyrate-mediated NHE8 activation in Caco-2 cells. Our findings suggest that the mechanism of butyrate action on NHE8 expression involves enhanced Sp3 interaction at the basal promoter region of the human NHE8 gene promoter to activate NHE8 gene transcription. Thus butyrate is involved in intestinal regulation of NHE8 resulting enhanced sodium absorption.

  1. Supplemental sodium butyrate stimulates different gastric cells in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Maurizio; Le Gall, Maud; De Filippi, Sara; Minieri, Laura; Trevisi, Paolo; Wolinski, Jaroslaw; Lalatta-Costerbosa, Giovanna; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Guilloteau, Paul; Bosi, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) is used as an acidifier in animal feed. We hypothesized that supplemental SB impacts gastric morphology and function, depending on the period of SB provision. The effect of SB on the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa was studied in 4 groups of 8 pigs, each supplemented with SB either during the suckling period (d 4-28 of age), after weaning (d 29 to 39-40 of age) or both, or never. We assessed the number of parietal cells immunostained for H+/K+-ATPase, gastric endocrine cells immunostained for chromogranin A and somatostatin (SST) in the oxyntic mucosa, and gastrin-secreting cells in the pyloric mucosa. Gastric muscularis and mucosa thickness were measured. Expressions of the H+/K+-ATPase and SST type 2 receptor (SSTR2) genes in the oxyntic mucosa and of the gastrin gene in the pyloric mucosa were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. SB increased the number of parietal cells per gland regardless of the period of administration (P < 0.05). SB addition after, but not before, weaning increased the number of enteroendocrine and SST-positive cells (P < 0.01) and tended to increase gastrin mRNA (P = 0.09). There was an interaction between the 2 periods of SB treatment for the expression of H/K-ATPase and SSTR2 genes (P < 0.05). Butyrate intake after weaning increased gastric mucosa thickness (P < 0.05) but not muscularis. SB used orally at a low dose affected gastric morphology and function, presumably in relationship with its action on mucosal maturation and differentiation.

  2. Performance, intestinal microflora, and wall morphology of weanling pigs fed sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2007-05-01

    Adding organic acids to piglet diets is known to be helpful in overcoming postweaning syndrome, and butyric acid is known to be the main energy source for the epithelial cells of the large intestine and the terminal ileum. This study investigated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on in vitro and in vivo swine microflora, piglet growth performance, and intestinal wall morphology. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximal rate of gas production were reduced linearly by SB (P < 0.001). Ammonia in cecal liquor was increased linearly by SB after 4, 8, and 24 h of fermentation (P < 0.001). In the in vivo study, 48 piglets housed in individual crates were allotted to 4 treatment groups (12 animals per treatment) for 6 wk. Piglets received a basal diet with a) no addition (control), or with SB at b) 1,000 ppm, c) 2,000 ppm, or d) 4,000 ppm. After 6 wk, 6 animals per treatment were killed, and samples of intestinal content and mucosa were collected. Sodium butyrate did not improve the animal growth performance. In the cecum, SB increased pH and isobutyric acid concentration (linear, P < 0.05) and tended to increase ammonia concentration (P = 0.056). Intestinal counts of clostridia, enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria as well as intestinal mucosal morphology were not affected by feeding SB. This study showed that SB influenced the cecal microflora in an in vitro system, reducing the total gas production but increasing ammonia concentrations. When fed to piglets, SB did not improve the animal growth performance, increased cecal pH, and tended to increase cecal ammonia concentrations. Further studies will be needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects observed when SB is fed to piglets.

  3. Sodium butyrate protects the intestinal barrier function in peritonitic mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaofeng; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yunlei; Sheng, Yingmo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peritonitis is a commonly seen disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is prevalently considered that the impaired intestinal barrier during peritonitis is the access point of gut microbes into the blood system, and acts as the engine of the following systemic infection. In our previous study, we found that Sodium Butyrate (NaB) was protective on intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effects of NaB on overwhelming infection animal models of peritonitis. Methods: Mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was used to study the effects of NaB on the intestinal barrier. Experimental animals were fed of NaB by gavage. Post-CLP mortality, gut permeability and intestinal histological alterations were studied. Results: Gastrointestinal NaB pharmacodynamics profiles after medication were studied. Measurements of NaB concentration in chyme showed significantly higher intestinal concentration of NaB in the NaB treated group than that of the control group. CLP-induced mortality was significantly decreased by oral NaB treatments. Gut permeability was largely increased after CLP, which was partially prevented by NaB feeding. Histological study showed that intestinal, especially ileal injury following peritonitis was substantially alleviated by NaB treatments. Moreover, tissue regeneration was also prompted by NaB. Conclusion: NaB has a potential protective effect on intestinal barrier function in peritonitis. PMID:26064302

  4. Down-regulation of protein kinase CKII activity by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Russo, G L; Della Pietra, V; Mercurio, C; Della Ragione, F; Marshak, D R; Oliva, A; Zappia, V

    1997-04-28

    Butyrate, a dietary fiber derivative, is a well-known differentiating agent in cultured cell lines. In addition, its antineoplastic activity toward colon-rectum cancers has been documented both in vivo and in vitro. Despite the large amount of information on the potential clinical efficacy of butyrate, its mechanism of action at the molecular level has only been partially investigated. Here, we show that serine/threonine protein kinase CKII is a target of butyrate activity. In the human adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, treated with 2 mM sodium butyrate, CKII activity decreases 50% at 24 and 48 hours after drug addition. The enzyme down-regulation is not due to changes in protein amount since the levels of the different CKII subunits remain constant during butyrate treatment. The data reported provide the first evidence that CKII down-regulation is involved in the signal transduction pathway started by butyrate.

  5. Effects of sodium butyrate on methamphetamine-sensitized locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harkness, John H; Hitzemann, Robert J; Edmunds, Stephanie; Phillips, Tamara J

    2013-02-15

    Neuroadaptations associated with behavioral sensitization induced by repeated exposure to methamphetamine (MA) appear to be involved in compulsive drug pursuit and use. Increased histone acetylation, an epigenetic effect resulting in altered gene expression, may promote sensitized responses to psychostimulants. The role of histone acetylation in the expression and acquisition of MA-induced locomotor sensitization was examined by measuring the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate (NaB). For the effect on expression, mice were treated repeatedly with MA (10 days of 2mg/kg MA) or saline (10 days), and then vehicle or NaB (630 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min prior to MA challenge and locomotor response was measured. NaB treatment increased the locomotor response to MA in both acutely MA treated and sensitized animals. For acquisition, NaB was administered 30 min prior to each MA exposure (10 days of 1 or 2mg/kg), but not prior to the MA challenge test. Treatment with NaB during the sensitization acquisition period significantly increased locomotor activation by MA in sensitized mice only. NaB alone did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Acute NaB or MA, but not the combination, increased striatal acetylation at histone H4. Repeated treatment with MA, but not NaB or MA plus NaB, increased striatal acetylation at histone H3. Although increased histone acetylation may alter the expression of genes involved in acute locomotor response to MA and in the acquisition of MA-induced sensitization, results for acetylation at H3 and H4 showed little correspondence with behavior.

  6. Antagonistic effects of sodium butyrate and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuefer, Rainer; Genze, Felicitas; Zugmaier, Waltraud; Hautmann, Richard E; Rinnab, Ludwig; Gschwend, Juergen E; Angelmeier, Marina; Estrada, Aidee; Buechele, Berthold

    2007-03-01

    Butyrates and retinoids are promising antineoplastic agents. Here we analyzed effects of sodium butyrate and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-HPR) on prostate cancer cells as monotherapy or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Sodium butyrate and 4-HPR induced concentration-dependent growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells in vitro. The isobologram analysis revealed that sodium butyrate and 4-HPR administered together antagonize effects of each other. For the in vivo studies, a water-soluble complex (4-HPR with a cyclodextrin) was created. A single dose of sodium butyrate and 4-HPR showed a peak level in chicken plasma within 30 minutes. Both compounds induced inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in xenografts of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Analysis of the cytotoxic effects of the drugs used in combination demonstrated an antagonistic effect on inhibition of proliferation and on induction of apoptosis. Prolonged jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation induced by sodium butyrate and 4-HPR was strongly attenuated when both compounds were used in combination. Both compounds induced inhibition of NF-kappaB. This effect was strongly antagonized in LNCaP cells when the compounds were used in combination. These results indicate that combinational therapies have to be carefully investigated due to potential antagonistic effects in the clinical setting despite promising results of a monotherapy.

  7. Apoptosis of U937 human leukemic cells by sodium butyrate is associated with inhibition of telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2006-11-01

    Sodium butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor is known to exhibit anti-cancer effects via the differentiation and apoptosis of various carcinoma cells. However, the mechanism by which sodium butyrate induces apoptosis and the involvement of telomerase activity during apoptosis is not completely understood. To investigate the underlying pathways, sodium butyrate's potential to induce apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells and its effects on telomerase activity were investigated. Exposure of U937 cells to sodium butyrate resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as measured by hemocytometer counts, fluorescence microscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation in pro-apoptotic Bax expression, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Sodium butyrate treatment also inhibited the levels of cIAP family members and induced the activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, sodium butyrate markedly inhibited the activity of telomerase and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a main determinant of the telomerase enzymatic activity, was progressively down-regulated by sodium butyrate. Taken together, it is suggested that sodium butyrate can be a promising chemopreventive agent for leukemic cells and changes in Bcl-2 family expressions, as well as telomerase activity may, play critical roles in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in U937 cells.

  8. Effects of dietary sodium butyrate on hepatic biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of erythromycin in chickens.

    PubMed

    Csikó, G; Nagy, G; Mátis, G; Neogrády, Z; Kulcsár, Á; Jerzsele, A; Szekér, K; Gálfi, P

    2014-08-01

    Butyrate, a commonly applied feed additive in poultry nutrition, can modify the expression of certain genes, including those encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In comparative in vitro and in vivo experiments, the effect of butyrate on hepatic CYP genes was examined in primary cultures of chicken hepatocytes and in liver samples of chickens collected from animals that had been given butyrate as a feed additive. Moreover, the effect of butyrate on the biotransformation of erythromycin, a marker substance for the activity of enzymes of the CYP3A family, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Butyrate increased the expression of the avian-specific CYP2H1 both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the avian CYP3A37 expression was decreased in hepatocytes following butyrate exposure, but not in the in vivo model. CYP1A was suppressed by butyrate in the in vitro experiments, and overexpressed in vivo in butyrate-fed animals. The concomitant incubation of hepatocytes with butyrate and erythromycin led to an increased CYP2H1 expression and a less pronounced inhibition of CYP3A37. In in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments, butyrate-fed animals given a single i.m. injection of erythromycin, a slower absorption phase (longer T(half-abs) and delayed T(max)) but a rapid elimination phase of this marker substrate was observed. Although these measurable differences were detected in the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin, it is unlikely that a concomitant application of sodium butyrate with erythromycin or other CYP substrates will cause clinically significant feed-drug interaction in chickens.

  9. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, J.Y.; Takahashi, S.

    1987-06-16

    HeLa S/sub 3/ cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S/sub 3/ cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S/sub 3/ cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product.

  10. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  11. Molecular basis of sodium butyrate-dependent proapoptotic activity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pajak, B; Orzechowski, A; Gajkowska, B

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines the molecular events that accompany the antitumor action of sodium butyrate (NaBt). Butyrate, a low-molecular weight four-carbon chain volatile fatty acid (VFA) has been previously shown to withdraw cells from cell cycle or to promote cell differentiation, and finally to induce programmed cell death. Recent advances in molecular biology indicate, that this product of large bowel microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, might evoke the above-mentioned effects by indirect action on genes. NaBt was shown to inhibit histone deacetylase activity, allowing DNA binding of several transcription factors. Higher genomic activity leads to the higher expression of proapoptotic genes, higher level of their protein products and elevated sensitivity to death ligand-induced apoptosis. Cancer cells might be arrested in G1 phase of cell cycle in a p21-dependent manner. Proapoptotic activity of NaBt includes higher expression of membrane death receptors (DR4/5), higher level and activation of Smad3 protein in TGF-beta-dependent apoptotic pathway, lower level of antiapoptotic proteins (cFLIP, XIAP) and activation ofproapoptotic tBid protein. Thus, both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are stimulated to ampify the apoptotic signals. These effects are specific for tumor but not for regular cells. Unique properties of NaBt make this agent a promising metabolic inhibitor to retard tumorigenesis to suppress tumor growth.

  12. Toxic and metabolic effect of sodium butyrate on SAS tongue cancer cells: role of cell cycle deregulation and redox changes.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Wang, Ying-Jan; Lee, Mon-Ying; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Lin, Bor-Ru; Tai, Tseng-Fang; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2006-06-15

    Butyrate is a metabolite produced by oral and colonic microorganism. Butyrate has been shown to reduce colon cancer, whereas its role in oral carcinogenesis is not clear. Butyrate concentration in dental plaque and saliva ranged from 0.2 to 16 mM. In this study, we found that sodium butyrate inhibited the growth of SAS tongue cancer cells by 32% and 53% at concentrations of 1 and 2mM, respectively. Low concentrations of sodium butyrate (1-8mM) induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of SAS cells, whereas concentrations of 4-16 mM elicited G2/M arrest and a slight increase in apoptotic cell populations. These events were concomitant with induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. An elevation in p21 mRNA and protein level was noted in SAS cells by sodium butyrate. On the contrary, a decline of cyclin Bl, cdc2 and cdc25C mRNA and protein expression in SAS cells was found after exposure to sodium butyrate. In addition, no evident increase in cdc2 inhibitory phosphorylation was found in sodium butyrate-treated SAS cancer cells. Inclusion of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (3mM), catalase (1000 U/ml) and dimethylthiourea (DMT, 5mM), and also SOD (500 U/ml) attenuated the sodium butyrate-induced ROS production in SAS cells. However, they were not able to prevent the cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and growth inhibition in SAS cells induced by 1, 2 and 16 mM of sodium butyrate. These results indicate that sodium butyrate is toxic and inhibits the tongue cancer cell growth via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Sodium butyrate mediates these events by mechanisms additional to ROS production.

  13. Sodium butyrate and its synthetic amide derivative modulate nociceptive behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Cristiano, Claudia; La Rana, Giovanna; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Berni Canani, Roberto; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the role of sodium butyrate (butyrate), and its more palatable derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), in animal models of acute and chronic pain. We found that oral administrations of butyrate (10-200mg/Kg) or equimolecular FBA (21.2-424mg/Kg) reduced visceral pain in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both drugs were also effective in the formalin test, showing an antinociceptive effect. This analgesic effect was blocked by glibenclamide, suggesting the involvement of ATP-dependent K(+) channels. Moreover, following repeated administration butyrate (100-200mg/Kg) and FBA (212-424mg/Kg) retained their analgesic properties in a model of neuropathic pain, reducing mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. The involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) -α and -γ for the analgesic effect of butyrate was also investigated by using PPAR-α null mice or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Western blot analysis, confirmed the role of peroxisome receptors in butyrate effects, evidencing the increase of PPAR-α and -γ expression, associated to the reduction of inflammatory markers (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and cFOS). In conclusion, we describe the role of butyrate-based drugs in pain, identifying different and converging non-genomic and genomic mechanisms of action, which cooperate in nociception maintenance.

  14. 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( MCPB ) ; CASRN 94 - 81 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  15. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  16. Sodium butyrate induces retinoblastoma protein dephosphorylation, p16 expression and growth arrest of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B; Avivi-Green, C; Polak-Charcon, S

    1998-11-01

    Sodium butyrate causes alteration of colon cancer cell morphology and biology towards that of a more differentiated phenotype. The retinoblastoma gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein (pRb) present in a wide range of human cancer cell lines including colon cancer cell lines. pRB is synthesized throughout the cell cycle and phosphorylated in a phase specific manner: the predominant proteins in G0/G1 are the unphosphorylated species (110 kD) whereas phosphorylated pRb (112-114 kD) are in S and G2. 110 kD pRb binds transcription factors and prevents transcription of responsive genes such as the gene for thymidine kinase, which are expressed in late G1. The precise mechanisms controlling cell arrest are unknown, but recent data suggest that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as p16 may play a role. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sodium butyrate on cell cycle staging, thymidine kinase activity, phosphorylation of the pRb protein and expression of p16. We show that sodium butyrate treatment induces differentiation of LS174T colon cancer cells, inhibits thymidine kinase activity concomitantly with induction of pRb dephosphorylation, p16 transcription and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1. Initial dephosphorylation was observed 24 h after treatment of LS174T cells with sodium butyrate, whereas complete shift to the dephosphorylated form was observed 3 days after treatment. Induction of pRb dephosphorylation by sodium butyrate preceded inhibition of growth and the specific cell cycle arrest. RNase protection assay with a p16 specific riboprobe showed undetectable levels in proliferating cells to several fold increase in differentiated colonocytes. In conclusion, the results provide evidence for a specific cellular mechanism of butyrate induced growth arrest and differentiation of a colon cancer cell line.

  17. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, alleviates cognitive deficits in pre-motor stage PD.

    PubMed

    Rane, Pallavi; Shields, Jessica; Heffernan, Meghan; Guo, Yin; Akbarian, Schahram; King, Jean A

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often times experience impairment in their cognitive abilities early on in the progression of the disease. The reported deficits appear to mainly involve functions that are associated with frontal lobe and frontal-striatal pathways subserving attentional set-shifting, working memory and executive function. The current study explored executive function deficits in a rat model of PD in the pre-motor deficit stage. The rats were lesioned with 12 μg of 6-hydroxydonpamine (6-OHDA) in the striatum in a two step process (10 μg/μl followed by 2 μg/μl) 48 hours apart. Executive function was tested at 3 weeks post-surgery using a rat analogue of Wisconsin card sorting test called the Extra Dimensional/Intra Dimensional (ED/ID) set-shifting task. The results demonstrated that performance by the pre-motor rat model of PD was equivalent to that of the control groups in the simple and the compound discriminations as well as the intra-dimensional set-shifting. However the PD group exhibited attentional set-shifting deficits similar to those observed in PD patients. Additionally, sodium butyrate, a short chain fatty acid derivative and inhibitor of class I and II histone deacetylase (HDACi), was tested as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate the pre-motor cognitive deficits in PD. The results indicated that the sodium butyrate treatment not only effectively alleviated the set-shifting deficits, but also improved the attentional set formation in the treated rats.

  18. Sodium-butyrate as a growth promoter in milk replacer formula for young calves.

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; David, J C; Blum, J W; Morisset, J A; Biernat, M; Wolinski, J; Laubitz, D; Hamon, Y

    2009-03-01

    In milk-fed calves, the effects of sodium-butyrate (Na-butyrate) to replace flavomycin on growth performance and some mechanisms involved were studied. Pancreatic and intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activities, plasma gut regulatory peptide concentrations, and expression of their receptors in the gastrointestinal tract were measured. Gastrointestinal tract defense systems were examined by measuring protein levels of 2 heat-shock proteins (HSP27 and HSP70). The calves were randomly allocated into 2 groups fed the same basic diet with flavomycin as an antimicrobial growth promoter or with Na-butyrate (3 g/kg of dry matter). Sodium-butyrate disappeared quickly in the upper gut and was not found in circulating blood. Supplementation with Na-butyrate enhanced growth rate and improved feed conversion into body weight gain compared with the flavomycin group. Supplementation with Na-butyrate was likely associated with an improvement in efficacy of the gastrointestinal tract digestive capacities expressed by enhanced production of digestive enzymes and increased absorptive capacities in the upper small intestine. The effects could have been controlled by insulin-like growth factor-1 but probably not by any of the cholecystokinin/gastrin peptide family. Concentrations of HSP27 and HSP70 were increased in stomach and colon of calves receiving Na-butyrate, thereby assuring protection of cells with intensive metabolism (chaperone function). In conclusion, beneficial effects of Na-butyrate on maturation of gastrointestinal functions were shown in milk-fed calves and may be applied to young mammals of other species.

  19. Leptin counteracts sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells via NF-kappaB signaling.

    PubMed

    Rouet-Benzineb, Patricia; Aparicio, Thomas; Guilmeau, Sandra; Pouzet, Cécile; Descatoire, Véronique; Buyse, Marion; Bado, André

    2004-04-16

    This study shows that leptin induced a rapid phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, an enhancement of both NF-kappaB DNA binding and transcriptional activities, and a concentration-dependent increase of HT-29 cell proliferation. These effects are consistent with the presence of leptin receptors on cell membranes. The leptin induction of cell growth was associated with an increase of cell population in S and G2/M phase compared with control cells found in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was enhanced in leptin-treated HT-29 cells and this increase was essentially associated with cell population in G0/G1 phase. On the other hand, we observed that sodium butyrate inhibited cell proliferation by blocking HT-29 cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, at physiological concentration, leptin prevented sodium butyrate-induced morphological nucleus changes, DNA laddering and suppressed butyrate-induced cell cycle arrest. This anti-apoptotic effect of leptin was associated with HT-29 cell proliferation and activation NF-kappaB pathways. However, the phosphorylation of p42/44 MAP kinase in response to leptin was reduced in butyrate-treated cells. These data demonstrated that leptin is a potent mitogenic factor for intestinal epithelial cells through the MAP kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. They also showed, for the first time, that leptin promotes colon cancer HT-29 cell survival upon butyrate challenge by counteracting the apoptotic programs initiated by this short chain fatty acid probably through the NF-kappaB pathways. Although further studies are required to unravel the precise mechanism, these data may have significance in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis diseases.

  20. Sodium butyrate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells and induces the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Villarreal-Fernández, Edith; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    A distinctive feature of bovine milk fat is the presence of butyrate, molecule with recognized antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Bovine mastitis is a pathology characterized by inflammatory and infectious processes; however, the role of sodium butyrate on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we assess the role of sodium butyrate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus responsible of mastitis and on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. Our data show that sodium butyrate (0.25-0.5mM) reduces approximately 50% the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that sodium butyrate is able to up-regulate the expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), beta-defensin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production. Also, sodium butyrate and infection increased acetylation of histone H3 in bMEC. These results indicate that sodium butyrate could be effective to modulate innate immune gene expression in mammary gland that leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of sodium butyrate during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC. PMID:19393738

  1. Sodium butyrate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells and induces the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Villarreal-Fernández, Edith; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    A distinctive feature of bovine milk fat is the presence of butyrate, molecule with recognized antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Bovine mastitis is a pathology characterized by inflammatory and infectious processes; however, the role of sodium butyrate on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we assess the role of sodium butyrate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus responsible of mastitis and on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. Our data show that sodium butyrate (0.25-0.5mM) reduces approximately 50% the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that sodium butyrate is able to up-regulate the expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), beta-defensin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production. Also, sodium butyrate and infection increased acetylation of histone H3 in bMEC. These results indicate that sodium butyrate could be effective to modulate innate immune gene expression in mammary gland that leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of sodium butyrate during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC.

  2. Depletion of glutamine enhances sodium butyrate-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Canh Hiep, Nguyen; Kinohira, Seiko; Furuyama, Kazumichi; Taketani, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    Human erytholeukemia K562 cells are induced to differentiate along the erythroid lineage by a variety of chemical compounds, including hemin, sodium butyrate and 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine. We have investigated the induction of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells by glutamine depletion. When K562 cells were cultured in glutamine-minus medium, the induction of hemoglobin synthesis, accompanied by those of heme-biosynthetic enzymes and erythroid transcriptional factors, was observed. This induction was dependent on the temporally marked decrease of intracellular level of glutathione, followed by the marked activation of p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK, but not ERK. Under glutamine-deficient conditions, the treatment of K562 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in the marked enhancement of the induction of heme biosynthesis. Glutamine depletion also accelerated the expressions of erythroid-related factors including α-globin and heme-biosynthetic enzymes, GATA-1 and NF-E2, in sodium butyrate-induced K562 cells. The transcriptional activity of β-globin gene promoter-reporter was markedly enhanced by these treatments, indicating that glutamine deficiency in combination with sodium butyrate treatment gives high efficiency of chemical-induced differentiation in the hematopoiesis process.

  3. Induction of cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in butyrate-treated cells by simian virus 40 deoxyribonucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, S.; Diamond, L.; Baserga, R.

    1981-11-01

    Sodium butyrate (3mM) inhibited the entry into the S phase of quiescent 3T3 cells stimulated by serum, but had no effect on the accumulation of cellular ribonucleic acid. Simian virus 40 infection or manual microinjection of cloned fragments from the simian virus 40 A gene caused quiescent 3T3 cells to enter the S phase even in the presence of butyrate. NGI cells, a line of 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, grew vigorously in 3 mM butyrate. Homokaryons were formed between G/sub 1/ and S-phase 3T3 cells. Butyrate inhibited the induction of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis that usually occurs in G/sub 1/ nuclei when G/sub 1/ cells are fused with S-phase cells. However, when G/sub 1/ 3T3 cells were fused with exponentially growing NGI cells, the 3T3 nuclei were induced to enter deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. In tsAF8 cells, a ribonucleic acid polymerase II mutant that stops in the G/sub 1/ phase of the cell cycle, no temporal sequence was demonstrated between the butyrate block and the temperature-sensitive block. These results confirm previous reports that certain virally coded proteins can induce cell deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in the absence of cellular functions that are required by serum-stimulated cells. The author's interpretation of these data is that butyrate inhibited cell growth by inhibiting the expression of genes required for the G/sub o/ ..-->.. G/sub 1/ ..-->.. S transition and that the product of the simian virus 40 A gene overrode this inhibition by providing all of the necessary functions for the entry into the S phase.

  4. Requirement for store-operated calcium entry in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suxia; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, He; Zha, Longying; Xue, Yong; Wu, Xianbo; Zou, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The SOCE (store-operated Ca2+ entry) pathway plays a key role in both normal cells and cancerous cells. However, its molecular mechanism remains a long-lasting puzzle of Ca2+ signalling. In this paper, we provide evidence that butyric acid, a dietary fibre-derived short-chain fatty acid, induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via SOCE signalling networks. We found that sodium butyrate (NaB) induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, which in turn causes extracellular Ca2+ influx in HCT-116 cells. The Ca2+ release and influx are important, because the addition of chelators, EGTA or BAPTA/AM [1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)] respectively blocked NaB-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) by RNA interference or pharmacological blockade of the SOCC (store-operated Ca2+ channel) by 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or SKF-96365 inhibited NaB-induced extracellular Ca2+ influx and apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. Thus we conclude that NaB triggers colon cancer cell apoptosis in an SOCE-dependent manner. This finding provides new insights into how butyric acid suppresses colon carcinogenesis.

  5. The induction of vimentin gene expression by sodium butyrate in human promonocytic leukemia U937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rius, C.; Aller, P. ); Cabanas, C. Universidad Complutense, Madrid )

    1990-05-01

    The administration of 1 mM sodium butyrate induced the phenotypic differentiation of human promonocytic leukemia U937 cells, as judged by the expression of cD11b and cD11c antigens, two differentiation-specific surface markers. At the same time, butyrate greatly induced the expression at the mRNA level of the vimentin gene. The increase in the level of this RNA started at 6 hours of treatment and reached the maximum at Hour 24. Such an increase was caused at least in part by a stimulation in the rate of gene transcription, as suggested by transcription assays in isolated nuclei. Experiments in the presence of cycloheximide suggested that vimentin induction is probably a direct response to the action of butyrate, not mediated by the prior induction of other gene products. Unlike the case the vimentin, the levels of other RNAs, namely {beta}-actin ornithine decarboxylase, and c-myc, were not enhanced, but they decreased at different times of treatment with butyrate. Finally, the authors observed that butyrate induced also the differentiation of HL60 cells, another human myeloid cell type. Nevertheless, the drug failed to stimulate the expression of vimentin in this cell line.

  6. Biochemical and morphological effects of sodium butyrate on Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed

    Boto, L; Cano, A; Pestaña, A

    1987-04-01

    Pretreatment of proliferating D. discoideum amoebae with 10 mM butyrate for at least 8 h (one duplicating time) induced a reversible and dose dependent premature expression of several developmental parameters when the cells were starved in the absence of the fatty acid. The aggregative phase of the morphogenetic cycle was reduced in 2 h and the appearance of mature fruiting bodies and spores took place 4 h earlier as a result of butyrate pretreatment. Some developmentally regulated proteins, such as contact-sites A, cell surface lectins and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase were also expressed 2 h earlier in butyrate pretreated cells than in controls. The level of extracellular cyclic AMP was reduced in butyrate pretreated cells, while other parameters of cyclic AMP metabolism were not affected. Butyrate also caused a partial inhibition of growth and the hyperacetylation of histone H4 in growing amoeba. These results suggest that butyrate acts as an inducer of differentiation in D. discoideum and can therefore be used as an experimental tool in order to explore regulatory mechanisms operating in slime mold differentiation. PMID:3037305

  7. Sodium butyrate down-regulates tristetraprolin-mediated cyclin B1 expression independent of the formation of processing bodies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang-Tao; Xiao, Xiao-Qiang; Dai, Ju-Ji

    2015-12-01

    Butyrate regulates multiple host cellular events including the cell cycle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which butyrate induces a global down-regulation of the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that treating HEK293T cells and the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 with a high concentration of sodium butyrate reduces cyclin B1 expression. The underlying mechanism is related to the destabilization of its mRNA by tristetraprolin, which is up-regulated in response to sodium butyrate. Specifically, the sodium butyrate stimulation reduces the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1 and, conversely, upregulates tristetraprolin expression. Importantly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin in HEK293T decreases the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1; in contrast, knockdown of tristetraprolin mediated by small interfering RNA increases its expression in response to sodium butyrate treatment for both HEK293T and A549 cells. Furthermore, results from luciferase reporter assays and RNA immunoprecipitation indicate that sodium butyrate accelerates 3' UTR-dependent cyclin B1 decay by enhancing the binding of tristetraprolin to the 3' untranslated region of cyclin B1. Surprisingly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin prevents the formation of processing bodies, and the siRNA-mediated silencing of EDC4 does not restore the sodium butyrate-induced reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Thus, we confirm that NaBu regulates ZFP36-mediated cyclin B1 expression in a manner that is independent of the formation of P-bodies. The above findings disclose a novel mechanism of sodium butyrate-mediated gene expression regulation and might benefit its application in tumor treatment.

  8. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  9. Sodium butyrate and tributyrin induce in vivo growth inhibition and apoptosis in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuefer, R; Hofer, M D; Altug, V; Zorn, C; Genze, F; Kunzi-Rapp, K; Hautmann, R E; Gschwend, J E

    2004-01-26

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACs) are known to exhibit antiproliferative effects on various carcinoma cells. In this study, the in vivo efficiency of two HDACs, sodium butyrate and tributyrin, on prostate cancer growth inhibition were investigated. To gain an insight into the possible underlying pathways, cell culture experiments were performed focusing on the expression of p21, Rb and c-myc. For in vivo testing, prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and TSU-Pr1) were seeded on the chorioallantois membrane (CAM) and implanted in a xenograft model using nude mice. Standard Western blot analysis was performed for protein expression of p21, Rb and c-myc in HDAC-treated vs untreated prostate cancer cells. Both sodium butyrate and tributyrin had a considerable treatment effect on microtumours on the chicken egg at already very low concentrations of 0.1 mM. Tributyrin-treated tumours showed the strongest effect with 38% apoptotic nuclei in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. In the mouse model, there was almost no difference between sodium butyrate and tributyrin. In untreated animals the tumours were almost double the size 4 weeks after implantation. Tumours of the treatment groups had a significantly lower percentage of Ki-67-positive-stained nuclei. As demonstrated by Western blot analysis, these effects seem to be independent of p53 status and a pathway via p21-Rb-c-myc is possibly involved. In this study we have demonstrated a substantial in vivo treatment effect, which can be induced by the application of sodium butyrate or the orally applicable tributyrin in human prostate cancer. The given results may provide the rationale to apply these drugs in well-controlled clinical trials in patients being at high risk of recurrence after specific therapy or in patients with locally or distant advanced prostate cancer. PMID:14735205

  10. Novel protein pp3501 mediates the inhibitory effect of sodium butyrate on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Haitao; Wu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Sodium butyrate, a new potential therapeutic drug, improves the efficacy of chemo- and immunotherapy of cancer under unknown mechanisms. A novel gene pp3501 is significantly induced in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upon sodium butyrate treatment. Therefore, this study has cloned pp3501 cDNA by RT-PCR and generated its recombinant fusion protein and anti-serum subsequently. The pp3501 protein localized mainly in the nucleus, as detected by immunocytochemistry and the expression of pp3501-EGFP fusion protein. pp3501 inhibited the proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells, arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, and sensitized the SH-SY5Y cells to sodium butyrate treatment. These results provide a new mechanism of sodium butyrate inhibiting cancer cell proliferation as well as a new avenue for the future research on the functions of pp3501.

  11. [Cell senescence induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in rodent transformed cells resistant to apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Shitikova, Zh V; Aksenov, N D; Pospelov, V A; Pospelov, T V

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate to induce senescence in cells derived from rat embryonic fibroblasts transformed by E1A+E1B19 kDa oncogenes has been studied. These transformants are resistant to apoptosis in response to gamma-irradiation and growth factor deprivation. The process of cell senescence was investigated by the analysis of cell growth curves, G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest, and senescent associated beta-galactosidase expression. The irreversibility of sodium butyrate antiproliferative activity was analyzed by clonogenic assay. We show that sodium butyrate suppresses proliferation and induces senescence in the E1A+E1B19 kDa transformed cells. Interestingly, NaB induces growth arrest due to accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, these cells are not tetraploid but mainly binuclear. Thus, in case of NaB induced senescence in E1A+E1B19 kDa transformed fibroblasts, the observed suppression of cell proliferation may be the result of cytokinesis failure leading to formation of binuclear and multinuclear cells incapable to proliferate.

  12. Effects of sodium butyrate and salinomycin upon intestinal microbiota, mucosal morphology and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Jan; Højberg, Ole; Smulikowska, Stefania; Engberg, Ricarda M; Mieczkowska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) or salinomycin (SAL) or both additives on performance, small intestinal morphology and microbial ecology of broiler chickens was studied. A growth trial was conducted with 96 Ross 308 female broilers from 1 to 30 days of age. Four treatment groups were fed with a non-supplemented control diet or three experimental diets supplemented with i) 300 mg SB (Adimix 30 coated) per kg, ii) 60 mg SAL (Sacox) per kg or iii) both additives in combination. Feed intake and body-weight gain decreased and gain-to-feed ratio increased due to SAL supplementation, while addition of SB did not affect performance in comparison with the control diet but positively affected feed intake and body-weight gain in comparison with birds fed the SAL-supplemented diet. Villus height in jejunum decreased, while crypt depth increased due to SAL supplementation. Addition of SB increased crypt depth in jejunum. No significant effect of either additive was observed in ileum morphology. Total short-chain organic acids concentration in ileal digesta decreased with SAL supplementation, mainly due to lower lactic acid concentration, but no effects were observed in the caeca. The SAL supplementation was accompanied by a pH increase in ileum and a pH decrease in caecum. No significant effect of SB addition was observed for these parameters. Total bacterial numbers and Lactobacillus [lactic acid bacteria (LAB)] counts in ileal and caecal contents were lower in birds fed with SAL-supplemented diet in comparison with birds fed with control or SB diet. DNA fingerprints revealed SAL supplementation to affect the microbial population by suppressing dominating LAB, potentially L. aviarius. The presented results show that dietary SAL, supplemented alone or in combination with SB, suppressed the microbial activity and altered the microbial community structure mainly in ileum. SAL alone negatively affected feed intake and body-weight gain; however, the effect was

  13. Effects of sodium butyrate on the differentiation of pancreatic and hepatic progenitor cells from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Yan, Li; Shang, Chang-Zhen; Cao, Jun; Lu, Li-Hong; Min, Jun; Cheng, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Recently significant progress has been made in differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells toward pancreatic cells. However, little is known about the generation and identification of pancreatic progenitor cells from ES cells. Here we explored the influence of sodium butyrate on pancreatic progenitor differentiation, and investigated the different effects of sodium butyrate on pancreatic and hepatic progenitor formation. Our results indicated that different concentration and exposure time of sodium butyrate led to different differentiating trends of ES cells. A relatively lower concentration of sodium butyrate with shorter exposure time induced more pancreatic progenitor cell formation. When stimulated by a higher concentration and longer exposure time of sodium butyrate, ES cells differentiated toward hepatic progenitor cells rather than pancreatic progenitor cells. These progenitor cells could further mature into pancreatic and hepatic cells with the supplement of exogenous inducing factors. The resulting pancreatic cells expressed specific markers such as insulin and C-peptide, and were capable of insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. The differentiated hepatocytes were characterized by the expression of a number of liver-associated genes and proteins, and had the capability of glycogen storage. Thus, the current study demonstrated that sodium butyrate played different roles in inducing ES cells toward pancreatic or hepatic progenitor cells. These progenitor cells could be further induced into mature pancreatic cells and hepatocytes. This finding may facilitate the understanding of pancreatic and hepatic cell differentiation from ES cells, and provide a potential source of transplantable cells for cell-replacement therapies.

  14. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. PMID:27474955

  15. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  16. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  17. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  18. Sodium butyrate up-regulates cathelicidin gene expression via activator protein-1 and histone acetylation at the promoter region in a human lung epithelial cell line, EBC-1.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yutaka; Shimizu, Takashi; Kuwano, Koichi

    2006-05-01

    The antimicrobial protein cathelicidin is considered to play an important role in the defense mechanisms against bacterial infection. Recent studies show that sodium butyrate induces cathelicidin gene expression in human colonic, gastric and hepatic cells. However, little is known about the precise regulatory mechanisms underlying sodium butyrate-induced cathelicidin gene expression. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms involved in sodium butyrate-induced cathelicidin gene expression using a human lung epithelial cell line, EBC-1. Our results indicate that sodium butyrate induces both cathelicidin mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, deletion or mutation of a putative activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site in the cathelicidin gene promoter abrogated the response to sodium butyrate stimulation. Three different mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors suppressed sodium butyrate-induced transactivation of the cathelicidin promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that nuclear extracts prepared from sodium butyrate-stimulated EBC-1 cells generated specific binding to probe including a putative AP-1 binding site in the cathelicidin gene promoter. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that sodium butyrate augmented histone acetylation of the cathelicidin promoter in EBC-1 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that AP-1 and histone acetylation of the cathelicidin promoter play a critical role in the regulation of inducible cathelicidin gene expression in EBC-1 cells stimulated with sodium butyrate.

