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Sample records for acid soil amended

  1. COMPOSITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF HUMIC ACIDS FROM ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND AMENDED SOILS IN MINNESOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of organic amendments requires an adequate control of the chemical quality of their humic acid (HA)-like fractions and of the effects that these materials may have on the status, quality, chemistry and functions of native soil HAs. In this work, the compositional, functional and structural p...

  2. Effect of carbonaceous soil amendments on potential mobility of weak acid herbicides in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of carbonaceous amendments in soil has been proposed to decrease potential offsite transport of weak acid herbicides and metabolites by increasing their sorption to soil. The effects of organic olive mill waste, biochars from different feed stocks, and humic acid bound to clay on sorption of MCP...

  3. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  4. Organic amendment effects on the transformation and fractionation of aluminum in acidic sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was attempted to evaluate the transformation of aluminum (Al) in an acidic sandy soil amended with composts (yard waste, yard + municipal waste, GreenEdge®, and synthetic humic acid), based on soil Al fractionation by single and sequential extraction. The compost amendment significantly i...

  5. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  6. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  7. Copper(II) complexation by humic and fulvic acids from pig slurry and amended and non-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Plaza, C; Senesi, N; García-Gil, J C; Polo, A

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the consecutive annual additions of pig slurry at rates of 0 (control), 90 and 150 m3 ha(-1) y(-1) over a 4-year period on the binding affinity for Cu(II) of soil humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) was investigated in a field plot experiment under semiarid conditions. A ligand potentiometric titration method and a single site model were used for determining the Cu(II) complexing capacities and the stability constants of Cu(II) complexes of HAs and FAs isolated from pig slurry and control and amended soils. The HAs complexing capacities and stability constants were larger than those of the corresponding FA fractions. With respect to the control soil HA, pig-slurry HA was characterized by a much smaller binding capacity and stability constant. Amendment with pig slurry decreased the binding affinity of soil HAs. Similar to the corresponding HAs, the binding affinity of pig-slurry FA was much smaller while that of amended-soil FAs were slightly smaller when compared to the control soil FA. The latter effect was, however, more evident with increasing the amount of pig slurry applied to soil per year and the number of years of pig slurry application. PMID:16219505

  8. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  9. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils. PMID:27030238

  10. A short-term mineral amendment impacts the mineral weathering bacterial communities in an acidic forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lepleux, C; Uroz, S; Collignon, C; Churin, J-L; Turpault, M-P; Frey-Klett, P

    2013-09-01

    Mineral amendment (i.e. calcium, phosphorous, potassium and/or magnesium) is a management practice used in forestry to improve nutrient availability and recover soil fertility, especially in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems. However, whether this amendment can lead to modifications of the soil characteristics and an improvement in tree growth, and its impact on the soil bacterial communities, especially the mineral weathering bacterial communities, remains poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the short-term impact of a mineral amendment on the taxonomic and functional structure of the mineral weathering bacterial communities. To do this, a plantation of four-year old oak (Quercus petraea) trees amended with or without dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] was established in the experimental forest site of Breuil-Chenue, which is characterized by an acidic soil and a low availability of calcium and magnesium. Three years after amendment, soil samples were used to isolate bacteria as well as to determine the soil characteristics and the metabolic potentials of these soil microbial communities. Based on a bioassay for quantifying the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous, we demonstrate that the bacterial isolates coming from the non-amended bulk soil were significantly more efficient than those from the amended bulk soil. No difference was observed between the bacterial isolates coming from the amended and non-amended rhizospheres. Notably, the taxonomic analyses revealed a dominance of bacterial isolates belonging to the Burkholderia genus in both samples. Overall, our results suggest that the bioavailability of nutritive cations into soil impacts the distribution and the efficacy of mineral weathering bacterial communities coming from the soil but not those coming from the rhizosphere. PMID:23583355

  11. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites. PMID:25699676

  12. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji

    2011-10-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. PMID:21782301

  13. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  14. Changes in soil chemistry following wood and grass biochar amendments to an acidic agricultural production soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of biochars produced by biomass gasification for remediation of acidic production soils and plant growth in general is not as well known compared to effects from biochars resulting from pyrolysis. Recent characterization of biochar produced from gasification of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pr...

  15. Carbon stabilization and microbial growth in acidic mine soils after addition of different amendments for soil reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose; Ángeles Muñoz, María; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2016-04-01

    The extreme soil conditions in metalliferous mine soils have a negative influence on soil biological activity and therefore on soil carbon estabilization. Therefore, amendments are used to increase organic carbon content and activate microbial communities. In order to elucidate some of the factors controlling soil organic carbon stabilization in reclaimed acidic mine soils and its interrelationship with microbial growth and community structure, we performed an incubation experiment with four amendments: pig slurry (PS), pig manure (PM) and biochar (BC), applied with and without marble waste (MW; CaCO3). Results showed that PM and BC (alone or together with MW) contributed to an important increment in recalcitrant organic C, C/N ratio and aggregate stability. Bacterial and fungal growths were highly dependent on pH and labile organic C. PS supported the highest microbial growth; applied alone it stimulated fungal growth, and applied with MW it stimulated bacterial growth. BC promoted the lowest microbial growth, especially for fungi, with no significant increase in fungal biomass. MW+BC increased bacterial growth up to values similar to PM and MW+PM, suggesting that part of the biochar was degraded, at least in short-term mainly by bacteria rather than fungi. PM, MW+PS and MW+PM supported the highest microbial biomass and a similar community structure, related with the presence of high organic C and high pH, with immobilization of metals and increased soil quality. BC contributed to improved soil structure, increased recalcitrant organic C, and decreased metal mobility, with low stimulation of microbial growth.

  16. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds. PMID:26498818

  17. In situ remediation of metal-contaminated soils with organic amendments: role of humic acids in copper bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Soler-Rovira, Pedro; Madejón, Engracia; Madejón, Paula; Plaza, César

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the Cu(II) binding behavior of humic acids (HAs) isolated from biosolid compost (BI), leonardite (LE), a metal-contaminated soil, and the soil remediated with either BI or LE in relation to their structural properties, and to explore the role exerted by the HA fractions in controlling soil Cu(II) bioavailability. Potentiometric titrations at pH 5 and ionic strength 0.1M and the Langmuir model were used to obtain the Cu(II) complexing capacity of the HAs examined and the conditional stability constant of the Cu(II)-HA complexes. The Cu(II) complexing capacity increased as the content of acidic ligands, especially COOH groups, aromaticity, and humification degree increased, following the order BI-HAamended soil HAssoil HAamended soil HAsamendment with BI was slightly more effective in decreasing soil CaCl(2)-extractable Cu content. The results obtained suggested that the pH of the soil-amendment system is the most important chemical property governing Cu(II) solubility and bioavailability in metal-contaminated soils remediated with BI and LE, although soil organic matter and the HA fraction may also be important factors. In particular, binding sites formed by N-, S-, and O-containing acidic functional moieties in HAs may play an important role in the Cu(II) behavior. PMID:20303567

  18. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren

    2016-08-01

    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system. PMID:27072359

  19. Enhancing the urea-N use efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on acid soils amended with zeolite and TSP.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Hussin, Aminuddin; Ahmad, Husni M H; Rahim, Anuar A; Majid, Nik Muhamad Abd

    2008-01-01

    Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives) did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea. PMID:18454247

  20. Phytotoxicity of citric acid and Tween® 80 for potential use as soil amendments in enhanced phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced phytoremediation adding biodegradable amendments like low molecular weight organic acids and surfactants is an interesting area of current research to overcome the limitation that represents low bioavailability of pollutants in soils. However, prior to their use in assisted phytoremediation, it is necessary to test if amendments per se exert any toxic effect to plants and to optimize their application mode. In this context, the present study assessed the effects of citric acid and Tween® 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate) on the development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants, as influenced by their concentration and frequency of application, in order to evaluate the feasibility for their future use in enhanced phytoremediation of multi-contaminated soils. The results showed that citric acid negatively affected plant germination, while it did not have any significant effect on biomass or chlorophyll content. In turn, Tween® 80 did not affect plant germination and showed a trend to increase biomass, as well as it did not have any significant effect on chlorophyll levels. M. sativa appeared to tolerate citric acid and Tween® 80 at the tested concentrations, applied weekly. Consequently, citric acid and Tween® 80 could potentially be utilized to assist phytoremediation of contaminated soils vegetated with M. sativa. PMID:25976880

  1. Fractionation of heavy metals and distribution of organic carbon in two contaminated soils amended with humic acids.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2006-08-01

    The effects of humic acids (HAs) extracted from two different organic materials on the distribution of heavy metals and on organic-C mineralisation in two contaminated soils were studied in incubation experiments. Humic acids isolated from a mature compost (HAC) and a commercial Spaghnum peat (HAP) were added to an acid soil (pH 3.4; 966 mg kg(-1) Zn and 9,229 mg kg(-1) Pb as main contaminants) and to a calcareous soil (pH 7.7; 2,602 mg kg(-1) Zn and 1,572 mg kg(-1) Pb as main contaminants) at a rate of 1.1g organic-C added per 100g soil. The mineralisation of organic-C was determined by the CO(2) released during the experiment. After 2, 8 and 28 weeks of incubation the heavy metals of the soils were fractionated by a sequential extraction procedure. After 28 weeks of incubation, the mineralisation of the organic-C added was rather low in the soils studied (<8% of TOC in the acid soil; <10% of TOC in the calcareous soil). Both humic acids caused significant Zn and Pb immobilisation (increased proportion of the residual fraction, extractable only with aqua regia) in the acid soil, while Cu and Fe were slightly mobilised (increased concentrations extractable with 0.1M CaCl(2) and/or 0.5M NaOH). In the calcareous soil there were lesser effects, and at the end of the experiment only the fraction mainly related to carbonates (EDTA-extractable) was significantly increased for Zn and decreased for Fe in the humic acids treated samples. However, HA-metal interactions provoked the flocculation of these substances, as suggested by the association of the humic acids with the sand fraction of the soil. These results indicate that humic acid-rich materials can be useful amendments for soil remediation involving stabilisation, although a concomitant slight mobilisation of Zn, Pb and Cu can be provoked in acid soils. PMID:16481023