  19. Sodium butyrate induced structural changes in HeLa cell chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Reczek, P.R.; Weissman, D.; Huvos, P.E.; Fasman, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    Postsynthetic modifications of core histones by treatment of HeLa S3 cells with 5 mM sodium butyrate lead to alterations in the structure of high molecular weight chromatin. Whole chromatin from butyrate-treated cells, which results in highly acetylated core histones, has an ellipticity (theta)/sub 282.5/ of 3700 deg cm/sup 2/ dmol/sup -1/ (0.2 mM EDTA, pH 7.4) that is 1200 deg cm/sup 2/ dmol/sup -1/ less than chromatin from untreated HeLa cells, suggesting a more condensed structure. No difference in the circular dichroism spectra was observed in Hl-stripped, high molecular weight chromatin obtained from control and butyrate-treated cells at low (0.2 mM EDTA, pH 7.4) ionic strength.Thermal denaturation profiles of high molecular weight chromatin were resolved into three transitions and exhibited a shifting of hyperchromicity from transition I to transition III, at a higher T/sub m/, with butyrate treatment of HeLa cells, further indicating a more compact structure. Thermal denaturation profiles of Hl-stripped chromatin were not affected by butyrate treatment. Ionic strength studies in the range of 0-5 mM NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, 0.2 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, of high molecular weight chromatin exhibited a decrease in (theta)/sub 282.5/ and a shifting of hyperchromicity from transition I to transition III with increasing ionic strength. Control high molecular weight chromatin was more sensitive to changes in ionic strength than its highly acetylated counterpart. These results suggest that acetylation of histones alone does not result in a change in histone-DNA interaction but other changes associated with butyrate treatment most probably cause a more condensed structure, of the fraction studied herein, which is mediated by Hl or other materials removed during stripping in 0.35 M NaCl.

  20. Sodium butyrate induced structural changes in HeLa cell chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Reczek, P.R.; Weissman, D.; Huvos, P.E.; Fasman, G.D.

    1982-03-02

    Postsynthetic modifications of core histones by treatment of HeLa S3 cells with 5 mM sodium butyrate lead to alterations in the structure of high molecular weight chromatin. Whole chromatin from butyrate-treated cells, which results in highly acetylated core histones, has an ellipticity (THETA)/sub 282.5/ of 3700 deg cm/sup 2/ dmol/sup -1/ (0.2 mM EDTA, pH 7.4) that is 1200 deg cm/sup 2/ dmol/sup -1/ less than chromatin from untreated HeLa cells, suggesting a more condensed structure. No difference in the circular dichroism spectra was observed in Hl-stripped, high molecular weight chromatin obtained from control and butyrate-treated cells at low (0.2 mM EDTA, pH 7.4) ionic strength. Thermal denaturation profiles of high molecular weight chromatin were resolved into three transitions and exhibited a shifting of hyperchromicity from transition I to transition III, at a higher T/sub m/, with butyrate treatment of HeLa cells, further indicating a more compact structure. Thermal denaturation profiles of Hl-stripped chromatin were not affected by butyrate treatment. Ionic strength studies in the range of 0-5 mM NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, 0.2 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, of high molecular weight chromatin exhibited a decrease in (THETA)/sub 282.5/ and shifting of hyperchromicity from transition I to transition III with increasing ionic strength. Control high molecular weight chromatin was more sensitive to changes in ionic strength than its highly acetylated counterpart. These results suggest that acetylation of histones alone does not result in a change in histone-DNA interaction but other changes associated with butyrate treatment most probably cause a more condensed structure, of the fraction studied herein, which is mediated by Hl or other materials removed during stripping in 0.35 M NaCl.

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by increasing prohibitin protein expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefeng; Zhang, Baimin; Hong, Xin; Zhang, Xiuhe; Kong, Xiangbo

    2013-05-01

    The major purpose in our study was to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu) on nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats and determine further whether the protective effect is mediated by modulation of prohibitin protein expression. Gentamicin was injected intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 8 days to induce nephrotoxicity. The effect of acute and chronic treatment of sodium butyrate on nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin was assessed. Various doses of sodium butyrate (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min prior to the daily gentamicin injection. Histological analysis was used to evaluate the lesions in kidney after gentamicin administration. Expression of prohibitin was evaluated with immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that gentamicin treatment for 8 consecutive days significantly increased in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which indicated nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. In addition, chronic treatment with NaBu significantly attenuated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by increasing activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical studies in gentamicin-induced rats also demonstrated an increase in the levels of inducible prohibitin after treatment with sodium butyrate. Our results indicated that sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, decreased gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing renal antioxidant enzymes activity and the expression of prohibitin protein.

  2. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells: Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei Hua; Coviella, Ignacio Lopez G.; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, S-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells were studied. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for 3 days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine (10 micro-M) or L-DOPA (100 micro-M) markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation (e.g. treatment with sodium butyrate) can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 cells. The inhibition of melatonin release by dopamine supports the hypothesis that in these cells, melatonin and dopamine are components of a retinal feedback loop.

  3. Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the close-up diet on performance of dairy cows in the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P; Flaga, J; Barteczko, A; Burakowska, K; Oprządek, J; Zabielski, R

    2015-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium butyrate microencapsulated within triglyceride matrix (Na-butyrate) in the close-up period on performance of dairy cows and rumen papillae development. In trial 1, 26 Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 2 groups (13 cows/group) and fed prepartum a total mixed ration (TMR) without or with 300g of Na-butyrate/d from 30 d before expecting calving to parturition. After calving, the same lactational TMR without Na-butyrate was offered to both treatments. Dry matter intake and milk yield were monitored daily to 60 d in milk, and body condition of cows was scored on d 30, 21, and 4 before parturition and d 14, 31, and 60 after parturition. On d 15, 10, and 5 before parturition blood samples were collected from 6 cows randomly chosen from each group and analyzed for plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations. No differences in dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, body condition score, or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations was observed between treatments; however, in the last 5 d before parturition the cows receiving Na-butyrate ate 1.7kg of DM/d more, on average, as compared with control cows. In trial 2, 12 Holstein-Friesian growing bulls (404±48; body weight ± SD) were used to determine the effect of Na-butyrate inclusion in the diet on rumen papillae development. Bulls were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 bulls/group) and fed TMR without or with 2% (on a dry matter basis) of Na-butyrate for 21 d. At the end of the study, bulls were killed and rumen fluid and rumen tissue samples from dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen were collected. No effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on BW of bulls and DMI during the trial period was observed. Sodium butyrate supplementation increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration in the rumen but had no effect on rumen pH, molar proportions of short-chain fatty acids, and NH3-N concentration

  4. Effects of ptb knockout on butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Yu, Mingrui; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium that produces butyrate, acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide from various saccharides, including glucose and xylose. Phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) is a key enzyme in the butyric acid synthesis pathway. In this work, effects of ptb knockout by homologous recombination on metabolic flux and product distribution were investigated. When compared with the wild type, the activities of PTB and butyrate kinase in ptb knockout mutant decreased 76 and 42%, respectively; meanwhile, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase increased 7 and 29%, respectively. However, ptb knockout did not significantly reduce butyric acid production from glucose or xylose in batch fermentations. Instead, it increased acetic acid and hydrogen production 33.3-53.8% and ≈ 11%, respectively. Thus, the ptb knockout did increase the carbon flux toward acetate synthesis, resulting in a significant decrease (28-35% reduction) in the butyrate/acetate ratio in ptb mutant fermentations. In addition, the mutant displayed a higher specific growth rate (0.20 h(-1) vs. 0.15 h(-1) on glucose and 0.14 h(-1) vs. 0.10 h(-1) on xylose) and tolerance to butyric acid. Consequently, batch fermentation with the mutant gave higher fermentation rate and productivities (26-48% increase for butyrate, 81-100% increase for acetate, and 38-46% increase for hydrogen). This mutant thus can be used more efficiently than the parental strain in fermentations to produce butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen from glucose and xylose.

  5. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  6. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  7. Effects of sodium butyrate on growth performance, haematological and immunological characteristics of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Fang, C L; Sun, H; Wu, J; Niu, H H; Feng, J

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 100 male piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with a body weight of 8.0 ± 0.2 kg weaned at the age of 28 days were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicates and 10 pigs per replicate. Piglets received a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1000 mg/kg SB. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. The results showed that dietary SB significantly decreased (p < 0.05) diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets, but did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain (F/G). Furthermore, piglets fed dietary SB had higher (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of glucose and triglycerides and lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, cortisol, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase when compared with the control group. However, dietary SB did not affect concentrations of serum albumin, total protein, insulin and glucagon (p > 0.05). There were no significant (p > 0.05) treatment effects on serum IgA and IgM, whereas serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum from pigs fed SB were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those given the basal diet. In conclusion, the present study indicated that dietary SB significantly decreased diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets and increased the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Also, dietary SB could regulate and enhance the immune function of piglets by increasing the serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum. Our results suggest that SB may reduce some of the adverse effects of weaning stress and play an important role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosa.

  8. Effects of sodium butyrate and 3-aminobenzamide on survival of Chinese hamster HA-1 cells after X irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, J.T.

    1988-04-01

    HA-1 cells were grown in medium containing 2 mM sodium butyrate and then exposed to graded doses of 250 kVp X rays. After irradiation, some of the butyrate-treated cultures were treated with either 10 or 20 mM 3-aminobenzamide for 2 h at 37 degrees C. The butyrate treatment produced a small degree of radiation sensitization as indicated by an increase in the alpha parameter using a linear-quadratic description of survival responses. The dose-modifying factor at the 10% survival level (DMF10) was 1.15. Similarly, both 10 and 20 mM 3-aminobenzamide treatments produced concentration-dependent increases in radiosensitization, again as indicated by an increase in the value of the alpha constant, with DMF10 values of 1.22 and 1.40, respectively. However, the combination of the 2 mM sodium butyrate + 10 mM 3-aminobenzamide treatments produced a supraadditive response in terms of increased cell killing (DMF10 = 1.76). We interpret this to mean that 3-aminobenzamide inhibits a sodium butyrate associated increase in poly(ADP-ribose) which then predisposes hyperacetylated chromatin to attack by endogenous nucleases leading to increased cytotoxicity.

  9. Secretion of phospholipid transfer protein by human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2, is enhanced by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z; Yuan, C; Wei-Lavery, T; Fang, Y; Garvin, R A; Nishida, H I; Nishida, T

    1999-11-01

    Hep G2 cells were used to study the synthesis and secretion of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). Upon incubation of the cells at confluence with serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer activity was found to accumulate in the culture media. The PC transfer activity in the media was effectively inhibited by rabbit anti-human PLTP immunoglobulin (Ig)G, thus indicating that the PC transfer activity was due to secreted PLTP. The molecular weight of Hep G2 PLTP was approximately 78 kDa by Western blot analysis, in agreement with the molecular weight obtained for purified human plasma PLTP. The PLTP secreted by Hep G2 also possessed an HDL conversion activity similar to that of human plasma PLTP. The addition of butyrate to the cell culture media resulted in a marked increase in the secretion of PLTP. After 24 h incubation with 4 mmol/L sodium butyrate, a more than twofold increase (P < 0.01) of PC transfer activity in the cell-conditioned media was obtained. The dose-dependent increase in the PC transfer activity in the media upon butyrate treatment was well correlated (r = 0.80, P < 0.01) with that of PLTP mass as determined by immuno-slot blot analysis of cell-conditioned media. The increased secretion of PLTP by Hep G2 treated with sodium butyrate was accompanied by a greater increase in the level of PLTP mRNA in the cells as determined by ribonuclease protection assay. In the presence of 4 mmol/L sodium butyrate, a fourfold increase (P < 0. 01) in mRNA level was obtained at 24 h. No stabilizing effect of butyrate on PLTP mRNA was apparent upon treatment of the cultured cells with the RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D. Thus, the up-regulatory effect of butyrate on PLTP gene expression seemed to have occurred at the transcriptional level.

  10. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation increases digestibility and pancreatic secretion in young milk-fed calves.

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, P; Savary, G; Jaguelin-Peyrault, Y; Romé, V; Le Normand, L; Zabielski, R

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test, in 8 calves fed milk formula based on soybean protein, the ability of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation to improve nutrient digestibility and daily pancreatic secretions and to modify the kinetics of these secretions. Additionally, effects of duodenal SB infusion were evaluated. Plasma levels of gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin were measured. Butyrate supplementation in milk formula increased nutrient digestibility and total daily pancreatic secretions. For juice volume, this increase was most important from 12 to 17h after the morning meal. During the 3-h postprandial period, oral SB supplementation reduced the physiological decrease of postprandial pancreatic secretion (while duodenal digesta flow rate was maximal) and had a minor effect on plasma gut regulatory peptide concentrations. Compared with the diet without SB, ingestion of SB stimulated pancreatic secretion. Taken together, these results could explain the measured increase in nutrient digestibility. The data obtained after duodenal SB infusion did not indicate an effect on pancreatic secretion, apart from elevated lipase output compared with control. The mechanisms responsible for these events are not known and circulating gut regulatory peptides do not seem to be implicated. Our work brings new results regarding SB as a feed additive in young calf nutrition.

  11. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  12. Anticarcinogenic actions of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug.

    PubMed

    Heidor, Renato; Ortega, Juliana Festa; de Conti, Aline; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2012-12-01

    Bioactive food compounds (BFCs) exhibit potential anticarcinogenic effects that deserve to be explored. Butyric acid (BA) is considered a promising BFC and has been used in clinical trials; however, its short half-life considerably restricts its therapeutic application. Tributyrin (TB), a BA prodrug present in milk fat and honey, has more favorable pharmacokinetic properties than BA, and its oral administration is also better tolerated. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that TB acts on multiple anticancer cellular and molecular targets without affecting non-cancerous cells. Among the TB mechanisms of action, the induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation and the modulation of epigenetic mechanisms are notable. Due to its anticarcinogenic potential, strategies as lipid emulsions, nanoparticles, or structured lipids containing TB are currently being developed to improve its organoleptic characteristics and bioavailability. In addition, TB has minimal toxicity, making it an excellent candidate for combination therapy with other agents for the control of cancer. Despite the lack of data available in the literature, TB is a promising molecule for anticancer strategies. Therefore, additional preclinical and clinical studies should be performed using TB to elucidate its molecular targets and anticarcinogenic potential.

  13. Sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis and ultrastructural changes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Yan-Bin; Fan, Rong; Gao, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) on Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells and analyzed the relevant mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that a certain concentration of NaB effectively induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell viability and the apoptosis rate. Western blotting was used to detect changes in the Bcl-2 expression level. We observed cell shape changes with microscopy. Immunofluorescence revealed some apoptotic nuclei. Electron microscopy revealed thick nucleoli, chromatin margination, reduced mitochondria, and dramatic vacuoles. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism by which NaB changed the ultrastructure of MCF-7 cells.

  14. The short chain fatty acid, butyrate, stimulates MUC2 mucin production in the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T

    SciTech Connect

    Hatayama, Hajime; Iwashita, Jun; Kuwajima, Akiko; Abe, Tatsuya . E-mail: abetats@akita-pu.ac.jp

    2007-05-11

    The short fatty acid, butyrate, which is produced by intestinal anaerobic bacteria in the colon, has inhibitory activity on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment of the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T, with 1-2 mM sodium butyrate stimulated MUC2 mucin production, as determined by histological PAS staining of carbohydrate chains of mucin, and confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels by immunoblotting with anti-MUC2 antibody and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Increases in acetylated histone H3 in the LS174T cells treated with butyrate suggest inhibition of HDACs in these cells. Butyrate-stimulated MUC2 production in the LS174T cells was inhibited by the MEK inhibitor, U0126, implicating the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascades in this process. Proliferation of the LS174T cells was inhibited by butyrate treatment. Although apoptotic nuclear DNA fragmentation could not be detected, cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the butyrate-treated cells was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Thus butyrate, an HDAC inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of LS174T cells but stimulates MUC2 production in individual cells.

  15. Phase Diagrams of Binary Alkanoate Systems with Common Cation: Potassium Isobutyrate-Propionate, and Sodium Butyrate-Isobutyrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuk, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1996-08-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary mixtures of mesogenic potassium isobutyrate with non-mesogenic potassium propionate and mesogenic sodium butyrate with non-mesogenic sodium isobutyrate have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. Both systems have one eutectic and one metatectic phase equilibriums. Pecularities of liquid crystal formation in binary alkanoate systems with common alkali metal cation are discussed and compared with those of systems with common anion.

  16. Stimulation of butyrate production by gluconic acid in batch culture of pig cecal digesta and identification of butyrate-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Koyama, Hironari; Okada, Masaaki; Ushida, Kazunari

    2002-08-01

    Gluconic acid reaches the large intestine to stimulate lactic acid bacteria. However, the fermentation pattern of gluconic acid has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, we examined the fermentation properties induced by gluconic acid in the pig cecal digesta in vitro. We also tested sorbitol and glucose, substrates for which the fermentation rate and patterns are known. The gluconic acid-utilizing bacteria were further isolated from pig cecal digesta and identified to examine the effect of gluconic acid on hind gut fermentation. Gluconic acid was fermented more slowly than were the other two substrates. Gluconic acid stimulated butyrate production; the butyrate molar percentage reached 26%, which is considered a high butyrate production. The majority of gluconic acid fermenters were identified as lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri and L. mucosae, and acid-utilizing bacteria, such as Megasphaera elsdenii and Mitsuokella multiacida. The gluconic acid fermented by lactic acid bacteria, and the lactate and acetate that were produced were used to form butyrate by acid-utilizing bacteria, such as M. elsdenii. Gluconic acid may be useful as a prebiotic to stimulate butyrate production in the large intestine.

  17. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.

  18. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  19. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  20. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  1. Synergistic effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on increase of neurogenesis induced by pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Dae Won; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Soo Young; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-10-01

    We previously observed that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation without any neuronal damage in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor which serves as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression, on pyridoxine-induced neural proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg, subcutaneously), pyridoxine (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or combination with sodium butyrate were administered to 8-week-old mice twice a day and once a day, respectively, for 14 days. The administration of sodium butyrate significantly increased acetyl-histone H3 levels in the dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate alone did not show the significant increase of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. But, pyridoxine alone significantly increased cell proliferation. Sodium butyrate in combination with pyridoxine robustly enhanced cell proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the dentate gyrus, showing that sodium butyrate treatment distinctively enhanced development of neuroblast dendrites. These results indicate that an inhibition of HDAC synergistically promotes neurogenesis induced by a pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation.

  2. Sodium butyrate attenuates social behavior deficits and modifies the transcription of inhibitory/excitatory genes in the frontal cortex of an autism model.

    PubMed

    Kratsman, Neta; Getselter, Dmitriy; Elliott, Evan

    2016-03-01

    The core behavioral symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) include dysregulation of social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors. However, there is no pharmacological agent that is currently used to target these core symptoms. Epigenetic dysregulation has been implicated in the etiology of ASD, and may present a pharmacological target. The effect of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on social behavior and repetitive behavior, and the frontal cortex transcriptome, was examined in the BTBR autism mouse model. A 100 mg/kg dose, but not a 1200 mg/kg dose, of sodium butyrate attenuated social deficits in the BTBR mouse model. In addition, both doses decreased marble burying, an indication of repetitive behavior, but had no significant effect on self-grooming. Using RNA-seq, we determined that the 100 mg/kg dose of sodium butyrate induced changes in many behavior-related genes in the prefrontal cortex, and particularly affected genes involved in neuronal excitation or inhibition. The decrease in several excitatory neurotransmitter and neuronal activation marker genes, including cFos Grin2b, and Adra1, together with the increase in inhibitory neurotransmitter genes Drd2 and Gabrg1, suggests that sodium butyrate promotes the transcription of inhibitory pathway transcripts. Finally, DMCM, a GABA reverse agonist, decreased social behaviors in sodium-butyrate treated BTBR mice, suggesting that sodium butyrate increases social behaviors through modulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance. Therefore, transcriptional modulation by sodium butyrate may have beneficial effects on autism related behaviors.

  3. Supplementation of sodium butyrate protects mice from the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng Jun; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-12-14

    Overnutrition, insulin resistance and an impaired intestinal barrier function are discussed as critical factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Not only butyrate-producing probiotics as well as supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) have been suggested to bear protective effects on liver damage of various aetiologies. However, whether an oral consumption of SoB has a protective effect on Western-style diet (WSD)-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and if so molecular mechanism involved has not yet been determined. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed either a liquid control or WSD±0·6 g/kg body weight SoB. After 6 weeks, markers of liver damage, inflammation, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signalling, lipid peroxidation and glucose as well as lipid metabolism were determined in the liver tissue. Tight junction protein levels were determined in the duodenal tissue. SoB supplementation had no effects on the body weight gain or liver weight of WSD-fed mice, whereas liver steatosis and hepatic inflammation were significantly decreased (e.g. less inflammatory foci and neutrophils) when compared with mice fed only a WSD. Tight junction protein levels in duodenum, hepatic mRNA expression of TLR-4 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c were altered similarly in both WSD groups when compared with controls, whereas protein levels of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and F4/80 macrophages were only significantly induced in livers of mice fed only the WSD. In summary, these data suggest that an oral supplementation of SoB protects mice from inflammation in the liver and thus from the development of WSD-induced NASH.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate enhances cellular radiosensitivity by inhibiting both DNA nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Koprinarova, Miglena; Botev, Peter; Russev, George

    2011-09-01

    HDAC inhibitors have been proposed as radiosensitizers in cancer therapy. Their application would permit the use of lower radiation doses and would reduce the adverse effects of the treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms of their action remain unclear. In the present article, we have studied the radiosensitizing effect of sodium butyrate on HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that it did not abrogate the γ-radiation imposed G2 cell cycle arrest. The dynamics of γ-H2AX foci disappearance in the presence and in the absence of butyrate, however, demonstrated that butyrate inhibited DSB repair. In an attempt to clarify which one of the two major DSBs repair pathways was affected, we synchronized HeLa cells in G1 phase and after γ-irradiation followed the repair of the DSBs by agarose gel electrophoresis. Since HR is not operational during G1 phase, by this approach we determined the rates of NHEJ only. The results showed that NHEJ decreased in the presence of butyrate. In another set of experiments, we followed the dynamics of disappearance of RAD51 foci in the presence and in the absence of butyrate after γ-radiation of HeLa cells. Since RAD51 takes part in HR only, this experiment allows the effect of butyrate on DSB repair by homologous recombination to be assessed. It showed that HR was also obstructed by butyrate. These results were confirmed by host cell reactivation assays in which the repair of plasmids containing a single DSB by NHEJ or HR was monitored. We suggest that after a DSB is formed, HDACs deacetylated core histones in the vicinity of the breaks in order to compact the chromatin structure and prevent the broken DNA ends from moving apart from each other, thus ensuring effective repair.

  5. Sodium butyrate suppresses the transforming activity of an activated N-ras oncogene in human colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddart, J.H.; Niles, R.M. ); Lane, M.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The transforming activity of DNA from a newly established undifferentiated human colon carcinoma cell line (MIP-101) was tested in the NIH-3T3 transfection assay. Southern blot analysis of the transfectant DNA revealed the presence of a human N-ras oncogene. Here the authors report that there is a significant reduction in the transforming efficiency of the DNA from butyrate-treated MIP-101 cells. A nonspecific reduction in total DNA uptake as an explanation for these findings was eliminated by showing that there was similar uptake and expression of the thymidine kinase gene from the DNA of butyrate-treated and control MIP cells. An NIH-3T3 transformant carrying the human N-ras gene was evaluated for phenotypic reversion and DNA transforming ability after treatment with sodium butyrate. Although butyrate suppressed several transformed properties similar to MIP-101 cells, DNA from control and treated cultures had an identical level of transforming activity. The results suggest that the environment of the MIP cells may contain additional elements not present in the NIH-3T3 transformants which are required to observe the effect of butyrate on reduction of transforming activity.

  6. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vaseji, N; Mojgani, N; Amirinia, C; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method. Materials and Methods Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4°C. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test. Results The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2%) than in 211 samples (0.17%). These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples. Conclusions Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life. PMID:22973475

  7. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  8. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  9. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  10. Sodium butyrate reverses the inhibition of Krebs cycle enzymes induced by amphetamine in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Calixto, Karen V; Budni, Josiane; Resende, Wilson R; Varela, Roger B; de Freitas, Karolina V; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the possibility that mitochondrial impairment may play an important role in bipolar disorder (BD). The Krebs cycle is the central point of oxidative metabolism, providing carbon for biosynthesis and reducing agents for generation of ATP. Recently, studies have suggested that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have antimanic effects. The present study aims to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a HDAC inhibitor, on Krebs cycle enzymes activity in the brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by D-amphetamine (D-AMPH). Wistar rats were first given D-AMPH or saline (Sal) for 14 days, and then, between days 8 and 14, rats were treated with SB or Sal. The citrate synthase (CS), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The D-AMPH administration inhibited Krebs cycle enzymes activity in all analyzed brain structures and SB reversed D-AMPH-induced dysfunction analyzed in all brain regions. These findings suggest that Krebs cycle enzymes' inhibition can be an important link for the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in BD and SB exerts protective effects against the D-AMPH-induced Krebs cycle enzymes' dysfunction.

  11. Short communication: Effect of inclusion rate of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in starter mixture for dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wanat, P; Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different inclusion rates of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (M-SB) in the starter mixture (SM) on performance of dairy calves. Forty female Holstein calves with a mean (± SD) age of 12.8 (± 1.5) d were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments (10 calves/treatment) and fed SM without (M-SB-0) or with 0.3% (M-SB-0.3), 0.6% (M-SB-0.6), or 0.9% (M-SB-0.9) of M-SB (as fed) during a 49-d period of milk replacer feeding. The milk replacer was fed at 670 g/d divided into 2 equal meals. Starter mixture with or without M-SB was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the trial. Body weight of calves was recorded weekly, whereas intakes of milk replacer and SM and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Intake of SM decreased linearly with increasing M-SB inclusion rate. Average daily gain decreased and body weight gain tended to decrease linearly with increasing amounts of M-SB in SM, but feed efficiency was not affected. Fecal score and number of days with diarrhea increased cubically with increasing M-SB inclusion rate in SM. Under the conditions of the current study, supplementation of SM with M-SB had a negative effect on performance of calves.

  12. [Involvement of MAP-kinase cascades into the regulation of sodium butyrate induced premature cell senescence].

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, E Iu; Bykova, T V; Zubova, S G; Pospelova, T V

    2012-01-01

    We studied the role of p38 kinase and JNK1,2 in the activation of the complex mTORC1 and the program of senescence induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaBut), in mouse embryonic fibroblasts transformed by E1A+cHa-Ras oncogenes. It was found that transformants from knockouts for the genes p38, were able to implement the program of NaBut-induced senescence, according to the data of the cell cycle arrest, inhibition of proliferation, hypertrophic changes associated with the activation of mTORC1 and SA-beta-galactosidase activity. According to the behavior of these markers, cell knockouts for the genes jnk1,2 were unable to implement NaBut-induced senescence. Induction of senescence closely correlates with the activation of the complex mTORC1, as it was shown by inhibiting mTORC1 with rapamycin. We believe that JNK 1,2 kinases are required for mTORC1 activation and acquiring the markers of premature senescence, induced by NaBut in the E1A+cHa-Ras transformants.

  13. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells - Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei H.; Lopez G.-Coviella, Ignacio; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for three days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine or L-DOPA markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 ceils.

  14. Effects of X-irradiation and sodium butyrate on cell-cycle traverse on normal and radiosensitive lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Anderson, C.O.; Watson, J.V.

    1985-10-01

    We have used a multi-parameter flow-cytometric technique to analyse changes in cell-cycle phase distribution (early and late G1, S and G2+M phases) for normal and X-ray-sensitive (ataxia-telangiectasia, A-T) lymphoblastoid cells exposed to X-irradiation and sodium butyrate (either alone or in combination). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a useful pharmacological tool for determining the proposed role of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in controlling cell-cycle responses to DNA damage. We report that X-irradiated A-T cells (acute doses up to 1.5 Gy) demonstrate deficiencies in the capacity to traverse G1 and G2+M phases, although we can find no evidence of the specific involvement of a sodium butyrate-sensitive process in normal cells or abnormalities in the responses of A-T cells to the drug. We conclude that abnormal cellular control of G1 transition in A-T may be the basis of disturbed cellular differentiation in vivo, particularly in non-proliferating tissues under conditions of accumulated environmental or spontaneous DNA damage.

  15. [Induction of premature senescence program by an inhibitor of histone deacetylase sodium butyrate in normal and transformed rat fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Zubova, Iu G; Bykova, T V; Zubova, S G; Abramova, M V; Aksenov, N D; Pospelov, V A; Pospelova, T V

    2005-01-01

    We investigated a possibility to induce the premature cell senescence in rat embryo fibroblasts and E1A + cHa-ras transformants. We found that after the treatment with sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, both normal and transformed cells completely stopped to proliferate and accumulated at G1/S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. The cloning efficiency data show that the cell cycle arrest induced by sodium butyrate is irreversible and correlates with the accumulation of active phosphorylated form of stress kinase p38, and with the expression of marker of senescence--beta-galactosidase activity (SA beta-Gal). The program resembling the premature senescence after sodium butyrate treatment is supposed to develop both in normal and transformed cells. The irreversible block of proliferation in E1A + cHa-ras transformants may be regarded as an example of activation of anticancer program like that of premature senescence in the tumor rodent cells. PMID:16706193

  16. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Holst, J J; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR) or in starter mixture (SM) or in both MR and SM on performance, selected blood parameters, and rumen development in newborn calves was determined. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (±1) d were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 groups (7 animals per group) and fed (1) MR and SM, both without SB (MR(-) and SM(-), respectively); (2) MR(-) and SM supplemented with SB encapsulated within a triglyceride matrix (SM(+), 0.6% as fed; 30:70 butyrate-to-triglyceride matrix); (3) MR supplemented with crystalline SB (MR(+), 0.3% as fed) and SM(-); or (4) MR(+) and SM(+). The MR was offered in an amount equal to 10% of the initial body weight (BW) of each calf. The SM was blended with whole corn grain (50/50; wt/wt) and offered ad libitum as a starter diet (0.3% encapsulated-within-triglyceride matrix SB when SM(+) was fed) from the first day of the trial. Calves were slaughtered at d 21 of a trial (mean age 26±1 d). Addition of SB into MR (MR(+)) positively affected BW and average daily gain, tended to decrease the number of days with electrolyte therapies from d 0 to 7, and tended to positively affect fecal consistency from d 8 to 14 of the trial. Inclusion of SB into SM (SM(+)) increased starter diet intake from d 15 to 21, decreased the number of days with scours, and tended to decrease the number of days with electrolyte therapies in the whole trial period. Both MR(+) and SM(+) increased plasma glucose in the whole trial period and MR(+) increased total serum protein at d 14. The SM(+) increased plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration at d 7 of the trial when compared with the concentration at d 0. Both MR(+) and SM(+) increased reticulorumen weight and papillae length and width. Based on these results, it can be concluded that addition of SB in MR positively affected BW gain, health, and some metabolic intermediates of calves and it stimulated rumen development indirectly

  17. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  18. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  19. The impact of a specific blend of essential oil components and sodium butyrate in feed on growth performance and Salmonella counts in experimentally challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Marín, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Gómez, E A; de la Fuente, J M; Durán, R; Fernández, C

    2014-03-01

    Essential oils (EO) and short-chain fatty acids have potential antimicrobial activity in broilers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific blend of EO and a combination of this blend of EO with sodium-butyrate on growth performance and Salmonella colonization in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male broilers were distributed into 5 treatments (8 pens per treatment and 12 birds per pen) and reared during 42 d in experimental conditions. Dietary treatments consisted of the addition of different doses of EO (0 mg/kg, control; 50 mg/kg, EO50 and 100 mg/kg, EO100) or a combination of EO with 1 g/kg of sodium-butyrate (B; EO50 + B, EOB50 and EO100 + B, EOB100) to a basal diet. All birds were orally infected with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis on d 7 of study. Individual BW and feed intake per pen were measured at arrival and on a weekly basis. The prevalence and enumeration of Salmonella in feces was determined per treatment at 72 h postinfection and on d 23 and 37 of study. At slaughter, cecal content and liver samples from 16 birds per treatment were cultured for Salmonella and cecal pH was measured. No differences were observed on growth performance among treatments. All fecal samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella from d 10 to the end of the rearing period. At slaughter, Salmonella contamination (positive samples) in cecum was lower in birds fed EOB50 compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas birds fed the control diet showed the highest colonization rates. The pH of the cecal content was not different among treatments. Thus, EO or its combination with sodium-butyrate did not affect growth performance. However, a clear effectiveness of these products was observed in Salmonella control, especially when low doses of EO were combined with sodium-butyrate (EOB50). PMID:24604853

  20. The impact of a specific blend of essential oil components and sodium butyrate in feed on growth performance and Salmonella counts in experimentally challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Marín, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Gómez, E A; de la Fuente, J M; Durán, R; Fernández, C

    2014-03-01

    Essential oils (EO) and short-chain fatty acids have potential antimicrobial activity in broilers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific blend of EO and a combination of this blend of EO with sodium-butyrate on growth performance and Salmonella colonization in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male broilers were distributed into 5 treatments (8 pens per treatment and 12 birds per pen) and reared during 42 d in experimental conditions. Dietary treatments consisted of the addition of different doses of EO (0 mg/kg, control; 50 mg/kg, EO50 and 100 mg/kg, EO100) or a combination of EO with 1 g/kg of sodium-butyrate (B; EO50 + B, EOB50 and EO100 + B, EOB100) to a basal diet. All birds were orally infected with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis on d 7 of study. Individual BW and feed intake per pen were measured at arrival and on a weekly basis. The prevalence and enumeration of Salmonella in feces was determined per treatment at 72 h postinfection and on d 23 and 37 of study. At slaughter, cecal content and liver samples from 16 birds per treatment were cultured for Salmonella and cecal pH was measured. No differences were observed on growth performance among treatments. All fecal samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella from d 10 to the end of the rearing period. At slaughter, Salmonella contamination (positive samples) in cecum was lower in birds fed EOB50 compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas birds fed the control diet showed the highest colonization rates. The pH of the cecal content was not different among treatments. Thus, EO or its combination with sodium-butyrate did not affect growth performance. However, a clear effectiveness of these products was observed in Salmonella control, especially when low doses of EO were combined with sodium-butyrate (EOB50).

  1. Effect of feeding sodium butyrate in the late finishing period on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Leonard, Finola C; Grant, Jim; Yearsley, Dermot; Kelly, Sinead; Duffy, Geraldine; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2016-09-01

    Pork is an important source of human salmonellosis and low-cost on-farm control measures may provide a useful element in reducing the prevalence of this pathogen in food. This study investigated the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate administered to finisher pigs for ∼4-weeks prior to slaughter to control Salmonella shedding on highly contaminated farms. Two trials (A and B) were conducted on two commercial pig farms, which had a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. In both trials, pens (14 pens of 12 pigs/pen in Trial A and 12 pens of 12-17 pigs/pen in Trial B) were randomly assigned to a control (finisher feed without additive) or a treatment group (the same feed with 3kg sodium butyrate/t) for 24-28days, depending on the trial. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 12 and 24/28, and blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal/mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the slaughterhouse. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trials, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter. In Trial A, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group at the end of the trial (30% versus 57% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p<0.001). This reflected the serology results, with detection of a lower seroprevalence in the treatment compared to the control group using the 20% optical density cut-off (69.5% versus 89%; p=0.001). However, no effect on faecal shedding or seroprevalance was observed in Trial B, which may be explained by the detection of a concomitant infection with Lawsonia intracellularis. No significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes in either trial. Furthermore, feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ between groups (p>0.05) in either trial. Numerical improvements in weight gain and FCE were found with sodium butyrate treatment

  2. Effect of feeding sodium butyrate in the late finishing period on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Leonard, Finola C; Grant, Jim; Yearsley, Dermot; Kelly, Sinead; Duffy, Geraldine; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2016-09-01

    Pork is an important source of human salmonellosis and low-cost on-farm control measures may provide a useful element in reducing the prevalence of this pathogen in food. This study investigated the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate administered to finisher pigs for ∼4-weeks prior to slaughter to control Salmonella shedding on highly contaminated farms. Two trials (A and B) were conducted on two commercial pig farms, which had a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. In both trials, pens (14 pens of 12 pigs/pen in Trial A and 12 pens of 12-17 pigs/pen in Trial B) were randomly assigned to a control (finisher feed without additive) or a treatment group (the same feed with 3kg sodium butyrate/t) for 24-28days, depending on the trial. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 12 and 24/28, and blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal/mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the slaughterhouse. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trials, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter. In Trial A, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group at the end of the trial (30% versus 57% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p<0.001). This reflected the serology results, with detection of a lower seroprevalence in the treatment compared to the control group using the 20% optical density cut-off (69.5% versus 89%; p=0.001). However, no effect on faecal shedding or seroprevalance was observed in Trial B, which may be explained by the detection of a concomitant infection with Lawsonia intracellularis. No significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes in either trial. Furthermore, feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ between groups (p>0.05) in either trial. Numerical improvements in weight gain and FCE were found with sodium butyrate treatment

  3. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  4. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  5. The histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate decreases excessive ethanol intake in dependent animals.