  2. Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianjin; Li, Xia; Liu, Xingmei; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic (phosphate rock, single superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate) and organic amendments (peat, straw manure and pig manure) on the uptake of lead (Pb) and trace elements by Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis) grown in an acidic red soil. The application of all organic amendments increased the soil pH while inorganic amendments such as single superphosphate did not. Both inorganic and organic amendments decreased the availability and uptake of Pb while the organic amendments were superior to the inorganic (phosphate) amendments in reducing the availability of the more labile (soluble and exchangeable Pb) forms of soil Pb. More Pb was taken up by roots than shoots with all soil amendments. Among the organic amendments, straw manure and pig manure caused the largest decrease in Pb availability at 456.5 and 457.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, when a high level of 30 g organic amendments kg(-1) was applied. The organic amendments greatly increased the fraction D targeted to Fe-Mn oxides bound Pb, and decreased the fraction A (water-soluble), B (exchangeable), and C (carbonate-bound), thereby decreasing the solubility and mobility of Pb in soil. The organic amendments also significantly improved the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil and shoots (except Fe in shoots and/or roots), which are essential for plant nutrition. The organic amendments of straw and pig manure lowered the availability and uptake of Pb but not that of other trace metals. Thus, these amendments have the potential to remediate Pb-contaminated soils in situ. PMID:24992219

  3. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a soil amended with biochars and other sorbents.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alegria; Cox, Lucia; Spokas, Kurt A; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, M Carmen; Cornejo, Juan; Koskinen, William C

    2011-12-14

    Biochar, the solid residual remaining after the thermochemical transformation of biomass for carbon sequestration, has been proposed to be used as a soil amendment, because of its agronomic benefits. The effect of amending soil with six biochars made from different feedstocks on the sorption and leaching of fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) was compared to the effect of other sorbents: an activated carbon, a Ca-rich Arizona montmorillonite modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium organic cation (SA-HDTMA), and an agricultural organic residue from olive oil production (OOW). Soil was amended at 2% (w/w), and studies were performed following a batch equilibration procedure. Sorption of both herbicides increased in all amended soils, but decreased in soil amended with a biochar produced from macadamia nut shells made with fast pyrolysis. Lower leaching of the herbicides was observed in the soils amended with the biochars with higher surface areas BC5 and BC6 and the organoclay (OCl). Despite the increase in herbicide sorption in soils amended with two hardwood biochars (BC1 and BC3) and OOW, leaching of fluometuron and MCPA was enhanced with the addition of these amendments as compared to the unamended soil. The increased leaching is due to some amendments' soluble organic compounds, which compete or associate with herbicide molecules, enhancing their soil mobility. Thus, the results indicate that not all biochar amendments will increase sorption and decrease leaching of fluometuron and MCPA. Furthermore, the amount and composition of the organic carbon (OC) content of the amendment, especially the soluble part (DOC), can play an important role in the sorption and leaching of these herbicides. PMID:22023336

  4. Moderately thermophilic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in Kuwaiti desert soil: enhanced activity via Ca(2+) and dipicolinic acid amendment.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2015-05-01

    Pristine and oil-contaminated desert soil samples from Kuwait harbored between 10 and 100 cells g(-1) of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria capable of growth at 50 °C. Enrichment by incubation of moistened soils for 6 months at 50 °C raised those numbers to the magnitude of 10(3) cells g(-1). Most of these organisms were moderately thermophilic and belonged to the genus Bacillus; they grew at 40-50 °C better than at 30 °C. Species belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis, Chelativorans, Isoptericola, Nocardia, Aeribacillus, Aneurinibacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Kocuria, Marinobacter and Paenibacillus were also found. This microbial diversity indicates a good potential for hydrocarbon removal in soil at high temperature. Analysis of the same desert soil samples by a culture-independent method (combined, DGGE and 16S rDNA sequencing) revealed dramatically different lists of microorganisms, many of which had been recorded as hydrocarbonoclastic. Many species were more frequent in the oil contaminated than in the pristine soil samples, which may reflect their hydrocarbonoclastic activity in situ. The growth and hydrocarbon consumption potential of all tested isolates were dramatically enhanced by amendment of the cultures with Ca(2+) (up to 2.5 M CaSO4). This enhanced effect was even amplified when in addition 8 % w/v dipicolinic acid was amended. These novel findings are useful in suggesting biotechnologies for waste hydrocarbon remediation at moderately high temperature. PMID:25716145

  5. Effect of application rate of commercial lignite-derived amendments on early-stage growth of Medicago sativa and soil health, in acidic soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Little, Karen; Rose, Michael; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Commercially available lignite-derived amendments, sold mainly as humate preparations, have been promoted as plant growth stimulants leading to higher crop yields. These products are also claimed to improve soil properties such as pH. This study investigated the effect of application rate of three lignite-derived amendments on the early-stage growth of a pasture legume, lucerne (Medicago sativa), and soil health in a soil type common to south eastern Australia, in a glasshouse setting. An organic-mineral humate product and 'run of mine' lignite coal did not improve shoot or root growth despite application at a range of rates at, and in excess of, the manufacturers recommendation. Application of soluble K-humate product at 20 kg/ha (9.5 kg/ha C equivalent) produced an observable positive effect in shoot growth. At this application rate, a significant delay in the appearance of chlorotic symptoms was observed along with an increase in soil pH concurrent with decreased availability of soil Mn and Al. Higher root dry weight was associated with lower microbial biomass carbon which may indicate an effect on allocation of resources between the microbial community and the plant. An assessment of the effectiveness of lignite-derived amendments on plant growth, as well as their potential to improve the health of an acidic soil will assist farmers in making decisions regarding the use of these products.

  6. 'Alperujo' compost amendment of contaminated calcareous and acidic soils: effects on growth and trace element uptake by five Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Belda, Rosa M; Abad, Manuel

    2009-09-01

    The effects of 'alperujo' compost on trace element availability and on microbial activity of two contaminated soils, a calcareous soil (S1) with high contents of Pb and Zn, and an acidic soil (S2) with a substantial amount of Al, As, Pb and Zn, were assessed. Additionally, the growth and capacity for contaminant phytoextraction of five Brassica species were studied. Compost amendment did not affect S1, but in S2 it increased soil pH, thus reducing Al and Zn bioavailability and toxicity. Compost application also increased microbial population and bioactivity in both soils. Brassica plants did not survive in S2, yet they thrived in S1. When compost was applied to S2, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea grew adequately. Considering both the capacity to accumulate trace elements in the shoot and the ability to grow in the contaminated soils tested, the most efficient phytoextractors were Brassica juncea in S1 (particularly for Zn) and Brassica oleracea in S2 (for Al, As, Pb and Zn). PMID:19369067

  7. Acidic soil amendment with a magnesium-containing fluidized bed combustion by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Dick, W.A.; Sutton, P.

    1999-02-01

    Removal of SO{sub 2} from the emissions of coal-fired boilers produces by-products that often consist of CaSO{sub 4}, residual alkalinity, and coal ash. These by-products could be beneficial to acidic soils because of their alkalinity and the ability of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center{underscore}dot}2H{sub 2}O) to reduce Al toxicity in acidic subsoils. A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the liming efficacy of a fluidized bed combustion boiler by-product (FBC) that contained 129 g Mg kg{sup {minus}1} as CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgO and its effects on surface and subsurface soil chemistry. The FBC was mixed in the surface 10 cm of two acidic soils (Wooster silt loam, an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf, and Coshocton silt loam, an Aquultic Hapludalf) at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 times each soil's lime requirement (LR). Soils were sampled in 10-cm increments to depths ranging from 20 to 110 cm, and corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were grown. Application of Mg-FBC increased alfalfa yields in all six site-years, whereas it had no effect on corn grain yield in five site-years and decreased grain yield in one site-year. Plant tissue concentrations of Mg, S, and Mo were increased by Mg-FBC, while most trace elements were either unaffected or decreased. Application of Mg-FBC at one or two times LR increased surface soil pH to near 7 within 1 wk. Although surface soil pH remained near 7 for 2 yr, there was minimal effect on subjacent soil pH. Application of Mg-FBC increased surface soil concentrations of Ca, Mg, and S, which promoted downward movement of Mg and SO{sub 4}. This had different effects on subsoil chemistry in the two soils: in the high-Ca-status Wooster subsoil, exchangeable Ca was decreased and exchangeable Al was increased, whereas in the high-Al-status Coshocton subsoil, exchangeable Al was decreased and exchangeable Mg was increased. The Mg-FBC was an effective liming material and, because of the presence of both Mg and SO{sub 4}, may be

  8. Bioavailability of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in biosolids-amended soils to earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Wen, Bei; Zhang, Hongna; Li, Longfei; Hu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yu; Shan, Xiao-quan; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in seven biosolids-amended soils without any additionally spiking to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was studied. The uptake and elimination kinetics of PFOS and PFOA fit a one-compartment first-order kinetic model. PFOS displayed higher uptake and lower elimination rate coefficients, and longer time to reach steady-state (t(ss)) than those of PFOA. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of PFOS and PFOA ranged 1.54–4.12 and 0.52–1.34 g(soil) g(worm)(−1), respectively. The BAFs and tss decreased with increasing concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in soils. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to elucidate the bioavailability of PFOS and PFOA. The results showed that the total concentrations of PFOS and PFOA, and organic matter (OM) contents in soils explained 87.2% and 91.3% of the variation in bioavailable PFOS and PFOA, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations exhibited positive influence and OM contents showed the negative influence on the accumulation of PFOS and PFOA in earthworms. Soil pH and clay contents played relatively unimportant role in PFOS and PFOA bioavailability. PMID:25439283

  9. Evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on the evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline tailing ponds and to evaluate the content of metals in Zygophylum fabago one year after amendments application. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (EM) (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Soil samples was collected every 4 month from each plot during one year, after this time Zygophylum fabago plants were sampled from each plots. Soil properties including: pH, salinity, total, inorganic and

  10. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1990-04-16

    The use of fly ash as amendment to compost is presented. Plant growth/yields of corn collard greens, mustard greens, and sorgum is described. The treatment parameters such as fly ash to compost ratio, fly ash-amended compost to soil ratio, type of compost used for treatment etc. are discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs. (CBS)

  11. Soil amino compound and carbohydrate contents influenced by organic amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino compounds (i. e. amino acids and sugars), and carbohydrates are labile organic components and contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and quality. Animal manure and other organic soil amendments are rich in both amino compounds and carbohydrates, hence organic soil amendments might af...

  12. Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and...