    PubMed

    Simon-O'Brien, Emmanuelle; Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Warnault, Vincent; Buttolo, Romain; Naassila, Mickaël; Vilpoux, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Converging evidence indicates that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in drug addiction, and that enzymes involved in chromatin remodeling may represent interesting targets in addiction treatment. No study has addressed whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) can reduce excessive ethanol intake or prevent relapse in alcohol-dependent animals. Here, we assessed the effects of two HDACi, sodium butyrate (NaB) and MS-275, in the operant ethanol self-administration paradigm in dependent and non-dependent rats. To characterize some of the epigenetic mechanisms associated with alcohol dependence and NaB treatment, we measured the levels of histone H3 acetylation in different brain areas of dependent and non-dependent rats, submitted or not to NaB treatment. Our results demonstrated that (1) NaB and MS-275 strongly decreased excessive alcohol intake of dependent rats in the operant ethanol self-administration paradigm but not of non-dependent rats; (2) NaB reduced excessive drinking and prevented the escalation of ethanol intake in the intermittent access to 20% ethanol paradigm; and (3) NaB completely blocked the increase of ethanol consumption induced by an alcohol deprivation, thus demonstrating a preventive effect of NaB on relapse. The mapping of cerebral histone H3 acetylation revealed a hyperacetylation in the amygdala and cortical areas in dependent rats. Interestingly, NaB did not exacerbate the hyperacetylation observed in these regions, but instead restored it, specifically in cortical areas. Altogether, our results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of NaB in preventing excessive ethanol intake and relapse and support the hypothesis that HDACi may have a potential use in alcohol addiction treatment.

  6. Epigenetically Reprogramming of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by 3-Deazaneplanocin A and Sodium Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Azghadi, Soheila; Clark, Amander T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Infertility affects about 6.1 million women aged 15-44 in the United States. The leading cause of infertility in women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ-cell development (these sentences are not mentioned in introduction so it is not correct to mention in abstract, you can omit). Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of developing blastocysts and have a broad clinical potential. hESCs have been classified into three classes based on their epigenetic state. The goal of this study was to epigenetically reprogram Class II and Class III cell lines to Class I (naïve state), and to in vitro differentiation of potent hESCs to primordial germ cells (PGCs). Methods: Recent evidence suggests that 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) is a global histone methylation inhibitor which selectively inhibits trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3K27, and it is an epigenetic therapeutic for cancer. The characteristics of DZNep lead us to hypothesize that it is a good candidate to epigenetically reprogram hESCs to the Class I. Additionally, we used sodium butyrate (NaBu) shown in previous studies to up-regulate the expression of germ cell specific markers (these sentences should be come in introduction). Results: We used these two drugs to produce epigenetically stable hESC lines. hESC lines are an appropriate system for disease modeling and understanding developmental stages, therefore producing stable stem cell lines may have an outstanding impact in different research fields such as preventive medicine. Conclusions: X-Chromosome inactivation has been used as a tool to follow the reprogramming process. We have used immunostaining and western blot as methods to follow this reprogramming qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:21603011

  7. Sodium butyrate-induced histone acetylation strengthens the expression of cocaine-associated contextual memory

    PubMed Central

    Itzhak, Yossef; Liddie, Shervin; Anderson, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm entails Pavlovian conditioning and allows evaluating the acquisition and extinction of drug-associated memory. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure by acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins is critical for formation of long-term memory (LTM). We have recently shown that a single administration of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) facilitated extinction of fear-associated memory in mice. Using the CPP paradigm, the present study investigated the effect of NaB on cocaine-associated memory. C57B/6 mice were conditioned by either fixed daily doses of cocaine (5mg/kg × 4 and 15mg/kg × 4 days) or an escalating schedule (3,6,12 and 24mg/kg). Acute administration of NaB (1.2g/kg) prior to conditioning by fixed doses of cocaine increased the expression and impaired the extinction of place preference compared to control subjects. Subjects that were conditioned by 15mg/kg × 4 cocaine and received a single injection of NaB following the first or the second CPP test showed impaired extinction compared to control mice that received saline instead of NaB. Subjects that were conditioned by escalating schedule of cocaine and subsequently received repeated injections of NaB during daily reexposure to nonreinforced context showed either enhancement or no effect on place preference. Acute administration of NaB (1.2g/kg) to naïve mice resulted in marked increase in acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) and histone H4 lysine 8 (H4K8) in hippocampus but not amygdala. Results suggest that regardless of the scheduling of either cocaine or NaB administration, NaB-induced histone hyperacetylation in the hippocampus may strengthen cocaine-associated contextual memory. PMID:23567105

  8. [Determination of geroprotective potential of sodium butyrate in Drosophila melanogaster: long-term effects].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown (Vaiserman A. M. et al., 2012) that the dietary supplementation with histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB) throughout adult stage or both pre-adult and adult stages results in increase of life span (LS) in Drosophila melanogaster. It was suggested that because of the impact of SB on epigenetic control of gene function and therefore possibility of long-term effects, SB supplementation during the larval stage of development only may also increase adult LS. The present study was carried out to verify that assumption. The nutritional supplementation with SB during the larval stage at the concentration of 20 mmol/l resulted in a significant increase in the male mean LS; maximum LS was significantly increased in males treated with SB at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mmol/l. Female mean LS was unchanged following the SB administration; maximum LS was significantly increased in female group treated with SB at concentration of 10 mmol/l only. Female reproductive activity was the same in all groups. To test the hypothesis that the observed long-term effect of SB exposure on the flies' longevity could be caused by the induction of persistent epigenetic changes, the levels of expression of the longevity-associated genes (hsp70, sir2 and InR) were determined. The expression level of sir2 gene, known to mediate longevity in the fly through a pathway related to calorie restriction, in the group treated at the larval stage with 20 mmol/l SB was significantly higher after the stress (starvation) than in the control group.

  9. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves.

    PubMed

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Kiljanczyk, R; Flaga, J; Holst, J J; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2009-10-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole trial period (P<0.15). The NaB calves showed a tendency toward higher reticulorumen weight (P=0.13) and higher reticulorumen weight expressed as a percent of whole stomach weight (P=0.02) as compared to control. Histometry analysis indicated larger rumen papillae length and width (P<0.01) in NaB group, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development in neonatal calves.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Sodium Butyrate against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Li, Haixiao; Zhang, Huiqing; Jin, Jiangtao; Chen, Wenqian; Pang, Mengqi; Yu, Junjie; He, Yiwen; Liu, Jiaming; Liu, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber and serves as an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In this study, we further investigated that NaB attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo and its possible mechanisms. NaB (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically 3 h after the onset of reperfusion in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) mice. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological deficits scores were estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Apoptotic neurons were measured by TUNEL; apoptosis-related protein caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, the phosphorylation Akt (p-Akt), and BDNF were assayed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 10 mg/kg NaB treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficit and histopathology changes in cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, 10 mg/kg NaB treatment markedly restored the levels of MDA, SOD, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. 10 mg/kg NaB treatment also remarkably inhibited the apoptosis, decreasing the levels of caspase-3 and Bax and increasing the levels of Bcl-2, p-Akt, and BDNF. This study suggested that NaB exerts neuroprotective effects on cerebral I/R injury by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties and BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in antiapoptotic effect.

  11. Possible additional antidepressant-like mechanism of sodium butyrate: targeting the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Han, Arum; Sung, Yu-Bin; Chung, Soo-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Chromatin remodeling mediated by histone acetylation might be involved in the pathophysiology and the treatment of depression. Recently, it has been reported that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as sodium butyrate (SB), could be a potential therapeutic agent for depression treatment. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the antidepressant mechanism of SB in the hippocampus. The mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS) for 14 consecutive days (2 h/day) to induce depression-like behaviors. To assess depression-like behaviors, sucrose preference test, light dark test (LD), tail suspension test (TST), and forced swim test (FST) were performed after CRS. We observed that CRS decreased HDAC2 and 5 mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus. In addition, SB co-treatment decreased the depression-like behaviors that are induced by CRS. SB prevented and normalized the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB), acetylation of histone H3 (AceH3), HDAC2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level that were decreased by CRS in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the decreased HDAC2 and 5 expressions in the hippocampus of CRS may be a type of spontaneous coping response against CRS. However, it seems to be unsuccessful to prevent depression induction since reduction of pCREB, AceH3 and BDNF were accompanied by CRS in the hippocampus. Moreover, the reduced AceH3 level may be associated with the decreased pCREB, which appears to lead to the decreased BDNF.

  12. Increasing histone acetylation of cloned embryos, but not donor cells, by sodium butyrate improves their in vitro development in pigs.

    PubMed

    Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that increased histone acetylation in donor cells or cloned embryos, by applying a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) such as trichostatin A (TSA), significantly enhances their developmental competence. However, its effect may vary with the type of HDACi and the target species, with some research showing nonsignificant or detrimental effects of TSA on in vitro and in vivo development of embryos. In this study, we show that sodium salt of butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid produced naturally in the body by bacterial degradation of dietary fibers in the colon and rectum, increases histone acetylation in pig fibroblast and embryos at a concentration of 1.0 and 5.0 mM, respectively. However, treatment of donor cells with NaBu did not affect the rate of blastocyst formation or embryo quality in terms of histone acetylation and total nuclei per blastocyst (p > 0.05). On the contrary, treatment of cloned pig embryos with NaBu for 4 h significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) the rate of blastocyst formation (18.3 +/- 2.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 3.0%), although the total nuclei number per blastocyst did not differ. More importantly, blastocysts generated from NaBu-treated cloned embryos had increased levels of histone acetylation that was comparable to those of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos (36.7 +/- 3.6 vs. 45.9 +/- 2.5). In conclusion, our data suggest that histone hyperacetylation by NaBu treatment of cloned embryos, but not donor cell, enhances their in vitro development up to blastocyst stage.

  13. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1).

  14. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  15. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  16. Eicosanoid modulation by the short-chain fatty acid n-butyrate in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Johannes J; Hölzl, Markus A; Hofer, Johannes; Waidhofer-Söllner, Petra; Sobanov, Yury; Koeffel, René; Saemann, Marcus D; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Zlabinger, Gerhard J

    2013-07-01

    n-Butyrate deriving from bacterial fermentation in the mammalian intestine is a key determinant in gastrointestinal homeostasis. We examined the effects of this short-chain fatty acid and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR) and TLR4 engagement on inflammatory/immunity-associated genes, cyclo-oxygenases (COXs), prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) in human monocytes. Before RNA isolation, freshly isolated human monocytes were co-incubated for different time-points with 1 mm n-butyrate alone or in combination with bacterial stimuli. Based on a knowledge-driven approach, a signature of 180 immunity/inflammation-associated genes was picked and real-time PCR analysis was performed. Pathway analysis was carried out using a web-based database analysing program. Based on these gene expression studies the findings were evaluated at the protein/mediator level by Western blot analysis, FACS and ELISA. Following co-incubation with n-butyrate and lipopolysaccharide, key enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway, like PTGS2 (COX-2), TXS, ALOX5, LTA4H and LTC4S, were significantly up-regulated compared with stimulation with lipopolysaccharide alone. Furthermore, release of the lipid mediators PGE(2), 15d-PGJ(2), LTB(4) and thromboxane B(2) was increased by n-butyrate. Regarding signalling, n-butyrate had no additional effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase and interfered differently with early and late phases of nuclear factor-κB signalling. Our results suggest that among many other mediators of eicosanoid signalling n-butyrate massively induces PGE(2) production by increasing the expression of PTGS2 (COX-2) in monocytes following TLR4 and TLR2 activation and induces secretion of LTB(4) and thromboxane B(2). This underscores the role of n-butyrate as a crucial mediator of gut-specific immunity.

  17. 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( 2,4 - DB ) ; CASRN 94 - 82 - 6 Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of chronic toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several Program Offices and the Office of Research and

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923)

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. PMID:26941139

  19. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-11-20

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications.

  20. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications. PMID:25414496

  1. The SCFA butyrate stimulates the epithelial production of retinoic acid via inhibition of epithelial HDAC.

    PubMed

    Schilderink, Ronald; Verseijden, Caroline; Seppen, Jurgen; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R; Lambers, Tim T; van Tol, Eric A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2016-06-01

    In the intestinal mucosa, retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule. RA is derived from dietary vitamin A (retinol) through conversion by aldehyde dehydrogenases (aldh). Reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with pathological microbial dysbiosis, inflammatory disease, and allergy. We hypothesized that SCFAs contribute to mucosal homeostasis by enhancing RA production in intestinal epithelia. With the use of human and mouse epithelial cell lines and primary enteroids, we studied the effect of SCFAs on the production of RA. Functional RA conversion was analyzed by Adlefluor activity assays. Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells. Epithelial cell line data were replicated in intestinal organoids. In these organoids, butyrate (2-5 mM) upregulated aldh1a3 expression (36-fold over control), whereas aldh1a1 was not significantly affected. Butyrate enhanced maturation markers (Mucin-2 and villin) but did not consistently affect stemness markers or other Wnt target genes (lgr5, olfm4, ascl2, cdkn1). In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition. We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production. PMID:27151945

  2. Effects of sodium butyrate supplementation on reproductive performance and colostrum composition in gilts.

    PubMed

    He, B; Wang, M; Guo, H; Jia, Y; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients are essential for the health and survival of human beings and animals. Also, they play a major role in enhancing reproductive efficiency. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on reproductive performance and colostrum composition in gilts. A total of 40 Large White×Landrace replacement gilts (at the age of 160 to 175 days) were fed either a standard diet (control group, n=20) or standard diet top dressed with encapsulated SB at the level of 500 mg/kg (SB group, n=20) from 1 month before mating to 7 days after farrowing. The rate of gilts regular return to estrus after insemination was lower in SB group than the control group. The total number of piglets born (P=0.179) and the litter weight at birth (P=0.063) did not differ between the two treatment groups. However, the mean BW at day 7 tended to be greater in SB group (P=0.051) and average daily gain of piglets was greater (P=0.011) compared with control group. Colostrum samples were collected at parturition and the concentrations of total protein (P=0.197), cholesterol (P=0.161) and lactose (P=0.923) were not influenced by SB supplementation. However, compared with control gilts, colostrum from SB-treated gilts contained lower triglyceride (P=0.050). Moreover, colostrum concentrations of prolactin (P=0.005) and leptin (P=0.006) were significantly lower in SB group. No significant differences were noted for the colostral concentrations of cortisol (P=0.899), thyroxine (P=0.891) or triiodothyronine (P=0.194). The concentration of lipopolysaccharide in colostrum was not influenced by SB supplementation (P=0.972). However, colostrum from SB-treated gilts had significantly lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (P=0.030) and higher immunoglobulin A (IgA) (P=0.042). Collectively, SB supplementation could reduce the rate of gilts return to estrus, alter the composition of colostrum and enhance the growth rate of piglets. Moreover, SB could alter the immune function

  3. Phase Diagrams of Binary Systems of Non-Mesogenic Components:Caesium-Sodium and Caesium - Lithium Iso-Butyrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuck, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1995-10-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary systems given in the title have been studied by differential thermal analyses and hot stage polarization microscopy. Smectic liquid crystals are found in some composition ranges of the binary with sodium iso-butyrate. The liquid crystal appearance in this system is explained by latent mesomorphism of both components and by the additional electrostatic stabilization of the ionic mesophase because of dissimilar cation interactions. The unlike conditions for the exhibition of latent mesomorphism of caesium isobutyrate in the two systems is discussed.

  4. Uptake and metabolism of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Stuart M; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as an energy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism (s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.

  5. Sodium butyrate induces apoptosis in human colonic tumour cell lines in a p53-independent pathway: implications for the possible role of dietary fibre in the prevention of large-bowel cancer.

    PubMed

    Hague, A; Manning, A M; Hanlon, K A; Huschtscha, L I; Hart, D; Paraskeva, C

    1993-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cultured colonic adenoma and carcinoma cells undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) in vitro and whether specific growth and dietary factors, thought to be involved in the control of growth and differentiation of human colonic cells, could induce cell death through apoptosis. In cell lines originating from 6 colorectal adenomas and 7 carcinomas, spontaneous apoptosis was observed. Sodium butyrate, a naturally occurring fatty acid, is present in the human large bowel in millimolar amounts as a result of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre. Sodium butyrate, at physiological concentrations, induced apoptosis in 2 adenoma cell lines, RG/C2 and AA/Cl, and in the carcinoma cell line PC/JW/FI. In contrast, transforming growth factor beta 1, which is thought to have an important role in the control of growth in colonic epithelium, did not induce apoptosis. Neither RG/C2 nor PC/JW/FI contain wild-type p53, therefore this tumour-suppressor gene is not required to mediate signals for the induction of apoptosis in colonic tumour cells. Our studies report the induction of apoptosis in colonic tumour cells by the naturally occurring fatty acid sodium butyrate. Since sodium butyrate is produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre, the observation that this fatty acid can induce apoptosis could, in part, explain why a high-fibre diet appears to be protective against colon cancer. Escape from the induction of programmed cell death may be an important event in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  6. Efficacy of protected sodium butyrate, a protected blend of essential oils, their combination, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spore suspension against artificially induced necrotic enteritis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jerzsele, A; Szeker, K; Csizinszky, R; Gere, E; Jakab, C; Mallo, J J; Galfi, P

    2012-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens leads to serious economical losses to the poultry industry. There is a growing need to find effective, nontoxic, antibiotic alternatives to prevent and cure the disease. In our study, the efficacy of protected sodium butyrate at 1.5 g/kg (BP70), a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spore suspension with 10(9) cfu/g (BAL; Ecobiol), a protected blend of essential oils (1%) at 1.5 g/kg (EO), and a combination of sodium butyrate with essential oils (1%) protected with vegetable fat at 1.5 g/kg (BP70+EO; Natesse) was investigated in an artifical C. perfringens-infection model. Body weight gain, gross pathological and histopathological lesion scores, villus lengths, and villus length:crypt depth ratio was determined and compared with the control group. Broilers infected with C. perfringens and treated with essential oils or the combination of sodium butyrate and essential oils showed significantly better BW gain (P < 0.05), increased villus length and villus length:crypt depth ratio (P < 0.001), and decreased gross pathological and histopathological lesion scores (P < 0.05) compared with the control. Sodium butyrate alone and B. amyloliquefaciens spore suspension had no beneficial effects on the course of the disease in this study. According to our results, the protected combination of sodium butyrate and essential oils, as well as the protected essential oils, can be potential candidates for the prevention and treatment of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. PMID:22399722

  7. Induction of B-lymphocyte antigens on the chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562 using sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J K; Berridge, M V

    1987-05-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disorder arising from a defect in the hemopoietic stem cell. Consequently, the malignant clone can involve all cells within the stem cell's capacity for differentiation, including erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and lymphocytes. Similarly, the K562 cell line, which was derived from a patient with CML, has been shown to be capable of differentiation towards erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and megakaryocytes, and in this respect may represent a model of the hemopoietic stem cell. However, although K562 shows properties of a myeloid stem cell, no lymphocyte-specific features or differentiation have yet been described. In the present study, K562 cells have been induced to differentiate by culture in the presence of sodium butyrate. The direction and extent of induced differentiation over 12 days were determined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies and with cytochemical stains. This treatment consistently induced expression of pre-B-cell markers, including B-lymphocyte-specific B4 and B1, and of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), recognized by J5. In addition to the increased expression of B-lymphocyte markers, butyrate induction of K562 resulted in a decrease in granulocyte markers, increases in certain monocyte and platelet markers, and an increase in beta 2 microglobulin expression. Butyrate-induced expression of B-lymphocyte markers was not observed with the myelomonocytic cell line U937. The expression of B-lymphocyte-specific antigens on butyrate-induced K562 may result from the relaxed control of gene expression, but alternatively these observations may indicate the lymphoid-myeloid stem cell nature of K562.

  8. Comparative effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Mei; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets. A total of 52 primiparous sows (Large White) were randomly divided into four treatments (n = 13) and received 6 g/kg sodium butyrate (SB), fruit-milk (FM) flavor and fruit-milk-anise (FMA) flavor with pair feeding to the mothers receiving the control diet. The feeding trial lasted for 29 days, including 21 days of nursing and 8 days of post-weaning period, respectively. The nursing and weaning piglets received creep diets with the same flavor or SB supplement as their mother. The results showed that FMA flavor increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows (P < 0.01), as well as improved litter weight gain (P = 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) of nursing pigs among treatments. Indeed, greater ADFI and average daily gain of weaning piglets for the initial 8 days after weaning was observed in the FMA group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that adding FMA flavor was superior to SB for increasing feed intake of lactating sows and improving growth performance of piglets.

  9. Dietary sodium butyrate alleviates the oxidative stress induced by corticosterone exposure and improves meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W H; Gao, F; Zhu, Q F; Li, C; Jiang, Y; Dai, S F; Zhou, G H

    2011-11-01

    The present study was to investigate the effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate (SB) and acute pre-slaughter stress, mimicked by subcutaneous corticosterone (CORT) administration, on BW, carcass characteristics, muscle antioxidant status, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 120 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed a control diet (without SB) or a 0.4-g microencapsulated SB/kg diet. On 42 d, half of the birds from each treatment were given 1 single subcutaneous injection of CORT (4 mg/kg of BW in corn oil) to mimic acute stress, whereas the other half were injected with the same amount of corn oil (sham control). Three hours later, BW loss was determined and breast meat samples were collected. The results showed that the BW of the CORT-challenged groups lost much more than the sham control group (P < 0.001), whereas it was alleviated by the dietary microencapsulated SB (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the catalase activity was decreased and malondialdehyde level was increased by the stress (P < 0.05), and the microencapsulated-SB diet significantly inhibited this effect (P < 0.05). Lower pH values and higher yellowness values were also observed in CORT-challenged chickens (P < 0.05), and the microencapsulated-SB diet treatment partially exerted a preventive effect. Microencapsulated SB significantly decreased the contents of saturated fatty acids and C18:0 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001), and increased C20:0 and C20:4 contents. However, the effect of the stress treatment on fatty acid composition was insignificant (P > 0.05). In addition, diet and stress did not significantly influence carcass characteristics and the chemical composition of breast meat (P > 0.05). These results suggest that microencapsulated SB was favorable for chickens in the presence of stress, which may be partially ascribed to the ability of SB to decrease catabolism and oxidative injury of tissues.

  10. Thermotropic ionic liquid crystals. II. 1H and 23Na NMR study of the smectic mesophase of molten sodium n-butyrate and sodium isovalerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, J. E.; Eguchi, T.; Plesko, S.; Jonas, J.

    1983-08-01

    The 1H and 23Na NMR studies of smectic ionic mesophases of molten sodium n-butyrate and sodium isovalerate are reported over the temperature range of the stability of the liquid crystalline phases. The 1H spin-lattice relaxation times T1 at ν0=9.2, 24.3, and 60 MHz for the anions of both the systems are interpreted in terms of diffusion intermolecular relaxation mechanism. The predicted anion diffusion coefficients are in agreement with those measured directly by spin-echo technique and indicate that the anion diffuses rapidly. In contrast to the T1 relaxation mechanism the results obtained for the proton relaxation times in the rotating coordinate frame T1ρ indicate that the order-fluctuation relaxation mechanism determines the frequency dispersion of T1ρ. The analysis of the T1ρ data provides an approximate measure of the order parameter S as a function of temperature. Fourier transform spectra of the 23Na transitions show that the electric field gradient (EFG) at the Na+ ion is nonaveraged and of such a strength as to produce a second order quadrupole effect in the spectra of the central transition. From the first-order splitting, the quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) is obtained as a function of temperature. The gradual temperature change of QCC demonstrates that only a single liquid crystalline phase exists over the temperature interval of the stability of the smectic mesophase. Using approximate analysis the correlation time τc for the EFG fluctuation is obtained from the 23Na T1 data for the melts of both sodium n-butyrate and sodium isovalerate.

  11. Cortical and subcortical gamma amino acid butyric acid deficits in anxiety and stress disorders: Clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress disorders are a major public health issue. However, their pathophysiology is still unclear. The gamma amino acid butyric acid (GABA) neurochemical system has been strongly implicated in their pathogenesis and treatment by numerous preclinical and clinical studies, the most recent of which have been highlighted and critical review in this paper. Changes in cortical GABA appear related to normal personality styles and responses to stress. While there is accumulating animal and human neuroimaging evidence of cortical and subcortical GABA deficits across a number of anxiety conditions, a clear pattern of findings in specific brain regions for a given disorder is yet to emerge. Neuropsychiatric conditions with anxiety as a clinical feature may have GABA deficits as an underlying feature. Different classes of anxiolytic therapies support GABA function, and this may be an area in which newer GABA neuroimaging techniques could soon offer more personalized therapy. Novel GABAergic pharmacotherapies in development offer potential improvements over current therapies in reducing sedative and physiologic dependency effects, while offering rapid anxiolysis. PMID:27014597

  12. Proboscis Conditioning Experiments with Honeybees, Apis Mellifera Caucasica, with Butyric Acid and DEET Mixture as Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T. Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L.; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee. PMID:20879917

  13. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  14. Sodium Butyrate: a Chemical Inducer of In Vivo Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Ocular Mouse Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Donna M.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Hill, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the chromatin structures associated with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome during latency, particularly with regard to specific histone tail modifications such as acetylation and dimethylation. The objective of our present study was to develop a rapid systemic method of in vivo HSV-1 reactivation to further explore the changes that occur in the chromatin structures associated with HSV-1 at early time points after the initiation of HSV reactivation. We present a uniform, rapid, and reliable method of in vivo HSV-1 reactivation in mice that yields high reactivation frequencies (75 to 100%) by using sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and demonstrate that the reactivating virus can be detected at the original site of infection. PMID:17360760

  15. Sodium butyrate induces differentiation of gastric cancer cells to intestinal cells via the PTEN/phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhongtao; Ye, Yingjiang; Wang, Shan

    2010-12-01

    NaB (sodium butyrate) inhibits cell proliferation and induces differentiation in a variety of tumour cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether NaB induced differentiation and regulated the expression of the mucosal factor MUC2 through the PTEN/PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway. BGC823 cells treated with NaB for 24-72 h showed marked inhibition of cell proliferation and alteration in cellular morphology. NaB treatment markedly increased the expression of PTEN and MUC2, but it decreased the expression of PI3K. These effects were enhanced by intervention with PI3K inhibitors and were reduced by intervention with PTEN siRNA. Hence, we conclude that NaB increased PTEN expression, promoted the expression of MUC2 and induced the differentiation of gastric cancer cells through the PTEN/PI3K signalling pathway.

  16. Study of liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin with sodium butyrate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu

    2016-08-01

    The liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin and sodium butyrate with tetrabutylammonium bromide as a phase transfer catalyst was studied in this paper. The shrinking core model was applied. The analysis of the reaction based on the kinetic model showed a reaction-controlled regime at temperatures varying from 90 to 100°C. The exterior diffusivity was removed between 300 and 400 rpm. The internal diffusivity was removed when the particle size was 2 × 10-4 m. Reaction rate constants were calculated at different temperatures. The correlation was obtained when the proposed kinetic model was applied to all the experimental data for predictive evaluations and the activation energy was 37.01 kJ mol-1.

  17. Thalidomide is more efficient than sodium butyrate in enhancing GATA-1 and EKLF gene expression in erythroid progenitors derived from HSCs with β-globin gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Jalali Far, Mohammad Ali; Dehghani Fard, Ali; Hajizamani, Saiedeh; Mossahebi-Mohammadi, Majid; Yaghooti, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficient induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is considered as an effective therapeutic approach in beta thalassemia. HbF inducer agents can induce the expression of γ-globin gene and produce high levels of HbF via different epigenetic and molecular mechanisms. Thalidomide and sodium butyrate are known as HbF inducer drugs. Material and methods: CD133+ stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood of a newborn with minor β-thalassemia in order to evaluate the effects of these two drugs on the in vitro expression of GATA-1 and EKLF genes as erythroid transcription factors. CD133+ stem cells were expanded and differentiated into erythroid lineage and then treated with thalidomide and sodium butyrate and finally analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using student’s t-test by SPSS software. Results: Thalidomide and sodium butyrate increased GATA-1 and EKLF gene expression, compared to the non-treated control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Thalidomide was more efficient than sodium butyrate in augmenting expression of GATA-1 and EKLF genes. It seems that GATA-1 and EKLF have crucial roles in the efficient induction of HbF by thalidomide. PMID:27047649

  18. Sodium butyrate improves locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, R; O'Brien, L M; Ahmad, S T

    2013-08-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the dopaminergic neurons in the nigrastriatal pathway resulting in debilitating motor impairment in both familial and sporadic cases. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been recently implicated as a therapeutic candidate because of their ability to correct the disrupted HDAC activity in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Sodium butyrate (SB), an HDAC inhibitor, reduces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a mutant alpha-synuclein Drosophila transgenic model of familial PD. Chronic exposure to the pesticide rotenone also causes selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and causes locomotor impairment and early mortality in a Drosophila model of chemically induced PD. This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate on locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced PD model. We show that treatment with 10mM SB-supplemented food rescued the rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality in flies. Additionally, flies with the genetic knockdown of HDAC activity through Sin3A loss-of-function mutation (Sin3A(lof)) were resistant to rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality. Furthermore, SB-supplemented Sin3A(lof) flies had a modest additive effect for improving locomotor impairment. We also show SB-mediated improvement of rotenone-induced locomotor impairment was associated with elevated dopamine levels in the brain. However, the possibility of SB-mediated protective role through mechanisms independent from dopamine system is also discussed. These findings demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors like SB can ameliorate locomotor impairment in a rotenone-induced PD model.

  19. Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Its Synthetic Amide Derivative on Liver Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in an Animal Model of Steatosis Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Simeoli, Raffaele; Russo, Roberto; Iacono, Anna; Santoro, Anna; Paciello, Orlando; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Canani, Roberto Berni; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be critical in its pathogenesis. We evaluated the effects of sodium butyrate (butyrate) and its synthetic derivative N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA) in a rat model of insulin resistance and steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Methods After weaning, young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups receiving different diets for 6 weeks: 1. control group (standard diet); 2. HFD; 3. HFD plus butyrate (20 mg/kg/die) and 4. HFD plus FBA (42.5 mg/Kg/die, the equimolecular dose of butyrate). Liver tissues of the rats were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR. Insulin resistance, liver inflammation and Toll-like pattern modifications were determined. Results Evaluation of these two preparations of butyrate showed a reduction of liver steatosis and inflammation in HFD fed animals. The compounds showed a similar potency in the normalisation of several variables, such as transaminases, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index, and glucose tolerance. Both treatments significantly reduced hepatic TNF-α expression and restored GLUTs and PPARs, either in liver or adipose tissue. Finally, FBA showed a higher potency in reducing pro-inflammatory parameters in the liver, via suppression of Toll-like receptors and NF-κB activation. Conclusions Our results demonstrated a protective effect of butyrate in limiting molecular events underlying the onset of IR and NAFLD, suggesting a potential clinical relevance for this substance. In particular, its derivative, FBA, could represent an alternative therapeutic option to sodium butyrate, sharing a comparable efficacy, but a better palatability and compliance. PMID:23861927

  20. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation. PMID:25123894

  1. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation.

  2. Sterically controlled azomethine ylide cycloaddition polymerization of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Meera; Ramanitra, Hasina H; Santos Silva, Hugo; Dowland, Simon; Bégué, Didier; Genevičius, Kristijonas; Arlauskas, Kęstutis; Juška, Gytis; Morse, Graham E; Distler, Andreas; Hiorns, Roger C

    2016-05-01

    Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is polymerized simply using a one-pot reaction to yield soluble, high molecular weight polymers. The sterically controlled azomethine ylide cycloaddition polymerization (SACAP) is demonstrated to be highly adaptable and yields polymers with probable Mn≈ 24 600 g mol(-1) and Mw≈ 73 800 g mol(-1). Products are metal-free and of possible benefit to organic and hybrid photovoltaics and electronics as they form thin films from solution and have raised LUMOs. The promising electronic properties of this new polymer are discussed. PMID:27066898

  3. Improved In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid Loaded in Cholesteryl Butyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Lima, Flávia Alves; Carneiro, Guilherme; Ramos Jonas Periera; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2016-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid, a hydrophobic drug, has become one of the most successful examples of differentiation agents used for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. On the other hand, histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as cholesteryl butyrate, present differentiating activity and.can potentiate action of drugs such as all-trans retinoic acid. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent a promising alternative for administration of hydrophobic drugs such as ATRA. This study aimed to develop, characterize, and evaluate the cytotoxicity of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for leukemia treatment. The influence of in situ formation of an ion pairing between all-trans retinoic acid and lipophilic amines on the characteristics of the particles (size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency) was evaluated. Cholesteryl butyrate, a butyric acid donor, was used as a component of the lipid matrix. In vitro activity on cell viability and distribution of cell cycle phases were evaluated for HL-60, Jurkat, and THP-1 cell lines. The encapsulation efficiency of all-trans retinoic acid in cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles was significantly increased by the presence of the amine. Inhibition of cell viability by all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was more pronounced than the free drug. Analysis of the distribution of cell cycle phases also showed increased activity for all-trans retinoic acid-loaded cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles, with a clear increase in subdiploid DNA content. The ion pair formation in SLN containing cholesteryl butyrate can be explored as a simple and inexpensive strategy to improve the efficacy and bioavail-ability of ATRA in the treatment of the cancer and metabolic diseases in which this retinoid plays an important role. PMID:27433579

  4. [A new butyric acid-producing bacteroides species: B. splanchnicus n. sp. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Rintelen, G; Kunstek-Santos, H

    1975-01-01

    Three butyric acid-producing saccharolytic Bacteroides cultures (1651/6, BM 158, and IPP 3751) were described by WERNER and REICHERTZ in 1971 (Zbl.Bakt.Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. A 217,206-216). Since then, 6 strains closely resembling 1651/6 were isolated from stool specimens and surgically removed appendices. In the present communication, strains 1651/6, S2/34, S3/38, S4/28, S6/6, A5/2 are described as members of a new species, Bacteroides splanchnicus n.sp. The strains were morphologically very similar (Gram negative non-sporing non-motile rods, 1-2.5 mu in length and 0.7 mu in width) and fermented glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, lactose, and arabinose (pH values of 4.6-5.4, moderate gas formation). Negative reactions (pH values of 5.8-7.2) were observed with 20 other carbohydrates. The strains were positive in the glutamic acid decarboxylase test and formed indole and H2S. In peptone-yeast extract broth and peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acids were produced. Washed cells of strains 1651/6 and S4/28 incubated anaerobically in sterile solutions of single amino acids produced butyrate from lysine only. Abundant butyric acid was also produced from glucose. The in vitro activity of 15 antibiotics on 5 strains was studied by broth dilution tests. Uniformly, the strains showed resistance to aminoglycosides and polymyxins (MIC values, 60-500 mug/ml) and susceptibility to tetracyclines, lincomycin, clindamycin, rifampicin, and erythromycin (MIC values, 0.05-0.5 mug/ml). Chloramphenicol, penicillins, and cephalosporins showed bacteriostatic activity at concentrations of 5-40 mug/ml. The serological behaviour of 5 strains was studied in cross-agglutination and gel-diffusion experiments. Cross-reactivity was pronounced in gel-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera and autoclaved extracts and extracts prepared by repeated deep-freezing and thawing of whole cell suspensions as antigens. However, antisera against the

  5. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have "anti-obesity properties" by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26167409

  6. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  7. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals' digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  8. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals' digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  9. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals’ digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  10. [Simultaneous determination of clevidipine butyrate and its metabolite clevidipine acid in dog blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui-hui; Gu, Yuan; Liu, Yan-ping; Wei, Guang-li; Chen, Yong; Liu, Chang-xiao; Si, Duan-yun

    2015-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clevidipine butyrate and its primary metabolite clevidipine acid in dog blood. After one-step protein precipitation with methanol, the chromatographic separation was carried out on an Ecosil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 5 mmol · L(-1) ammonium formate. A chromatographic total run time of 13.0 min was achieved. The quantitation analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at the specific ion transitions of m/z 454.1 [M-H]- --> m/z 234.1 for clevidipine butyrate, m/z 354.0 [M-H]- --> m/z 208.0 for clevidipine acid and m/z 256.1 [M-H]- --> m/z 227.1 for elofesalamide (internal standard, IS) in the negative ion mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The linear calibration curves for clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid were obtained in the concentration ranges of 0.5-100 ng · mL and 1-200 ng · mL(-1), separately. The lower limit of quantification of clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid were 0.5 ng · mL(-1) and 1 ng · mL(-1). The intra and inter-assay precisions were all below 12.9%, the accuracies were all in standard ranges. Stability testing indicated that clevidipine butyrate and clevidipine acid in dog blood with the addition of denaturant methanol was stable under various processing and/or handling conditions. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of clevidipine butyrate injection to 8 healthy Beagle dogs following intravenous infusion at a flow rate of 5 mg · h(-1) for 0.5 h.