  13. Immobilization and phytotoxicity of Pb in contaminated soil amended with γ-polyglutamic acid, phosphate rock, and γ-polyglutamic acid-activated phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Zhijian; Su, Xiaojuan; Fu, Qingling; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Qiaoyun; Violante, Antonio; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), phosphate rock (PR), and γ-PGA-activated PR (γ-PGA-PR) on the immobilization and phytotoxicity of Pb in a contaminated soil. The proportion of residual Pb (Re-Pb) in soil was reduced by the addition of γ-PGA but was increased by the application of PR and γ-PGA-PR. The addition of γ-PGA in soil improved the accumulation of Pb in pak choi and decreased the growth of pak choi, suggesting the intensification of Pb phytotoxicity to pak choi. However, opposite effects of PR and γ-PGA-PR on the phytotoxicity of Pb to pak choi in soil were observed. Moreover, in the examined range, γ-PGA-PR activated by a higher amount of γ-PGA resulted in a greater proportion of Re-Pb in soil and weaker phytotoxicity of Pb to pak choi. The predominance of γ-PGA-PR in relieving the phytotoxicity of Pb was ascribed mainly to the increase of soil pH and available phosphate after the amendment, which could facilitate the precipitation of Pb in soil and provide pak choi with more phosphorus nutrient. PMID:25196962

  14. Effect of biodegradable amendments on uranium solubility in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Duquène, L; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2008-02-25

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction has been proposed as a potential tool for phytoremediation of U contaminated sites. In this context, the effects of five biodegradable amendments on U release in contaminated soils were evaluated. Three soils were involved in this study, one with a relatively high background level of U, and two which were contaminated with U from industrial effluents. Soils were treated with 5 mmol kg(-1) dry weight of either citric acid, NH(4)-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid or nitrilotriacetic acid. Soil solution concentration of U was monitored during 2 weeks. All amendments increased U concentration in soil solution, but citric acid and NH(4)-citrate/citric acid mixture were most effective, with up to 479-fold increase. For oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, the increase ranged from 10-to 100-fold. The highest concentrations were observed 1 to 7 days after treatment, after which U levels in soil solution gradually decreased. All amendments induced a temporary increase of soil solution pH and TOC that could not be correlated with the release of U in the soil solution. Thermodynamic stability constants (log K) of complexes did not predict the relative efficiency of the selected biodegradable amendments on U release in soil solution. Amendments efficiency was better predicted by the relative affinity of the chelate for Fe compared to U. PMID:18061243

  15. Uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane sulfonamide by carrot and lettuce from compost amended soil.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Zabaleta, I; Mijangos, L; Iparraguirre, A; Fernández, L A; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-11-15

    Sewage sludge, which acts like a sink for many pollutants, including metals, pathogens and organic pollutants, that are not completely removed in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), is applied as a nutrient rich organic fertilizer in many agricultural applications. In the present work, carrot and lettuce crops were grown in two different compost amended soils fortified with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorosulfonate acid (PFOS) and perfluorosulfonamide (FOSA) and cultivated in a greenhouse. The plants were harvested and divided into root core, root peel and leaves in the case of carrots and into heart and leaves for lettuces. Concentrations for all the different compartments were determined to assess the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and the plant distribution of the target analytes. The highest carrot BCFs for PFOA and PFOS were determined in the leaves (0.6-3.4), while lower values were calculated in the core (0.05-0.6) and the peel (0.05-1.9) compartments. However, PFOA was taken up in the translocation stream and accumulated more than PFOS in the edible part of lettuce. FOSA was totally degraded in the presence of carrot; however, a lower FOSA degradation was observed in presence of the lettuce, which was dependent on the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil. The higher the TOC value, the higher the FOSA degradation observed. No degradation was observed in the crop absence. In the case of the carrot experiments, different polymeric materials (polyethersulfone, PES, polyoxymethylene, and silicone rod) were tested to predict the concentration in the cultivation media. A high correlation (r(2)>0.63) was observed for the BCFs in the PES and in the carrot core and peel for PFOA and PFOS. It could be, concluded that the PES can be used as a first approach for the determination of the uptake of compounds such as PFOS and PFOA in carrot. PMID:27450950

  16. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution. PMID:25560662

  17. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil. Technical terminal report

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  18. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  19. Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash-sewage sludge co-compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.W.C.; Selvam, A.

    2009-10-15

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and heavy-metal accumulation of Brassica chinensis and Agropyron elongatum in 10 and 25% ash-sludge co-compost (ASC)-amended loamy acidic soil (pH 4.51) at two different application rates: 20% and 40% (v/v). Soil pH increased, whereas electrical conductivity decreased with the amendment of ASC to soil. Bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn contents of ASC-amended soil decreased, whereas Ni, Pb, and B contents increased. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn in sludge compost (SC)-amended soils were 5.57, 20.8, and 8.19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in soil receiving an application rate of 20 or 25% ASC as 2.64, 8.48, and 5.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals and B contents of the composting mass significantly increased with an increase in ASC application rate from 20 to 40% (6.2 to 16.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 10% ASC- and 9.4 to 18.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 25% ASC-amended soil. However, when the ash content in co-compost increased from 10 to 25% during composting, bioavailable heavy-metal contents decreased. However, B contents increased with an increase in ash content. Addition of co-composts increased the dry-weight yield of the plants, and this increase was more obvious as the ash amendment rate in the co-composts and the ASC application rate increased. In case of B. chinensis, the biomass of 2.84 g/plant for 40% application of 25% ASC was significantly higher than SC (0.352 g/plant), which was 40% application of 10% ASC (0.434 g/plant) treatments. However, in A. elongatum, the differences between biomass of plants grown with 10% (1.34-1.94 g/ plant) and 25% ASC (2.12-2.21 g/plant) were not significantly different. ASC was favorable in increasing the growth of B. chinensis and A. elongatum. The optimal ash amendment to the sludge composting and ASC application rates were at 25 and 20%, respectively.

  20. Effects of Biochar amendments on soil chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Humans have been transforming soil composition, both accidentally and purposefully, for centuries. For example, terra preta soils found in Amazonia that are greatly enriched in organic carbon and phosphorus and have enhanced fertility relative to the surrounding depleted oxisols, seem to have been deliberately created by native pre-Colombian Indians through the addition of combusted biomass, or biochar. Biochar amendment has gained attention recently as a way to enhance soil carbon sequestration while increasing soil fertility. It may also have adsorptive properties that are useful for pollution control. Our research examines the chemical and morphological properties of biochar with the goals of understanding the origin of terra preta, as well as how biochar can best be put to use as a soil amendment. Biochar was produced from a range of parent biomass types (hardwoods, softwoods and grasses) and under a range of combustion conditions (250 to 650 oC, under air and N2). Surface areas, determined by gas sorptometry, ranged from 3 to 394 m2g-1 (for N2) and from 129 to 345 m2g-1 (for CO2) and were found to generally increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The pH of the biochars ranged from 1.8 to 4.5, from 6.2 to 8.7, and from 6.2 to 9.2 for the 250, 400, and 650 oC biochars, respectively, and did not vary consistently with parent biomass types. Cation exchange capacity (CEC), determined using K+ exchange, ranged between 5 to 60 cmolc kg-1, higher than most soils, and generally increased with charring temperature. Anion exchange capacity (AEC) was low or undetectable. Lastly, the isoelectric point of the chars, determined using a zeta potential analyzer, ranged from a pH of 1.3 to 1.5, indicating that the biochar surfaces will be predominantly negatively charged in soil solutions. These data are complimentary and show that, when added to soil, biochar, particularly those produced at higher temperatures, would function as a cation exchanger system. The acid

  1. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  2. Water retention of biochar amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the water holding capacities of soils amended with biochars made from switchgrass, pecan shells, peanut hulls, poultry litter, and hardwood sawdust. Soils were amended with 20 g/kg (44 tonnes/ha) of each biochar produced at both high (>500 degrees C) and low (<400 degrees C) temperatures...

  3. Amino acid composition of a manure-amended soil: rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric differences in a greenhouse ryegrass study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of poultry manure application on soil concentrations of 19 amino acids and two amino sugars were evaluated in a greenhouse pot study of ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Amino compounds were extracted and analyzed by anion chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection 4, 8, and 16 wk after m...

  4. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  5. Amending metal contaminated mine soil with biochars to sequester metals and improve plant growth cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous mine spoil sites in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that contain highly acidic, heavy metal-laden soils, which limits establishment of a soil-stabilizing plant cover. Biochars may be a suitable soil amendment to reduce toxic metals, improve soil fertility, soil wa...

  6. Char-amended farm soils – effects on soil chemistry and wheat growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm gasification of agricultural residues, the non-food byproducts from crop harvests, could provide a means to generate value-added income from the production of fuel or electrical generation. Char produced during the process also has potential value as a soil amendment to adjust acid soil pH (...

  7. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system. PMID:26819060

  8. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  9. Quantifying Bioactive P Pools in Fertilized and Manure-Amended Soils by Purified Phytic-Acid High Affinity Aspergillus phosphohydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In areas of intensive animal agriculture, repeated land application of manure resulted in elevated soil concentrations of inorganic and organic phosphorus (P) myo-Inositol hexaphosphate, lower phosphomonoesters are the most abundant organic P compounds. Such P-enriched soils are potential pollution...

  10. Organic waste amendments effect on zinc fraction of two soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, L.M.

    1999-10-01

    Organic soil amendments can ameliorate metal toxicity to plants by redistributing metals to less available fractions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic amendments on Zn distribution among soil fractions. Two soils were amended with five organic waste materials (some of which contained Zn) or commercial humic acid with and without 400 mg kg{sup {minus}1} Zn, incubated, and fractionated using a sequential extraction technique. Where no Zn was added most of the metals were in the residual fraction. Commercial compost, poultry litter, and industrial sewage sludge increased Zn in the exchangeable (EXC), organic (OM), and manganese oxide (MnOx) fractions due to Zn in the materials. Spent mushroom compost (SMC) redistributed Zn from the EXC fraction to the MnOx fraction for the coarse-textured soil. Where Zn was added, most of the metal was in the EXC and OM fractions. The SMC and humic acid lowered Zn in the EXC fraction and increased Zn in the other fractions. Effects of the organic materials on Zn in soil fractions were more evident for the sandy soil dominated by quartz in the clay than for the finer-textured soil dominated by kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. It was concluded that organic materials high in Zn can increase Zn in the EXC, OM, and MnOx fractions where the soil is not contaminated and others such as SMC and HA can lower the potential availability of Zn in contaminated soils by redistributing it from the EXC to less soluble fractions.

  11. Managing compost stability and amendment to soil to enhance soil heating during soil solarization.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Guo, Hongyun; Claypool, Joshua T; Marshall, Megan N; Perano, Kristen M; Stapleton, James J; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2013-05-01

    Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associated with the decomposition of soil organic matter may increase temperatures during solarization, potentially enhancing solarization efficacy. However, the level of organic matter decomposition (stability) necessary for increasing soil temperature is not well characterized, nor is it known if various amendments render the soil phytotoxic to crops following solarization. Laboratory studies and a field trial were performed to determine heat generation in soil amended with compost during solarization. Respiration was measured in amended soil samples prior to and following solarization as a function of soil depth. Additionally, phytotoxicity was estimated through measurement of germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings in greenhouse assays. Amendment of soil with 10%(g/g) compost containing 16.9 mg CO2/gdry weight organic carbon resulted in soil temperatures that were 2-4 °C higher than soil alone. Approximately 85% of total organic carbon within the amended soil was exhausted during 22 days of solarization. There was no significant difference in residual respiration with soil depth down to 17.4 cm. Although freshly amended soil proved highly inhibitory to lettuce seed germination and seedling growth, phytotoxicity was not detected in solarized amended soil after 22 days of field solarization. PMID:23422041

  12. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils. PMID:18550367

  13. Immobilization of Cd(II) in acid soil amended with different biochars with a long term of incubation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Xin; Hu, Xinjiang; Sun, Zhichao; Yang, Zhongzhu

    2015-08-01

    Biochars derived from bamboo, coconut shell, pine wood shavings, and sugarcane bagasse were applied into Ultisol to investigate their effects on Cd(II) immobilization. After 360 days of incubation, the physical/chemical properties of the Ultisol were improved by the addition of different biochars. As a result, the maximum adsorption capacities of soil for Cd(II) were increased from 8.02 to 9.07-11.51 mmol/kg, and bamboo biochar showed the highest effect on Cd(II) immobilization. The Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.983) fitted the data better than the Freundlich model (R (2) were 0.902-0.937). Column leaching experiments suggested that biochar can also increase the immobilization of Cd(II) under leaching conditions. Biochar mainly increased the weak/unstable binding force of Cd(II) by soil, such as ion exchange, electrostatic attraction, physical adsorption, and carbonate precipitation. In addition, a significant enhancement of surface complexation was also observed. PMID:25911285

  14. Soil microbial biomass and mineralizable carbon as a function of crop rotation and soil acidity amendment in a no-tillage system in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical climate and weathered soil conditions create significant challenges for increasing soil organic matter content. However, crop management strategies could affect short-term dynamics of active fractions of soil organic matter. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the microbial biomass and mineraliza...

  15. Assessment of amendments for the immobilization of Cu in soils containing EDDS leachates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Guiping; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of six soil amendments (ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, gibbsite, calcium carbonate, biochar, and organic fertilizer) was investigated to assess the feasibility of minimizing possible environmental contaminant leaching during S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-enhanced phytoextraction process based on 0.01-M CaCl2 extraction. Results showed that the application of EDDS could significantly increase Cu concentrations in the leaching solution. Compared with control, incorporation of six amendments (excluding organic fertilizer) significantly decreased CaCl2-extractable Cu concentrations in both soils. When EDDS-containing solutions leached from the soil columns (mimicking the upper soil layers) were added to soils with different amendments (mimicking the subsoil), CaCl2-extractable Cu in the soils amended with ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, gibbsite, and calcium carbonate was significantly lower than that in the control soil (no amendments) and remained relatively constant during the first 14 days. Incorporation of biochar or organic fertilizer had no positive effect on the immobilization of Cu in EDDS leachates in soils. After 14 days, CaCl2-extractable Cu concentration decreased rapidly in soils incorporated with various amendments. Integrating soil washing with biodegradable chelating agents or chelant-enhanced phytoextraction and immobilization of heavy metals in subsoil could be used to rapidly reduce the concentration of bioavailable metal fractions in the upper soil layers and minimize environmental risks of secondary pollution. PMID:26077318

  16. Long-Term Effects of Lime, Phosphorus and Iron Amended Orchard Soils on In Vitro, Water and Nitric Acid Extractable Lead

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead arsenate was used in orchards from about 1900 to 1960. Consequently, orchard soils are contaminated with lead. Extraction methods such as water, nitric acid and in vitro have been used to determine soluble lead in soils contaminated by lead paint and leaded gasoline. The solubility of Pb in ...

  17. Food Safety Issues: Mineral fertilizers and soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizers and other soil amendments are required to maintain soil fertility, but some may be naturally rich in trace elements, or contaminated. Thus, as part of the overall consideration of using fertilizers and soil amendments, one should consider the levels of trace elements present in relation...

  18. Soil amendments yield persisting changes in the microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are sensitive to carbon amendments and largely control the decomposition and accumulation of soil organic matter. In this study, we evaluated whether the type of carbon amendment applied to wheat-cropped or fallow soil imparted lasting effects on the microbial community w...

  19. Fuzzy indicator approach: development of impact factor of soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendments have been shown to be useful for improving soil condition, but it is often difficult to make management decisions as to their usefulness. Utilization of Fuzzy Set Theory is a promising method for decision support associated with utilization of soil amendments. In this article a tool ...

  20. Soil amendment: a technique for soil remediation of lactofen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Gopal, Madhuban; Das, T K

    2007-07-01

    Lactofen, a member of the diphenyl ether chemical family, shows great potential for the control of broadleaf weeds associated with leguminous crops. It presents a high degree of selectivity when applied post-emergence to soybean and peanut crops. This paper presents the persistence of lactofen under a soybean crop under various conditions, including without remediation techniques, under soil solarization with polyethene sheets, and soil solarization followed by straw amendment. The results indicate that dissipation is faster when using the soil solarization technique (set II) compared to no treatment (set I) and is further enhanced by tstraw amendment, where almost 90% dissipation was recorded (set III). The dissipation followed first-order kinetics with a half-life that varied from 30 to 10 days. The half-life of lactofen was 15 days in treatments of soil solarization and straw amendments alone, indicating that both techniques have to be used in combination to achieve successful remediation of soil. Use of biodegradable polythene/substitute material will make this process a popular technique and may also improve its commercial viability. PMID:17599224

  1. Impact of coal combustion product amendments on soil quality. 1: Mobilization of soil organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stuczynski, T.I. |; McCarty, G.W.; Wright, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    There is growing interest in the use of coal combustion products (fly ash and bed ash) at agronomic rates, based on the liming requirements of agricultural soils, and at higher rates in technologies for reclamation of degraded lands. There is concern, however, that excessive or other improper use may have a negative impact on soil quality and the environment. To determine the influence of potentially excessive rates of coal combustion products on the fate of soil quality and the environment. To determine the influence of potentially excessive rates coal combustion products on the fate of soil organic N and impacts on soil quality, the authors studied the effects of fly ash and bed ash applied at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the content of organic N in soils incubated for 10, 25, or 60 days. Studies comparing the influence of these products on the organic N content of the soil showed that although applications of fly ash had little influence on the fate of this N, application of bed ash caused substantial decreases in the total N content of water-extracted soil through the mobilization of organic N. Measurements of the changes in acid hydrolyzable N components of organic matter in soils treated with high rates of bed ash showed that within the first 10 days of incubation, losses of N in the forms of amino sugars, amino acids, and hydrolyzable NH{sub 4}{sup +} could account largely for losses of total N in bed ash-amended soils. Decreases in the amino acid content of soil organic matter accounted for most of these losses, and such decreases were directly related to increases in soil pH caused by the bed ash amendment.

  2. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil. PMID:26364470

  3. Effects of biochar amendments on soil microbial biomass and activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Voroney, R P; Price, G W

    2014-11-01

    Environmental benefits reported in the literature of using biochar as a soil amendment are generally increased microbial activity and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study determined the effects of amendment with biomass feedstocks (spent coffee grounds, wood pellets, and horse bedding compost) and that of biochars (700°C) produced from these feedstocks on soil microbial biomass (C and N) and activity. Soils were amended with these substrates at 0.75% by weight and incubated for up to 175 d under laboratory conditions. Biochar residual effects on soil microbial activity were also studied by amending these soils with either ammonium nitrate (NHNO, 35 mg N kg) or with glucose (864 mg C kg) plus NHNO. Soil microbial biomass C and N, net N mineralization, and CO, NO, and CH emissions were measured. Amendment with biomass feedstocks significantly increased soil microbial biomass and activity, whereas amendment with the biochars had no significant effect. Also, biochar amendment had no significant effect on either net N mineralization or NO and CH emissions from soil. These results indicate that production of biochars at this high temperature eliminated potential substrates. Microbial biomass C in biochar-amended and unamended soils was not significantly different following additions of NHNO or glucose plus NHNO, suggesting that microbial access to otherwise labile C and N was not affected. This study shows that biochars produced at 700°C, regardless of feedstock source, do not enhance soil microbial biomass or activity. PMID:25602227

  4. Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 1. Copper sorption isotherms and the release of cations.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M

    2011-03-01

    The amendment of carbonaceous materials such as biochars and activated carbons is a promising in situ remediation strategy for both organic and inorganic contaminants in soils and sediments. Mechanistic understandings in sorption of heavy metals on amended soil are necessary for appropriate selection and application of carbonaceous materials for heavy metal sequestration in specific soil types. In this study, copper sorption isotherms were obtained for soils having distinct characteristics: clay-rich, alkaline San Joaquin soil with significant heavy metal sorption capacity, and eroded, acidic Norfolk sandy loam soil having low capacity to retain copper. The amendment of acidic pecan shell-derived activated carbon and basic broiler litter biochar lead to a greater enhancement of copper sorption in Norfolk soil than in San Joaquin soil. In Norfolk soil, the amendment of acidic activated carbon enhanced copper sorption primarily via cation exchange mechanism, i.e., release of proton, calcium, and aluminum, while acid dissolution of aluminum cannot be ruled out. For San Joaquin soil, enhanced copper retention by biochar amendment likely resulted from the following additional mechanisms: electrostatic interactions between copper and negatively charged soil and biochar surfaces, sorption on mineral (ash) components, complexation of copper by surface functional groups and delocalized π electrons of carbonaceous materials, and precipitation. Influence of biochar on the release of additional elements (e.g., Al, Ca) must be carefully considered when used as a soil amendment to sequester heavy metals. PMID:21147495

  5. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments.