  11. Sodium butyrate promotes the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to smooth muscle cells through histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingxia; Wang, Yanzhou; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing; Liang, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Establishing an effective method to improve stem cell differentiation is crucial in stem cell transplantation. Here we aimed to explore whether and how sodium butyrate (NaB) induces rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We found that NaB significantly suppressed MSC proliferation and promoted MSCs differentiation into SMCs, as evidenced by the enhanced expression of SMC specific genes in the MSCs. Co-culturing the MSCs with SMCs in a transwell system promoted the differentiation of MSCs into SMCs. NaB again promoted MSC differentiation in this system. Furthermore, NaB enhanced the acetylation of SMC gene-associated H3K9 and H4, and decreased the expression of HDAC2 and down-regulated the recruitment of HDAC2 to the promoter regions of SMC specific genes. Finally, we found that NaB significantly promoted MSC depolarization and increased the intracellular calcium level of MSCs upon carbachol stimulation. These results demonstrated that NaB effectively promotes MSC differentiation into SMCs, possibly by the marked inhibition of HDAC2 expression and disassociation of HDAC2 recruitment to SMC specific genes in MSCs, which further induces high levels of H3K9ace and H4ace and the enhanced expression of target genes, and this strategy could potentially be applied in clinical tissue engineering and cell transplantation. PMID:25548915

  12. Sodium butyrate exerts neuroprotective effects by restoring the blood-brain barrier in traumatic brain injury mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixiao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Ding, Guoqiang; Chen, Wenqian; Fang, Renchi; Yao, Ye; Pang, Mengqi; Lu, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Jiaming

    2016-07-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) has been widely used to treat cerebral diseases. The aim of the present study is to examine the neuroprotective effects of SB on early TBI in mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. TBI was induced using a modified weight-drop method. Neurological deficits were evaluated according to the neurological severity score (NSS), brain oedema was measured by brain water content, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was evaluated by Evans blue (EB) dye extravasation. Neuronal injury was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and Fluoro-Jade C staining. The expression of tight junction-associated proteins, such as occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), was analysed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Our results showed that mice subjected to TBI exhibited worsened NSS, brain oedema, neuronal damage and BBB permeability. However, these were all attenuated by SB. Moreover, SB reversed the decrease in occludin and ZO-1 expression induced by TBI. These findings suggest that SB might attenuate neurological deficits, brain oedema, neuronal change and BBB damage, as well as increase occludin and ZO-1 expression in the brain to protect against TBI. The protective effect of SB may be correlated with restoring the BBB following its impairment. PMID:27017959

  13. Transient exposure to sodium butyrate after germinal vesicle breakdown improves meiosis but not developmental competence in pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limei; Song, Guangqi; Gao, Fei; Guan, Jiyu; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2012-05-01

    Oocyte maturation is a complex process during which epigenetic modifications are dramatically changed, especially histone acetylation and phosphorylation. We have investigated the effects of NaBu (sodium butyrate), a natural HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor, on porcine oocyte maturation at different stages and subsequent embryonic development to improve IVF (in vitro fertilization) and embryo production. COCs (cumulus oocyte complexes) were cultured, IVM (in vitro maturation) supplemented with 1 mM NaBu before or after GVBD [GV (germinal vesicle) breakdown] during maturation. NaBu delayed oocyte meiosis in the GV and GVBD stages in an exposure-dependent manner. However, the short treatment with 1 mM NaBu after GVBD significantly improved the meiotic competence. No positive effects of NaBu on GSH levels and subsequent embryonic development following IVF were seen. Transient exposure to NaBu after GVBD improves meiotic competence, but not subsequently, probably by having an effect on histone acetylation during oocyte maturation.

  14. Low Concentration of Sodium Butyrate from Ultrabraid+NaBu suture, Promotes Angiogenesis and Tissue Remodelling in Tendon-bones Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghui; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Castro, Pollyana Ribeiro; Treacy, John; Ashworth, Jason; Slevin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu), a form of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acts classically as a potent anti-angiogenic agent in tumour angiogenesis models, some authors demonstrated that low concentrations of NaBu may contribute to healing of tendon-bone injury in part at least through promotion of tissue remodelling. Here, we investigated the effects of low-range concentrations of NaBu using in vitro and in vivo assays using angiogenesis as the primary outcome measure and the mechanisms through which it acts. We demonstrated that NaBu, alone or perfused from the UltraBraid+NaBu suture was pro-angiogenic at very low-range doses promoting migration, tube formation and cell invasion in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Furthermore, cell exposure to low NaBu concentrations increased expression of proteins involved in angiogenic cell signalling, including p-PKCβ1, p-FAK, p-ERK1/2, p-NFκβ, p-PLCγ1 and p-VEGFR2. In addition, inhibitors of both VEGFR2 and PKCβ1 blocked the angiogenic response. In in vivo assays, low concentrations of NaBu induced neovascularization in sponge implants in mice, evidenced by increased numbers of vessels and haemoglobin content in these implants. The findings in this study indicate that low concentrations of NaBu could be an important compound to stimulate angiogenesis at a site where vasculature is deficient and healing is compromised. PMID:27694930

  15. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  16. Effects of sodium butyrate on expression of members of the IGF-binding protein superfamily in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, J; Choi, W K; Ingermann, A R; Twigg, S M; Kim, H S; Rosenfeld, R G; Oh, Y

    2001-04-01

    Dietary factors play an important role in both the development and prevention of human cancers, including breast carcinoma. One dietary micronutrient, sodium butyrate (NaB), is a major end product of dietary starch and fiber, produced naturally during digestion by anaerobic bacteria in the cecum and colon. NaB is a potent growth inhibitor and initiates cell differentiation for many cell types in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of NaB on three human mammary epithelial cells and regulation of the IGF axis, specifically, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a known growth regulator in human mammary cells, and IGFBP-related protein 2 (IGFBP-rP2)/connective tissue growth factor. NaB inhibited DNA synthesis, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, in estrogen-responsive (MCF-7) and estrogen-non-responsive (Hs578T) breast cancer cells, and normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to a similar degree (up to 90% inhibition at 1-10 mM concentrations). Treatment of cells with NaB induced histone hyperacetylation, suggesting that NaB exerts its biological effects, at least in part, as a histone deacetylase inhibitor in mammary epithelial cells. Treatment of Hs578T cells with NaB caused an induction of apoptotic cell death. NaB treatment resulted in increased levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1) mRNA and protein in Hs578T cells and distinct upregulation of p27(Kip1) in HMEC, suggesting that NaB activates different genes involved in cell cycle arrest, depending upon the cell type. In the same context, among the IGFBP superfamily members tested, NaB specifically upregulated the expression of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-rP2. These two proteins are known to be involved in inhibition of mammary epithelial cell replication. Northern blot analysis showed that NaB treatment at 1-10 mM concentrations caused a dose-dependent stimulation of IGFBP-3 mRNA expression in cancerous cells and IGFBP-rP2 mRNA expression in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Protein data from Western ligand

  17. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. PMID:26672465

  18. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  19. Transport of sodium across the isolated bovine rumen epithelium: interaction with short-chain fatty acids, chloride and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Moller, P D; Skadhauge, E

    1996-01-01

    Unidirectional transport rates of sodium (22Na+) and chloride (36Cl-) across bovine rumen epithelium were measured in vitro by the Ussing chamber technique. The active and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-stimulated sodium transport was shown to fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and was rate limited mainly by one transport system, characterized by a Km of 43 mmol l-1 Na+ and a Jmax (maximal transport rate) of 6.2 mumol cm-2 h-1 Na+. It was confirmed that the basolateral Na+,K(+)-ATPase was essential for active sodium transport, and that an apical amiloride-sensitive sodium transport system (Na(+)-H+ exchange) was involved in a minimum of 60-70% of the active sodium transport in the presence of SCFAs (butyrate). The main part of both the mucosal-serosal (MS) and serosal-mucosal (SM) sodium flux was sensitive to an applied electrical potential difference (PD). It is noteworthy that an applied PD, equal to the in vivo PD (+30 mV, lumen as reference), abolished net transport of sodium. The stimulating effect of a mixture of acetate, propionate and butyrate on active sodium transport was confirmed, and it was further shown that the stimulating effect of each of the three SCFAs was nearly equal. Analogues of naturally occurring SCFAs (isobutyrate and 2-ethyl-butyrate) did not stimulate active sodium transport, but inhibited the stimulating effect of butyrate. The stimulating effect of butyrate was clearly concentration dependent and showed a maximum at approximately 20 mmol l-1 butyrate. Above this limit active sodium transport was decreased with increasing butyrate concentration. This suggests that there was a limit to the amount of butyrate that could be handled by the epithelium. The active sodium transport was clearly correlated with the chloride concentration, and was significantly reduced, but not abolished, by replacement of chloride with gluconate. Active transport of chloride was stimulated by butyrate and reduced by the Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor amiloride (3 mmol l

  20. Augmentation of Sodium Butyrate-induced Apoptosis by Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Inhibition in the Human Cervical Cancer Cell-line

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Kyu; Cho, Chi Heum; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Shin, So Jin; Kwon, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Sun Young

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Sodium butyrate (NaBT) is principally a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, and it has the potential to arrest HPV-positive carcinoma cells at the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. The aim of study was to determine whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition can enhance the inhibitory effect of NaBT on a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Materials and Methods Cervical cancer cells (HeLa) were treated with NaBT alone or in combination with the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002. Cell viability analysis and FACS analysis were carried out. The expressions of the cell cycle related proteins were evaluated by Western-blot analysis. Results Inhibition of PI3K enhanced NaBT-mediated apoptosis and this decreased the HeLa cell viability. Either wortmannin or LY294002, combined with NaBT, enhanced the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, and this enhanced the subsequent cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Cervical cancer cells were arrested in the subG1 and G2/M phase, as was detected by FACS analysis. NaBT treatment in combination with PI3K inhibitors showed the increased expression of the CDK inhibitors p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1, in a p53 dependent manner, and also the increased dephosphorylation of Rb whereas there was a reduction in the expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Conclusion The results demonstrate that inhibition of PI3K enhances NaBT-mediated cervical cancer cell apoptosis through the activation of the caspase pathway. Moreover, these findings will support future investigation using the PI3K inhibitors in combination with adjuvant treatment for treating carcinoma of the cervix. PMID:19771269

  1. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Sabita N; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells.

  2. Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua V; Frassetto, Andrea; Kowalik, Edward J; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Lu, Mofei M; Kosinski, Jennifer R; Hubert, James A; Szeto, Daphne; Yao, Xiaorui; Forrest, Gail; Marsh, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates. Butyrate and acetate were reported to protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia, while propionate was shown to reduce food intake. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are unclear. It was suggested that SCFAs may regulate gut hormones via their endogenous receptors Free fatty acid receptors 2 (FFAR2) and 3 (FFAR3), but direct evidence is lacking. We examined the effects of SCFA administration in mice, and show that butyrate, propionate, and acetate all protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, induce gut hormones and reduce food intake. As FFAR3 is the common receptor activated by butyrate and propionate, we examined these effects in FFAR3-deficient mice. The effects of butyrate and propionate on body weight and food intake are independent of FFAR3. In addition, FFAR3 plays a minor role in butyrate stimulation of Glucagon-like peptide-1, and is not required for butyrate- and propionate-dependent induction of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Finally, FFAR3-deficient mice show normal body weight and glucose homeostasis. Stimulation of gut hormones and food intake inhibition by butyrate and propionate may represent a novel mechanism by which gut microbiota regulates host metabolism. These effects are largely intact in FFAR3-deficient mice, indicating additional mediators are required for these beneficial effects.

  3. Resistance to butyrate impairs bile acid-induced apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells via up-regulation of Bcl-2 and inactivation of Bax.

    PubMed

    Barrasa, Juan I; Santiago-Gómez, Angélica; Olmo, Nieves; Lizarbe, María Antonia; Turnay, Javier

    2012-12-01

    A critical risk factor in colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor therapy is the resistance to the apoptotic effects of different compounds from the intestinal lumen, among them butyrate (main regulator of colonic epithelium homeostasis). Insensitivity to butyrate-induced apoptosis yields resistance to other agents, as bile acids or chemotherapy drugs, allowing the selective growth of malignant cell subpopulations. Here we analyze bile acid-induced apoptosis in a butyrate-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (BCS-TC2.BR2) to determine the mechanisms that underlay the resistance to these agents in comparison with their parental butyrate-sensitive BCS-TC2 cells. This study demonstrates that DCA and CDCA still induce apoptosis in butyrate-resistant cells through increased ROS production by activation of membrane-associated enzymes and subsequent triggering of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Although this mechanism is similar to that described in butyrate-sensitive cells, cell viability is significantly higher in resistant cells. Moreover, butyrate-resistant cells show higher Bcl-2 levels that confer resistance to bile acid-induced apoptosis sequestering Bax and avoiding Bax-dependent pore formation in the mitochondria. We have confirmed that this resistance is reverted using the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263, thus demonstrating that the lower sensitivity of butyrate-resistant cells to the apoptotic effects of bile acids is mainly due to increased Bcl-2 levels.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity. PMID:26770185

  5. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  6. Performance evaluation of biofilters and biotrickling filters in odor control of n-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Han, Zhiying; Wu, Weixiang; Shi, Dezhi; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Wenhong

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of swine production in China, odor pollution associated with piggery facilities has become an increasing environmental concern. N-butyric acid (n-BA) is one of the key odor compounds selected to represent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) found in piggery facilities. In this study, two biofilters (BFs) packed with compost (BFC) or sludge (BFS) and two biotrickling filters (BTFs) packed with pall rings (BTFP) or multidimensional hollow balls (BTFM), respectively, were compared with regard to their performances in the removal of n-BA. The non-biological removal capacities of packing material of the bioreactors on a per unit volume basis were BFS>BFC>BTFM>BTFP. Maximum biological removal capacities per unit volume of packing material of the bioreactors all exceeded 9.1 kg/m(3)·d and in the order of BFC>BTFM>BFS>BTFP. Kinetic analysis as well as overall evaluation by radar graphs showed that the BTFs achieved superior removal rates to the BFs in the order of BTFM>BTFP>BFC>BFS. The biotrickling filter packed with multidimensional hollow balls could be an effective technology for VFAs removal. Results from this research provide economical and effective alternatives for odor control in piggery facilities.

  7. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

  8. Cancer cell sensitization and improved treatment efficacy by combined sodium butyrate and paclitaxel formulations is cancer-type specific.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Ilia; Cohen, Keren; Bod, Tal; Argov, Mirit; Margalit, Rimona

    2014-01-30

    We queried whether cancer treatment by combinations of paclitaxel and butyrate - free or formulated in drug delivery systems - can improve therapeutic responses compared to each drug alone. Combination treatments were conducted with HT-29 and HeLa cells, as representatives of differentiation-induced and cell-death-induced cancer lines, respectively. Pre-treatment of the HT-29 cells with butyrate (at doses inducing differentiation), followed by butyrate+paclitaxel generated changes in cell cycle profile, increased the level of dead cells beyond that of each drug alone, and allowed reduction in paclitaxel doses. A similar combination treatment of HeLa cells was detrimental, indicating that whether the combination is beneficial or not is cancer-type specific. We hypothesize that while butyrate-treated HT-29 cells became sensitive to paclitaxel-induced Fas-mediated apoptosis, butyrate-adapted HeLa cells became apoptosis-resistant. We next tested the same drug combination on HT-29 cells, but each drug in a specific tumor-targeted carrier. The combination of drug carriers outperformed an equidose combination of the free drugs, showing potential to achieve high therapeutic responses (even in drug-resistant cells) at significantly lower and detergent-free paclitaxel doses, which should allow for reduction in adverse effects and risks of toxicity.

  9. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on maturation of the small intestine in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR), starter mixture (SM), or both on small intestine maturation in newborn calves was investigated. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (± 1) d were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 groups (7 animals per group) and fed (1) MR and SM, without SB (MR(-) and SM(-), respectively; MR(-)/SM(-)); (2) MR(-) and SM supplemented with SB encapsulated within triglyceride matrix (SM(+), 0.6% as fed; MR(-)/SM(+)); (3) MR supplemented with crystalline SB (MR(+), 0.3% as fed) and SM(-) (MR(+)/SM(-)); or (4) MR(+) and SM(+) (MR(+)/SM(+)). The MR was offered in amounts equal to 10% of initial body weight of the calf. The SM was blended with whole corn grain (50/50; wt/wt) and offered ad libitum as a starter diet. Calves were slaughtered at 26 d (± 1) of age and small intestine development was investigated. Treatment with MR(+) decreased villus height in the proximal jejunum and decreased villus height, crypt depth, and tunica mucosa thickness in the middle jejunum, whereas treatment with SM(+) tended to increase small intestine weight and crypt depth in the proximal jejunum, and increased villus height in the distal jejunum. In the duodenum, crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness were greater for the MR(-)/SM(+) group compared with MR(-)/SM(-), MR(+)/SM(-), and MR(+)/SM(+) groups. In the ileum, crypt depth was less for MR(-)/SM(+) compared with MR(-)/SM(-). Supplementation with SB in both MR and SM enhanced cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in the middle jejunum mucosa. Regarding brush border enzyme activities, addition of SB to MR increased lactase activity in the middle jejunum and maltase activity in the distal jejunum, and tended to increase lactase activity in the distal jejunum, aminopeptidase A activity in the middle jejunum and ileum, and aminopeptidase N activity in the ileum. In contrast, SM(+) increased dipeptidylpeptidase IV activity in the distal jejunum and tended to increase

  10. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  11. Sodium Butyrate Promotes Reassembly of Tight Junctions in Caco-2 Monolayers Involving Inhibition of MLCK/MLC2 Pathway and Phosphorylation of PKCβ2

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Wei; Wu, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Wang, Wenjing; Wang, Yumei; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Li; Peng, Luying

    2016-01-01

    As a physiological small molecular product from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, butyrate plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Our previous works have proved that the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the intestinal barrier function is mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the detailed pathway involved remains unknown. Using the calcium switch assay in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, we found here that NaB activated AMPK mainly by increasing the calcium level, but not the ATP concentration, via promoting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Upon the activation of AMPK, NaB promoted the reassembly of tight junctions (TJs) based on reducing the phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC2) at Ser19 and increasing phosphorylation of protein kinase C β2 (PKCβ2) at Ser660. Inhibiting (protein kinase C β) PKCβ blocked the reassembly of TJs induced by NaB in the barrier monolayer model. These results indicated that NaB could activate the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) pathway to mediate AMPK phosphorylating, which then inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC2 and promoted the phosphorylation of PKCβ2, respectively, so that the downstream molecules of AMPK coordinately contributed to the reassembly of TJs in the Caco-2 barrier model. These results suggested a potential mechanism of butyrate for intestine homeostasis and protection. PMID:27735862

  12. Effects of propionate and methylmalonate on conversions of acetate, butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate to fatty acids and carbon dioxide by mammary tissue slices of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Incorporations of (1-carbon-14) acetate, (1-carbon-14) propionate, n-(1-carbon-14) butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy(3-carbon-14) butyrate into individual milk fatty acids and their conversion to carbon dioxide were studied in vitro with caprine mammary tissue slices in the presence and absence of propionate and methylmalonate. Neither propionate nor methylmalonate affected incorporation of these substances into fatty acids. In a decreasing order butyrate, acetate, propionate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate were converted to carbon dioxide. Acetate had the highest incorporation rate into fatty acids followed by D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, butyrate, and propionate. Labeled propionate was incorporated mainly into odd-numbered fatty acids. Results do not support the theory that either propionate or its metabolite, methylmalonate, inhibit de novo synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland in relation to the etiology of low milk fat syndrome.

  13. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  14. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  15. Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey A.; Rumbles, Garry; Kopidakis, Nikos; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2013-07-25

    The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; the reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro genetic toxicity of 4-(2, 4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Charles, J M; Cifone, M A; Lawlor, T; Murli, H; Young, R R; Leeming, N M

    2000-12-20

    The herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB) is principally used in the USA on peanuts, soybeans and alfalfa. In Europe, it is used on undersown spring barley and grassland (with clover). The genetic toxicity in vitro of the dimethylamine salt of 2,4-DB was examined by employing a range of end points including gene mutation in bacteria (Ames test) and mammalian cell cultures (CHO/HGPRT assay), cytogenetic abnormalities in mammalian cells (CHO/chromosomal aberration assay), and induction of DNA damage and repair in rat hepatocytes. There were no indications of genotoxic potential for 2,4-DB in the first three of these assays. One of the two criteria for a positive response in the UDS assay was exceeded but the increases did not exceed the second criteria for a positive response. The test material was therefore evaluated as weakly active in this assay. The weight of the evidence clearly indicates that 2, 4-DB is not genotoxic to mammals and are consistent with the reported lack of carcinogenic potential for 2,4-DB in both mice and rats.

  17. Colon cancer cell apoptosis is induced by combined exposure to the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate through promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngmi; Turner, Nancy D; Davidson, Laurie A; Chapkin, Robert S; Carroll, Raymond J; Lupton, Joanne R

    2014-03-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation contribute to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. We have demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and butyrate enhance colonocyte apoptosis. To determine if DHA and/or butyrate elevate apoptosis through epigenetic mechanisms thereby restoring the transcription of apoptosis-related genes, we examined global methylation; gene-specific promoter methylation of 24 apoptosis-related genes; transcription levels of Cideb, Dapk1, and Tnfrsf25; and global histone acetylation in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Cells were treated with combinations of (50 µM) DHA or linoleic acid (18:2 n-6), (5 mM) butyrate or an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC, 2 µM). Among highly methylated genes, the combination of DHA and butyrate significantly reduced methylation of the proapoptotic Bcl2l11, Cideb, Dapk1, Ltbr, and Tnfrsf25 genes compared to untreated control cells. DHA treatment reduced the methylation of Cideb, Dapk1, and Tnfrsf25. These data suggest that the induction of apoptosis by DHA and butyrate is mediated, in part, through changes in the methylation state of apoptosis-related genes.

  18. Occurrence and in Vivo Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Corn (Zea mays L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Epstein, Ephraim

    1991-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was identified as an endogenous compound in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) var Inrakorn by thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its presence was also confirmed in the variety Hazera 224. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was metabolized to IBA in vivo by seedlings of the two maize varieties. The reaction product was identified by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after incubating the corn seedlings with [14C]IAA and [13C6]IAA. The in vivo conversion of IAA to IBA and the characteristics of IBA formation in two different maize varieties of Zea mays L. (Hazera 224 and Inrakorn) were investigated. IBA-forming activity was examined in the roots, leaves, and coleoptiles of both maize varieties. Whereas in the variety Hazera 224, IBA was formed mostly in the leaves, in the variety Inrakorn, IBA synthesis was detected in the roots as well as in the leaves. A time course study of IBA formation showed that maximum activity was reached in Inrakorn after 1 hour and in Hazera after 2 hours. The pH optimum for the uptake of IAA was 6.0, and that for IBA formation was 7.0. The Km value for IBA formation was 17 micromolar for Inrakorn and 25 micromolar for Hazera 224. The results are discussed with respect to the possible functions of IBA in the plant. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:16668464

  19. Escape from negative regulation of growth by transforming growth factor beta and from the induction of apoptosis by the dietary agent sodium butyrate may be important in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hague, A; Manning, A M; van der Stappen, J W; Paraskeva, C

    1993-09-01

    There are a number of lines of evidence suggesting that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) has an important role in the control of intestinal growth and differentiation. In vivo localization studies show that TGF beta expression occurs predominantly in the differentiated non proliferating cells of the intestinal epithelium. The use of an antisense expression vector for TGF beta resulted in an increased tumorigenicity in an antisense-transfected cancer cell line. In vitro proliferation studies showed colorectal premalignant adenoma cells to be more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF beta than colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore the conversion of an adenoma to a carcinoma was accompanied by a reduced response to the inhibitory effects of TGF beta. The acquisition of partial or complete resistance to the inhibitory effects of TGF beta may be an important late event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Of further interest is the possibility that clonal selection could occur even more rapidly in colorectal tumour cells which not only had lost response to TGF beta inhibition but produced TGF beta and were growth stimulated by it. This could have the advantage of not only inhibiting the growth of surrounding less malignantly advanced cells but of also escaping from their potential growth suppressive influence. Carcinogenesis is not, however, simply losing response to negative regulators of growth; the fully malignant cell has to acquire new characteristics of invasiveness and metastatic potential. Growth factors including TGF beta may have a role in the complex cascade of events leading to the activation of proteolytic enzymes which are involved in progression to an invasive phenotype. Cell proliferation in the large bowel, as well as being under the control of endogenous growth factors, is also under the influence of dietary components in the lumen such as the naturally occurring fatty acid sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate at physiological concentrations

  20. Butyrate increases IL-23 production by stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Bradford E; Zhang, Min; Owyang, Stephanie Y; Cole, Tyler S; Wang, Teresa W; Luther, Jay; Veniaminova, Natalia A; Merchant, Juanita L; Chen, Chun-Chia; Huffnagle, Gary B; Kao, John Y

    2012-12-15

    The gut microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and is responsible for breaking down dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the gut, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drug that has potent immunomodulatory properties. This characteristic of butyrate, along with our previous discovery that conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the development of experimental colitis, led us to speculate that butyrate may modulate DC function to regulate gut mucosal homeostasis. We found that butyrate, in addition to suppressing LPS-induced bone marrow-derived DC maturation and inhibiting DC IL-12 production, significantly induced IL-23 expression. The upregulation of mRNA subunit IL-23p19 at the pretranslational level was consistent with the role of HDACi on the epigenetic modification of gene expression. Furthermore, the mechanism of IL-23p19 upregulation was independent of Stat3 and ZBP89. Coculture of splenocytes with LPS-stimulated DCs pretreated with or without butyrate was performed and showed a significant induction of IL-17 and IL-10. We demonstrated further the effect of butyrate in vivo using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and found that the addition of butyrate in the drinking water of mice worsened DSS-colitis. This is in contrast to the daily intraperitoneal butyrate injection of DSS-treated mice, which mildly improved disease severity. Our study highlights a novel effect of butyrate in upregulating IL-23 production of activated DCs and demonstrates a difference in the host response to the oral vs. systemic route of butyrate administration.

  1. Rooting response of five pomegranate varieties to indole butyric acid concentration and cuttings age.

    PubMed

    Owais, Saed J

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cutting age and Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) treatments on five pomegranate varieties propagation by stem cuttings. The experiment was carried out in a partially controlled glasshouse conditions at Mutah University, Jordan. The treatments comprised of two types of cuttings, i.e., hardwood and semi-hardwood; five concentrations of IBA, i.e., 3,000, 6,000, 9,000 and 12,000 ppm as quick dip (10 sec) as well as five Jordanian pomegranate varieties (Kdaree Hello, Hmadee Hmaree, Kdaree Sfaree, Zeklabi, Maleese). In this study, the percentage of cuttings that rooted, the number of roots produced per cutting, root length and diameter and root weight per cutting were recorded. It was obvious that the rootability of pomegranate is influenced by the interactive effect of cuttings age, IBA concentration and variety as well as by the single effect of either. The cuttings taken from hardwood stems had higher rooting percentage than those taken from semi-hardwood stems with a considerable differences in rootability between varieties under this study. The highest percentage of cuttings that rooted was observed in Hmadee Hmaree (70%), Zeklabee (69%) and Malesse (73%), while the lowest rooting percentage in Khdaree Hello (58%) and Kdaree Sfaree (49%) varieties. Zeklabee and Hmadee Hmaree varieties when compared with other varieties gave more favorable results at 6000 to 9000 ppm IBA in terms of the percentage of cuttings that rooted, the number of roots produced per cutting and root weight per cutting using both semi- and hard-wood cuttings. It was concluded that the increasing dose of IBA could be useful in increasing rooting potential and other root characteristics in pomegranate. PMID:20415137

  2. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  3. Discovery of sodium R-(+)-4-{2-[5-(2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluoro-6-[trifluoromethyl]benzyl)-4-methyl-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl]-1-phenylethylamino}butyrate (elagolix), a potent and orally available nonpeptide antagonist of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Dongpei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Reinhart, Greg J; Madan, Ajay; Wen, Jenny; Chen, Takung; Huang, Charles Q; Chen, Mi; Chen, Yongsheng; Tucci, Fabio C; Rowbottom, Martin; Pontillo, Joseph; Zhu, Yun-Fei; Wade, Warren; Saunders, John; Bozigian, Haig; Struthers, R Scott

    2008-12-11

    The discovery of novel uracil phenylethylamines bearing a butyric acid as potent human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (hGnRH-R) antagonists is described. A major focus of this optimization was to improve the CYP3A4 inhibition liability of these uracils while maintaining their GnRH-R potency. R-4-{2-[5-(2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluoro-6-[trifluoromethyl]benzyl)-4-methyl-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl]-1-phenylethylamino}butyric acid sodium salt, 10b (elagolix), was identified as a potent and selective hGnRH-R antagonist. Oral administration of 10b suppressed luteinizing hormone in castrated macaques. These efforts led to the identification of 10b as a clinical compound for the treatment of endometriosis.

  4. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing...

  5. Expression profiling of sodium butyrate (NaB)-treated cells: identification of regulation of genes related to cytokine signaling and cancer metastasis by NaB.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeena; Mudduluru, Giridhar; Antony, Sini; Vashistha, Surabhi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2004-08-19

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (NaB), a short chain fatty acid, is a HDAC inhibitor and is produced in the colonic lumen as a consequence of microbial degradation of dietary fibers. In order to dissect out the mechanism of NaB-induced growth inhibition of cancer cells, we carried out expression profiling of a human lung carcinoma cell line (H460) treated with NaB using a cDNA microarray. Of the total 1728 genes analysed, there were 32 genes with a mean expression value of 2.0-fold and higher and 66 genes with a mean expression value 3.0-fold and lower in NaB-treated cells. For a few selected genes, we demonstrate that their expression pattern by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis is matching with the results obtained by microarray analysis. Closer view at the expression profile of NaB-treated cells revealed the downregulation of a total of 16 genes associated with cytokine signaling, in particular, interferon gamma (IFNgamma) pathway. In good correlation, NaB-pretreated cells failed to induce interferon regulatory factor 1, an INFgamma target gene, efficiently upon IFNgamma addition. These results suggest that NaB inhibits proinflammatory cytokine signaling pathway, thus providing proof of mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also found that NaB induced three genes, which are known metastatic suppressors, and downregulated 11 genes, which have been shown to promote metastasis. Upregulation of metastatic suppressor Kangai 1 (KAI1) by NaB in a time-dependent manner was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. The differential regulation of metastasis-associated genes by NaB provides explanation for the anti-invasive properties of NaB. Therefore, our study presents new evidence for pathways regulated by NaB, thus providing evidence for the mechanism behind anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities of NaB.

  6. The activation of the TLR2/p38 pathway by sodium butyrate in bovine mammary epithelial cells is involved in the reduction of Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; Báez-Magaña, Marisol; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an etiological agent of human and animal diseases, and it is able to internalize into non-professional phagocytic cells (i.e. bovine mammary epithelial cells, bMECs), which is an event that is related to chronic and recurrent infections. bMECs contribute to host innate immune responses (IIR) through TLR pathogen recognition, whereby TLR2 is the most relevant for S. aureus. In a previous report, we showed that sodium butyrate (NaB, 0.5mM), which is a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), reduced S. aureus internalization into bMECs by modulating their IIR. However, the molecular mechanism of this process has not been described, which was the aim of this study. The results showed that the TLR2 membrane abundance (MA) and mRNA expression were induced by 0.5mM NaB ∼1.6-fold and ∼1.7-fold, respectively. Additionally, 0.5mM NaB induced p38 phosphorylation, but not JNK1/2 or ERK1/2 phosphorylation in bMECs, which reached the baseline when the bMECs were S. aureus-challenged. Additionally, bMECs that were treated with 0.5mM NaB (24h) showed activation of 8 transcriptional factors (AP-1, E2F-1, FAST-1, MEF-1, EGR, PPAR, ER and CBF), which were partially reverted when the bMECs were S. aureus-challenged. Additionally, 0.5mM NaB (24h) up-regulated mRNA expression of the antimicrobial peptides, TAP (∼4.8-fold), BNBD5 (∼3.2-fold) and BNBD10 (∼2.6-fold). Notably, NaB-treated and S. aureus-challenged bMECs increased the mRNA expression of all of the antimicrobial peptides that were evaluated, and this was evident for LAP and BNBD5. In the NaB-treated bMECs, we did not detect significant expression changes for IL-1β and IL-6 and only TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8 were induced. Interestingly, the NaB-treated and S. aureus-challenged bMECs maintained the anti-inflammatory response that was induced by this SCFA. In conclusion, our results suggest that 0.5mM NaB activates bMECs via TLR2/p38, which leads to improved antimicrobial defense before/after pathogen

  7. Butyric Acid- and Dimethyl Disulfide-Assimilating Microorganisms in a Biofilter Treating Air Emissions from a Livestock Facility▿

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from “heavy” DNA from [13C4]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments. PMID:22003018

  8. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. PMID:26701202

  9. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  10. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  11. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  16. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate....

  20. 21 CFR 182.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 182.1087 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1087 - Sodium acid pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid pyrophosphate. 582.1087 Section 582.1087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1087 Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. Effect of different doses of coated butyric acid on growth performance and energy utilization in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Barri, A; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-04-01

    We recently applied four dietary treatments in experiments I and II to determine the effect of protected calcium butyrate (BP) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. A group of one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (total 960, 480 per trial) were used in the study. In experiment I, the basal diets were fed with protected BP inclusion (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 g/kg of finished feed) (BP) or without (C). In experiment II, 4 different diets were tested: 1) basal diet with no supplementation (C), 2) basal diet supplemented with protected BP (0.3 g/kg) (BP), 3) basal diet supplemented with avilamycin (6 mg/kg, active substance) a common antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) (Av), and 4) basal diet supplemented with the combination of both avilaymicin and BP. In experiment I, considering the entire study period, the use of BP improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) irrespective of the dose. Apparent total tract crude fat digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEN) were improved after BP supplementation (P<0.05). In experiment II, A or AB diets improved (P<0.05) body weight gain compared to the control treatment. The diets Av, BP, and AvB improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment. Birds from the treatment diet were characterized by having the thickest mucosa (P<0.05). On days 14, 35, and 42, the use of AB diets improved AMENcontent compared to the control treatment (P<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acid data showed that Av or AvB treated birds were characterized by higher Asp, Glu, Cys, Gly, and Ala ileal digestibility than the control animals (P<0.05). The use of Av, BP, or AvB increased ileal digestibility of Thr, Ser, and Pro (P<0.05). There is an indication that BP, alone or in combination with avilamycin, improve the digestion and absorptive processes and consequently birds performance results. PMID:26740137

  8. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  9. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99 U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg(-1) protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24-7.64 U mg(-1) protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities.

  10. The interaction of propionic and butyric acids with ice and HNO₃-doped ice surfaces at 195-212 K.

    PubMed

    Romanias, Manolis N; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of propionic and butyric acids on ice and HNO3-doped ice were studied between 195 and 212 K and low concentrations, using a Knudsen flow reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial uptake coefficients (γ0) of propionic and butyric acids on ice as a function of temperature are given by the expressions: γ0(T) = (7.30 ± 1.0) × 10(-10) exp[(3216 ± 478)/T] and γ0(T) = (6.36 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) exp[(3810 ± 434)/T], respectively; the quoted error limits are at 95% level of confidence. Similarly, γ0 of propionic acid on 1.96 wt % (A) and 7.69 wt % (B) HNO3-doped ice with temperature are given as γ(0,A)(T) = (2.89 ± 0.26) × 10(-8) exp[(2517 ± 266)/T] and γ(0,B)(T) = (2.77 ± 0.29) × 10(-7) exp[(2126 ± 206)/T], respectively. The results show that γ0 of C1 to C4 n-carboxylic acids on ice increase with the alkyl-group length, due to lateral interactions between alkyl-groups that favor a more perpendicular orientation and well packing of H-bonded monomers on ice. The high uptakes (>10(15) molecules cm(-2)) and long recovery signals indicate efficient growth of random multilayers above the first monolayer driven by significant van der Waals interactions. The heterogeneous loss of both acids on ice and HNO3-doped ice particles in dense cirrus clouds is estimated to take a few minutes, signifying rapid local heterogeneous removal by dense cirrus clouds.

  11. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover. PMID:26535965

  12. Characterization and Rooting Ability of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Conjugates Formed during Rooting of Mung Bean Cuttings 1

    PubMed Central

    Wiesman, Zeev; Riov, Joseph; Epstein, Ephraim

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is rapidly metabolized by mung bean cuttings during rooting. Twenty-four hours after application, less than 20% of the applied IBA remained in the free form and its level decreased continuously in the later stages of rooting. Indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid (IBAsp) and at least two high molecular weight conjugates were the major metabolites in IBA-treated cuttings. In the latter conjugates, at least part of the IBA moiety is attached to a high molecular weight constituent in an amide linkage. IBAsp level peaked 24 hours after application of IBA to the cuttings and then declined. The level of the high molecular weight conjugates increased continuously throughout the rooting process. The conjugates were active in inducing rooting of cuttings, with IBAsp being superior to free IBA. It is suggested that IBA conjugates, and particularly IBAsp, serve as the source of auxin during the later stages of rooting. PMID:16667115

  13. Characterization and Rooting Ability of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Conjugates Formed during Rooting of Mung Bean Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Wiesman, Z; Riov, J; Epstein, E

    1989-11-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is rapidly metabolized by mung bean cuttings during rooting. Twenty-four hours after application, less than 20% of the applied IBA remained in the free form and its level decreased continuously in the later stages of rooting. Indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid (IBAsp) and at least two high molecular weight conjugates were the major metabolites in IBA-treated cuttings. In the latter conjugates, at least part of the IBA moiety is attached to a high molecular weight constituent in an amide linkage. IBAsp level peaked 24 hours after application of IBA to the cuttings and then declined. The level of the high molecular weight conjugates increased continuously throughout the rooting process. The conjugates were active in inducing rooting of cuttings, with IBAsp being superior to free IBA. It is suggested that IBA conjugates, and particularly IBAsp, serve as the source of auxin during the later stages of rooting. PMID:16667115

  14. A probe on the intermolecular forces in diisopropyl ether-n-butyric acid mixture by dielectric, FTIR studies and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, G; Shanmugam, R; Elangovan, A

    2013-03-15

    The results of FTIR spectral measurement on equimolar diisopropyl ether-butyric acid binary mixture and quantum chemical calculations on the complex molecule have been presented. Dielectric studies have been carried out on the binary mixture over the entire composition range and at four different temperatures 303 K, 308 K, 313 K and 318 K. n-Butyric acid seems to prefer less polar ether to interact with it. It appears that the usual interpretation of variation of static dielectric constant and positive deviation of excess permittivity from ideal mixture behavior needs to be relooked.