    PubMed

    Ro, K S; Novak, J M; Johnson, M G; Szogi, A A; Libra, J A; Spokas, K A; Bae, S

    2016-01-01

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure application are composting and thermochemical conversion which can destroy pathogens and improve handling and storage. The effect of four forms of swine manure-based soil amendments (raw, compost, hydrochar, and pyrochar) on soil fertility and leachate water quality characteristics of a sandy soil were investigated in soil incubation experiments. All four amendments significantly increased soil carbon, cation exchange capacity and available nutrient contents of the soil. However, hydrochar amended soil leached lower amounts of N, P, and K compared to the other amendments including the control. On the other hand, pyrochar amended soil leached higher concentrations of P and K. Subsequent tests on the hydrochar for K and N adsorption isotherms and surface analysis via XPS suggested that these nutrients were not sorbed directly to the hydrochar surface. Although it is still not clear how these nutrients were retained in the soil amended with hydrochar, it suggests a great potential for hydrochar as an alternative manure management option as the hydrochar can be soil applied while minimizing potential environmental issues from the leaching of high nutrient concentrations to water bodies. PMID:26025669

  6. ADSORPTION, DEGRADATION, AND PLANT AVAILABILITY OF 2,4-DINITROPHENOL IN SLUDGE-AMENDED CALCAREOUS SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a moderately weak acid that is expected to be highly labile (leachable and plant available) in high-pH soils. The adsorption and degradation behavior of DNP in two sludge-amended, calcareous soils was determined and used to explain DNP uptake by plants grow...

  7. Phytoavailability of Cadmium in Long-Term Biosolids Amended Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agronomic use of biosolids has raised concern that plant availability of biosolids-Cd will increase with time following cessation of biosolids application. But it was demonstrated that long-term biosolids-amended soils have greater sorptive capacity for Cd than non-biosolids-amended soils. This stud...

  8. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ON BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A considerable controversy exists over the biosolid phase (organic or inorganic) responsible for the reduction in phytoavailable Cd in soils amended with biosolids as compared to soils amended with inorganic salts. To test the importance of these two phases, 2 biosolids, 15 bioso...

  9. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: II. Biological and ecotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Alvarenga, P; Bernal, M P

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost) in combination with hydrated lime for the remediation of a highly acidic trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil was assessed in a mesocosm experiment. The effects of the amendments on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological properties were evaluated and related with the main physicochemical characteristics of soil and soil solution. The original soil showed impaired basic ecological functions due to the high availability of TEs, its acidic pH and high salinity. The three amendments slightly reduced the direct and indirect soil toxicity to plants, invertebrates and microorganisms as a consequence of the TEs' mobility decrease in topsoil, reducing therefore the soil associated risks. The organic amendments, especially compost, thanks to the supply of essential nutrients, were able to improve soil health, as they stimulated plant growth and significantly increased enzyme activities related with the key nutrients in soil. Therefore, the use of compost or pig slurry, in combination with hydrated lime, decreased soil ecotoxicity and seems to be a suitable management strategy for the remediation of highly acidic TEs contaminated soils. PMID:24875876

  10. Evaluation of ferrihydrite as amendment to restore an arsenic-polluted mine soil.

    PubMed

    Abad-Valle, P; Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Murciego, A

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of ferrihydrite as amendment to restore the soil habitat functioning of a soil polluted with As by mining activities was evaluated. Its influence on As mobility and phytoavailability was also assessed. Soil treated with increasing amendment doses (0, 1, 2, and 5 %) were analyzed for soil microbiological parameters such as basal soil respiration and dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase activities. Batch leaching tests and plant growth experiments using ryegrass and alfalfa plants were performed. The treatment with ferrihydrite was effective to reduce As mobility and plant As uptake, translocation, and accumulation. Likewise, the soil microbiological status was generally improved as derived from basal soil respiration and dehydrogenase and acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, which showed increases up to 85, 45, 11, and 47 %, respectively, at a ferrihydrite addition rate of 5 %. PMID:25430010

  11. Impact of coal combustion product amendments on soil quality. 2: Mobilization of soil organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Stuczynski, T.I. |; McCarty, G.W.; Wright, R.J.; Reeves, J.B. III

    1998-12-01

    The authors` previous work provided evidence that application of coal combustion products (fly ash and bed ash) at rates exceeding liming requirements may cause considerable degradation of organic N in soils. To investigate the influence of such application rates on the fate of soil organic matter, they studied the effects of different amounts of bed ash and fly ash on the mobilization of organic C in soil. The studies showed that whereas fly ash mobilized little or no organic C when applied at rates as high as 80 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil, bed ash caused substantial mobilization and loss of soil organic C when applied at or above the rate of 20 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used to characterize the different forms of carbon mobilized in soil amended with combustion products. These studies showed that various forms of organic C were mobilized by bed ash treatments such as carbohydrates, phenolic substances, humic substances, and amino acids. The authors found that the total amounts of soil organic C mobilized by bed ash treatments were related to increased soil pH and with the losses of C associated with increases of soluble humic substances. The losses of organic C from soils treated with bed ash were found to be as high as 15.5% of the total soil organic C. These studies also provided evidence for stabilization of some forms of soil organic C by Ca{sup 2+} from bed ash.

  12. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil. PMID:26208541

  13. Application of organic amendments to restore degraded soil: effects on soil microbial properties.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jennifer; Saxena, Jyotisna; Basta, Nicholas; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Busalacchi, Dawn; Dick, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Topsoil removal, compaction, and other practices in urban and industrial landscapes can degrade soil and soil ecosystem services. There is growing interest to remediate these for recreational and residential purposes, and urban waste materials offers potential to improve degraded soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of urban waste products on microbial properties of a degraded industrial soil. The soil amendments were vegetative yard waste compost (VC), biosolids (BioS), and a designer mix (DM) containing BioS, biochar (BC), and drinking water treatment residual (WTR). The experiment had a completely randomized design with following treatments initiated in 2009: control soil, VC, BioS-1 (202 Mg ha(-1)), BioS-2 (403 Mg ha(-1)), and DM (202 Mg BioS ha(-1) plus BC and WTR). Soils (0-15-cm depth) were sampled in 2009, 2010, and 2011 and analyzed for enzyme activities (arylsulfatase, β-glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate, and urease) and soil microbial community structure using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). In general, all organic amendments increased enzyme activities in 2009 with BioS treatments having the highest activity. However, this was followed by a decline in enzyme activities by 2011 that were still significantly higher than control. The fungal PLFA biomarkers were highest in the BioS treatments, whereas the control soil had the highest levels of the PLFA stress markers (P < 0.10). In conclusion, one-time addition of VC or BioS was most effective on enzyme activities; the BioS treatment significantly increased fungal biomass over the other treatments; addition of BioS to soils decreased microbial stress levels; and microbial measures showed no statistical differences between BioS and VC treatments after 3 years of treatment. PMID:25673270

  14. Speciation of lead in contaminated soil under the influence of plants and phosphate amendment type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diyab, C.; Juillot, F.; Dumat, C.; Morin, G.; Benedetti, M.; Mariotti, A.

    2003-05-01

    The toxicity of an element and its behaviour depend on its chemical form (speciation) and concentration. The objective of our work is to study the speciation of Pb under the influence of phosphate amendments (solide, soluble) and type of plants: peas, tomato (pH variation, organic acid complexes formation) in a polluted soil near one of Europe's largest lead contaminated area in the north of France. Chemical and physical methods were used to determine the speciation of lead in rhizospheric soil (chemical extraction, μFX, EXAFS, SEM.). The formation of lead phosphate complexe was confirmed in rhizospheric soil of both plants. Quantity and chemical structure of phosphate lead complexe formed in soil, varied with the type of plante and phosphate amendement added. Analysis of organic acids secreted by the two plantes were performed to understand the effect of organic acids on the speciation of lead in the rhizospheric soil.

  15. Soil biochar amendments: type and dose effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, G.; Domene, X.; Mattana, S.; Sousa, J. P.; Ortiz, O.; Andres, P.; Alcañiz, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar is an organic material produced via the pyrolysis of C-based biomass, which is increasingly being recognized by scientists and policy makers for its potential role in carbon sequestration, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste mitigation, and as a soil amendment. Recent studies indicated that biochar improves soil fertility through its positive influence on physical-chemical properties, since not only improves water retention, aggregation and permeability, but its high charge density can also hold large amounts of nutrients, increasing crop production. However, it was observed that combustion temperature could affects the degree of aromaticity and the size of aromatic sheets, which in turns determine short-term mineralization rates. To reconcile the different decompasibility observations of biochar, it has sugested that physical protection and interactions with soil minerals play a significant part in biochar stability. In this context, it has initiated one pilot studies which aims to assess the effects of biochar application on physical and chemical properties of agricultural soil under Mediterranean conditions, such as changes in aggregate formation, intra-aggregate carbon sequestration and chemistry of soil water. In the present study, different clases of biochar produced from fast, slow and gasification pyrolisis of vegetal (pine, poplar) and dried sludge biomass, were applied at 1% of biochar-C to mesocosmos of an agricultural soil. Preliminary, it must be pointed out that slow and gasification pyrolisis changes the proportion of particles < 2 mm in diameter, from 10% (original materials) to almost 100%. In contrast, slow pyrolisis not modifies significantly biochar granulometry. As a consequence, bulk density of poplar and pine splinters decreases after fast pyrolisis. Regarding to organic carbon contents of biochar, all biochars obtained from plant biomass presented percentagens of total organic carbon (TOC) between 70 - 90%, while biochar

  16. Phosphorus leaching from biosolids-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H A; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S

    2002-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on phosphorus (P)-based nutrient management underscores the need to understand P behavior in soils amended with biosolids and manures. Laboratory and greenhouse column studies characterized P forms and leachability of eight biosolids products, chicken manure (CM), and commercial fertilizer (triple superphosphate, TSP). Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) was grown for 4 mo on two acid, P-deficient Florida sands, representing both moderate (Candler series: hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments) and very low (Immokalee series: sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) P-sorbing capacities. Amendments were applied at 56 and 224 kg P(T) ha(-1), simulating P-based and N-based nutrient loadings, respectively. Column leachate P was dominantly inorganic and lower for biosolids P sources than TSP. For Candler soil, only TSP at the high P rate exhibited P leaching statistically greater (alpha = 0.05) than control (soil-only) columns. For the high P rate and low P-sorbing Immokalee soil, TSP and CM leached 21 and 3.0% of applied P, respectively. Leachate P for six biosolids was <1.0% of applied P and not statistically different from controls. Largo biosolids, generated from a biological P removal process, exhibited significantly greater leachate P in both cake and pelletized forms (11 and 2.5% of applied P, respectively) than other biosolids. Biosolids P leaching was correlated to the phosphorus saturation index (PSI = [Pox]/[Al(ox) + Fe(ox)]) based on oxalate extraction of the pre-applied biosolids. For hiosolids with PSI < or = approximately 1.1, no appreciable leaching occurred. Only Largo cake (PSI = 1.4) and pellets (PSI = 1.3) exhibited P leaching losses statistically greater than controls. The biosolids PSI appears useful for identifying biosolids with potential to enrich drainage P when applied to low P-sorbing soils. PMID:11931462

  17. Biochar Soil Amendment Effects on Arsenic Availability to Mountain Brome ().

    PubMed

    Strawn, Daniel G; Rigby, April C; Baker, Leslie L; Coleman, Mark D; Koch, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Biochar is a renewable energy byproduct that shows promise for remediating contaminated mine sites. A common contaminant at mine sites is arsenic (As). In this study, the effects of biochar amendments to a mine-contaminated soil on As concentrations in mountain brome ( Nees ex Steud.) were investigated. In the biochar-amended soil, mountain brome had greater root biomass and decreased root and shoot As concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy results showed that arsenate [As(V)] is the predominant species in both the nonamended and biochar-amended soils. Soil extraction tests that measure phosphate and arsenate availability to plants failed to accurately predict plant tissue As concentrations, suggesting the arsenate bioavailability behavior in the soils is distinct from phosphate. Results from this study indicate that biochar will be a beneficial amendment to As-contaminated mine sites for remediation. PMID:26437113

  18. Soil degradation and amendment effects on soil properties, microbial communities, and plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, M.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities that disrupt soil properties are fundamentally changing ecosystems. Soil degradation, caused by anthropogenic disturbance can decrease microbial abundance and activity, leading to changes in nutrient availability, soil organic matter, and plant establishment. The addition of amendments to disturbed soils have the potential ameliorate these negative consequences. We studied the effects of soil degradation, via an autoclave heat shock method, and the addition of amendments (biochar and woodchips) on microbial activity, soil carbon and nitrogen availability, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content, and plant growth of ten plant species native to the semi-arid southwestern US. Relative to non-degraded soils, microbial activity, measured via extracellular enzyme assays, was significantly lower for all seven substrates assayed. These soils also had significantly lower amounts of carbon assimilated into microbial biomass but no change in microbial biomass nitrogen. Soil degradation had no effect on plant biomass. Amendments caused changes in microbial activity: biochar-amended soils had significant increases in potential activity with five of the seven substrates measured; woodchip amended soils had significant increases with two. Soil carbon increased with both amendments but this was not reflected in a significant change in microbial biomass carbon. Biochar-amended soils had increases in soil nitrogen availability but neither amendment caused changes in microbial biomass nitrogen. Biochar amendments had no significant effect on above- or belowground plant biomass while woodchips significantly decreased aboveground plant biomass. Results show that soil degradation decreases microbial activity and changes nutrient dynamics, but these are not reflected in changes in plant growth. Amendments provide nutrient sources and change soil pore space, which cause microbial activities to fluctuate and may, in the case of woodchips, increase plant drought

  19. Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 2. Copper desorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M

    2011-03-01

    Contaminant desorption constrains the long-term effectiveness of remediation technologies, and is strongly influenced by dynamic non-equilibrium states of environmental and biological media. Information is currently lacking in the influence of biochar and activated carbon amendments on desorption of heavy metal contaminants from soil components. In this study, copper sorption-desorption isotherms were obtained for clay-rich, alkaline San Joaquin soil with significant heavy metal sorption capacity, and eroded, acidic Norfolk sandy loam soil having low capacity to retain copper. Acidic pecan shell-derived activated carbon and basic broiler litter biochar were employed in desorption experiments designed to address both leaching by rainfall and toxicity characteristics. For desorption in synthetic rain water, broiler litter biochar amendment diminished sorption-desorption hysteresis. In acetate buffer (pH 4.9), significant copper leaching was observed, unless acidic activated carbon (pH(pzc)=3.07) was present. Trends observed in soluble phosphorus and zinc concentrations for sorption and desorption equilibria suggested acid dissolution of particulate phases that can result in a concurrent release of copper and other sorbed elements. In contrast, sulfur and potassium became depleted as a result of supernatant replacements only when amended carbon (broiler litter biochar) or soil (San Joaquin) contained appreciable amounts. A positive correlation was observed between the equilibrium aluminum concentration and initial copper concentration in soils amended with acidic activated carbon but not basic biochar, suggesting the importance of cation exchange mechanism, while dissolution of aluminum oxides cannot be ruled out. PMID:21190718

  20. The effects of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in two contaminated Mediterranean soils.

    PubMed

    Walker, David J; Clemente, Rafael; Roig, Asuncion; Bernal, M Pilar

    2003-01-01

    Two heavy metal contaminated calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Spain were studied. One soil, from the province of Murcia, was characterised by very high total levels of Pb (1572 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (2602 mg kg(-1)), whilst the second, from Valencia, had elevated concentrations of Cu (72 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (190 mg kg(-1)). The effects of two contrasting organic amendments (fresh manure and mature compost) and the chelate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on soil fractionation of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, their uptake by plants and plant growth were determined. For Murcia soil, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was grown first, followed by radish (Raphanus sativus L.). For Valencia soil, Beta maritima L. was followed by radish. Bioavailability of metals was expressed in terms of concentrations extractable with 0.1 M CaCl2 or diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In the Murcia soil, heavy metal bioavailability was decreased more greatly by manure than by the highly-humified compost. EDTA (2 mmol kg(-1) soil) had only a limited effect on metal uptake by plants. The metal-solubilising effect of EDTA was shorter-lived in the less contaminated, more highly calcareous Valencia soil. When correlation coefficients were calculated for plant tissue and bioavailable metals, the clearest relationships were for Beta maritima and radish. PMID:12531318

  1. Amendments to increase aggregation in SE Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many southeastern Coastal Plain soils have a cemented subsurface hard layer that restricts root growth into the subsoil and decreases productivity. Soil properties are usually improved by tillage but might also be improved by amending the soil. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue and polyacrylamide...

  2. Effect of biochar amendments on microbial transport through soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incorporation of biochar into soils had been shown to improve soil fertility, enhance soil sequestration of carbon and decrease the mobility of agrochemicals and heavy metals. Our series of column experiments have shown that in addition to these benefits, biochar amendments can limit bacterial t...

  3. Behavior of MCPA in four intensive cropping soils amended with fresh, composted, and aged olive mill waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Peña, David; Albarrán, Angel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    An evaluation was made of the impact of olive mill waste and its organic matter transformation on the sorption, desorption, leaching, and degradation of the herbicide MCPA when the waste was applied to four Mediterranean soils. The soils were amended in the laboratory with fresh, composted, and field-aged olive mill waste (OW, COW, and AOW treatments, respectively). It was found that the greater the amount of OW applied to the soils, but especially the greater its organic matter maturity, the greater the adsorption of MCPA. Compared with unamended soils, at the 5% rate of application the adsorption capacity increased by between 9.8% and 40%, 148% and 224%, and by 258% for the OW, COW, and AOW amended soils, respectively. The hysteresis coefficients were significantly lower in the OW-amended soils than in AOW or COW-amended soils, indicating that the adsorbed MCPA could be easily desorbed in OW-amended soils if the amendment is not aged or composted. While the OW addition greatly extended the persistence of MCPA, the application of COW enhanced MCPA degradation in all the soils, as corresponded to the increased soil microbial activity indicated by the higher levels of soil dehydrogenase activity. Fresh OW amendment significantly increased the amount of MCPA leached (from 13.7% in the most alkaline soil to 36.7% in the most acidic, at the 5% rate of application), favored by the higher levels of water soluble organic carbon content. However, leaching losses of the herbicide were reduced by up to 39.9% and 55.3% in the COW- and AOW-amended soils at the 5% loading rate, respectively. The use of OW with a high degree of organic matter maturity may be regarded as a potentially useful management practice to reduce MCPA leaching in soils with low organic matter content. The application of fresh OW, however, could well increase the risk of groundwater contamination by this herbicide, especially in acidic soils.

  4. Effects of biochar and other amendments on the physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions of an artificially degraded soil.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Lal, R; Zimmerman, A R

    2014-07-15

    Short and long-term impacts of biochar on soil properties under field conditions are poorly understood. In addition, there is a lack of field reports of the impacts of biochar on soil physical properties, gaseous emissions and C stability, particularly in comparison with other amendments. Thus, three amendments - biochar produced from oak at 650°C, humic acid (HA) and water treatment residual - (WTR) were added to a scalped silty-loam soil @ 0.5% (w/w) in triplicated plots under soybean. Over the 4-month active growing season, all amendments significantly increased soil pH, but the effect of biochar was the greatest. Biochar significantly increased soil-C by 7%, increased sub-nanopore surface area by 15% and reduced soil bulk density by 13% compared to control. However, only WTR amendment significantly increased soil nanopore surface area by 23% relative to the control. While total cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by any amendment, cumulative N2O emission was significantly decreased in the biochar-amended soil (by 92%) compared to control over the growing period. Considering both the total gas emissions and the C removed from the atmosphere as crop growth and C added to the soil, WTR and HA resulted in net soil C losses and biochar as a soil C gain. However, all amendments reduced the global warming potential (GWP) of the soil and biochar addition even produced a net negative GWP effect. The short observation period, low application rate and high intra-treatment variation resulted in fewer significant effects of the amendments on the physicochemical properties of the soils than one might expect indicating further possible experimentation altering these variables. However, there was clear evidence of amendment-soil interaction processes affecting both soil properties and gaseous emissions, particularly for biochar, that might lead to greater changes with additional field emplacement time. PMID:24751592