  15. Transcriptional attenuation in colon carcinoma cells in response to butyrate.

    PubMed

    Daroqui, Maria C; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2010-10-01

    The short-chain fatty acid sodium butyrate (NaB), produced in the colonic lumen, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro, establishing a potential role for NaB in colon cancer prevention. We have previously shown that butyrate decreases cyclin D1 and c-myc expression, each essential for intestinal tumor development, by transcriptional attenuation. Here, we determined that butyrate-induced transcriptional attenuation of the cyclin D1 and c-myc genes in SW837 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells occurs at ∼100 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site, with a similar positioning in Caco-2 cells. A concomitant decrease in RNA polymerase II occupancy at the 5' end of each gene was observed. Because transcriptional regulation is associated with chromatin remodeling, we investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation whether the histone deacetylase inhibitory activity of butyrate altered chromatin structure at the attenuated loci. Although the distributions of histone H3 trimethylated on K4 and K36 along the cyclin D1 and c-myc genes were consistent with current models, butyrate induced only modest decreases in these modifications, with a similar effect on acetylated H3 and a modest increase in histone H3 trimethylated on K27. Finally, transcriptome analysis using novel microarrays showed that butyrate-induced attenuation is widespread throughout the genome, likely independent of transcriptional initiation. We identified 42 loci potentially paused by butyrate and showed that the transcription patterns are gene specific. The biological functions of these loci encompass a number of effects of butyrate on the physiology of intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  17. Amended safety assessment of sodium picramate and picramic acid.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    Sodium picramate is the sodium salt of picramic acid, a substituted phenolic compound. Sodium picramate and picramic acid function as hair colorants; they are reportedly used in 31 and 3 hair-dye products, respectively. No concentration-of-use data were available for sodium picramate, but picramic acid was reported to be used at 0.6%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel recognized that adding picramic acid to a hair-dye formulation likely results in formation of a salt such as sodium picramate, which suggested that safety test data for one ingredient would be applicable to the other. Hair dyes containing these ingredients bear a caution statement and patch test instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. The panel finds that the available data support the safety of these colorants in hair dyes and expects that sodium picramate would be used at concentrations comparable to those reported for picramic acid. PMID:20086193

  18. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

  19. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  20. Histone deacetylases inhibitor sodium butyrate inhibits JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 mediated by HDAC8 inhibition in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shen-meng; Chen, Chi-qi; Wang, Lu-yao; Hong, Li-li; Wu, Jian-bo; Dong, Pei-hong; Yu, Fu-jun

    2013-03-01

    Constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT) signaling has an important role in the oncogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and leukemia. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors have been reported to possess anticancer activity through different mechanisms. However, whether HDACs inhibitors suppress JAK2/STAT signaling in MPNs is still unknown. In this study, we show that the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB) inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling and increased the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3, both of which are the potent feedback inhibitors of JAK2/STAT signaling. SB upregulated the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 by triggering the promoter-associated histone acetylation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in K562 and HEL cell lines. Importantly, we found that upon knockdown of each class I HDACs, only knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in the increased expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Moreover, overexpression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 significantly inhibited cell growth and suppressed JAK2/STAT signaling in K562 and HEL cells. Furthermore, SB increased the transcript levels of SOCS1 and SOCS3 and inhibited the clonogenic activity of hematopoietic progenitors from patients with MPNs. Taken together, these data establish a new anticancer mechanism that SB inhibits JAK2/STAT signaling through HDAC8-mediated upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Thus, HDACs inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of MPNs.

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells by regulation of the MDM2–p53 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuhai; Wu, Boyi; Chen, Binwei; Shi, Qunwei; Guo, Jianhong; Fan, Ziwen; Huang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been reported to induce tumor cell growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of one histone deacetylase inhibitor – sodium butyrate (SB) – on osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the molecular mechanisms by which SB exerts regulatory effects on OS cells. U2OS and MG63 cells were treated with SB at various concentrations. Then, cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays, respectively; the expression of Ki67, Bax, Bcl-2, MDM2, and p53 proteins was determined by using Western blot assay. The results showed that SB suppressed proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted apoptosis of OS cells. In addition, SB enhanced p53 expression and decreased MDM2 expression, indicating that SB can regulate MDM2–p53 feedback loop. p53 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis, whereas MDM2 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis, which indicated that functional effect of SB on OS cell lines at least in part depended on the MDM2–p53 signaling. We also explored the effect of SB on OS cells in vivo and found that SB suppressed the growth of OS cells with no noticeable effect on activity and body weight of mice in vivo. These findings will offer new clues for OS development and progression and offer SB as a potent targeted agent for OS treatment. PMID:27445491

  2. The effects of sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on the cocaine- and sucrose-maintained self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Baohong; Hui, Bin; Lv, Zhigang; Ma, Lan

    2008-08-15

    In order to substantiate the concept that cocaine behavioral effects may be influenced by histone modification, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously (0.75 mg/(kginjection)), and were systemically pretreated with sodium butyrate (NaBu), a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, before the test session during the maintenance phase. The effect of NaBu on a control reinforcer (sucrose)-induced self-administration was also assessed. NaBu (100-200 mg/kg) was inactive in altering the cocaine (0.75 mg/(kg injection))-maintained responding and at the highest dose (400 mg/kg) it did increase cocaine-induced lever presses during the maintenance phase. On the other hand, sucrose-reinforcing potential was not altered when NaBu was given at the highest dose (400 mg/kg). These findings extend previous observations that changes in histone acetylation are relevant to cocaine-induced behavioral effects. Given that histone acetylase inhibitor enhances cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity, the therapeutic benefits of histone acetyltransferase inhibitors warrant further investigation in the experimental models of cocaine abuse.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells by regulation of the MDM2-p53 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuhai; Wu, Boyi; Chen, Binwei; Shi, Qunwei; Guo, Jianhong; Fan, Ziwen; Huang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been reported to induce tumor cell growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of one histone deacetylase inhibitor - sodium butyrate (SB) - on osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the molecular mechanisms by which SB exerts regulatory effects on OS cells. U2OS and MG63 cells were treated with SB at various concentrations. Then, cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays, respectively; the expression of Ki67, Bax, Bcl-2, MDM2, and p53 proteins was determined by using Western blot assay. The results showed that SB suppressed proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted apoptosis of OS cells. In addition, SB enhanced p53 expression and decreased MDM2 expression, indicating that SB can regulate MDM2-p53 feedback loop. p53 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis, whereas MDM2 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis, which indicated that functional effect of SB on OS cell lines at least in part depended on the MDM2-p53 signaling. We also explored the effect of SB on OS cells in vivo and found that SB suppressed the growth of OS cells with no noticeable effect on activity and body weight of mice in vivo. These findings will offer new clues for OS development and progression and offer SB as a potent targeted agent for OS treatment. PMID:27445491

  4. The rib1 Mutant Is Resistant to Indole-3-Butyric Acid, an Endogenous Auxin in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as an endogenous auxin in Arabidopsis has been recently demonstrated. However, the in vivo role of IBA remains to be elucidated. We present the characterization of a semi-dominant mutant that is affected in its response to IBA, but shows a wild-type response to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the predominant and most studied form of auxin. We have named this mutant rib1 for resistant to IBA. Root elongation assays show that rib1 is specifically resistant to IBA, to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and to auxin transport inhibitors. rib1 does not display increased resistance to IAA, to the synthetic auxin naphthalene acetic acid, or to other classes of plant hormones. rib1 individuals also have other root specific phenotypes including a shortened primary root, an increased number of lateral roots, and a more variable response than wild type to a change in gravitational vector. Adult rib1 plants are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants. These phenotypes suggest that rib1 alters IBA activity in the root, thereby affecting root development and response to environmental stimuli. We propose models in which RIB1 has a function in either IBA transport or response. Our experiments also suggest that IBA does not use the same mechanism to exit cells as does IAA and we propose a model for IBA transport. PMID:11115890

  5. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway. PMID:26636660

  6. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway.

  7. Change in gene expression profiles of secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) by sodium butyrate in gastric cancers: induction of promoter demethylation and histone modification causing inhibition of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan

    2012-05-01

    Activation of Wnt signaling without mutation of β-catenin or APC occurs frequently in human gastric cancers. Secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP), a negative modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, are frequently inactivated in human gastric cancers. Inhibition of SFRP gene expression may account for the Wnt/β-catenin activation in human gastric cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of silencing of SFRP genes are not fully understood. Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is known to exhibit anti-cancer effects partly through the differentiation of various cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated: i) the relationship between the silencing of SFRP genes and Wnt signaling; ii) the mechanism of sodium butyrate mediated epigenetic regulation of SFRPs expression in human gastric cancer. We observed that nuclear β-catenin was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues as compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation and SFRP promoter methylation in human gastric cancer cells were noted. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5'-Aza-dC) rapidly restored SFRPs expression. Sodium butyrate (NaB) induced demethylation and histone modification at the promoter region of SFRP1/2 restoring the SFRP expression in human gastric cancer cells. Analysis of general expression revealed that overexpression of SFRPs repressed Wnt target gene expression and induced changes in the proliferation and apoptosis related genes in human gastric cancer cells. These data suggest that aberrant epigenetic modification of SFRP genes is one of the major mechanisms by which Wnt signaling is activated in human gastric cancer cells and sodium butyrate may modulate the SFRP1/2 expression through histone modification and promoter demethylation causing anti-tumor effects.

  8. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  13. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Otto, Nicola; Win, Khaing; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Reid, Alicia E.; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profile. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11CO2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [11C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity was the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low (<0.006%ID/cc, BA>VPA>PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [11C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [11C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [11C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects. PMID:23906667

  14. Structure, conformation and hydrogen bonding of 4-( N-methylpiperidinium)-butyric acid bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Dulewicz, E.; Szafran, M.; Thaimattam, R.; Jaskolski, M.

    2007-02-01

    A 1:1 complex between 4-( N-methylpiperidinium)-butyrate inner salt (betaine) and hydrobromide, MPBUH·Br, has been characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c, with a = 8.284(1), b = 10.369(1), c = 13.809(2) Å, β = 92.26(1)°. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation with the (CH 2) 3COOH substituent in the axial and the CH 3 group in the equatorial positions. In the crystal, the Br - anion is engaged in a medium-strong hydrogen bond with the COOH group (O sbnd H⋯Br - = 3.141(1) Å), N +⋯Br - electrostatic interactions and in several C sbnd H⋯Br - contacts with the aliphatic groups forming a cavity in which it is enclosed. Three conformers ( 2- 4) were optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory. The most stable is conformer 4 with the (CH 2) 3COOH substituent in the equatorial position and the CH 3 group in the axial position. The stability of the investigated conformers is controlled by electrostatic interactions between the oppositely charged groups. The FTIR spectrum of MPBUH·Br shows a strong band at 2941 cm -1 due to νOH and the νC dbnd O band at 1712 cm -1.

  15. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  20. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  1. Effect of iron on the sensitivity of hydrogen, acetate, and butyrate metabolism to inhibition by long-chain fatty acids in vegetable-oil-enriched freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Wrenn, Brian A; Venosa, Albert D

    2005-08-01

    Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial communities that develop when sediments are enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the absence of ferric hydroxide. This study examined the effects of enrichment in the presence of Fe(III) on the fatty-acid sensitivity of several important members of anaerobic triglyceride-degrading microbial communities in freshwater sediments. The fatty-acid sensitivity of three groups of microorganisms-hydrogenotrophic methanogens, acetate consumers, and hydrogen-producing acetogens-were investigated by comparing the rates of hydrogen, acetate, or butyrate consumption in the presence and absence of oleic acid. Methanogenesis from hydrogen was not affected by sediment enrichment conditions or by the presence of oleic acid, suggesting that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were insensitive to fatty acid inhibition in these sediments. Oleic acid inhibited the anaerobic degradation rates of acetate and butyrate by 38% and 63%, respectively, but enrichment in the presence of Fe(III) eliminated the fatty-acid sensitivity of acetate degradation and reduced the sensitivity of butyrate degradation by about half. These results suggest that iron-reducing bacteria may provide an alternative pathway through which vegetable oil can be converted to methane in anaerobic freshwater sediments.

  2. Short-term infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several previous studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in pre-ruminants. These encouraging findings have led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the maximum tolerable dosage rate of...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Phenolic Lipid for Use as Potential Lipophilic Antioxidant and as a Prodrug of Butyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid was modified to produce a novel phenolipid containing butyl chains. Ferulic acid was esterified with butanol to produce butyl ferulate which was further dihydroxylated followed by esterification with butyric anhydride to produce the phenolipid containing butyric acid. IR, NMR and MS techniques confirmed the structure of the synthesized structured lipophilic phenolic compound. The synthesized compound was tested for in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The produced phenolipid showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay but in linoleic acid oxidation method, it exhibited good activity compared with the parent compound and the reference compounds. The prepared derivative could find applications as antioxidant in lipophilic systems and also as a potential prodrug of butyric acid. It also showed antibacterial effect against the four bacterial strains studied. The drug-likeness properties of the prepared molecule calculated were in the acceptable ranges according to Lipinski's rule of 5 and suggest that it has potential to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Phenolic Lipid for Use as Potential Lipophilic Antioxidant and as a Prodrug of Butyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid was modified to produce a novel phenolipid containing butyl chains. Ferulic acid was esterified with butanol to produce butyl ferulate which was further dihydroxylated followed by esterification with butyric anhydride to produce the phenolipid containing butyric acid. IR, NMR and MS techniques confirmed the structure of the synthesized structured lipophilic phenolic compound. The synthesized compound was tested for in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The produced phenolipid showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay but in linoleic acid oxidation method, it exhibited good activity compared with the parent compound and the reference compounds. The prepared derivative could find applications as antioxidant in lipophilic systems and also as a potential prodrug of butyric acid. It also showed antibacterial effect against the four bacterial strains studied. The drug-likeness properties of the prepared molecule calculated were in the acceptable ranges according to Lipinski's rule of 5 and suggest that it has potential to cross the blood-brain barrier. PMID:26179002

  9. Sodium butyrate enhances complement-mediated cell injury via down-regulation of decay-accelerating factor expression in colonic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Akira; Shimada, Mitsue; Araki, Yoshio; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Bamba, Tadao

    2002-02-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) expressed on the surface of colonic cancer cells presents a barrier to complement-mediated clearance by contributing to the ineffectiveness of the humoral immune response. In this study, to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor effects of butyrate, we evaluated how butyrate modulates DAF expression in colonic cancer cells. Three colonic cancer cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, and T84 cells) were studied. DAF protein expression was assessed by western blot, and DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by northern blot. Complement C3 deposition on the surface of colonic cancer cells was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The promoter activity of the DAF gene was assessed by a reporter gene-luciferase assay. Butyrate reduced the basal and interleukin-4 (IL-4)- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of DAF protein and mRNA in HT-29 cells. It increased the susceptibility to complement attack and enhanced C3 deposition on HT-29 cells. The inhibitory effect of butyrate on DAF mRNA expression was also observed in T84 and Caco-2 cells. Butyrate decreased basal DAF expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The inhibitory effect of butyrate on IL-4-induced DAF expression was closely associated with a blockade of IL-4-induced DAF mRNA stability. TNF-alpha-induced transcriptional activation and the increased stability of the DAF gene were also blocked by butyrate. Similar but weak effects were induced by trichostatin A, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that histone acetylation might participate in butyrate activity. These observations indicate that both a down-regulation of DAF expression and the induction of susceptibility to complement attack contribute to the anti-tumor effects of butyrate in colonic cancer.

  10. p21(Waf1) is required for cellular senescence but not for cell cycle arrest induced by the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Romanov, V S; Abramova, M V; Svetlikova, S B; Bykova, T V; Zubova, S G; Aksenov, N D; Fornace, A J; Pospelova, T V; Pospelov, V A

    2010-10-01

    Cell senescence is characterized by senescent morphology and permanent loss of proliferative potential. HDAC inhibitors (HDACI) induce senescence and/or apoptosis in many types of tumor cells. Here, we studied the role of cyclin-kinase inhibitor p21(waf1) (Cdkn1n gene) in cell cycle arrest, senescence markers (cell hypertrophy, SA-βGal staining and accumulation of γH2AX foci) in p21(Waf1+/+) versus p21(Waf1-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transformed with E1A and cHa-Ras oncogenes (mERas). While short treatment with the HDACI sodium butyrate (NaB) induced a reversible G(1) cell cycle arrest in both parental and p21(Waf1-/-) cells, long-term treatment led to dramatic changes in p21(Waf1+/+) cells only: cell cycle arrest became irreversible and cells become hypertrophic, SA-βGal-positive and accumulated γH2AX foci associated with mTORC1 activation. The p21(Waf1+/+) cells lost their ability to migrate into the wound and through a porous membrane. Suppression of migration was accompanied by accumulation of vinculin-staining focal adhesions and Ser3-phosphorylation of cofilin, incapable for F-actin depolymerization. In contrast, the knockout of the p21(Waf1) abolished most of the features of NaB-induced senescence, including irreversibility of cell cycle arrest, hypertrophy, additional focal adhesions and block of migration, γH2AX foci accumulation and SA-βGal staining. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTORC1 kinase, decreased cellular hypertrophy, canceled coffilin phosphorylation and partially restored cell migration in p21(Waf1+/+) cells. Taken together, our data indicate a new role of p21(Waf1) in cell senescence, which may be connected not only with execution of cell cycle arrest, but also with the development of mTOR-dependent markers of cellular senescence.

  11. Sodium butyrate epigenetically modulates high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation, obesity and insulin resistance through nucleosome positioning

    PubMed Central

    Henagan, Tara M; Stefanska, Barbara; Fang, Zhide; Navard, Alexandra M; Ye, Jianping; Lenard, Natalie R; Devarshi, Prasad P

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sodium butyrate (NaB), an epigenetic modifier, is effective in promoting insulin sensitivity. The specific genomic loci and mechanisms underlying epigenetically induced obesity and insulin resistance and the targets of NaB are not fully understood. Experimental Approach The anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of NaB treatment were measured by comparing phenotypes and physiologies of C57BL/6J mice fed a low-fat diet (LF), high-fat diet (HF) or high-fat diet plus NaB (HF + NaB) for 10 weeks. We determined a possible mechanism of NaB action through induction of beneficial skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations and applied microccocal nuclease digestion with sequencing (MNase-seq) to assess whole genome differences in nucleosome occupancy or positioning and to identify associated epigenetic targets of NaB. Key Results NaB prevented HF diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity without altering food intake or energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity as measured by glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and decreased respiratory exchange ratio. In skeletal muscle, NaB increased the percentage of type 1 fibres, improved acylcarnitine profiles as measured by metabolomics and produced a chromatin structure, determined by MNase-seq, similar to that seen in LF. Targeted analysis of representative nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes showed specific repositioning of the −1 nucleosome in association with altered gene expression. Conclusions and Implications NaB treatment may be an effective pharmacological approach for type 2 diabetes and obesity by inducing −1 nucleosome repositioning within nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, causing skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations that result in more complete β-oxidation and a lean, insulin sensitive phenotype. PMID:25559882

  12. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard; Louveau, Isabelle; Holst, Jens J; Oswald, Isabelle P; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Guilloteau, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P < 0.05). The feed intake was higher in pigs supplemented with SB before or after weaning (P < 0.05). SB provided before weaning improved post-weaning faecal digestibility (P < 0.05) while SB after weaning decreased ileal and faecal digestibilities (P < 0.05). Gastric digesta retention was higher when SB was provided before weaning (P < 0.05). Post-weaning administration of SB decreased the activity of three pancreatic enzymes and five intestinal enzymes (P < 0.05). IL-18 gene expression tended to be lower in the mid-jejunum in SB-supplemented pigs. The small-intestinal mucosa was thinner and jejunal villous height lower in all SB groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the pre-weaning SB supplementation was the most efficient to stimulate body growth and feed intake after weaning, by reducing gastric emptying and intestinal mucosa weight and by increasing feed digestibility.

  13. Epigenetic modulation of AR gene expression in prostate cancer DU145 cells with the combination of sodium butyrate and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Fialova, Barbora; Luzna, Petra; Gursky, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Kolar, Zdenek; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of androgen deprivation therapy. Unchecked CRPC followed by metastasis is lethal. Some CRPCs show decreased AR gene expression due to epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The aim of this study was to epigenetically modulate the methylated state of the AR gene leading to targeted demethylation and AR gene expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancer DU145 cell line, representing the CRPC model with very low or undetectable AR levels. The cell treatment was based on single and combined applications of two epigenetic inhibitors, sodium butyrate (NaB) as histone deacetylases inhibitor and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferases inhibitor. We found that the Aza-dC in combination with NaB may help reduce the toxicity of higher NaB concentrations in cancer cells. In normal RWPE-1 cells and even stronger in cancer DU145 cells, the combined treatment induced both AR gene expression on the mRNA level and increased histone H4 acetylation in AR gene promoter. Also activation and maintenance of G2/M cell cycle arrest and better survival in normal RWPE-1 cells compared to cancer DU145 cells were observed after the treatments. These results imply the selective toxicity effect of both inhibitors used and their potentially more effective combined use in the epigenetic therapy of prostate cancer patients.

  14. Functional expression of γ-amino butyric acid transporter 2 in human and guinea pig airway epithelium and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sarah; Gallos, George; Yim, Peter D; Xu, Dingbang; Sonett, Joshua R; Panettieri, Reynold A; Gerthoffer, William; Emala, Charles W

    2011-08-01

    γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) is a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is classically released by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane or by egress via GABA transporters (GATs). Recently, a GABAergic system comprised of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors has been identified on airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells that regulate mucus secretion and contractile tone of airway smooth muscle (ASM). In addition, the enzyme that synthesizes GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase, has been identified in airway epithelial cells; however, the mechanism(s) by which this synthesized GABA is released from epithelial intracellular stores is unknown. We questioned whether any of the four known isoforms of GATs are functionally expressed in ASM or epithelial cells. We detected mRNA and protein expression of GAT2 and -4, and isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase in native and cultured human ASM and epithelial cells. In contrast, mRNA encoding vesicular GAT (VGAT), the neuronal GABA transporter, was not detected. Functional inhibition of (3)H-GABA uptake was demonstrated using GAT2 and GAT4/betaine-GABA transporter 1 (BGT1) inhibitors in both human ASM and epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that two isoforms of GATs, but not VGAT, are expressed in both airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. They also provide a mechanism by which locally synthesized GABA can be released from these cells into the airway to activate GABA(A) channels and GABA(B) receptors, with subsequent autocrine and/or paracrine signaling effects on airway epithelium and ASM. PMID:21057105

  15. Molecular structure of the 1:2 complex of 2-quinuclidinium-butyrate with p-hydroxybenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of the 1:2 complex of 2-quinuclidinium-butyrate, QNBu, with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA, ( 1) has been determined by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, and the complex was characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystals are triclinic, space group P1¯. The QNBu and HBA molecules are linked by medium-strong O sbnd H···O hydrogen bonds into a double strand related by two types of inversion centers, each inside different H-bonded rings. The O···O distances vary between 2.652(3) and 2.720(2) Å. The FTIR spectrum of the solid complex is consistent with the X-ray results. The second-derivative IR spectrum and calculated frequencies for the optimized structure of QNBu·2HBA were used to explain the FTIR spectrum in the carbonyl-carboxylate region. The interpretation of 1H and 13C NMR spectra has been based on 2D experiments and calculated GIAO/B3LYP/6-31G( d, p) magnetic isotropic shielding constants.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Nodal Cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  18. Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  19. Interactions between lead-zirconate titanate, polyacrylic acid, and polyvinyl butyral in ethanol and their influence on electrophoretic deposition behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuscer, Danjela; Bakarič, Tina; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Kosec, Marija

    2013-02-14

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for the fabrication of a few tens of micrometer-thick piezoelectric layers on complex-shape substrates that are used for manufacturing high-frequency transducers. Niobium-doped lead-zirconate titanate (PZT Nb) particles were stabilized in ethanol using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). With Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we found that the deprotonated carboxylic group from the PAA is coordinated with the metal in the perovskite PZT Nb structure, resulting in a stable ethanol-based suspension. The hydroxyl group from the polyvinyl butyral added into the suspension to prevent the formation of cracks in the as-deposited layer did not interact with the PAA-covered PZT Nb particles. PVB acts as a free polymer in ethanol-based suspensions. The electrophoretic deposition of micro- and nanometer-sized PZT Nb particles from ethanol-based suspensions onto electroded alumina substrates was attempted in order to obtain uniform, crack-free deposits. The interactions between the PZT Nb particles, the PAA, and the PVB in ethanol will be discussed and related to the properties of the suspensions, the deposition yield and the morphology of the as-deposited PZT Nb thick film.

  20. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) release in the ciliated protozoon Paramecium occurs by neuronal-like exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ramoino, P; Milanese, M; Candiani, S; Diaspro, A; Fato, M; Usai, C; Bonanno, G

    2010-04-01

    Paramecium primaurelia expresses a significant amount of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Paramecia possess both glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-like and vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT)-like proteins, indicating the ability to synthesize GABA from glutamate and to transport GABA into vesicles. Using antibodies raised against mammalian GAD and vGAT, bands with an apparent molecular weight of about 67 kDa and 57 kDa were detected. The presence of these bands indicated a similarity between the proteins in Paramecium and in mammals. VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP, putative proteins of the release machinery that form the so-called SNARE complex, are present in Paramecium. Most VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP fluorescence is localized in spots that vary in size and density and are primarily distributed near the plasma membrane. Antibodies raised against mammal VAMP-3, sintaxin-1 or SNAP-25 revealed protein immunoblot bands having molecular weights consistent with those observed in mammals. Moreover, P. primaurelia spontaneously releases GABA into the environment, and this neurotransmitter release significantly increases after membrane depolarization. The depolarization-induced GABA release was strongly reduced not only in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) but also by pre-incubation with bafilomycin A1 or with botulinum toxin C1 serotype. It can be concluded that GABA occurs in Paramecium, where it is probably stored in vesicles capable of fusion with the cell membrane; accordingly, GABA can be released from Paramecium by stimulus-induced, neuronal-like exocytotic mechanisms.

  1. Na-H Exchanger Isoform-2 (NHE2) Mediates Butyrate-dependent Na+ Absorption in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M; Nanda Kumar, Navalpur S; Tse, Chung M; Binder, Henry J

    2015-10-16

    Diarrhea associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs primarily as a result of reduced Na(+) absorption. Although colonic Na(+) absorption is mediated by both epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) and Na-H exchangers (NHE), inhibition of NHE-mediated Na(+) absorption is the primary cause of diarrhea in UC. As there are conflicting observations reported on NHE expression in human UC, the present study was initiated to identify whether NHE isoforms (NHE2 and NHE3) expression is altered and how Na(+) absorption is regulated in DSS-induced inflammation in rat colon, a model that has been used to study UC. Western blot analyses indicate that neither NHE2 nor NHE3 expression is altered in apical membranes of inflamed colon. Na(+) fluxes measured in vitro under voltage clamp conditions in controls demonstrate that both HCO3 (-)-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na(+) absorption are inhibited by S3226 (NHE3-inhibitor), but not by HOE694 (NHE2-inhibitor) in normal animals. In contrast, in DSS-induced inflammation, butyrate-, but not HCO3 (-)-dependent Na(+) absorption is present and is inhibited by HOE694, but not by S3226. These observations indicate that in normal colon NHE3 mediates both HCO3 (-)-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na(+) absorption, whereas DSS-induced inflammation activates NHE2, which mediates butyrate-dependent (but not HCO3 (-)-dependent) Na(+) absorption. In in vivo loop studies HCO3 (-)-Ringer and butyrate-Ringer exhibit similar rates of water absorption in normal rats, whereas in DSS-induced inflammation luminal butyrate-Ringer reversed water secretion observed with HCO3 (-)-Ringer to fluid absorption. Lumen butyrate-Ringer incubation activated NHE3-mediated Na(+) absorption in DSS-induced colitis. These observations suggest that the butyrate activation of NHE2 would be a potential target to control UC-associated diarrhea.

  2. Effects of seasonal changes in food quality and food intake on the transport of sodium and butyrate across ruminal epithelium of reindeer.

    PubMed

    Storeheier, P V; Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Sundset, M A; Mathiesen, S D

    2003-07-01

    Transport of 22Na and 14C-butyrate across the ruminal epithelium of captive reindeer fed a concentrate diet in summer (n=5) and in winter (n=5) and from free-ranging reindeer taken from summer (n=3) and winter pasture (n=5) was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. Significant amounts of both Na+ and butyrate were transported across the isolated epithelium without any external driving force. The ruminal transport of Na+ and butyrate were interacting, as evidenced by both the observed amiloride-induced reduction of net butyrate-transport and by the positive correlation between net transport of butyrate and Na+. Amiloride also reduced the net transport of Na+ without significantly affecting the short-circuit current, indicating the presence of an apical Na+/H+ exchanger in the ruminal epithelium of reindeer. The captive reindeer increased the dry matter intake of a constant quality concentrate from winter to summer, but this neither affected their ruminal transport capacity nor their ruminal surface enlargement factor (SEF). Free-ranging reindeer increased their ruminal transport capacity for Na+ and butyrate from summer to winter but simultaneously reduced their ruminal SEF. The present data indicate that this food-induced increase in transport capacity was attributed to changes in the nutrient composition of the diet.

  3. Involvement of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the anticonvulsant action of methaqualone.

    PubMed

    Naik, S R; Naid, P R; Sheth, U K

    1978-04-14

    The effects of methaqualone on isonicotinic acid hydrazide, 6-mercapto propionic acid, picrotoxin, and strychnine-induced convulsion were studied in mice and the results compared with diazepam. Methaqualone, like diazepam, was found to be a selective antagonist of isoniazid-induced convulsion and a much less effective inhibitor of strychnine convulsion. Methaqualone elicits muscle-relaxant, sedative, and anticonvulsant effects at different dose levels. At low, nonsedative doses the drug produces anticonvulsant effects, and at higher doses, muscle-relaxant and sedative effects. It appears that the mechanism(s) of action of methaqualone in on GABA deficiency or receptor blockade, rather than on glycine receptors.

  4. Effect of Ethephon, Indole Butyric Acid, and Treatment Solution pH on Rooting and on Ethylene Levels within Mung Bean Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Mudge, K W; Swanson, B T

    1978-02-01

    Light-grown mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) cuttings were treated with buffered and nonbuffered solutions of Ethephon, indole butyric acid (IBA), and the combination of both. Ethephon treatment resulted in increased tissue ethylene levels with increasing solution pH, but had no effect on rooting. IBA treatment had no effect on tissue ethylene levels, but strongly promoted rooting. Combinations of Ethephon and IBA had no effect on rooting of mung bean cuttings beyond that obtained by IBA alone. PMID:16660274

  5. Homology modeling of human γ-butyric acid transporters and the binding of pro-drugs 5-aminolevulinic acid and methyl aminolevulinic acid used in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Baglo, Yan; Gabrielsen, Mari; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Gederaas, Odrun A

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a safe and effective method currently used in the treatment of skin cancer. In ALA-based PDT, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), or ALA esters, are used as pro-drugs to induce the formation of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Activation of PpIX by light causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and toxic responses. Studies have indicated that ALA and its methyl ester (MAL) are taken up into the cells via γ-butyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs). Uptake via GATs into peripheral sensory nerve endings may also account for one of the few adverse side effects of ALA-based PDT, namely pain. In the present study, homology models of the four human GAT subtypes were constructed using three x-ray crystal structures of the homologous leucine transporter (LeuT) as templates. Binding of the native substrate GABA and the possible substrates ALA and MAL was investigated by molecular docking of the ligands into the central putative substrate binding sites in the outward-occluded GAT models. Electrostatic potentials (ESPs) of the putative substrate translocation pathway of each subtype were calculated using the outward-open and inward-open homology models. Our results suggested that ALA is a substrate of all four GATs and that MAL is a substrate of GAT-2, GAT-3 and BGT-1. The ESP calculations indicated that differences likely exist in the entry pathway of the transporters (i.e. in outward-open conformations). Such differences may be exploited for development of inhibitors that selectively target specific GAT subtypes and the homology models may hence provide tools for design of therapeutic inhibitors that can be used to reduce ALA-induced pain. PMID:23762315

  6. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P<0.001), BW gain (P=0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P=0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P<0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  7. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Qaisrani, S. N.; van Krimpen, M. M.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P = 0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P > 0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. PMID:26175052

  8. Role of indole-3-butyric acid or/and putrescine in improving productivity of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Amin, A A; Gharib, F A; Abouziena, H F; Dawood, Mona G

    2013-12-15

    The response of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. cv. Giza 3) to treatment with two plant growth regulators putrescine (Put) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) applied either alone or in combinations was studied. Spraying of Put and IBA either individually or in combination significantly increased the plant height, number and dry weight of branches, leaves and pods/plant and leaf area/plant at the two growth stages. Total photosynthetic pigments in fresh leaves were significantly promoted as a result of application of Put or IBA. Generally, application of Put and/or IBA at 100 mg L(-1) produced the highest numbers of pods which resulted in substantially the highest seed yield. Put and IBA increased the seed yield by 21.3 and 19.2%, respectively, while the combination of Put at 100 mgL(-1) and IBA at 50 mgL(-1) increased it by 27.4%. Greatest increases in straw and biological yield/fed (38.3 and 30.4%, respectively) were noted with the combination treatment of IBA 100 mg L(-1) plus Put at 100 mg L(-1). Put and IBA significantly increased the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids in chickpea seeds over control, but the effects were less marked than those of their combination. This response was greater following treatment with IBA than with Put. It could be conclude that spraying Put or/and IBA on chickpea plants have promotion effects on the seeds yield criteria which have promising potential as sources of low-cost protein and minerals for possible use as food/feed supplements.

  9. Genetic differences in the modulation of accumbal glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid levels after cocaine-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Miguéns, Miguel; Botreau, Fanny; Olías, Oscar; Del Olmo, Nuria; Coria, Santiago M; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    The Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rat strains are frequently used to study the role of genetic factors in vulnerability to drug addiction and relapse. Glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission are significantly altered after cocaine-induced reinstatement, although whether LEW and F344 rats differ in their accumbal glutamate and GABA responsiveness to cocaine-induced reinstatement remains unknown. To investigate this, we measured by in vivo microdialysis extracellular glutamate and GABA levels in the core division of the nucleus accumbens after extinction of cocaine self-administration and during cocaine-induced reinstatement (7.5mg/kg, i.p.) in these two strains of rats. No strain differences were evident in cocaine self-administration or extinction behavior, although cocaine priming did induce a higher rate of lever pressing in LEW compared with F344 rats. After extinction, F344 rats that self-administered cocaine had less GABA than the saline controls, while the glutamate levels remained constant in both strains. There was more accumbal glutamate after cocaine priming in LEW rats that self-administered cocaine, while GABA levels were unaffected. By contrast, GABA increased transiently in F344 rats that self-administered cocaine, while glutamate levels were unaltered. In F344 saline controls, cocaine priming provoked contrasting effects in glutamate and GABA levels, inducing a delayed increase in glutamate and a delayed decrease in GABA levels. These amino acids were unaffected by cocaine priming in LEW saline rats. Together, these results suggest that genetic differences in cocaine-induced reinstatement reflect different responses of the accumbal GABA and glutamate systems to cocaine priming.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production.

    PubMed

    Säemann, M D; Böhmig, G A; Osterreicher, C H; Burtscher, H; Parolini, O; Diakos, C; Stöckl, J; Hörl, W H; Zlabinger, G J

    2000-12-01

    Cytokines are critical in regulating unresponsiveness versus immunity towards enteric antigens derived from the intestinal flora and ingested food. There is increasing evidence that butyrate, a major metabolite of intestinal bacteria and crucial energy source for gut epithelial cells, also possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Its influence on cytokine production, however, is not established. Here, we report that butyrate strongly inhibits interleukin-12 (IL-12) production by suppression of both IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNA accumulation, but massively enhances IL-10 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus cell-stimulated human monocytes. The effect of butyrate on IL-12 production was irreversible upon the addition of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 or transforming growth factor b1 and of indomethacin. In anti-CD3-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, butyrate enhanced IL-10 and IL-4 secretion but reduced the release of IL-2 and interferon-g. The latter effect was in part a result of suppressed IL-12 production but also a result of inhibition of IL-12 receptor expression on T cells. These data demonstrate a novel anti-inflammatory property of butyrate that may have broad implications for the regulation of immune responses in vivo and could be exploited as new therapeutic approach in inflammatory conditions.

  11. Hydrogen bonding and molecular association in 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and potentiometric titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.; Barczyński, P.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate (QNBu·H 2O·HBr, 3) has been determined by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Crystals of 3 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The water molecule interacts with the carboxylic group of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid and with the bromide anion by the COOH⋯OH 2 and HOH⋯Br hydrogen bonds of 2.575(3) and 3.293(2) Å, respectively. The structures of monomer ( 4) and dimeric cation ( 5) of the title complex have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, yielding conformations consistent with this in the crystal. The solid-state FTIR spectra of 3 and its deuterated analogue have been measured and compared with the theoretical spectrum of 4. The assignments of the observed and predicted bands have been proposed. The molecule of 3 has a chiral center at the C(9) atom, which is responsible for the non-magnetically equivalence of the α-ring and C(11)H 2 methylene protons in 1H NMR spectrum. The values of p Ka of quinuclidinium-acetate (quinuclidine betaine), 2-(quinuclidinium)-propionate and 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyrate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  12. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences.