  5. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. PMID:23128739

  6. Bacterial Mobilization of Nutrients From Biochar-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, A; Fox, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendments with biochar to improve soil fertility and increase soil carbon stocks have received some high-level attention. Physical and chemical analyses of amended soils and biochars from various feedstocks are reported, alongside some evaluations of plant growth promotion capabilities. Fewer studies investigated the soil microbiota and their potential to increase cycling and mobilization of nutrients in biochar-amended soils. This review is discussing the latest findings in the bacterial contribution to cycling and mobilizing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in biochar-amended soils and potential contributions to plant growth promotion. Depending on feedstock, pyrolysis, soil type, and plant cover, changes in the bacterial community structure were observed for a majority of the studies using amplicon sequencing or genetic fingerprinting methods. Prokaryotic nitrification largely depends on the availability of ammonium and can vary considerably under soil biochar amendment. However, denitrification to di-nitrogen and in particular, nitrous oxide reductase activity is commonly enhanced, resulting in reduced nitrous oxide emissions. Likewise, bacterial fixation of di-nitrogen appears to be regularly enhanced. A paucity of studies suggests that bacterial mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur is enhanced as well. However, most studies only tested for extracellular sulfatase and phosphatase activity. Further research is needed to reveal details of the bacterial nutrient mobilizing capabilities and this is in particular the case for the mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur. PMID:26917243

  7. Arsenic speciation and volatilization from flooded paddy soils amended with different organic matters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai; Jia, Yan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2012-02-21

    Arsenic (As) methylation and volatilization in soil can be increased after organic matter (OM) amendment, though the factors influencing this are poorly understood. Herein we investigate how amended OM influences As speciation as well as how it alters microbial processes in soil and soil solution during As volatilization. Microcosm experiments were conducted on predried and fresh As contaminated paddy soils to investigate microbial mediated As speciation and volatilization under different OM amendment conditions. These experiments indicated that the microbes attached to OM did not significantly influence As volatilization. The arsine flux from the treatment amended with 10% clover (clover-amended treatment, CT) and dried distillers grain (DDG) (DDG-amended treatment, DT2) were significantly higher than the control. Trimethylarsine (TMAs) was the dominant species in arsine derived from CT, whereas the primary arsine species from DT2 was TMAs and arsine (AsH(3)), followed by monomethylarsine (MeAsH(2)). The predominant As species in the soil solutions of CT and DT2 were dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and As(V), respectively. OM addition increased the activities of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria (harboring aroA-like genes), though they did not increase or even decrease the abundance of arsenite oxidizers. In contrast, the abundance of arsenate reducers (carrying the arsC gene) was increased by OM amendment; however, significant enhancement of activity of arsenate reducers was observed only in CT. Our results demonstrate that OM addition significantly increased As methylation and volatilization from the investigated paddy soil. The physiologically active bacteria capable of oxidization, reduction, and methylation of As coexisted and mediated the As speciation in soil and soil solution. PMID:22295880

  8. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  9. Biochar as possible long-term soil amendment for phytostabilisation of TE-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Charlotte; Christl, Iso; Schulin, Rainer; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-09-01

    Soils contaminated by trace elements (TEs) pose a high risk to their surrounding areas as TEs can spread by wind and water erosion or leaching. A possible option to reduce TE transfer from these sites is phytostabilisation. It is a long-term and cost-effective rehabilitation strategy which aims at immobilising TEs within the soil by vegetation cover and amendment application. One possible amendment is biochar. It is charred organic matter which has been shown to immobilise metals due to its high surface area and alkaline pH. Doubts have been expressed about the longevity of this immobilising effect as it could dissipate once the carbonates in the biochar have dissolved. Therefore, in a pot experiment, we determined plant metal uptake by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) from three TE-contaminated soils treated with two biochars, which differed only in their pH (acidic, 2.80; alkaline, 9.33) and carbonate (0.17 and 7.3 %) content. Root biomass was increased by the application of the alkaline biochar due to the decrease in TE toxicity. Zinc and Cu bioavailability and plant uptake were equally reduced by both biochars, showing that surface area plays an important role in metal immobilisation. Biochar could serve as a long-term amendment for TE immobilisation even after its alkalinity effect has dissipated. PMID:27230149

  10. Root development of non-accumulating and hyperaccumulating plants in metal-contaminated soils amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Rees, Frédéric; Sterckeman, Thibault; Morel, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may be used as an amendment in contaminated soils in phytoremediation processes. The mechanisms controlling plant metal uptake in biochar-amended soils remain however unclear. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of biochar on root development and its consequence on plant metal uptake, for two non-hyperaccumulating plants (Zea mays and Lolium perenne) and one hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn (Noccaea caerulescens). We conducted rhizobox experiments using one acidic and one alkaline soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn. Biochar was present either homogeneously in the whole soil profile or localized in specific zones. A phenomenon of root proliferation specific to biochar-amended zones was seen on the heterogeneous profiles of the acidic soil and interpreted by a decrease of soil phytotoxicity in these zones. Biochar amendments also favored root growth in the alkaline soil as a result of the lower availability of certain nutrients in the amended soil. This increase of root surface led to a higher accumulation of metals in roots of Z.mays in the acidic soil and in shoots of N. caerulescens in the alkaline soil. In conclusion, biochar can have antagonist effects on plant metal uptake by decreasing metal availability, on one hand, and by increasing root surface and inducing root proliferation, on the other hand. PMID:25912633

  11. Organic amendments' dissolved organic carbon influences bioavailability of agricultural soil DOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straathof, Angela L.; Chincarini, Riccardo; Hoffland, Ellis; Comans, Rob N. J.

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural soils benefit from additions of organic amendments because they improve soil structure, are a source of plant nutrients, and increase concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC). The latter fuels microbial processes important for plant growth, including nutrient mineralization and the suppression of plant diseases. However, these amendment additions range in quality and quantity of C and little is known about how their properties interact with native soil C and affect turnover. The dissolved pool of SOC (DOC) may be the most important C source for these processes as it is more biologically available and thus relatively easily turned over by the soil microbial biomass. Using a rapid-batch DOC fractionation procedure, we studied the composition of different organic amendments' DOC pools and measured how their additions change the quantity and turnover of soil DOC. Fractions isolated and quantified with this procedure include humic and fulvic acids, hydrophobic neutral and hydrophilic compounds. We hypothesized that these range from biologically recalcitrant to readily available, respectively. Amendments analysed included composts of different source materials and maturation stages collected from two different compost facilities in the Netherlands. Both total DOC concentrations and proportions of the aforementioned fractions ranged highly between composts. Composts cured for >10 days had a lower proportion of hydrophilic C compounds, suggesting that these are the most bioavailable and released as CO2 via microbial activity during maturation. To measure the effects of compost DOC on soil DOC, we extracted the former and added it to a sandy soil in an incubation experiment. The amendment increased soil total DOC, CO2 production from the soil, and the pools of humic and fulvic acids as a proportion of total DOC. Turnover of C from the incubated soil was measured by substrate-induced CO2 production (an indicator of microbial activity) from a 96-well

  12. Geochemistry of lead contaminated wetland soils amended with phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawn, Daniel G.; Hickey, Patrick; Knudsen, Andrew; Baker, Leslie

    2007-03-01

    To remediate Pb contaminated soils it is proposed that phosphorus can be amended to the soils to transform the Pb into poorly soluble Pb-phosphate mineral phases. However, remediation strategies must account for variable Pb speciation and site-specific factors. In this study soil mineralogy and Pb speciation in soils from P-amended field trials at sites within the Coeur d’Alene River Basin in Idaho, USA were investigated. The soils are contaminated from mining activities and are enriched with Fe and Mn. Selective extraction of the soils indicated that the Fe oxides are poorly crystalline. XRD of the soil clay size fractions identified quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, siderite, lepidocrocite, and chlorite minerals. Amendment with P fertilizer dissolved the siderite. No Pb-phosphate minerals were detected by XRD. Electron microprobe analysis showed direct correlations between Pb, Fe, and Mn in the unamended soils, and negative correlations between Pb and Si. Lead and Mn were strongly correlated. In the amended soils Fe and P were strongly correlated. Results indicate that the Pb is associated with poorly crystalline Fe and Mn oxides, and that added P is primarily associated with Fe oxide phases. Comparisons of pore water Pb concentrations with chloropyromorphite and plumbogummite solubility suggest that in the phosphate-amended soils the pore waters are undersaturated in these phases, whereas several of the control soil pore waters were oversaturated, indicating the added phosphate suppressed the Pb solubility. Results from this research provide insight into the geochemistry occurring in the P-remediated soils that will help in making management and remediation decisions.

  13. DETERMINING SPECIATION OF PB IN PHOSPHATE AMENDED SOILS: METHOD LIMITATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the effectiveness of in-situ immobilization for P-amended, Pb-contaminated soils has typically relied on non-spectroscopic methods that in recent years have come under scrutiny due to technical and unforeseen error issues. In this study, we analyzed 18 soil samples vi...

  14. Biochar soil amendment for environmental and agronomic benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Char(coal), and a broader term black carbon (that includes soot) has long been recognized as a normal environmental (including soil) constituent resulting from fire and industrial activities. Biochar soil amendment has received global interests as a tool for carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

  15. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  16. FGD gypsum use as a soil amendment to reduce soluble P in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus loss from land-applied manure can be a major threat to water quality. Use of gypsum as a soil amendment could potentially minimize the water quality threat by reducing P loss from manured soils. Thus, a field study was conducted to evaluate if gypsum and lime amendment would reduce the ex...

  17. Environmental fate of the herbicide MCPA in agricultural soils amended with fresh and aged de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste.