  13. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences. PMID:27497013

  14. Negative polarity of phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, Olivia J.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez; Katz, Howard E.; Wu, Meng-Yin; Johns, Gary L.; Markovic, Nina; Arnold, Michael S.

    2015-01-19

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the V{sub oc}, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased V{sub oc}, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions.

  15. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Storm, A C; Hanigan, M D; Kristensen, N B

    2011-08-01

    The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers (30 kg) were maintained in a temporarily emptied and washed rumen for 40 min. The initial concentration of VFA was 84.2 mmol/L. Butyrate was increased from 4 to 36 mmol/L in butyric buffer by replacement of acetate, and ammonia (NH(3)) was increased from 2.5 to 22.5 mmol/L in ammonia buffer by replacement of NaCl. Increasing amounts of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) were added to the buffers as the order of buffer sequence increased (6, 12, and 18 g of D(2)O). Ruminal clearance of D(2)O was used to estimate epithelial blood flow. To increase accuracy of the epithelial blood flow estimates, data of ruminal liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n=24). Epithelial blood flow increased 49±11% for butyric buffer compared with control. The ruminal disappearance of propionate (marker VFA) was affected by buffer and followed the same pattern as for epithelial blood flow. The correlation between ruminal disappearance of propionate and epithelial blood flow (r=0.56) indicates that the removal of propionate can be limited by epithelial blood flow. The ruminal disappearance of propionate increased 30±12% for the butyric compared with ammonia buffer and 12.5±8% when

  16. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Storm, A C; Hanigan, M D; Kristensen, N B

    2011-08-01

    The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers (30 kg) were maintained in a temporarily emptied and washed rumen for 40 min. The initial concentration of VFA was 84.2 mmol/L. Butyrate was increased from 4 to 36 mmol/L in butyric buffer by replacement of acetate, and ammonia (NH(3)) was increased from 2.5 to 22.5 mmol/L in ammonia buffer by replacement of NaCl. Increasing amounts of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) were added to the buffers as the order of buffer sequence increased (6, 12, and 18 g of D(2)O). Ruminal clearance of D(2)O was used to estimate epithelial blood flow. To increase accuracy of the epithelial blood flow estimates, data of ruminal liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n=24). Epithelial blood flow increased 49±11% for butyric buffer compared with control. The ruminal disappearance of propionate (marker VFA) was affected by buffer and followed the same pattern as for epithelial blood flow. The correlation between ruminal disappearance of propionate and epithelial blood flow (r=0.56) indicates that the removal of propionate can be limited by epithelial blood flow. The ruminal disappearance of propionate increased 30±12% for the butyric compared with ammonia buffer and 12.5±8% when

  17. Phase Diagrams of Binary Systems of Some Alkali Iso-Butyrates with One Mesogenic Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuk, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1995-09-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary mixtures of mesogenic potassium iso-butyrate with non-mesogenic lithium-, sodium-, and caesium iso-butyrate have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. The temperature and concentration ranges of liquid crystal formation have been established. Sodium and caesium iso-butyrate have been found to possess latent mesogenic properties.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification... adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer,...

  19. Preparation of highly conjugated water-dispersible graphene-butyric acid for the enhancement of electron transfer within polyamic acid-benzoxazole: potential applications in electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-15

    To break through the long time and complex procedures for the preparation of highly conjugated reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) in developing electrochemical sensor, a time-saving and simple method is investigated in this study. One novel step of the exfoliated accompanying carboxylated graphene sheet from pristine is achieved via Friedel-Crafts acylation. By electrophilic aromatic substitution, the succinic anhydride ring is opened and attaches covalently to the graphene sheet (Gs) to form exfoliated graphene with grafted 1-one-butyric acid (Gs-BA). The grafting chain converts anions in aqueous solution to maintain Gs-BA in a stable dispersion and noticeably decreases the π-π stacking of the exfoliated Gs during the drying process. The analytical results of the absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the conjugation of Gs-BA is not significantly destroyed by this chemical modification; Gs-BA retains the Gs electrical properties favorable for developing electrochemical sensors. When polyamic acid-benzoxazole (PAA-BO), a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-sensitive probe, hybridizes with Gs-BA to form Gs-BA-PAA-BO, the electron transfer rate relating to the response time improves markedly from 1.09 s(-1) to 38.8 s(-1). Additionally, it offers a high performance for H₂O₂ sensing in terms of sensitivity and response time, making this method applicable for developing glucose and choline biosensors.

  20. Molecular modeling study of agglomeration of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester in solvents.

    PubMed

    Mortuza, S M; Banerjee, Soumik

    2012-12-28

    The molecular interactions between solvent and nanoparticles during photoactive layer formation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells influence the morphology of the photoactive layer and hence determine the power conversion efficiency. Prediction of optimal synthesis parameters in OPVs, such as choice of solvent, processing temperature, and nanoparticle concentration, requires fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the agglomeration of nanoparticles in solvents. In this study, we used molecular dynamics simulations to simulate a commonly used organic nanoparticle, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), in various solvents to correlate solvent-nanoparticle interactions with the size of the agglomerate structure of PCBM. We analyzed the effects of concentration of PCBM and operating temperature on the molecular rearrangement and agglomeration of PCBM in three solvents: (i) toluene, (ii) indane, and (iii) toluene-indane mixture. We evaluated the agglomeration behavior of PCBM by determining sizes of the largest clusters of PCBM and the corresponding size distributions. To obtain further insight into the agglomerate structure of PCBMs, we evaluated radial distribution functions (RDFs) and coordination numbers of the various moieties of PCBMs with respect to solvent atoms as well as with respect to that of other PCBMs. Our simulations demonstrate that PCBMs form larger clusters in toluene while they are relatively dispersed in indane, which indicates the greater solubility of PCBM in indane than in toluene. In toluene-indane mixture, PCBMs are clustered to a greater extent than in indane and less than that in toluene. To correlate agglomerate size to nanoparticle-solvent interactions, we also evaluated the potential of mean force (PMF) of the fullerene moiety of PCBM in toluene and indane. Our results also show that the cluster size of PCBM molecules increases with the increase of concentration of PCBM and the processing temperature. To

  1. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium oleate in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; Han, K.N.; Guan, Y.C.

    1998-08-01

    Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}Na [SDBS]) and sodium oleate (CH{sub 3}[CH{sub 2}]{sub 7}CH{double_bond}CH[CH{sub 2}]{sub 7}COONa) in acidic solutions was investigated using a potentiostat, a lock-in amplifier, a contact angle goniometer, A fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and an ultraviolet (UV)/visible spectrophotometer. In the presence of the organic inhibitors, the corrosion rate was reduced significantly, Anionic SDBS was adsorbed on the positively charged mild steel surface through the electrostatic attraction. However, for sodium oleate, the soluble oleic acid (CH{sub 3}[CH{sub 2}]{sub 7}CH{double_bond}CH[CH]{sub 7}COOH) chemisorbed on the steel surface at the first stage. Then, insoluble colloid adsorbed on the chemisorbed surface through van der Waals forces.

  2. Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

  3. Sodium and Potassium Interactions with Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, Pascal; D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Ennifar, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions are essential cofactors for the structure and functions of nucleic acids. Yet, the early discovery in the 70s of the crucial role of Mg(2+) in stabilizing tRNA structures has occulted for a long time the importance of monovalent cations. Renewed interest in these ions was brought in the late 90s by the discovery of specific potassium metal ions in the core of a group I intron. Their importance in nucleic acid folding and catalytic activity is now well established. However, detection of K(+) and Na(+) ions is notoriously problematic and the question about their specificity is recurrent. Here we review the different methods that can be used to detect K(+) and Na(+) ions in nucleic acid structures such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance or molecular dynamics simulations. We also discuss specific versus non-specific binding to different structures through various examples. PMID:26860302

  4. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  5. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda. ...

  6. Transcriptome characterization by deep-RNA-sequencing underlies the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate), especially butyrate, alter cell differentiation, proliferation, motility, and in particular, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition activity. Butyrate is a great inducer of ...

  7. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  8. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  13. Lactic acid conversion to 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid over silica-supported sodium nitrate: Reaction optimization and identification of sodium lactate as the active catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wadley, D.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1997-01-15

    Lactic acid is converted to 2,3-pentanedione, acrylic acid, and other products in vapor-phase reactions over silica-supported sodium lactate formed from sodium nitrate. Multiparameter optimization of reaction conditions using a Box-Benkhen experimental design shows that the highest yield and selectivity to 2,3-pentanedione are achieved at low temperature, elevated pressure, and long contact time, while yield and selectivity to acrylic acid are most favorable at high temperature, low pressure, and short contact time. Post-reaction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses of the catalyst indicate that sodium nitrate as the initial catalyst material is transformed to sodium lactate at the onset of reaction via proton transfer from lactic acid to nitrate. The resultant nitric acid vaporizes as it is formed, leaving sodium lactate as the sole sodium-bearing species on the catalyst during reaction. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate on animal performance, ruminal metabolism, and systemic acid-base status.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, G R; Jackson, J A; Hemken, R W

    1989-08-01

    Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were arranged in a replicated 3 x 3 latin square design with 3-wk periods and offered diets containing concentrate and corn silage in a 60:40 ratio (DM basis). Treatments were: 1) basal diet, 2) basal diet with 1% NaHCO3, and 3) basal diet with 1% sodium sesquicarbonate. There were no differences among treatments in milk production, milk protein, or 3.5% FCM, but sodium sesquicarbonate increased milk fat percentage (3.89, 3.94, 4.06%) compared with that of the control. Rumen pH was higher for cows fed buffered diets than for control cows. Urine pH was higher for cows fed NaHCO3 diet than for those fed sodium sesquicarbonate and control diets. No differences were detected among treatment means for molar percentage of isobutyrate, isovalerate, or total VFA, Dietary sesquicarbonate addition increased molar percentage of acetate, decreased propionate, and resulted in a higher acetate:propionate ratio compared with the cows fed NaHCO3. However, molar percentage of butyrate and valerate decreased in cows fed sodium sesquicarbonate when compared with those fed the control diet. No differences among treatment means were detected for blood pH, pCO2, or HCO3. PMID:2551941

  15. Fragrance material review on phenethyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl butyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl butyrate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl butyrate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  16. Fragrance material review on benzyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl butyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl butyrate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl butyrate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  17. Selected biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase in butter lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) elicited with dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    The study concentrated on changes in certain biochemical parameters of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lettuce leaves caused by dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) elicitation. PPO from control plants demonstrated the highest affinity toward catechol, whereas PPO from BABA-elicited lettuce showed the highest affinity to 4-methylcatechol. The optimum temperature for enzymes from control plants was 35°C, whereas from plants elicited with 1mM BABA this was 25°C. PPO from plants elicited with BABA was also more sensitive to the tested inhibitors than PPO from control plants. l-Cysteine was the most effective inhibitor. Native gel stained for PPO activity in control samples showed two isoforms. However, in BABA-treated lettuce three bands visualising PPO activity were observed. The information obtained in this study will be valuable for the development of treatment technology and storage conditions to control undesirable browning reactions in elicited lettuce.

  18. Poly-(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester bilayer deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation for organic photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Gigli, G.; Loiudice, A.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Resta, V.; Rizzo, A.; Taurino, A.

    2012-02-01

    A poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) bilayer structure has been realized by single step matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (ss-MAPLE) technique using the same solvent for both the polymers under vacuum conditions. Our ss-MAPLE procedure allows the fabrication of polymeric multilayer device stacks, which are very difficult to realize with the conventional solvent assisted deposition methods. A proof of concept bilayer P3HT/PCBM solar cell based on ss-MAPLE deposition has been realized and characterized. This demonstration qualifies ss-MAPLE as a general and alternative technique for the implementation of polymeric materials in hetero-structure device technology.

  19. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  20. Broadband gain in poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester photodetectors enabled by a semicontinuous gold interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, Justin M.; Živanović, Sandra R.

    2014-10-20

    Substantial broadband photoconductive gain has been realized for organic, thin-film photodetectors with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (P3HT:PCBM) active layer at low bias voltages. External quantum efficiencies upwards of 1500% were achieved when a semicontinuous gold layer was introduced at the anode interface. Significant gain was also observed in the sub-band gap, near infrared region where the external quantum efficiency approached 100% despite the lack of a sensitizer. The gain response was highly dependent on the thickness of the active layer of the photodetector with the best results achieved with the thinnest devices. The gain is the result of the injection of secondary electrons due to hole charge trapping at the semicontinuous gold layer.

  1. Selected biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase in butter lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) elicited with dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    The study concentrated on changes in certain biochemical parameters of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lettuce leaves caused by dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) elicitation. PPO from control plants demonstrated the highest affinity toward catechol, whereas PPO from BABA-elicited lettuce showed the highest affinity to 4-methylcatechol. The optimum temperature for enzymes from control plants was 35°C, whereas from plants elicited with 1mM BABA this was 25°C. PPO from plants elicited with BABA was also more sensitive to the tested inhibitors than PPO from control plants. l-Cysteine was the most effective inhibitor. Native gel stained for PPO activity in control samples showed two isoforms. However, in BABA-treated lettuce three bands visualising PPO activity were observed. The information obtained in this study will be valuable for the development of treatment technology and storage conditions to control undesirable browning reactions in elicited lettuce. PMID:25172730

  2. Thin film transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester hetero-junction for ammonia detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuyan; Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Tao; Liu, Yanni; Du, Hongfei; Su, Yuanjie; Jiang, Yadong

    2015-10-01

    Composite film and bilayer film based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester(PC61BM) were firstly utilized as active layers of OTFT sensor. By comparing with electrical and sensing properties of these different devices for ammonia (NH3) at room temperature, the device based on PC61BM/P3HT composite film exhibited the optimum characteristics. The recovery value of PC61BM/P3HT composite film reached 93.9% of its initial value at 20 ppm NH3 within 9 min, which was improved by 75.5% in comparison with the one based on pristine P3HT film. In addition, the sensing mechanisms of all sensors were studied as well.

  3. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A. K.; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ˜2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 and sodium n-butyrate in lipopolysaccharide-triggered inflammation: comparison of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line and primary hepatocyte monocultures with a porcine enterohepatic co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Farkas, O; Mátis, G; Pászti-Gere, E; Palócz, O; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Csikó, Gy; Neogrády, Zs; Gálfi, P

    2014-09-01

    This study was based on our previously developed double-layered enterohepatic co-culture system, composed of nontumorigenic porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) and primary culture of porcine hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory effect of spent culture supernatant of Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 (Lp2142; 13.3%) and sodium n-butyrate (2 mM) was tested on IPEC-J2 and hepatocyte monocultures as well as on the gut-liver co-culture. To mimic inflammation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 and 10 μg/mL) was applied. Production of IL-8 and IL-6 was measured as a marker of inflammatory responses. The paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelium was also monitored by fluoresceinisothiocyanate-labeled dextran 4 assay. Significant increase of IL-8 concentration was observed in the IPEC-J2 monoculture (P < 0.01) while the level of IL-6 was not changed following LPS treatment. Concentration of IL-8 and IL-6 was grown significantly in hepatocyte monocultures (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) as well as in the co-culture after 10 μg/mL LPS treatment (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). One microgram per milliliter LPS caused elevated IL-8 level in the co-culture (P < 0.001) and in the hepatocyte monoculture (P < 0.01), while it caused increased IL-6 level only in the hepatocytes (P < 0.001). Production of IL-8 was significantly decreased by butyrate in case of 1 μg/mL as well as 10 μg/mL LPS exposure in the co-culture (P < 0.001). Application of butyrate also reduced IL-6 level in the co-culture after 10 μg/mL LPS treatment (P < 0.01). Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 decreased IL-8 level after incubation with 1 μg/mL LPS (P < 0.001), while in case of 10 μg/mL LPS treatment only a marginal lowering in IL-8 (P = 0.064) release was measured. The IL-6 concentration was significantly reduced (P < 0.01 in case of 1 μg/mL LPS treatment) by Lp2142 in the co-culture. Contrarily, the elevated IL-8 and IL-6 level of hepatocytes has not been reduced in case of either butyrate or Lp2142

  5. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  6. Impact of mash feeding versus pellets on propionic/butyric acid levels and on total load in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Longpré, J; Fairbrother, J M; Fravalo, P; Arsenault, J; LeBel, P; Laplante, B; Surprenant, C; Massé, D; Letellier, A

    2016-03-01

    Feed characteristics may influence the bacterial community composition and metabolic activities in the pig gastrointestinal tract, known to be associated with positive effects on the gut. Use of mash feed is associated with reduced excretion, but little is known of its effect on the population or of the mechanism of action. Our objectives were to assess the effect of feed texture combined with feed particle size on VFA profiles and levels, total count, and the presence of genes encoding virulence factors of pathogenic strains in the digestive tract along with their impact on pig performance of fattening pigs. Pigs ( = 840) on a commercial farm received mash or pellet diets of different particle sizes during the fattening period. Caecal and colon contents from 164 pigs were sampled at the slaughterhouse for enumeration of by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and for VFA quantification by capillary gas chromatography. The gene was used to enumerate total . Improved pig performances associated with pellet texture and a 500-μm size were observed. Caecal ( = 0.02) and colon ( < 0.01) propionic acid concentrations were lower for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed. Similarly, caecal ( = 0.01) and colon ( < 0.001) butyric acid concentrations were also lower for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed, as determined by capillary gas chromatography. Moreover, caecal ( = 0.03) and colon ( < 0.001) butyric acid concentrations were higher for pigs receiving a feed with a 1,250-μm particle size rather than a 500-μm particle size. On the other hand, total caecal and colon levels were higher for pigs receiving pellet feed than for those receiving mash feed. For total enumeration, caecal ( < 0.01) and colon ( < 0.01) gene copies were higher for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed. No effect of particle size on fatty acid concentrations or on numbers was observed. Virulence gene quantification revealed no trend. Taken together, results showed that mash feed is

  7. Quantitative influences of butyrate or propionate on thermophilic production of methane from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, J.M.; Bordeaux, F.M.; Rivards, C.J.; Smith, P.H.

    1986-02-01

    Sodium butyrate and sodium propionate were continuously infused into separate 4-liter thermophilic digesters. These digesters were operated at 55/sup 0/C, had a retention time of 20 days, and had a pH of 7.8. Infusion rates were started at 10 mM day/sup -1/ and were increased incrementally when new stable external organic acid pool sizes and new stable gas production rates were observed. Stable conditions were obtained in both digesters at an infusion rate of 15 mM day/sup -1/, with methanogenesis elevated over that of control digesters. Calculations based on expected CH/sub 4/ at this infusion rate and measured CH/sub 4/ production in the treated and control digesters, however, showed an approximately 25% inhibition of methanogenesis in both digesters. A digester infused with sodium chloride showed little or no inhibition at this infusion rate, but was totally inhibited when its infusion rate was increased to 20 mM day/sup -1/, and cumulative added NaCl reached 0.38 M. The butyrate and propionate-amended digesters tolerated addition rates of 20 mM day/sup -1/, but both failed when they were increased to 25 mM day/sup -1/. These results indicate that the thermophilic digesters could function stably at higher external pool sizes of butyrate or propionate than routinely observed.

  8. Quantitative Influences of Butyrate or Propionate on Thermophilic Production of Methane from Biomass †

    PubMed Central

    Henson, J. Michael; Bordeaux, F. M.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Smith, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium butyrate and sodium propionate were continuously infused into separate 4-liter thermophilic digesters. These digesters were operated at 55°C, had a retention time of 20 days, and had a pH of 7.8. Infusion rates were started at 10 mM day−1 and were increased incrementally when new stable external organic acid pool sizes and new stable gas production rates were observed. Stable conditions were obtained in both digesters at an infusion rate of 15 mM day−1, with methanogenesis elevated over that of control digesters. Calculations based on expected CH4 at this infusion rate and measured CH4 production in the treated and control digesters, however, showed an approximately 25% inhibition of methanogenesis in both digesters. A digester infused with sodium chloride showed little or no inhibition at this infusion rate, but was totally inhibited when its infusion rate was increased to 20 mM day−1, and cumulative added NaCl reached 0.38 M. The butyrate and propionate-amended digesters tolerated addition rates of 20 mM day−1, but both failed when they were increased to 25 mM day−1. These results indicate that the thermophilic digesters could function stably at higher external pool sizes of butyrate or propionate than routinely observed. PMID:16346985

  9. High butyric acid amounts induce oxidative stress, alter calcium homeostasis, and cause neurite retraction in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Kamio, Noriaki; Seki, Keisuke; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-07-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite by-product produced by oral pathogenic bacteria and is detected in high amounts in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontal disease. Previous works have demonstrated that BA can cause oxidative stress in various cell types; however, this was never explored using neuronal cells. Here, we exposed nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC1(2) cells to varying BA concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM). We measured total heme, H(2)O(2), catalase, and calcium levels through biochemical assays and visualized the neurite outgrowth after BA treatment. Similarly, we determined the effects of other common periodontal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on neurite outgrowth for comparison. We found that high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA concentrations induced oxidative stress and altered calcium homeostasis, whereas low (0.5 mM) BA concentration had no significant effect. Moreover, compared to other SCFAs, we established that only BA was able to induce neurite retraction.

  10. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Kannan; Perumal, Perumal; Sundarabaalaji, Narayanan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid (AMSB) was synthesized in good yield. AMSB was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H and 13C) and Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay of AMSB was assessed using 1-1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and was found to be 44.1, 34.71 and 41.7 μg/ml respectively. The compound showed effective inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. AMSB was identified to be a reversible mixed noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The molecular docking study was carried out to evaluate the specific groove binding properties and affords valuable information of AMSB binding mode in the active site of α-glucosidase the study may lead to the which leads to the rational design of new class of antidiabetic drugs targeting α-glucosidase based on AMSB in near future.

  11. Perturbation of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Homeostasis by the UDP-Glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 Modulates Arabidopsis Architecture and Water Stress Tolerance[W

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Vanesa B.; Van Aken, Olivier; Morreel, Kris; Vandenbroucke, Korneel; van de Cotte, Brigitte; De Clercq, Inge; Chiwocha, Sheila; Fenske, Ricarda; Prinsen, Els; Boerjan, Wout; Genty, Bernard; Stubbs, Keith A.; Inzé, Dirk; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and redox signaling undergo synergistic and antagonistic interactions with phytohormones to regulate protective responses of plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, molecular insight into the nature of this crosstalk remains scarce. We demonstrate that the hydrogen peroxide–responsive UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the modulation of plant architecture and water stress response through its activity toward the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Biochemical characterization of recombinant UGT74E2 demonstrated that it strongly favors IBA as a substrate. Assessment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), IBA, and their conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT74E2 indicated that the catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. In these transgenic plants, not only were IBA-Glc concentrations increased, but also free IBA levels were elevated and the conjugated IAA pattern was modified. This perturbed IBA and IAA homeostasis was associated with architectural changes, including increased shoot branching and altered rosette shape, and resulted in significantly improved survival during drought and salt stress treatments. Hence, our results reveal that IBA and IBA-Glc are important regulators of morphological and physiological stress adaptation mechanisms and provide molecular evidence for the interplay between hydrogen peroxide and auxin homeostasis through the action of an IBA UGT. PMID:20798329

  12. The effect of citric acid, lactic acid, sodium citrate and sodium lactate, alone and in combination with nisin, on the growth of Arcobacter butzleri.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C A

    1999-12-01

    The importance of Arcobacter spp. as a cause of human foodborne illness is unresolved. Organic acids and their sodium salts, and nisin are preservatives commonly used in the type of foods from which the organism is recovered. In this study their effect on the growth of A. butzleri in culture, alone and in combination, was investigated. At 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% lactic and citric acids inhibited A. butzleri growth; 2% sodium lactate was effective in inhibiting growth over 8 h incubation but not over longer periods. Sodium citrate was more effective than sodium lactate. Nisin alone inhibited A. butzleri growth at 500 IU ml-1 over 5 h. It did not enhance the effect of sodium citrate inhibition but it did augment the effect of sodium lactate alone over 8 h.

  13. Sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor ameliorates eNOS, iNOS and TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis, apoptosis and DNA damage in the kidney of juvenile diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2014-11-01

    Recent reports highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the exact molecular mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors ameliorate DN still remain unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the renoprotective effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) in diabetes-induced renal damages, apoptosis and fibrosis in juvenile rats. Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (60mg/kg), whereas NaB (500mg/kg/day) was administrated for 21days by i.p. route in a pre- and post-treatment schedule. End-points of evaluation included biochemical estimation, histology, protein expression as well as apoptosis and DNA damage examinations. Post-treatment with NaB significantly decreased plasma glucose, creatinine, urea, histological alterations including the fibrosis and collagen deposition as well as decreased the HDACs activity, expression of eNOS, iNOS, α-SMA, collagen I, fibronectin, TGFβ-1, NFκB, apoptosis and DNA damage in the diabetic kidney. These results showed that NaB treatment improved the renal function and ameliorated the histological alterations, fibrosis, apoptosis and DNA damage in the kidney of juvenile rats.

  14. TGF-alpha and TGF-beta expression during sodium-N-butyrate-induced differentiation of human keratinocytes: evidence for subpopulation-specific up-regulation of TGF-beta mRNA in suprabasal cells.

    PubMed

    Staiano-Coico, L; Khandke, L; Krane, J F; Sharif, S; Gottlieb, A B; Krueger, J G; Heim, L; Rigas, B; Higgins, P J

    1990-12-01

    Sodium-N-butyrate (NaB) induces terminal differentiation and cornified envelope formation in cultured human keratinocytes. In the present study we explored the question of whether NaB-induced maturation could be mediated through changes in TGF-alpha and TGF-beta expression in normal keratinocytes. NaB induced a four-fold increase in TGF-beta mRNA transcript levels. This increase in TGF-beta mRNA abundance occurred only within the nonbasal keratinocyte subpopulation which maximally responds to NaB treatment by progression to cornified envelopes. Basal keratinocytes, which are relatively refractive to cornified envelope formation, did not show any increase in TGF-beta mRNA abundance after NaB treatment. By comparison, TGF-alpha mRNA transcript and extracellular TGF-alpha protein levels were unaffected by NaB treatment. A 50% decrease in EGF receptor binding was observed in NaB-treated keratinocyte cultures, rendering the cells less responsive to proliferation induction.

  15. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  16. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer. PMID:16919325

  17. Acarbose enhances human colonic butyrate production.

    PubMed

    Weaver, G A; Tangel, C T; Krause, J A; Parfitt, M M; Jenkins, P L; Rader, J M; Lewis, B A; Miller, T L; Wolin, M J

    1997-05-01

    Earlier studies suggest that butyrate has colonic differentiating and nutritional effects and that acarbose increases butyrate production. To determine the effects of acarbose on colonic fermentation, subjects were given 50-200 mg acarbose or placebo (cornstarch), three times per day, with meals in a double-blind crossover study. Fecal concentrations of starch and starch-fermenting bacteria were measured and fecal fermentation products determined after incubation of fecal suspensions with and without added substrate for 6 and 24 h. Substrate additions were cornstarch, cornstarch plus acarbose and potato starch. Dietary starch consumption was similar during acarbose and placebo treatment periods, but fecal starch concentrations were found to be significantly greater with acarbose treatment. Ratios of starch-fermenting to total anaerobic bacteria were also significantly greater with acarbose treatment. Butyrate in feces, measured either as concentration or as percentage of total short-chain fatty acids, was significantly greater with acarbose treatment than with placebo treatment. Butyrate ranged from 22.3 to 27.5 mol/100 mol for the 50-200 mg, three times per day doses of acarbose compared with 18.3-19.3 mol/100 mol for the comparable placebo periods. The propionate in fecal total short-chain fatty acids was significantly less with acarbose treatment (10.7-12.1 mol/100 mol) than with placebo treatment (13.7-14.2 mol/100 mol). Butyrate production was significantly greater in fermentations in samples collected during acarbose treatment, whereas production of acetate and propionate was significantly less. Fermentation decreased when acarbose was added directly to cornstarch fermentations. Acarbose effectively augmented colonic butyrate production by several mechanisms; it reduced starch absorption, expanded concentrations of starch-fermenting and butyrate-producing bacteria and inhibited starch use by acetate- and propionate-producing bacteria.

  18. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Nordström, A C; Jacobs, F A; Eliasson, L

    1991-07-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  19. Butyrate promotes the recovering of intestinal wound healing through its positive effect on the tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Fan, P X; Li, L S; Qiao, S Y; Zhang, G L; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Postweaning diarrhea is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in weanling piglets. Feeding sodium butyrate to weanling piglets decreased the incidence of diarrhea, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium butyrate on diarrhea in relation to wound healing of intestinal barrier using IPEC-J2 cell model. Cultured cells were scratched to induce wound and then were treated with 4 mM sodium butyrate. The results showed that supplementation of the cells with sodium butyrate significantly promoted the process of wound healing, indicating the protective effects of butyrate on the intestinal mucosa. Butyrate treatment enhanced mRNA expression of the intestinal mucosal tight junction proteins occludin and zonula occluden protein-1 (P < 0.05), which suggested that the promotion of wound healing by butyrate is related to the maintenance of the function of the intestinal barrier. In addition, in the butyrate-treated group, intestinal total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), two of the main antioxidant enzymes, as well as glutathione (P < 0.05), one of the nonenzymatic antioxidant components, were enhanced whereas the malondialdehyde level, a marker of free radical mediated lipid peroxidation injury, was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary sodium butyrate might, at least partly, play an important role in recovering the intestinal tight junctions having a positive effect on maintaining the gut integrity.

  20. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  1. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism.

  2. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism. PMID:23201417

  3. Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L

    2009-09-01

    The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development. PMID:19655148

  4. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie; Yacoot, Andrew; Cacialli, Franco

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of "molecular terraces" whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  5. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Division of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  6. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Division of Product Policy... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section... sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4)...

  7. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Division of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  8. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  9. Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells - Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nankova, Bistra B.; Agarwal, Raj; MacFabe, Derrick F.; La Gamma, Edmund F.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal) or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s) was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals such as

  10. Reversed electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 is the major acid loader during recovery from cytosolic alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Naoshin, Zinnia; Thyssen, Anne; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of intracellular pH from cytosolic alkalosis has been attributed primarily to Cl– coupled acid loaders/base extruders such as Cl–/HCO3– or Cl–/OH– exchangers. We have studied this process in cortical astrocytes from wild-type and transgenic mouse models with gene deletion for the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) and for carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform II. An acute cytosolic alkalosis was induced by the removal of either CO2/HCO3– or butyric acid, and the subsequent acid loading was analysed by monitoring changes in cytosolic H+ or Na+ using ion-sensitive fluorescent dyes. We have identified that NBCe1 reverses during alkalosis and contributes more than 70% to the rate of recovery from alkalosis by extruding Na+ and HCO3–. After CA inhibition or in CAII-knockout (KO) cells, the rate of recovery was reduced by 40%, and even by 70% in the nominal absence of CO2/HCO3–. Increasing the extracellular K+ concentration modulated the rate of acid loading in wild-type cells, but not in NBCe1-KO cells. Removing chloride had only a minor effect on the recovery from alkalosis. Reversal of NBCe1 by reducing pH/[HCO3–] was demonstrated in astrocytes and in Xenopus oocytes, in which human NBCe1 was heterologously expressed. The results obtained suggest that reversed NBCe1, supported by CAII activity, plays a major role in acid-loading cortical astrocytes to support recovery from cytosolic alkalosis. PMID:25990710

  11. Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yanou; Zhang, Jianli; Gatlin, Delbert M; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-07-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary sustained-release microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) products (0 (non-supplement), 1·5 and 3·0 h) for a control or oxidised soyabean oil (SBO) diet on fish production, intestinal mucosal condition, immunity and intestinal bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dietary MSB increased weight gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio within the control and oxidised SBO groups. Gut mucosa was damaged in the oxidised SBO group fed without MSB, in contrast to a normal appearance found in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group. Microvillus density increased in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group (P< 0·001); however, microvillus density was affected by the different pre-fed diets in the midgut (P< 0·001) and by the different sustained-release times of MSB in the distal gut (DG) (P= 0·003). The interaction between the pre-fed diets and the sustained-release times of dietary MSB was significant for the relative gene expression levels of gut heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-β) within each gut segment, except for HSP70 in the DG and IL-1β in the foregut. Modulation of adherent bacterial communities within each gut segment investigated was not obvious when the common carp were fed the diets with MSB, as similarity coefficients of >0·79 were observed. These results indicated that MSB can be used as a dietary supplement to repair or prevent intestinal damage in carp fed oxidised SBO.

  12. Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G.; Glidden, David V.; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Scott, Michael; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperature by SDS at pH values of ≤4.5 or ≥10. Exposure of Sc237 prions in Syrian hamster brain homogenates to 1% SDS and 0.5% AcOH at room temperature resulted in a reduction of prion titer by a factor of ca. 107; however, all of the bioassay hamsters eventually developed prion disease. When various concentrations of SDS and AcOH were tested, the duration and temperature of exposure acted synergistically to inactivate both hamster Sc237 prions and human sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. The inactivation of prions in brain homogenates and those bound to stainless steel wires was evaluated by using bioassays in transgenic mice. sCJD prions were more than 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than Sc237 prions, demonstrating that inactivation procedures validated on rodent prions cannot be extrapolated to inactivation of human prions. Some procedures that significantly reduced prion titers in brain homogenates had a limited effect on prions bound to the surface of stainless steel wires. Using acidic SDS combined with autoclaving for 15 min, human sCJD prions bound to stainless steel wires were eliminated. Our findings form the basis for a noncorrosive system that is suitable for inactivating prions on surgical instruments, as well as on other medical and dental equipment. PMID:16352557

  13. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  14. Efficacy of zosteric acid sodium salt on the yeast biofilm model Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Stewart, Philip S; Giussani, Barbara; Roncoroni, Simone; Albanese, Domenico; Giordano, Carmen; Tunesi, Marta; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    Candida albicans is the most notorious and the most widely studied yeast biofilm former. Design of experiments (DoE) showed that 10 mg/L zosteric acid sodium salt reduced C. albicans adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation by at least 70%, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces of 96-well plates. Indeed, biofilm imaging revealed the dramatic impact of zosteric acid sodium salt on biofilm thickness and morphology, due to the inability of the cells to form filamentous structures while remaining metabolically active. In the same way, 10 mg/L zosteric acid sodium salt inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation when added after the adhesion phase. Contrary to zosteric acid sodium salt, methyl zosterate did not affect yeast biofilm. In addition, zosteric acid sodium salt enhanced sensitivity to chlorhexidine, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and cis-2-decenoic acid, with a reduction of 0.5 to 8 log units. Preliminary in vitro studies using suitable primary cell based models revealed that zosteric acid sodium salt did not compromise the cellular activity, adhesion, proliferation or morphology of either the murine fibroblast line L929 or the human osteosarcoma line MG-63. Thus the use of zosteric acid sodium salt could provide a suitable, innovative, preventive, and integrative approach to preventing yeast biofilm formation. PMID:21614460

  15. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  16. Isolation of Functional Components β-Glucan and γ-Amino Butyric Acid from Raw and Germinated Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa frumentaceae) and their Characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2016-09-01

    The study was carried out to analyze the characteristics of two functional constituents' viz. γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and β-glucan extracted from raw and germination barnyard millet (var. PRJ-1). A significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of germination (sprouting) was observed in yield, chemical composition, functional, rheological and antioxidant properties of β-glucan and GABA. The yield of GABA extract was 12.34 % and the content increased from 6.37 mg/100 g in raw to 35.70 mg/100 g in germinated sample. The DPPH, total antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of GABA extract increased after germination from 45.34 to 65.34 %, 15.3 to 33.3 millimole/g and 38.4 to 64.7 millimole/g, respectively. The yield of β-glucan extract of raw and germinated flour was 6.05 and 5.01 % whereas the β-glucan contents were 83.30 and 79.64 %, respectively. The functional properties of β-glucan i.e., swelling power, water binding capacity and DPPH scavenging activity increased from 1.45 to 1.76 g/g, 2.13 to 2.32 g/g and 44.39 to 57.42 %, respectively, after germination. Similarly there was an increase in the storage modulus after germination process which attributes a better viscoelastic capacity of β-glucan at low frequencies. The results exploit that the β-glucan and GABA might promise a polymeric incipient to be implemented as food additives with variable functional and structural characteristics. PMID:27245684

  17. Micron-sized [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester crystals grown by dip coating in solvent vapour atmosphere: interfaces for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Dabirian, R; Feng, X; Ortolani, L; Liscio, A; Morandi, V; Müllen, K; Samorì, P; Palermo, V

    2010-05-01

    We have devised a novel dip coating procedure to form highly crystalline and macroscopic pi-conjugated architectures on solid surfaces. We have employed this approach to a technologically relevant system, i.e. the electron-acceptor [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester molecule (PCBM), which is the most commonly used electron-acceptor in organic photovoltaics. Highly ordered, hexagonal shaped crystals of PCBM, ranging between 1 to 80 mum in diameter and from 20 to 500 nm in thickness, have been grown by dip coating the substrates into a solution containing the fullerene derivative. These crystals have been found to possess a monocrystalline character, to exhibit a hexagonal symmetry and to display micron sized molecularly flat terraces. The crystals have been prepared on a wide variety of surfaces such as SiO(x), silanized SiO(x), Au, graphite, amorphous carbon-copper grids and ITO. Their multiscale characterization has been performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).To test the stability of these electron accepting PCBM crystals, they have been coated with a complementary, electron donor hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) derivative by solution processing from acetone and chloroform-methanol blends. The HBC self assembles in a well-defined network of nanofibers on the PCBM substrate, and the two materials can be clearly resolved by AFM and KPFM.Due to its structural precision on the macroscopic scale, the PCBM crystals appear as ideal interface to perform fundamental photophysical studies in electron-acceptor and -donor blends, as well as workbench for unravelling the architecture vs. function relationship in organic solar cells prototypes.

  18. Ectopic expression of UGT75D1, a glycosyltransferase preferring indole-3-butyric acid, modulates cotyledon development and stress tolerance in seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Dong, Rui-Rui; Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The formation of auxin glucose conjugate is proposed to be one of the molecular modifications controlling auxin homeostasis. However, the involved mechanisms and relevant physiological significances are largely unknown or poorly understood. In this study, Arabidopsis UGT75D1 was at the first time identified to be an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) preferring glycosyltransferase. Assessment of enzyme activity and IBA conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT75D1 indicated that the UGT75D1 catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. It was found that the expression pattern of UGT75D1 was specific in germinating seeds. Consistently, we found that transgenic seedlings with over-produced UGT75D1 exhibited smaller cotyledons and cotyledon epidermal cells than the wild type. In addition, UGT75D1 was found to be up-regulated under mannitol, salt and ABA treatments and the over-expression lines were tolerant to osmotic and salt stresses during germination, resulting in an increased germination rate. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of ABA INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABI5 gene in ABA signaling were substantially down-regulated in the transgenic lines under stress treatments. Interestingly, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 (ARF16) gene of transgenic lines was also dramatically down-regulated under the same stress conditions. Since ARF16 functions as an activator of ABI3 transcription, we supposed that UGT75D1 might play a role in stress tolerance during germination through modulating ARF16-ABI3 signaling. Taken together, our work indicated that, serving as the IBA preferring glycosyltransferase but distinct from other auxin glycosyltransferases identified so far, UGT75D1 might be a very important player mediating a crosstalk between cotyledon development and stress tolerance of germination at the early stage of plant growth.

  19. Ectopic expression of UGT75D1, a glycosyltransferase preferring indole-3-butyric acid, modulates cotyledon development and stress tolerance in seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Dong, Rui-Rui; Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The formation of auxin glucose conjugate is proposed to be one of the molecular modifications controlling auxin homeostasis. However, the involved mechanisms and relevant physiological significances are largely unknown or poorly understood. In this study, Arabidopsis UGT75D1 was at the first time identified to be an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) preferring glycosyltransferase. Assessment of enzyme activity and IBA conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT75D1 indicated that the UGT75D1 catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. It was found that the expression pattern of UGT75D1 was specific in germinating seeds. Consistently, we found that transgenic seedlings with over-produced UGT75D1 exhibited smaller cotyledons and cotyledon epidermal cells than the wild type. In addition, UGT75D1 was found to be up-regulated under mannitol, salt and ABA treatments and the over-expression lines were tolerant to osmotic and salt stresses during germination, resulting in an increased germination rate. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of ABA INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABI5 gene in ABA signaling were substantially down-regulated in the transgenic lines under stress treatments. Interestingly, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 (ARF16) gene of transgenic lines was also dramatically down-regulated under the same stress conditions. Since ARF16 functions as an activator of ABI3 transcription, we supposed that UGT75D1 might play a role in stress tolerance during germination through modulating ARF16-ABI3 signaling. Taken together, our work indicated that, serving as the IBA preferring glycosyltransferase but distinct from other auxin glycosyltransferases identified so far, UGT75D1 might be a very important player mediating a crosstalk between cotyledon development and stress tolerance of germination at the early stage of plant growth. PMID:26496910

  20. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  1. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  2. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  3. Swelling assisted photografting of itaconic acid onto sodium alginate membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkın, Gülşen; Şanlı, Oya; Asman, Gülsen

    2011-09-01

    Grafting of itaconic acid (IA) was achieved onto sodium alginate (NaAlg) membranes by using UV-radiation. Process was performed under nitrogen atmosphere and benzophenone (BP) was used as a photoinitiator. Membranes were preswelled before the polymerization process and ethanol was determined as the best swelling agent among the studied solvents. The effect of polymerization time, initiator and monomer concentrations on the grafting efficiency were investigated. The best conditions for optimum grafting were obtained with IA concentration of 1.0 M, a BP concentration of 0.1 M and a reaction time of 4 h at 25 °C. Under these conditions grafting efficiency for NaAlg-g-IA membranes was found to be 14% (w/w). To obtain further increase in grafting efficiency membranes were also preswelled in IA and BP solutions and polymerization was carried out at different temperatures after UV polymerization. Grafted membranes were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effect of grafting on membrane properties such as intrinsic viscosity and swelling percentage were also determined.

  4. Epithelial Sodium and Acid-Sensing Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellenberger, Stephan

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are non-voltage-gated Na+ channels that form their own subfamilies within the ENaC/degenerin ion channel family. ASICs are sensors of extracellular pH, and ENaC, whose main function is trans-epithelial Na+ transport, can sense extra- and intra-cellular Na+. In aldosterone-responsive epithelial cells of the kidney, ENaC plays a critical role in the control of sodium balance, blood volume and blood pressure. In airway epithelia, ENaC has a distinct role in controlling fluid reabsorption at the air-liquid interface, thereby determining the rate of mucociliary transport. In taste receptor cells of the tongue, ENaC is involved in salt taste sensation. ASICs have emerged as key sensors for extracellular protons in central and peripheral neurons. Although not all of their physiological and pathological functions are firmly established yet, there is good evidence for a role of ASICs in the brain in learning, expression of fear, and in neurodegeneration after ischaemic stroke. In sensory neurons, ASICs are involved in nociception and mechanosensation. ENaC and ASIC subunits share substantial sequence homology and the conservation of several functional domains. This chapter summarises our current understanding of the physiological functions and of the mechanisms of ion permeation, gating and regulation of ENaC and ASICs.

  5. Sodium Valproate Exacerbating an Underlying Disorder of Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bellinge, Jamie; Herath, Sanjaya; Sonigra, Dharmesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 29-year-old female who presented with rhabdomyolysis shortly after starting a course of sodium valproate. A thorough investigation revealed a likely mitochondrial origin inducing this susceptibility. An underlying mitochondrial disorder should be considered in all patients who present with undifferentiated disease whilst taking sodium valproate. PMID:27790123

  6. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  8. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  9. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  10. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  11. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  12. The effect of low solublility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide submicrometer particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion: whereas the organic covering has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles change their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  13. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  14. Effects of Na-butyrate supplementation in milk formula on plasma concentrations of GH and insulin, and on rumen papilla development in calves.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Chida, Haruka; Roh, Sang-Gun; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Sato, Shusuke; Guilloteau, Paul; Katoh, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Although the growth-promoting action of sodium-butyrate (Na-butyrate) used as a feed additive has been observed in calves and pigs, the precise mechanisms involved remain to be clarified. In this study, pre-weaning calves were given milk formula (MF) supplemented with butyrate for 6 weeks to investigate its effects on postprandial changes in the plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones, and, simultaneously, on growth performance, the weight of the digestive organs and rumen papilla development. Ingestion of MF increased (P<0.05) the plasma concentrations of GH and insulin as well as the glucose level, but decreased the non-esterified fatty acid concentration. Na-butyrate supplementation in MF or in lactose solution (with the same quantity of lactose contained in the MF, 5%) suppressed the increase in plasma insulin and GH concentrations, and the plasma IGF1 level was not changed. The length of the rumen papilla and the weight of the perirenal fat tended to increase in the calves fed with Na-butyrate-supplemented MF, but the weight of the liver, spleen, and stomach were not changed. In addition, there was no difference in the expression of mRNA for sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 in the small intestinal epithelial tissues. We conclude that the accelerated growth performance related to the intake of Na-butyrate used as a feed additive reported previously in several species is partly due to improved insulin sensitivity and a better digestive functional development. These data could be applicable to animal and human nutrition.

  15. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  16. Proliferation of human colonic mucosa as an intermediate biomarker of carcinogenesis: effects of butyrate, deoxycholate, calcium, ammonia, and pH.

    PubMed

    Bartram, H P; Scheppach, W; Schmid, H; Hofmann, A; Dusel, G; Richter, F; Richter, A; Kasper, H

    1993-07-15

    A high-fat/high-protein diet has been reported to promote colon cancer by increasing luminal bile acid and ammonia concentrations, whereas butyrate, calcium, and low colonic pH may have protective effects. In this study, bromodeoxyuridine labeling of colonic epithelium was investigated after incubating biopsies from the ascending colon of 70 patients with HCl (20 mM, pH 6.0), butyric acid (H-BUT, 20 mM, pH 6.0), sodium butyrate (Na-BUT, 10 mM, pH 8.0), CaCl2 (10 mM), calcium butyrate (Ca-BUT, 10 mM), ammonium butyrate (NH4-BUT, 10 mM), deoxycholic acid (DCA, 5 microM), and a combination of DCA and Na-BUT (DCA/Na-BUT, 5 microM/10 mM). Compared to NaCl, H-BUT and Na-BUT increased the whole crypt-labeling index significantly, whereas HCl and CaCl2 had no effect. Reduced labeling, however, occurred with Ca-BUT in comparison to equimolar Na-BUT. No differences in the labeling indexes were found for NH4-BUT compared to Na-BUT, but increased labeling with expansion of the proliferative zone to the upper 40% of the crypt was seen with DCA compared to NaCl. DCA-induced hyperproliferation was abolished by coincubation with DCA/Na-BUT. These data suggest that butyrate, calcium, and DCA have complex influences on mucosal proliferation. Since luminal concentrations of these compounds are influenced by dietary interventions, the findings of this study may be of particular interest with regard to colon cancer development and prevention.

  17. Barley malt increases hindgut and portal butyric acid, modulates gene expression of gut tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors in rats fed high-fat diets, but high advanced glycation end-products partially attenuate the effects.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yadong; Teixeira, Cristina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Sae-Lim, Watina; Tareke, Eden; Andersson, Roger; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE. PMID:26227569

  18. Transmembrane domain II of the human bile acid transporter SLC10A2 coordinates sodium translocation.

    PubMed

    Sabit, Hairat; Mallajosyula, Sairam S; MacKerell, Alexander D; Swaan, Peter W

    2013-11-01

    Human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT, SLC10A2) is responsible for intestinal reabsorption of bile acids and plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis. We used a targeted and systematic approach to delineate the role of highly conserved transmembrane helix 2 on the expression and function of hASBT. Cysteine mutation significantly depressed transport activity for >60% of mutants without affecting cell surface localization of the transporter. All mutants were inaccessible toward chemical modification by membrane-impermeant MTSET reagent, strongly suggesting that transmembrane 2 (TM2) plays an indirect role in bile acid substrate translocation. Both bile acid uptake and sodium dependence of TM2 mutants revealed a distinct α-helical periodicity. Kinetic studies with conservative and non-conservative mutants of sodium sensitive residues further underscored the importance of Gln(75), Phe(76), Met(79), Gly(83), Leu(86), Phe(90), and Asp(91) in hASBT function. Computational analysis indicated that Asp(91) may coordinate with sodium during the transport cycle. Combined, our data propose that a consortium of sodium-sensitive residues along with previously reported residues (Thr(134), Leu(138), and Thr(149)) from TM3 may form the sodium binding and translocation pathway. Notably, residues Gln(75), Met(79), Thr(82), and Leu(86) from TM2 are highly conserved in TM3 of a putative remote bacterial homologue (ASBTNM), suggesting a universal mechanism for the SLC10A transporter family.

  19. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  20. The Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    A method for carrying out the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclopentanone to [delta]-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course is reported. The oxidizing agent is trifluoroperoxyacetic acid generated in situ from trifluoroacetic acid and household sodium percarbonate such as OxiClean, Oxi Magic, or…

  1. Elevated urinary excretion of orotic acid in sheep caused by intraruminal infusion of sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Bödeker, D; Martens, H

    1992-06-01

    1. The effect of sodium propionate on urinary excretion of orotic acid was investigated. 2. Solutions containing sodium propionate or NaCl, 750 mM/day each, were continuously infused into the rumen for 10 days. 3. During NaCl infusion, an urinary orotic acid excretion of 290 +/- 80 micrograms/day was noted. The intraruminal infusion of sodium propionate raised the concentration of propionic acid in the rumen fluid from 14.0 +/- 0.9 to 26.9 +/- 1.9 mM. 4. During this experimental period the excretion of orotic acid via urine significantly increased to 492 +/- 30 micrograms/day. Parameters of nitrogen balance were not altered by propionate. 5. It is suggested that the site of propionate action in intact sheep is in the pyrimidine synthesis pathway.

  2. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  3. In vitro and in vivo study of transcriptome alternation induced by butyrate in cattle using deep RNA-seq

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs,), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Furthermore, butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells a...

  4. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours.

  5. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  6. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  7. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun-Duo; Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Fan

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil was produced using sodium silicate as catalyst. The transesterification in the presence of the catalyst proceeded with a maximum yield of 99.6% under optimized conditions [3% (w/w) sodium silicate, methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 60°C, and stirring rate 250 rpm]. After six consecutive transesterification reactions, the catalyst was collected and used for catalysis of the conversion of glycerol to lactic acid. A maximum yield of 80.5% was achieved when the reaction was carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 90 min. Thus, sodium silicate is an effective catalyst for transesterification and lactic acid production from the biodiesel by-product, glycerol. PMID:21530245

  8. Mechanism of chemical activation of sodium chloride in the presence of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anja K K; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been shown to promote chlorination of glycerol during thermal processing. However, the detailed mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Preliminary experiments have indicated that the reaction mixture should contain an amino acid and it should be dissolved thoroughly in water in order to induce chlorination. These observations are consistent with the process of dissociation of sodium chloride and its re-association with amino acid and eventual formation of the chlorinating agent in the form of the hydrochloride salt. Release of HCl from this salt can be manifested in chlorination and hydrolytic reactions occurring during thermal processing. The generation of HCl at room temperature from a mixture of sodium chloride and glycine was confirmed through spectrophotometric monitoring of the pH. Hydrolytic and chlorination reactions were demonstrated through monitoring of formation of HMF and chlorinated products under pyrolytic conditions using glucose or sucrose and amino acid mixtures.

  9. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  10. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Klocke, Arndt; Mihailova, Boriana; Tosheva, Lubomira; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2008-07-24

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and complementary scanning electron microscopy were applied to analyze the surface structure of enamel apatite exposed to citric acid and to investigate the protective potential of fluorine-containing reagents against citric acid-induced erosion. Enamel and, for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2.0% for fluoride solutions. The two solutions were applied either simultaneously or consecutively. The citric acid-induced structural modification of apatite increases with the increase in the citric acid concentration and the number of treatments. The application of sodium fluoride alone does not suppress the atomic level changes in apatite exposed to acidic agents. The addition of sodium fluoride to citric acid solutions leads to formation of surface CaF2 and considerably reduces the changes in the apatite P-O-Ca framework. However, the CaF2 globules deposited on the enamel surface seem to be insufficient to prevent the alteration of the apatite structure upon further exposure to acidic agents. No evidence for fluorine-induced recovery of the apatite structure was found.

  11. Effect of the sodium hypochlorite and citric acid association on smear layer removal of primary molars.

    PubMed

    Götze, Gabriela da Rosa; Cunha, Cristiane Beatriz Costa Sales; Primo, Laura Salignac de Souza Guimarães; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the capacity of a sodium hypochlorite and citric acid (CA) association (the latter at different concentrations) in removing coronal smear layer (SL) of primary teeth. For this purpose, the pulp chamber roof and floor of 28 primary molars were removed to obtain enamel and dentine disks. SL was produced on the internal walls of the disks using high-speed drills. The disks were irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite and citric acid at different concentrations (CA-4%, CA-6%, CA-8% and CA-10%), and with 0.9% sodium chloride. The samples were split and observed under SEM. Scores were attributed to the obtained photomicrographs, according to the amount of SL present. It was noted that all the tested concentrations of citric acid used after the sodium hypochlorite were capable of removing SL. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, and there was no significant statistical difference among the scores of the groups tested. However, it was observed that CA-8% and CA-10% caused peritubular dentine destruction, and that CA-4% presented a larger number of samples with dense SL. Based on these results, 6.0% citric acid in association with 1% sodium hypochlorite is suggested as auxiliary chemical substances for primary teeth irrigation.

  12. Influence of Sodium Carbonate on Decomposition of Formic Acid by Discharge inside Bubble in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2015-09-01

    An influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubble in water was investigated. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of addition of sodium carbonate, the pH value increased with decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the increase of pH value contributed to improve an efficiency of the formic acid decomposition because the reaction rate of ozone and formic acid increased with increasing pH value. In the case of argon injection, the decomposition rate was not affected by the pH value owing to the high rate constants for loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  14. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  15. The selective activation of the cardiac sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger by plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Hale, C C; Ebeling, E G; Hsu, F F; Ford, D A

    1998-01-30

    Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of proteoliposomes resulted in 1 mol % conversion of plasmenylcholine or phosphatidylcholine to their respective phosphatidic acid molecular species with a concomitant 8-fold or 2-fold activation of sodium-calcium exchange activity, respectfully. Thus, phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of plasmalogens to phosphatidic acid may be an important mechanism for the regulation of the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  16. Effects of acidic functional groups on dielectric properties of sodium alginates and carrageenans in water.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Hiraoka, Masanori; Hadano, Shingo; Okamura, Kei; Ueda, Tadaharu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko

    2015-01-22

    This study investigated the dielectric properties of sodium alginates and carrageenans in water at frequencies between 100 MHz and 20 GHz in regard to water-hydrocolloid interactions via acidic functional groups. Both sodium alginates and carrageenans showed conduction loss at lower frequencies and dielectric loss at higher frequencies. Reduction and desulfation of sodium alginates and carrageenans, which decreased the numbers of acidic functional groups, decreased their conduction loss. In addition, H(+)-form carrageenans showed the highest ionic conduction. Correlational analysis of dielectric properties and related physical parameters showed that the loss tangent (tanδ) of the hydrocolloid solution was determined by the conductivity of the aqueous solution. Especially at pH below 2, strong H(+) conduction was associated with high tanδ probably due to the Grotthuss mechanism. The molecular dynamics of free water and H(+), viscosity conditions were also suggested to be associated with dielectric property of water-hydrocolloid system. PMID:25439871

  17. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A. K. E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  18. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate. PMID:26647147

  19. Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p≤0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry.

  20. Differential effects of linoleic Acid metabolites on cardiac sodium current.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Maddison D; Stimers, Joseph R

    2002-10-01

    9,10-Epoxy-12-octadecenoic acid (EOA), a metabolite of linoleic acid, causes cardiac arrest in dogs. Other metabolites of linoleic acid also have toxic effects. This study investigates the mechanism of action of four of these compounds on cardiac Na(+) current (I(Na)). The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of EOA, 9,10-dihydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (DHOA), and their corresponding methyl esters (9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoic methyl ester, EOM; and 9,10-dihydroxy-12-octadecenoic methyl ester, DHOM) on I(Na) in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. Extracellular application of each compound elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of I(Na). The dose-response curve yielded 50% inhibition concentrations of 301 +/- 117 microM for DHOA, 41 +/- 6 microM for DHOM, 34 +/- 5 microM for EOA, and 160 +/- 41 microM for EOM. Although there was no effect on activation, 50 microM DHOM, EOA, and EOM significantly hyperpolarized the steady-state inactivation curve by approximately -6 mV. Furthermore, EOM significantly increased the slope of the steady-state inactivation curve. These compounds also seemed to stabilize the inactivated state because the time for recovery from inactivation was significantly slowed from a control value of 12.9 +/- 0.5 ms to 30.5 +/- 3.3, 31.4 +/- 1.4, and 20.5 +/- 1.0 ms by 50 microM DHOM, EOA, and EOM, respectively. These compounds have multiple actions on Na(+) channels and that despite their structural similarities their actions differ from each other. The steady-state block of I(Na) suggests that either the pore is being blocked or the channels are prevented from gating to the open state. In addition, these compounds stabilize the inactivated state and promote increased population of a slower inactivated state. PMID:12235270

  1. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-11-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at -20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at -20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose.

  2. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Citric Acid and Sodium Carbonate with Deicers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at −20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at −20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. PMID:26319879

  3. Butyrate and propionate: important components of toxic dental plaque extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, R E; Buckner, B A

    1981-01-01

    Extracts of in vitro-cultured human dental plaque contain factors toxic to mammalian cells. Previous studies demonstrated that those toxic factors most readily released from cultured plaque had very low molecular weights and were heat stable. Studies reported here demonstrate that metabolic end products including short-chain fatty acids were present in fractions containing the low-molecular-weight, heat-stable factors. The salts of two of these acids, butyrate and propionate, inhibited proliferation of both mouse L929 cells and human gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, when tested at concentrations present in plaque extracts, the inhibitory effects of butyrate and propionate accounted for essentially all the inhibitory potential of the extracts. These findings, taken together with those of other groups, suggest that butyrate and propionate, end products of dental plaque metabolism, may have an etiological role in periodontal disease. PMID:7251132

  4. Kinetic analysis of butyrate transport in human colon adenocarcinoma cells reveals two different carrier-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lecona, Emilio; Olmo, Nieves; Turnay, Javier; Santiago-Gómez, Angélica; López de Silanes, Isabel; Gorospe, Myriam; Lizarbe, M Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Butyrate has antitumorigenic effects on colon cancer cells, inhibits cell growth and promotes differentiation and apoptosis. These effects depend on its intracellular concentration, which is regulated by its transport. We have analysed butyrate uptake kinetics in human colon adenocarcinoma cells sensitive to the apoptotic effects of butyrate (BCS-TC2, Caco-2 and HT-29), in butyrate-resistant cells (BCS-TC2.BR2) and in normal colonic cells (FHC). The properties of transport were analysed with structural analogues, specific inhibitors and different bicarbonate and sodium concentrations. Two carrier-mediated mechanisms were detected: a low-affinity/high-capacity (K(m)=109+/-16 mM in BCS-TC2 cells) anion exchanger and a high-affinity/low-capacity (K(m)=17.9+/-4.0 microM in BCS-TC2 cells) proton-monocarboxylate co-transporter that was energy-dependent and activated via PKCdelta (protein kinase Cdelta). All adenocarcinoma cells analysed express MCT (monocarboxylate transporter) 1, MCT4, ancillary protein CD147 and AE2 (anion exchanger 2). Silencing experiments show that MCT1, whose expression increases with butyrate treatment in butyrate-sensitive cells, plays a key role in high-affinity transport. Low-affinity uptake was mediated by a butyrate/bicarbonate antiporter along with a possible contribution of AE2 and MCT4. Butyrate treatment increased uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in butyrate-sensitive but not in butyrate-resistant cells. The two butyrate-uptake activities in human colon adenocarcinoma cells enable butyrate transport at different physiological conditions to maintain cell functionality. The high-affinity/low-capacity transport functions under low butyrate concentrations and may be relevant for the survival of carcinoma cells in tumour regions with low glucose and butyrate availability as well as for the normal physiology of colonocytes.

  5. Butyrate supplementation to gestating sows and piglets induces muscle and adipose tissue oxidative genes and improves growth performance.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Su, S; Ajuwon, K M

    2012-12-01

    Weaned pigs often experience growth reduction immediately after weaning due to multiple stress factors associated with weaning. We tested the effect of prenatal and postnatal butyrate supplementation on growth performance of piglets. In study 1, piglets were orally gavaged with 0.3% butyrate from day 4 after birth to weaning (day 21). Butyrate increased ADG by 13% compared to saline treated control. Expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) was higher in muscle, adipose tissue, and ileum of butyrate-supplemented animals. Also, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was induced (P < 0.05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and muscle (longissimus dorsi [LD]) of butyrate-supplemented piglets. In vitro, butyrate increased (P < 0.05) fatty acid oxidation in primary adipocytes and suppressed basal lipolysis by 62% compared to untreated cells. Butyrate suppressed (P < 0.05) lipogenesis ((14)C-glucose incorporation into lipids) in adipocytes. This was accompanied by an approximately 30% reduction in the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (P < 0.05) in butyrate-treated cells vs. controls. Piglets born to sows that were supplemented with 0.3% butyrate during the last trimester of gestation had a 15% higher (P < 0.05) body weight at 12 wk than controls. In summary, butyrate supplementation to gestating sows and piglets enhanced postweaning growth performance, which may be mediated by increased substrate oxidation in butyrate treated animals.

  6. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-hep-ta-oxa-te-tra-tri-aocta-noic acid, sodium salt...

  12. (2S,3R)-2-[(4-Ethyl-2,3-dioxopiperazin-1-yl)carbonyl­amino]-3-hydroxy­butyric acid monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chun-xiang; Cui, Yong-tao; Yang, Dong-ling; Guo, Cheng

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C11H17N3O6·H2O, an important building block of the medicine cefbuperazone sodium, the piperazine ring adopts a screw-boat conformation. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O and intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. The water mol­ecule participates as both donor and acceptor in this framework. PMID:21202922

  13. Biosynthesis of heparin. Effects of n-butyrate on cultured mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsson, K.G.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1985-10-05

    Murine mastocytoma cells were incubated in vitro with inorganic (TVS)sulfate, in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM n-butyrate, and labeled heparin was isolated. The polysaccharide produced in the presence of butyrate showed a lower charge density on anion exchange chromatography than did the control material and a 3-fold increased proportion of components with high affinity for antithrombin. Structural analysis of heparin labeled with (TH) glucosamine in the presence of butyrate showed that approximately 35% of the glucosamine units were N-acetylated, as compared to approximately 10% in the control material; the nonacetylated glucosamine residues were N-sulfated. The presence of butyrate thus leads to an inhibition of the N-deacetylation/N-sulfation process in heparin biosynthesis, along with an augmented formation of molecules with high affinity for antithrombin. Preincubation of the mastocytoma cells with butyrate was required for manifestation of either effect; when the preincubation period was reduced from 24 to 10 h the effects of butyrate were no longer observed. A polysaccharide formed on incubating mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-(TH)glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate in the presence of 5 mM butyrate showed the same N-acetyl/N-sulfate ratio as did the corresponding control polysaccharide, produced in the absence of butyrate. These findings suggest that the effect of butyrate on heparin biosynthesis depends on the integrity of the cell.

  14. Inhibitory effects of butyrate on biological hydrogen production with mixed anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xian-Jun; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-01-01

    In this study batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of butyrate addition on hydrogen production from glucose by using anaerobic mixed cultures. Experimental results showed that addition of butyrate at 4.18 and 6.27 g/l only slightly inhibited hydrogen production, and addition of butyrate at 8.36-12.54 g/l imposed a moderate inhibitory effect on hydrogen production. At addition of 25.08 g/l, butyrate had a strong inhibitory influence on substrate degradation and hydrogen production. The distribution of the volatile fatty acids produced from the acidogeneisis of glucose was significantly influenced by the addition of butyrate. The inhibition of butyrate addition on hydrogen production was described well by a non-competitive and non-linear inhibition model, with the maximum hydrogen production rate of 59.3 ml/g-SS/h, critical added butyrate concentration of 25.08 g/l, and inhibition degree of 0.323, respectively. The C(I,50) values (the butyrate concentration at which bioactivity is reduced by 50%) for hydrogen production rate and yield were estimated as 19.39 and 20.78 g/l of added butyrate, respectively.

  15. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry. PMID:24651079

  16. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-21

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  17. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  18. Effects of peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite or lactic acid solutions on the microflora of chilled beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Badoni, M

    2004-02-15

    The effects of solutions of 0.02% peroxyacetic acid, acidified 0.16% sodium chlorite, 2% lactic acid and 4% lactic acid on the natural flora of the distal surfaces of pieces of brisket, from chilled beef carcass quarters delivered from two slaughtering plants to a processing plant, were investigated. Peroxyacetic acid and acidified sodium chlorite solutions had little effect on the numbers of aerobes, coliforms or Escherichia coli on meat from one plant, and were less effective than 4% lactic acid for reducing the numbers of bacteria on meat from the other plant. With meat from both plants, treatment of meat with 4% lactic acid and holding for 5 or 60 min at 7+/-1 degrees C before sampling resulted in reductions of all three groups of bacteria by >/=1.5 log unit. Treatment with 2% lactic acid resulted in similar reductions when meat was sampled 5 min after the treatment, but reductions were about 1 log unit when meat was sampled 60 min after the treatment. Treatment of carcass quarters with 4% lactic acid resulted in reductions of bacterial numbers of >/=2 log units at distal surfaces, but acid may be generally useful as a decontaminant for chilled, raw meat. PMID:14967559

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Nair, B

    2001-01-01

    Benzyl Alcohol is an aromatic alcohol used in a wide variety of cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component, preservative, solvent, and viscosity-decreasing agent. Benzoic Acid is an aromatic acid used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a pH adjuster and preservative. Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of Benzoic Acid used as a preservative, also in a wide range of cosmetic product types. Benzyl Alcohol is metabolized to Benzoic Acid, which reacts with glycine and excreted as hippuric acid in the human body. Acceptable daily intakes were established by the World Health Organization at 5 mg/kg for Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate are generally recognized as safe in foods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. No adverse effects of Benzyl Alcohol were seen in chronic exposure animal studies using rats and mice. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate in chronic exposure animal studies were limited to reduced feed intake and reduced growth. Some differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated populations were noted in one reproductive toxicity study using mice, but these were limited to lower maternal body weights and decreased mean litter weights. Another study also noted that fetal weight was decreased compared to controls, but a third study showed no differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated groups. Benzoic Acid was associated with an increased number of resorptions and malformations in hamsters, but there were no reproductive or developmental toxicty findings in studies using mice and rats exposed to Sodium Benzoate, and, likewise, Benzoic Acid was negative in two rat studies. Genotoxicity tests for these ingredients were mostly negative, but there were some assays that were positive. Carcinogenicity studies, however, were negative. Clinical data indicated that these ingredients can produce nonimmunologic contact urticaria and nonimmunologic immediate contact reactions

  20. Induction of porcine host defense peptide gene expression by short-chain fatty acids and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Jiang, Weiyu; Bible, Megan; Carter, Scott; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan; Zhang, Guolong

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2), pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C), and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3-8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs. PMID:24023657

  1. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  2. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  3. [Bactericidal effect of acidic electrolyzed water--comparison of chemical acidic sodium hydrochloride (NaOCl) solution].

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, A; Nakamura, Y

    1996-09-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water is made recently by various kinds of machines and is widely utilized. In this study, we intended to clarify the relationship between the concentration of chloride and pH in the bactericidal effects with acidic electrolyzed water. The effects of weak or strong acidic electrolyzed water were compared with a pseudo-acidic water of pH adjusted by diluted hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomononas aeruginosa. At pH 5.0 approximately 6.0, 3 bacterial strains were killed soon after being exposed to the acidic water containing chloride 50 mg/liter, and the amount of chloride did not change after allowing to stand open for 6 hours. At pH 2.67 approximately 2.80, the bactericidal effects was observed at the concentration of chloride 5 mg/liter, and 80% of chloride remained after allowing to stand for 6 hours. These results indicated that newly made strong acidic water is more effective under a smaller amount of chloride at pH 2.7, and that weak acidic electrolyzed water should be used, if stable bactericidal effect is expected in cleaning the surroundings. PMID:8921674

  4. Presence of insulin receptors in cultured glial C6 cells. Regulation by butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, F; Ortiz-Caro, J; Villa, A; Pascual, A; Aranda, A

    1989-01-01

    The presence of insulin receptor and its regulation by butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids was studied in C6 cells, a rat glioma cell line. Intact C6 cells bind 125I-insulin in a rapid, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis of the binding data gives typical curvilinear plots with apparent affinities of approx. 6 nM and 70 nM for the low-affinity (approx. 90% of total) and high-affinity (approx. 10% of total) sites respectively. Incubation with butyrate results in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of insulin binding to C6 cells. A maximal effect was found with 2 mM-butyrate that decreased the receptor by 40-70% after 48 h. Butyrate decreased numbers of receptors of both classes, but did not significantly alter receptor affinity. Other short-chain fatty acids, as well as keto acids, had a similar effect, but with a lower potency. Cycloheximide caused an accumulation of insulin receptors at the cell surface, since insulin binding increased and receptor affinity did not change after incubation with the inhibitor. Simultaneous addition of butyrate and cycloheximide abolished the loss of receptors produced by the fatty acid. In cells preincubated with butyrate, cycloheximide also produced a large increase in receptor numbers, showing that in the absence of new receptor synthesis a large pool of receptors re-appears at the surface of butyrate-treated cells. PMID:2930502

  5. Butyrate as preferred substrate for polyhydroxybutyrate production.

    PubMed

    Marang, Leonie; Jiang, Yang; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the suitability of butyrate as substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by microbial enrichment cultures was assessed. Two sequencing batch reactors were operated under feast-famine conditions: one fed with butyrate, and another with mixed acetate and butyrate. The obtained results were compared to previous results with acetate as sole substrate. In all three reactors Plasticicumulans acidivorans dominated the enrichment culture. The carbon uptake rate and PHA yield were significantly higher on butyrate than on acetate, resulting in a higher PHA production rate. When both substrates were available the bacteria strongly preferred the uptake of butyrate. Only after butyrate depletion acetate was taken up at a high rate. The molar substrate uptake rate remained the same, suggesting that substrate uptake is the rate-limiting step. The results show that for optimized waste-based PHA production the pre-fermentation process should be directed towards butyrate production.

  6. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  7. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way.

  8. Water uptake properties of internally mixed sodium halide and succinic acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols include appreciable fractions of organic material, that can affect properties such as hygroscopicity, phase transition or chemical reactivity. Although sodium chloride is the major component of marine salt, bromide and iodide ions tend to accumulate onto particle surfaces and influence their behaviour. The hygroscopic properties of internally mixed submicrometric particles composed of succinic acid (SA) and NaX (where X = F, Cl, Br or I) have been studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell at ambient temperature for different relative succinic acid/NaX compositions. The results show that deliquescence relative humidities of SA/NaF and SA/NaCl are equal to those of the pure sodium halides. SA/NaBr particles, on the other hand, deliquesce at lower relative humidities than pure NaBr particles, the effect being more marked as the SA/NaBr mass ratio approaches unity. The SA/NaI system behaves as a non-deliquescent system, absorbing liquid water at all relative humidities, as in pure NaI. Succinic acid phase in the particles has been spectroscopically monitored at given values of both RH and SA/NaX solute mass ratio. The different hygroscopic properties as the halogen ion is changed can be rationalized in terms of simple thermodynamic arguments and can be attributed to the relative contributions of ion-molecule interactions in the solid particles. The observed behaviour is of interest for tropospheric sea salt aerosols mixed with organic acids.

  9. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-08-31

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when /sup 3/H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Inhibition of Aeromonas caviae and A. sobria by sodium choloride, citric acid, ascorbic acid, potassium sorbate and extracts of Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghazaleh, B M

    2000-06-01

    The respective and combined effects of sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, citric acid, potassium sorbate, and Thymus vulgaris extract on the growth of Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas sobria were investigated. Sodium chloride (3%) significantly reduced the growth and 4% NaCl inhibited growth of the tested strains. Ascorbic acid (0. 1%), potassium sorbate (0.05%), and citric acid (0.03%) slightly inhibited growth. T. vulgaris extract (0.3%) greatly reduced the growth. Various combinations of these compounds prevented growth of the tested strains. A combination of NaCl (3%) and ascorbic acid (0. 1%), citric acid (0.03%) and potassium sorbate (0.05%), or citric acid (0.03%) and ascorbic acid (0.1%) inhibited growth of A. caviae and A. sobria. In fish homogenates, the addition of ascorbic acid (0. 1%) and citric acid (0.03%) was the most effective combination tested.

  11. Cellular Metabolism and Dose Reveal Carnitine-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms of Butyrate Oxidation in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; MacDonald, Amber; Johnstone, Megan; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2016-08-01

    Dietary fiber has been suggested to suppress colorectal cancer development, although the mechanisms contributing to this beneficial effect remain elusive. Butyrate, a fermentation product of fiber, has been shown to have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. The metabolic fate of butyrate in the cell is important in determining whether, it acts as an HDAC inhibitor or is consumed as a short-chain fatty acid. Non-cancerous colonocytes utilize butyrate as the primary energy source whereas cancerous colonocytes increase glucose utilization through the Warburg effect. In this study, we show that butyrate oxidation is decreased in cancerous colonocytes compared to non-cancerous colonocytes. We demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells utilize both a carnitine-dependent and carnitine-independent mechanism that contributes to butyrate oxidation. The carnitine-dependent mechanism is contingent on butyrate concentration. Knockdown of CPT1A in colorectal cancer cells abolishes butyrate oxidation. In terms of selectivity, the carnitine-dependent mechanism only regulated butyrate oxidation, as acetate and propionate oxidation were carnitine-independent. Carnitine decreased the action of butyrate as an HDAC inhibitor and suppressed induction of H3 acetylation by butyrate in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, diminished oxidation of butyrate is associated with decreased HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. In relation to the mechanism, we find that dichloroacetate, which decreases phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, increased butyrate oxidation and that this effect was carnitine-dependent. In conclusion, these data suggest that colorectal cancer cells decrease butyrate oxidation through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is carnitine-dependent, and provide insight into why butyrate shows selective effects toward colorectal cancer cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1804-1813, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acetylcarnitine potentiates the anticarcinogenic effects of butyrate on SW480 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Elimrani, Ihsan; Dionne, Serge; Saragosti, Dan; Qureshi, Ijaz; Levy, Emile; Delvin, Edgar; Seidman, Ernest G

    2015-08-01

    Butyrate is a potent anticarcinogenic compound against colon cancer cells in vitro. However, its rapid metabolism is hypothesized to limit its anticancer benefits in colonic epithelial cells. Carnitine, a potent antioxidant, is essential to fatty acid oxidation. The aims of this study were to identify a colon cancer cell line capable of transporting carnitine. We evaluated the effect of carnitine and acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) on the response of colon carcinoma cells to butyrate. We explored the mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic benefit. SW480 cells were incubated with butyrate ± carnitine or ALCAR. Carnitine uptake was assessed using [3H]-carnitine. Apoptosis and cell viability were assessed using an ELISA kit and flow cytometry, respectively. Modulation of proteins implicated in carnitine transport, cell death and proliferation were assessed by western blotting. SW480 cells were found to transport carnitine primarily via the OCTN2 transporter. Butyrate induced SW480 cell death occurred at concentrations of 2 mM and higher. Cells treated with the combination of butyrate (3 mM) with ALCAR exhibited increased mortality. The addition of carnitine or ALCAR also increased butyrate-induced apoptosis. Butyrate increased levels of cyclin D1, p21 and PARP p86, but decreased Bcl-XL and survivin levels. Butyrate also downregulated dephospho-β-catenin and increased acetylated histone H4 levels. Butyrate and carnitine decreased survivin levels by ≥25%. ALCAR independently induced a 20% decrease in p21. These results demonstrate that butyrate and ALCAR are potentially beneficial anticarcinogenic nutrients that inhibit colon cancer cell survival in vitro. The combination of both agents may have superior anticarcinogenic properties than butyrate alone.

  13. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

  14. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid, nicotinamide and calcium glucarate against the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis attained by enhancing the induction of intrinsic apoptotic events.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2015-01-25

    We explored the basis of the combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) on mouse skin exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). We studied the effects of topical application of DMBA in the presence or absence of BA, NA and CAG on the regulators of apoptosis. DMBA treatment suppressed Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, Apaf1, caspase-9, -3 mediated apoptosis. Downregulation of p21 and upregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53 were also observed in only DMBA treated mice. Simultaneous application of BA, NA and CAG induced a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, characterized by a rise in the Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, upregulation of Apaf1 with down-stream activation of caspase-9, -3. Furthermore treatment with BA, NA and CAG demonstrated an upregulation of p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53. But this effect was enhanced in the presence of all the three compounds together in combination. Chemoprevention by a combination of BA, NA and CAG by inducing the apoptosis, the natural cell death, suggest the importance of the potential combinational strategies capable of preventing skin tumor development.

  15. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid, nicotinamide and calcium glucarate against the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis attained by enhancing the induction of intrinsic apoptotic events.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2015-01-25

    We explored the basis of the combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) on mouse skin exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). We studied the effects of topical application of DMBA in the presence or absence of BA, NA and CAG on the regulators of apoptosis. DMBA treatment suppressed Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, Apaf1, caspase-9, -3 mediated apoptosis. Downregulation of p21 and upregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53 were also observed in only DMBA treated mice. Simultaneous application of BA, NA and CAG induced a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, characterized by a rise in the Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, upregulation of Apaf1 with down-stream activation of caspase-9, -3. Furthermore treatment with BA, NA and CAG demonstrated an upregulation of p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53. But this effect was enhanced in the presence of all the three compounds together in combination. Chemoprevention by a combination of BA, NA and CAG by inducing the apoptosis, the natural cell death, suggest the importance of the potential combinational strategies capable of preventing skin tumor development. PMID:25478867

  16. The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzia, Vivi; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Yahya, Muhammad

    2010-10-24

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

  17. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    PubMed

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate.

  18. Optimized butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa B; Friedrich, John L R; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Garcia-Galan, Cristina; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Ayub, Marco A Z

    2013-01-01

    Butyl butyrate is an ester present in pineapple flavor, which is very important for the food and beverages industries. In this work, the optimization of the reaction of butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL-IM was performed. n-Hexane was selected as the most appropriate solvent. Other reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst content and added water, and their responses measured as yield, were evaluated using a fractional factorial design, followed by a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology. In the fractional design 2(4-1) , the four variables were tested and temperature and biocatalyst content were statistically significant and then used for optimization on CCD. The optimal conditions for butyl butyrate synthesis were found to be 48°C; substrate molar ratio 3:1 (butanol:butyric acid); biocatalyst content of 40% of acid mass. Under these conditions, over 90% of yield was obtained in 2 h. Enzyme reuse was tested by washing the biocatalyst with n-hexane or by direct reuse. The direct reuse produced a rapid decrease on enzyme activity, while washing with n-hexane allowed reusing the enzyme for five reactions cycles keeping approximately 85% of its activity.

  19. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators.

  20. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators. PMID:27423469

  1. Upregulation of activin A gene by butyrate in human colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, Kei; Pholnukulkit, Pimara; Toyoda, Masahiko; Rutatip, Suriya; Kasai, Takanori

    2003-06-01

    Activin A has been reported to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer. Because dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer, we hypothesized that butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, may affect the expression of activin A in colon cancer cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the activin A gene was upregulated by sodium butyrate in the human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. However, the activin A gene did not respond to sodium butyrate in the human normal colonic cell line FHC, rat normal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line IEC-6, and the explant of rat colon. Flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA revealed that cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced by sodium butyrate but not exogenous activin A in HT-29 cells, indicating that activin A could not act as an autocrine factor in colon cancer cells. By assuming that activin A promotes colorectal cancer spread as a paracrine factor, our findings suggest that butyrate could act as a tumor promoter in some circumstances.

  2. Diet and carcinogen alter luminal butyrate concentration and intracellular pH in isolated rat colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Zoran, D L; Barhoumi, R; Burghardt, R C; Chapkin, R S; Lupton, J R

    1997-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to examine the effects of two different dietary fibers and carcinogen treatment on colonic luminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and intracellular pH (pHi) in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, injected with a carcinogen [azoxymethane (AOM)] or normal saline (Sal), and fed one of two diets differing only in the type of dietary fiber [cellulose (Cell) or pectin (Pect)]. After 38 weeks of consuming these diets, the rats were euthanized, luminal contents were collected for analysis of SCFA concentrations, and colonocytes were isolated from the proximal and distal colon for subsequent determination of pHi. Changes in pHi after the addition of exogenous sodium butyrate to the culture medium were also tested. The highest concentrations of SCFAs were produced by the control rats (saline injected) consuming the pectin diet. Luminal butyrate concentrations were reduced in three of four colonic segments of carcinogen-injected groups [proximal and distal cellulose (Prox Cell and Dist Cell) and distal pectin (Dist Pect)] compared with saline controls. The pHi was consistently higher in colonocytes isolated from carcinogen-injected rats (Prox Cell/AOM = 6.95 vs. Prox Cell/Sal = 6.65, Prox Pect/AOM = 6.75 vs. Prox Pect/Sal = 6.65, Dist Cell/AOM = 6.94 vs. Dist Cell/AOM = 6.85, Dist Pect/AOM = 6.92 vs. Dist Pect/Sal = 6.79) than in cells from saline-injected rats. Furthermore, in the majority of rats, pHi was lower in the proximal than in the distal colon. Addition of butyrate to cultured colonocytes consistently lowered pHi, but the effect was more pronounced in the carcinogen-injected animals. These data identify changes that occur intraluminally and intracellularly in colons of rats injected with AOM and suggest that, during tumorigenesis, alterations in butyrate production and basic colonocyte physiology may play an important role in the process.

  3. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing.

  4. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  5. Intercalation of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate into kaolinite and their in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yanfeng; Pan, Xiaobing; Jia, Xin; Wang, Xiaolong

    2007-02-01

    Novel nano-composites of poly (acrylic acid)-kaolinite were prepared, and intercalation and in situ polymerization were used in this process. The nano-composites were obtained by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium acrylate (AANa) intercalated into organo-kaolinite, which was obtained by refining and chemically modifying with solution intercalation step in order to increase the basal plane distance of the original clay. The modification was completed by using dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO)/methanol and potassium acetate (KAc)/water systems step by step. The materials were characterized with the help of XRD, FT-IR and TEM; the results confirmed that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) were intercalated into the interlamellar spaces of kaolinite, the resulting copolymer composites (CC0 : copolymer crude kaolinite composite, CC1 : copolymer DMSO kaolinite composite, CC2 : copolymer KAc kaolinite composite) of CC2 exhibited a lamellar nano-composite with a mixed nano-morphology, and partial exfoliation of the intercalating clay platelets should be the main morphology. Finally, the effect of neutralization degree on the intercalation behavior was also investigated.

  6. Phase diagram involving the mesomorphic behavior of binary mixture of sodium oleate and orthophosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaiah, T. N.; Sreepad, H. R.

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the binary mixture of two non-mesogenic compounds, viz. sodium oleate (Naol) and orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) which exhibits very interesting liquid crystalline smectic phases at large range of concentrations and temperature. The mixtures with concentrations ranging from 10% to 90% Naol in H3PO4 exhibit SmA, SmC, SmE and SmB phases, sequentially when the specimen is cooled from its isotropic phase. Physical properties, such as ultrasonic velocity, adiabatic compressibility and molar compressibility, show anomalous behavior at the isotropic to mesosphase transition.

  7. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  9. [Drug release properties of sodium alginate hydrophobically modified by star polylactic acid].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fu-Wen; Jin, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Fang; Zhou, Shao-Bing; Ni, Cai-Hua

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic/polymer hybrid star polylactic acid (POSS-PLA) was obtained through ring-opening polymerization of lactide by using polyhydroxyl cage silsesquioxane (POSS-OH) as the core and tin (II) octoate as the catalyst. The star polylactic acid (POSS-PLA) was used to modify sodium alginate hydrophobically and a drug carrier was obtained. The drug release behavior was investigated by using ibuprofen as the model drug. The results showed that the drug loading rate could be improved and the release rate was postponed with an increase of POSS-PLA content in the carries. The release mechanism gradually changed from the first-order to the zero-order pattern after the modification.

  10. Interactions in the solid state. I: Interactions of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid under compressed conditions.

    PubMed

    Usui, F; Carstensen, J T

    1985-12-01

    The interaction of NaHCO3 and tartaric acid in powder mixtures and compressed tablets has been studied. It has been found that in an open system the reaction is simply a decarboxylation of NaHCO3 and that the effect of compression on the reaction rate can be attributed to the brittle fracture (and subsequent surface area increase) that occurs on compaction. In a closed system the decomposition of the mixture is an interaction between the acid and the base, and it is mediated by the amount of moisture in the system. This latter is a product of reaction, and a suitable kinetic scheme is described for this. It is shown that "curing" the sodium bicarbonate by heating it to, e.g., 90 degrees C stabilizes the system by virtue of the formation of surface Na2CO3, which acts as a moisture scavenger.

  11. [The hepatotropic action of sodium chloride and hydrocarbonate mineral water containing humic acids (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Verigo, N S; Ulashchik, V S

    2015-01-01

    The present article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the hepatotropic action of native and modified low-mineralized sodium chloride and bicarbonate waters differing in the content of humic acids. It was found that the most beneficial changes after a course of 21 day therapy with the use of such mineral waters for the treatment of experimental hepatitis were observed after the application of the water with a humic acid content of roughly 20 g/dm3. Such treatment resulted in the significant improvement of the liver antitoxic function, intensification of basal metabolism, reduction of the inflammatory processes, normalization of the hepatic enzyme activity, and stimulation of proteinsynthetic function in parallel with positive dynamics of the morphological and histochemical characteristics of the liver.

  12. Kinetics of the reduction of vanadium(V) by sodium sulfite in an acidic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Khyarsing, I.V.; Filippov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of vanadium(V) by sodium sulfite was studied by uv-visible spectrometry at 25/sup 0/C. The acidity of the solutions was controlled by the addition of calculated amounts of hydrochloric, sulfuric acids and sodium hydroxide. The pH of the medium varied from -0.45 to 3. The reagents were mixed, remained thermostated for 20 min; and the optical density vs time was recorded with a Specord uv vis spectrophotometer. Rate curves were measured in the absorption region of vanadium(V) and vanadium(IV). The light absorption followed the Lambert-Berr-Bouguer law. The effective rate constant was calculated from the change in optical density in the region of vanadium(IV) absorption. The most active species appear to be HSO/sub 3//sup -/ and VO/sub 2/SO/sub 4//sup -/. Above pH 3, the reaction is accompanied by a slow increase in optical density over the entire visible spectrum, and after a period of time these solutions deposit a green precipitate which is, apparently a polymeric vanadyl vanadate. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Citric acid and sodium citrate effects on pink color development of cooked ground turkey irradiated pre- and post-cooking.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2006-03-01

    The effects of citric acid (0.15%, 0.3%) and sodium citrate (0.5%, 1.0%) on pink color development in ground turkey following irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0kGy) were examined. Citric acid and sodium citrate had little effect on pink color when samples were irradiated prior to cooking. In contrast, when samples were cooked prior to irradiation, citric acid (0.3%) and sodium citrate (1.0%) reduced redness as indicated by eliminating a reflectance minimum at approximately 571nm, lessening greater reflectance in the red wavelength region, and preventing greater reducing conditions caused by irradiation. Citric acid significantly reduced pH and yields whereas sodium citrate reduced pH and yields to a lesser extent. Both citric acid and sodium citrate are potential ingredients that can be added during processing to prevent undesirable pink color in precooked irradiated ground turkey and therefore can result in greater acceptance of irradiated products by consumers.

  14. Effect of diffusion layer pH and solubility on the dissolution rate of pharmaceutical acids and their sodium salts. II: Salicylic acid, theophylline, and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, A T; Jarowski, C I

    1985-02-01

    The pH-solubility profiles of salicylic acid and theophylline, as determined by the addition of HCl or NaOH to their aqueous suspensions, were identical with those of their sodium salts except during phase transitions from acid to salt or vice versa. Supersaturated solutions were formed during phase transitions. Unlike the solubility profiles, the pH-intrinsic dissolution rate profiles of an acid and its salt differed greatly. Good conformity with the Noyes-Whitney equation was demonstrated when the solubility values under pH conditions as the diffusion layer thickness, h, approaches zero (Cs,h = 0) were used rather than solubilities under pH conditions of the bulk media (Cs). The pH when h approaches zero (pHh = 0) was estimated by equilibration of a dissolution medium with an excess of material. Good correlation was shown between the pHh = 0 values of benzoic acid estimated according to this method and the pHh = 0 values reported in the literature. The intrinsic dissolution rate constant, the ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the diffusion layer thickness (D/h), may be assumed constant when comparing the dissolution rates of salicylic acid, theophylline and sodium theophylline. On the other hand, D/h decreased significantly during dissolution of sodium salicylate due to a large increase in Cs,h = 0 and the consequent increase in viscosity in the diffusion layer. A simple method of predicting the dissolution rate of an acid or a salt at different pH values has been developed.

  15. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. ); Rard, J.A. )

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S.; Rard, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  18. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management.

  19. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management. PMID:26655363

  20. Efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells with poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-bithiophene] and 6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blends and their application in tandem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dewei; Tang, Weihua; Ke, Lin; Tan, Swee Tiam; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2010-03-01

    We present herein efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells via mixing poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-bithiophene] (F6T2) and 6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with variable weight ratios. The photo-physics and morphology of F6T2:PCBM blend films and the electrical characteristics of their corresponding single cells were studied in details by changing PCBM concentration. The complete photoluminescence quenching of F6T2 emission occurs with only a small fraction of PCBM blended, demonstrating effective photoinduced charge transfer between F6T2 and PCBM. Morphology images from atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the phase separation in F6T2:PCBM blend films becomes pronounced with the increase of PCBM concentration, resulting in the increased fill factor from 25.2% (1:1) to 56.9% (1:6). A SEM image also shows the phase separation is within the range of 10 - 20 nm. With the optimized F6T2:PCBM weight ratio (1:2), the single cell exhibits a highest power conversion efficiency of 2.46% due to the balance of light absorption and charge transport. Finally, the polymer-small molecule tandem cells are constructed using F6T2:PCBM BHJ as the bottom cell and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc):fullerene (C(60)) as the top cell. The open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of tandem cell (1.27 V) is equal to the summation of the V(oc) values of the bottom cell (0.86 V) and the top cell (0.43 V). PMID:20356288

  1. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and phosphoric acid in calcium hydroxide removal from the root canal: a microscopic cleanliness evaluation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Melo; Silveira, Amanda; Santos, Elizandra; Prado, Laiìs; Pessoa, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    Rooted molars were subjected to standardized canal instrumentation to a master apical file (MAF). The samples were dressed with Ca(OH)(2), and after 7 days, teeth were reopened and Ca(OH)(2) medication was removed by 1 of 4 different experimental procedures: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 10); 17% EDTA-T (n = 10); 10% citric acid (n = 10); or 37% phosphoric acid (n = 10). This was followed by reinstrumentation with MAF plus 15 mL saline solution. The roots were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis of the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. EDTA-T and phosphoric acid gave the best results in the apical third, with significant statistical differences compared with other groups. NaOCl gave the worst results. Irrigation with 17% EDTA-T and 37% phosphoric acid is more effective than sodium hypochlorite and citric acid in the removal of calcium hydroxide from the apical third.

  2. Feed-drug interaction of orally applied butyrate and phenobarbital on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in chickens.

    PubMed

    Mátis, G; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Hermándy-Berencz, K; Neogrády, Zs

    2016-08-01

    The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may be affected by several nutrition-derived compounds, such as by the commonly applied feed additive butyrate, possibly leading to feed-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to provide some evidence if butyrate can alter the activity of hepatic CYPs in chickens exposed to CYP-inducing xenobiotics, monitoring for the first time the possibility of such interaction. Ross 308 chickens in the grower phase were treated with daily intracoelomal phenobarbital (PB) injection (80 mg/kg BW), applied as a non-specific CYP-inducer, simultaneously with two different doses of intra-ingluvial sodium butyrate boluses (0.25 and 1.25 g/kg BW) for 5 days. Activity of CYP2H and CYP3A subfamilies was assessed by specific enzyme assays from isolated liver microsomes. According to our results, the lower dose of orally administered butyrate significantly attenuated the PB-triggered elevation of both hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A activities, which might be in association with the partly common signalling pathways of butyrate and CYP-inducing drugs, such as that of PB. Based on these data, butyrate may take part in pharmacoepigenetic interactions with simultaneously applied drugs or other CYP-inducing xenobiotics, with possible consequences for food safety and pharmacotherapy. Butyrate was found to be capable to maintain physiological CYP activity by attenuating CYP induction, underlining the safety of butyrate application in poultry nutrition.

  3. Gamma-amino butyric acid inhibits the nicotine-imposed stimulatory challenge in xenograft models of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Wadei, H A N; Al-Wadei, M H; Ullah, M F; Schuller, H M

    2012-02-01

    Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the leading type of lung cancer; smoking is a documented risk factor. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated intracellular signaling in response to nicotine has recently been implicated in the growth regulation of NSCLC. In the current study nude mice carrying xenografts of the human lung NSCLC cell lines NCI-H322 or NCI-H441 were used as animal models. Nicotine administration and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment lasted for 30 days. Catecholamines, cortisol, GABA, and cAMP were analyzed in blood and tumor tissues by immunoassays. Expression of nicotinic receptors and effector proteins in the xenografts was assessed by Western blotting. Our data indicate that nicotine stimulated the growth of NSCLC xenografts via modulation of nAChR upregulation and activation of cAMP signaling. The nicotine-treated group showed an enhanced level of stress neurotransmitters and second messenger cAMP in serum, blood cellular fraction, and xenograft tissues. Activation of critical proteins in the oncogenic pathway, including CREB, ERK, Akt, and Src, and upregulation of α-4 and α-7 subunits of nAChR provided mechanistic insight for the observed stimulatory effect of nicotine. Interestingly, GABA, being an antagonist to cAMP signaling, showed a promising intervention by reversing the stimulatory effect of nicotine on cancer growth and all signaling pathways. GABA has potential to lower the risk of NSCLC among smokers and could be used to enhance the clinical outcome of standard cancer intervention strategies.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Protocols to Induce Human CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells by Combinations of IL-2, TGF-beta, Retinoic Acid, Rapamycin and Butyrate.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Angelika; Eriksson, Matilda; Shang, Ming-Mei; Weyd, Heiko; Tegnér, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other immune cells and are critical mediators of peripheral tolerance. Therapeutic manipulation of Tregs is subject to numerous clinical investigations including trials for adoptive Treg transfer. Since the number of naturally occurring Tregs (nTregs) is minute, it is highly desirable to develop a complementary approach of inducing Tregs (iTregs) from naïve T cells. Mouse studies exemplify the importance of peripherally induced Tregs as well as the applicability of iTreg transfer in different disease models. Yet, procedures to generate iTregs are currently controversial, particularly for human cells. Here we therefore comprehensively compare different established and define novel protocols of human iTreg generation using TGF-β in combination with other compounds. We found that human iTregs expressed several Treg signature molecules, such as Foxp3, CTLA-4 and EOS, while exhibiting low expression of the cytokines Interferon-γ, IL-10 and IL-17. Importantly, we identified a novel combination of TGF-β, retinoic acid and rapamycin as a robust protocol to induce human iTregs with superior suppressive activity in vitro compared to currently established induction protocols. However, iTregs generated by these protocols did not stably retain Foxp3 expression and did not suppress in vivo in a humanized graft-versus-host-disease mouse model, highlighting the need for further research to attain stable, suppressive iTregs. These results advance our understanding of the conditions enabling human iTreg generation and may have important implications for the development of adoptive transfer strategies targeting autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26886923

  5. Comparative Analysis of Protocols to Induce Human CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells by Combinations of IL-2, TGF-beta, Retinoic Acid, Rapamycin and Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Angelika; Eriksson, Matilda; Shang, Ming-Mei; Weyd, Heiko; Tegnér, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other immune cells and are critical mediators of peripheral tolerance. Therapeutic manipulation of Tregs is subject to numerous clinical investigations including trials for adoptive Treg transfer. Since the number of naturally occurring Tregs (nTregs) is minute, it is highly desirable to develop a complementary approach of inducing Tregs (iTregs) from naïve T cells. Mouse studies exemplify the importance of peripherally induced Tregs as well as the applicability of iTreg transfer in different disease models. Yet, procedures to generate iTregs are currently controversial, particularly for human cells. Here we therefore comprehensively compare different established and define novel protocols of human iTreg generation using TGF-β in combination with other compounds. We found that human iTregs expressed several Treg signature molecules, such as Foxp3, CTLA-4 and EOS, while exhibiting low expression of the cytokines Interferon-γ, IL-10 and IL-17. Importantly, we identified a novel combination of TGF-β, retinoic acid and rapamycin as a robust protocol to induce human iTregs with superior suppressive activity in vitro compared to currently established induction protocols. However, iTregs generated by these protocols did not stably retain Foxp3 expression and did not suppress in vivo in a humanized graft-versus-host-disease mouse model, highlighting the need for further research to attain stable, suppressive iTregs. These results advance our understanding of the conditions enabling human iTreg generation and may have important implications for the development of adoptive transfer strategies targeting autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26886923

  6. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    PubMed

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication.

  7. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    PubMed

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. PMID:27346602

  8. Quantitative analysis of citric acid/sodium hypophosphite modified cotton by HPLC and conductometric titration.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Bijia; Liu, Jian; Chen, Jiangang; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-05-01

    Isocratic HPLC was used in conjunction with conductometric titration to quantitatively examine the modification of cotton cellulose by citric acid (CA)/sodium hypophosphite (SHP). CA/SHP had been extensively used as a green crosslinking agent for enhancement of cellulose and other carbohydrate polymers without in-depth understanding of the mechanisms. The current study investigated all identifiable secondary polycarboxylic acids from CA decomposition in the CA/SHP-cellulose system under various curing conditions. It was found that CA decomposition was more sensitive to temperature compared with the desirable esterification reaction. Two crosslinking mechanisms, namely ester crosslinking and SHP crosslinking were responsible for the observed improvement in crease resistance of CA/SHP treated cotton fabrics. An oligomer of citraconic acid (CCA) and/or itaconic acid (IA) was identified as a possible contributor to fabric yellowing. Finally, the crease resistance of fabrics correlated strongly with CA preservation in polyol-added CA/SHP crosslinking systems. The dosage of polyol should be held below an inflexion point to keep the undesirable competition against cellulose minimum. The combination of HPLC and conductometric titration was demonstrated to be useful in studying the CA/SHP-cellulose crosslinking system. The findings have implications for better application of CA/SHP in polysaccharide modifications in general.

  9. Development and validation of dissolution testings in acidic media for rabeprazole sodium delayed-release capsules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinhe; Si, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lulu; Feng, Xin; Yang, Xinmin; Huang, Min; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-10-01

    Rabeprazole sodium (RAB) dissolved in acidic media is accompanied by its degradation in the course of dissolution testing. To develop and establish the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle (RAB) delayed-release capsules (ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle) in acidic media using USP apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) as a dissolution tester, the issues of determination of accumulative release amount of RAB in these acidic media and interference of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate were solved by adding appropriate hydrochloric acid (HCl) into dissolution samples coupled with centrifugation so as to remove the interference and form a solution of degradation products of RAB, which is of a considerably stable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at the wavelength of 298 nm within 2.0 h. Therefore, the accumulative release amount of RAB in dissolution samples at each sample time points could be determined by UV-spectrophotometry, and the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle in the media of pH 1.0, pH 6.0, and pH 6.8 could be established. The method was validated per as the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines and demonstrated to be adequate for quality control of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle and the accumulative release profiles can be used as a tool to guide the formulation development and quality control of a generic drug for ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle. PMID:27066697

  10. Effect of nonionic surfactants on percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid and sodium salicylate in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Shen, W W; Danti, A G; Bruscato, F N

    1976-12-01

    Fifteen nonionic surfactants, 10% (w/w), were each incorporated into white petrolatum USP ointment base containing 10% (w/w) salicylic acid or 11.6% (w/w) sodium salicylate with 10% (w/w) dimethyl sulfoxide. Percutaneous absorption was determined from blood salicylate levels in New Zealand white rabbits at regular intervals for 8 hr following application of the ointment. Percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid was increased significantly when sorbitan monopalmitate, sorbitan trioleate, poloxamer 231, poloxamer 182, polyoxyethylene 4 lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene 2 oleyl ether, or polyoxyl 8 stearate was added to the ointment containing dimethyl sulfoxide, salicylic acid, and white petrolatum. Percutaneous absorption of sodium salicylate was increased significantly when sorbitan monolaurate, sorbitan monopalmitate, or poloxamer 182 was added to the ointment containing dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium salicylate, and white petrolatum.

  11. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  12. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  13. Ascorbic Acid-Assisted Synthesis of Mesoporous Sodium Vanadium Phosphate Nanoparticles with Highly sp(2) -Coordinated Carbon Coatings as Efficient Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tai-Feng; Cheng, Wei-Jen; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Chang-Chung; Shen, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Yu-Lin

    2016-07-18

    Herein, mesoporous sodium vanadium phosphate nanoparticles with highly sp(2) -coordinated carbon coatings (meso-Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C) were successfully synthesized as efficient cathode material for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries by using ascorbic acid as both the reductant and carbon source, followed by calcination at 750 °C in an argon atmosphere. Their crystalline structure, morphology, surface area, chemical composition, carbon nature and amount were systematically explored. Following electrochemical measurements, the resultant meso-Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C not only delivered good reversible capacity (98 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) ) and superior rate capability (63 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) ) but also exhibited comparable cycling performance (capacity retention: ≈74 % at 450 cycles at 0.4 A g(-1) ). Moreover, the symmetrical sodium-ion full cell with excellent reversibility and cycling stability was also achieved (capacity retention: 92.2 % at 0.1 A g(-1) with 99.5 % coulombic efficiency after 100 cycles). These attributes are ascribed to the distinctive mesostructure for facile sodium-ion insertion/extraction and their continuous sp(2) -coordinated carbon coatings, which facilitate electronic conduction.

  14. Selective inhibition of sweetness by the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Gibes, K M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (Na-PMP) reduced sweet intensity ratings of 15 sweeteners in mixtures. Na-PMP has been approved for use in confectionary/frostings, soft candy and snack products in the USA at concentrations up to 150 p.p.m. A trained panel evaluated the effect of Na-PMP on the intensity of the following 15 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), 1 dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), one protein (thaumatin) and one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate). Sweeteners were tested at concentrations isosweet with 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% sucrose in mixtures with two levels of Na-PMP: 250 and 500 p.p.m. In addition, the 15 sweeteners were tested either immediately or 30 s after a pre-rinse with 500 p.p.m. Na-PMP. In mixtures, Na-PMP at both the 250 and 500 p.p.m. levels significantly blocked sweetness intensity for 12 of the 15 sweeteners. However, when Na-PMP was mixed with three of the 15 sweeteners (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin), there was little reduction in sweetness intensity. Pre-rinsing with Na-PMP both inhibited and enhanced sweetness with the greatest enhancements found for monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin, which were not suppressed by Na-PMP in mixtures. The mixture data suggest that Na-PMP is a selective competitive inhibitor of sweet taste. The finding that pre-treatment can produce enhancement may be due to sensitization of sweetener receptors by Na-PMP.

  15. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  16. Butyrate protects rat liver against total hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury with bowel congestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Qian, Jianmin; Wang, Qingbao; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation.

  17. In vivo measurement of colonic butyrate metabolism in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, E; Chapman, M; Dawson, J; Berry, D; Macdonald, I; Cole, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation, is a major fuel source for the colonocyte. In vitro work has shown that ulcerative colitis may be characterised by a metabolic defect in colonocyte butyrate oxidation.
AIMS—To investigate the rate of metabolism of rectally administered butyrate in patients with quiescent colitis.
METHODS—[1-13C]-butyrate enemas were administered to 11 patients with long standing quiescent ulcerative colitis and to 10 control patients. The rate of production of 13CO2 in exhaled breath over four hours was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with indirect calorimetry in order to measure CO2 production. This allowed calculation of the patients' resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient.
RESULTS—Over a four hour period, 325 (SEM 21) µmol 13CO2 was recovered in breath samples from the colitis group compared with 322 (17) µmol from the control group (NS). The respiratory quotient of the colitic group was significantly lower than that of the control group.
CONCLUSION—There was no difference in the rate of metabolism of butyrate between the two groups. It is unlikely that there is a primary metabolic defect of butyrate metabolism in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; in vivo butyrate metabolism PMID:10601058

  18. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of norepinephrine with sodium iodate and determination of its acidity constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, E. Y.; Youssef, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of norepinephrine (NE) and its bitartrate salts. The method was based on the development of a red color (λmax = 495 nm) with sodium iodate in aqueous alcoholic medium at pH 5. The color was stable for at least 4 hrs. The molar reacting ratio of NE to sodium iodate was 1:4. A linear relationship was obtained between the absorption intensity and NE concentration in the range of 3.384-37.224 μg/ml with detection limit of 0.067 μg/ml and correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The present work facilitated the determination of the three acidity constants, 7.564 ± 0.02, 9.036 ± 0.034, and 10.761 ± 0.023. The reaction mechanism was also described. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of NE in pharmaceutical formulations. Results for analysis of bulk drugs and injections agree with those of official methods.

  20. Dietary protocatechuic acid ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Awoyemi, Omolola V; Njoku, Chinonye R; Micah, Gabriel O; Esogwa, Cynthia U; Owumi, Solomon E; Olopade, James O

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of dietary protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple hydrophilic phenolic compound commonly found in many edible vegetables, on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and its associated hepatotoxicity in rats. PCA was administered orally at 10 mg kg(-1) to dextran sulphate sodium exposed rats for five days. The result revealed that administration of PCA significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the incidence of diarrhea and bleeding, the decrease in the body weight gain, shortening of colon length and the increase in colon mass index in DSS-treated rats. Furthermore, PCA prevented the increase in the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of liver toxicity and markedly suppressed the DSS-mediated elevation in colonic nitric oxide concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the treated rats. Administration of PCA significantly protected against colonic and hepatic oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant status and concomitantly decreased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the DSS-treated rats. Moreover, histological examinations confirmed PCA chemoprotection against colon and liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in the colon of DSS-treated rats. In conclusion, the effective chemoprotective role of PCA in colitis and the associated hepatotoxicity is related to its intrinsic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  1. Apoptosis cascade proteins are regulated in vivo by high intracolonic butyrate concentration: correlation with colon cancer inhibition.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Green, C; Polak-Charcon, S; Madar, Z; Schwartz, B

    2000-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of high intracolonic butyrate concentrations, either through fermentation of a soluble fiber-enriched diet or via intracolonic butyrate instillation, on colon cancer in a chemically induced (dimethylhydrazine) rat model. The effects were tested in four groups of dimethylhydrazine-treated rats: (i) rats fed a standard diet, (ii) rats fed a diet enriched with 15% citrus pectin, a soluble fiber that ferments and produces a high concentration of intracolonic butyrate, (iii) rats fed a standard diet and intrarectally instilled with a sodium butyrate solution (50 mM), (iv) rats fed a standard diet and intrarectally instilled with sodium butyrate vehicle solution (100 mM NaCl). The apoptotic index in the distal colon of rats fed pectin was higher than in colonic tissue from rats fed a standard diet. The expression of caspase-1, a cysteine protease implicated in the regulation of programmed cell death, as detected by both Northern and Western analysis, showed the highest mRNA and protein levels in colonic tissue from rats intrarectally instilled with butyrate. Immunohistology confirmed the Western blot findings. Expression of the cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase product, a downstream nuclear substrate for caspase-3 in the apoptotic pathway, was elevated in both the pectin-fed and butyrate-instilled groups. Expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly reduced following pectin feeding as well as butyrate instillation. The highest expression of Bcl-2 was observed in tumor tissue. A marked reduction in aberrant crypt number was observed in colonic tissue obtained from both the pectin-fed and butyrate-instilled groups relative to rats from the standard diet group. The average tumor volume per rat in both the pectin-fed and butyrate-instilled groups was significantly lower than in rats from the standard diet and the sodium butyrate vehicle-instilled groups. We conclude that high butyrate levels, either

  2. Evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics of sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate, a novel short chain fatty acid derivative, in a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, and repeat-dose studies in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Susan P; Wargin, William A; Boosalis, Michael S; Wallis, Wayne J; Case, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey R; Faller, Douglas V; Welch, William C; Berenson, Ronald J

    2011-08-01

    Pharmacologic induction of fetal globin synthesis is an accepted therapeutic strategy for treatment of the beta hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias, as even small increases in hemoglobin F (HbF) levels reduce clinical severity in sickle cell disease (SCD) and reduce anemia in beta thalassemia. Prior generation short chain fatty acid therapeutics, arginine butyrate (AB), and phenylbutyrate, increased fetal and total hemoglobin levels in patients, but were limited by high doses or intravenous (IV) infusion. A fetal globin-inducing therapeutic with convenient oral dosing would be an advance for these classic molecular diseases. Healthy adult human subjects were treated with a novel short chain fatty acids (SCFA) derivative, sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (SDMB), or placebo, with 1 of 4 single dose levels (2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or daily doses (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) over 14 days, and monitored for adverse clinical and laboratory events, drug levels, reticulocytes, and HbF assays. SDMB was well-tolerated with no clinically significant adverse events related to study medication. The terminal half-life ranged from 9 to 15 hours. Increases in mean absolute reticulocytes were observed at all dose levels in the 14-day study. The favorable pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles and safety findings indicate that SDMB warrants further investigation for treatment of anemic subjects with beta hemoglobinopathies.

  3. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  4. Renal clearance of uric acid is linked to insulin resistance and lower excretion of sodium in gout patients.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles; Herrero-Beites, Ana María; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Erauskin, Gorka Garcia; Merriman, Toni

    2015-09-01

    Inefficient renal excretion of uric acid is the main pathophysiological mechanism for hyperuricemia in gout patients. Polymorphisms of renal tubular transporters linked with sodium and monosaccharide transport have yet to be demonstrated. We intended to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance, evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), through a transversal study of non-diabetic patients with gout, with normal renal function, not treated with any medication but colchicine as prophylaxis. One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated. Clearance of uric acid was inversely correlated with insulin resistance and directly correlated with fractional excretion of sodium. In multivariate analysis, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, in addition to insulin resistance and fractional excretion of sodium, were associated with renal clearance of uric acid. HOMA cutoff for efficient versus inefficient renal handling of uric acid was 2.72, close to that observed in studies of reference population. The impact of insulin resistance and renal handling of sodium on renal clearance of uric acid may help to explain why hyperuricemia is more commonly associated with diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25763991

  5. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    PubMed

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  6. Corrosion of some chromium-nickel steels and alloys in sulfuric acid solutions of sodium sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, D.K.; Glagolenko, Yu.V.; Ermolinskii, S.P.

    1988-05-01

    Steels 12Kh18N1OT and 10Kh17N13M3T and alloys 06KhN28MDT and 46KhNM were studied in sulfuric acid solutions containing sodium sulfite and sulfur dioxide to determine the effects of different concentrations of the corrosive constituents on the anodic and cathodic active and passive corrosion behavior of the metals. Polarization curves were obtained with a P-5827 M potentiostat. Addition of sulfite facilitated both electrode processes and the region of the reactive state was broadened due to the shift of passivation potentials to more positive values. The activating effect of sulfite reduction products were confirmed by tests of alloys in spent solutions. This increased likelihood of activation and the decrease of the solutions's own corrosion potential were both attributed to retardation of the cathodic process by lower valence sulfur compounds.

  7. Aquatic risk assessment of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES).

    PubMed

    Miura, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    The aquatic risk of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) used in household detergents was assessed. The environmental exposure assessment expressed as predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was determined on the basis of monitoring results from the seven sites of four rivers in the urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. The 95 percentile as well as geometric mean of the MES concentration was found to exhibit a good correlation with the geometric mean of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; the latter's regression was greater than 0.99). The predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic environment was estimated by performing chronic assays of algae and daphnia. The risk characterization ratio (RCR: PEC/PNEC) was less than 1. Therefore, it is concluded that MES will not adversely affect the aquatic environment in Japan.

  8. The antimicrobial effect of MTAD, sodium hypochlorite, doxycycline, and citric acid on Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Trisha A; Liewehr, Frederick R; Hahn, Chin-Lo

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial effect of MTAD, two of its components, doxycycline and citric acid, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in two in vitro models on Enterococcus faecalis. In the bovine tooth model, the lumens of 30 bovine dentin discs were i