    PubMed

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Olive oil agrifood industry generates large amounts of waste whose recycling as organic amendment represents an alternative to their disposal. The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the fate of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in Mediterranean agricultural soils was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions was assessed. Four Mediterranean agricultural soils were selected and amended in laboratory with fresh DW and field-aged DW (DW and ADW treatments, respectively). Adsorption capacity increased by factors between 1.18 and 3.59, for the DW-amended soils, and by factor of 4.93, for ADW-amended soil, with respect to unamended soils, when 5% amendment was applied. The DW amendment had inhibitory effect on dehydrogenase activity and slowed herbicide dissipation, whereas the opposite effect was observed in ADW treatments. In the field-amended soil, the amount of MCPA leached was significantly reduced from 56.9% for unamended soil to 15.9% at the 5% rate. However, leaching losses of MCPA increased in the laboratory-amended soils, because of their high water-soluble organic carbon values which could enhance MCPA mobility, especially in the acidic soils. Therefore, the application of DW as organic amendment in Mediterranean agricultural soils could be an important management strategy to reduce MCPA leaching, especially if the organic matter had been previously transformed by ageing processes. PMID:25948384

  18. Contaminant immobilization and nutrient release by biochar soil amendment: roles of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-08-01

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and releasing essential nutrients like sulfur. Information is currently lacking in how aging impacts the integrity of biochars as soil amendment for both agricultural and environmental remediation purposes. Major contributors to biochar aging in soils are: sorption of environmental constituents, especially natural organic matter (NOM), and oxidation. To investigate the impact of NOM and organic fractions of chars, we employed broiler litter-derived chars and steam-activated carbons that underwent varying degrees of carbonization, in the presence and absence of NOM having known carboxyl contents. For aging by oxidation, we employed phosphoric acid activated carbons that underwent varying degrees of oxidation during activation. The results suggest that the organic fractions of biochars, and NOM having high carboxyl contents can mobilize Cu(II) retained by alkaline soil. Base treatment of broiler litter-derived char formed at low pyrolysis temperature (350 degrees C) improved the immobilization of all heavy metals investigated, and the extent of immobilization was similar to, or slightly greater than pecan shell-derived phosphoric acid activated carbons. Portions of total sulfur were released in soluble form in soil amended with broiler litter-derived carbons, but not pecan shell-derived phosphoric acid activated carbons. PMID:20542314

  19. Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingkui; Pu, Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper, zinc and lead were selected and amended in the laboratory with the mineral materials) for 12 months. Results indicated that application of the mineral materials reduced exchangeable metals in the sequence of Pb, Cd > Cu > Zn. The reduction of exchangeable fraction of heavy metals in the soils amended with different mineral materials followed the sequence of CMP, PG > AL > RP. Reductions of heavy metals leached were based on comparison with cumulative totals of heavy metals eluted through 12 pore volumes from an untreated soil. The reductions of the metals eluted from the calcareous soil amended with the RP, AL, PG and CMP were 1.98%, 38.89%, 64.81% and 75.93% for Cd, 8.51%, 40.42%, 60.64% and 55.32% for Cu, 1.76%, 52.94%, 70.00% and 74.12% for Pb, and 28.42%, 52.74%, 64.38% and 49.66% for Zn. Those from the acidic soil amended with the CMP, PG, AL, and RP were 25.65%, 68.06%, 78.01% and 79.06% for Cd, 26.56%, 49.64%, 43.40% and 34.68% for Cu, 44.44%, 33.32%, 61.11% and 69.44% for Pb, and 18.46%, 43.77%, 41.98% and 40.68% for Zn. The CMP and PG treatments were superior to the AL and RP for stabilizing heavy metals in the polluted urban soils. PMID:21793403

  20. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  1. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP's bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g(-1). There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  2. In Situ Fixation of Metal(loid)s in Contaminated Soils: A Comparison of Conventional, Opportunistic, and Engineered Soil Amendments.

    PubMed

    Mele, Elena; Donner, Erica; Juhasz, Albert L; Brunetti, Gianluca; Smith, Euan; Betts, Aaron R; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Scheckel, Kirk G; Lombi, Enzo

    2015-11-17

    This study aimed to assess and compare the in vitro and in vivo bioaccessibility/bioavailability of As and Pb in a mining contaminated soil (As, 2267 mg kg(-1); Pb, 1126 mg kg(-1)), after the addition of conventional (phosphoric acid), opportunistic [water treatment residues (WTRs)], and engineered [nano- and microscale zero valent iron (ZVI)] amendments. Phosphoric acid was the only amendment that could significantly decrease Pb bioaccessibility with respect to untreated soil (41 and 47% in the gastric phase and 2.1 and 8.1% in the intestinal phases, respectively), giving treatment effect ratios (TERs, the bioaccessibility in the amended soil divided by the bioaccessibility in the untreated soil) of 0.25 and 0.87 in the gastric and intestinal phase, respectively. The in vivo bioavailability of Pb decreased in the phosphate treatment relative to the untreated soil (6 and 24%, respectively), and also in the Fe WTR 2% (12%) and nZVI-2 (13%) treatments. The ZVI amendments caused a decrease in As bioaccessibility, with the greatest decrease in the nZVI2-treated soil (TERs of 0.59 and 0.64 in the gastric and intestinal phases, respectively). Arsenic X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis indicated that most of the As in the untreated soil was present as As(V) associated with Fe mineral phases, whereas in the treated soil, the proportion of arsenosiderite increased. Arsenite was present only as a minor species (3-5%) in the treated soils, with the exception of an nZVI treatment [∼14% of As(III)], suggesting a partial reduction of As(V) to As(III) caused by nZVI oxidation. PMID:26457447

  3. Adsorption, degradation, and plant availability of 2,4-dinitrophenol in sludge-amended calcareous soils

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Lujan, J.R.; Jin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a moderately weak acid that is expected to be highly labile (leachable and plant available) in high-pH soils. The adsorption and degradation behavior of DNP in two sludge-amended, calcareous soils was determined and used to explain DNP uptake by plants grown in the soils in the greenhouse. The DNP adsorption was minor in both soils and was only slightly affected by sludge. The DNP degradation was rapid in both soils and was unaffected by sludge. Thus, despite limited soil adsorption, plant uptake of DNP was minor in all crops and plant parts owing to rapid soil DNP degradation. Even if a municipal sludge highly contaminated with DNP was identified (an unlikely occurrence), concerns over possible plant contamination should not limit sludge applications to calcareous soils or leaching of DNP to groundwater, given careful water management.

  4. Amendments promote the development of Lolium perenne in soils affected by historical copper smelting operations.

    PubMed

    Goecke, Paul; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Mench, Michel; Neaman, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    The Puchuncaví valley, central Chile, has been exposed to aerial emissions from a copper smelter. Nowadays, soils in the surroundings are sparsely-vegetated, acidic, and metal-contaminated, and their remediation is needed to reduce environmental risks. We assessed effectiveness of lime, fly ash, compost, and iron grit as amendments to immobilize Cu in soils and promote plant growth. Amended soils were cultivated with Lolium perenne for 60 days under controlled conditions. Total dissolved Cu and Cu2+ activity in the soil solution, ryegrass biomass, and Cu accumulation in plant tissues were measured. Addition of lime and fly ash decreased Cu concentrations and Cu2+ activity in the soil solution, increased plant biomass, and reduced shoot Cu concentration below 22 mg kg(-1) (the phytotoxicity threshold for the species). The most effective amendment with respect to the shoot biomass yield was a combination of lime and compost. Water content of the substrate and the K accumulation were positively correlated with the compost application rate. Compost combined with iron grit decreased dissolved Cu concentrations during the period of highest solubility, i.e., during the first 60 days after the compost application. However, iron grit incorporation into soils amended with lime and compost decreased the shoot biomass of ryegrass. PMID:21972502

  5. [Study the restoration technology of concentrated application-natural diffusion about amendments of acidified soil of hilly woodland].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiong; Liu, Ju-Xiu; Yin, Guang-Cai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Guo-Wei; Li, Yi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Through concentrated application of lime, sewage sludge and lime + sewage sludge on the sloping top of the hilly woodlands, the restoration effects of the three soil amendments on the acidified soil of hilly woodland were studied. The results showed that: (1) Joint application of sewage sludge + lime can significantly (P < 0.05) decrease soil acidity, promote the rapid increase in soil organic matter and nitrogen content, increase soil cation exchange capacity, and effectively improve acidified soil. (2) Through natural diffusion mechanisms of surface and subsurface runoff, a large area of acidified soil of hilly woodlands can be restored by concentrated application of soil amendments on the sloping top of the hilly woodlands. (3) It is conducive to solve the pollution problems of the urban sewage sludge by using municipal sewage sludge to restore acidified soil, but only for the restoration of acidified soil of timber forest. PMID:23487954

  6. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties. PMID:24742665

  7. Microbial response to salinity stress in a tropical sandy soil amended with native shrub residues or inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sall, Saïdou Nourou; Ndour, Ndèye Yacine Badiane; Diédhiou-Sall, Siré; Dick, Richard; Chotte, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-15

    Soil degradation and salinization caused by inappropriate cultivation practices and high levels of saltwater intrusion are having an adverse effect on agriculture in Central Senegal. The residues of Piliostigma reticulatum, a local shrub that coexists with crops, were recently shown to increase particulate organic matter and improve soil quality and may be a promising means of alleviating the effects of salinization. This study compared the effects of inorganic fertilizer and P. reticulatum residues on microbial properties and the ability of soil to withstand salinity stress. We hypothesized that soils amended with P. reticulatum would be less affected by salinity stress than soils amended with inorganic fertilizer and control soil. Salinity stress was applied to soil from a field site that had been cultivated for 5 years under a millet/peanut crop rotation when microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community profile, catabolic diversity, microbial activities were determined. Microbial biomass, nitrification potential and dehydrogenase activity were higher by 20%, 56% and 69% respectively in soil with the organic amendment. With salinity stress, the structure and activities of the microbial community were significantly affected. Although the biomass of actinobacteria community increased with salinity stress, there was a substantial reduction in microbial activity in all soils. The soil organically amended was, however, less affected by salinity stress than the control or inorganic fertilizer treatment. This suggests that amendment using P. reticulatum residues may improve the ability of soils to respond to saline conditions. PMID:26143083

  8. Cadmium sorption characteristics of soil amendments and its relationship with the cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator and normal plants in amended soils.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C C; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14-0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51-2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K > or = 1.49 L/mg and n > or = 3.59. PMID:24912231

  9. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  10. The feasibility of planting on stabilized sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.W.; Poon, C.S.

    1999-05-01

    The feasibility of growing plants on stabilized anaerobically-digested sludge from a local secondary sewage treatment plant (STP) and stabilized chemically-modified sludge from a pilot chemically-assisted primary treatment plant were studied. Apropyron elongatum (tall wheat grass) was used in this research study. A sandy soil obtained locally was amended by the addition of the lime/pulverized fuel ash (PFA) stabilized sewage sludge at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 g/kg. The total shoot yield of the grass harvested from the amended soil was significantly higher than that of the natural soil. The optimum application rates that achieved the highest yield for digested sludge and chemically-modified sludge-amended soils were 50 g/kg and 25 g/kg, respectively. Applying the stabilized digested sludge to the soil reduced Zn, Cr, and P but increased Cu, Cd, N, and K concentrations in the root tissues of the grass. The Ni, Cr, B, and K concentrations in the shoot were increased with the addition of stabilized digested sludge amended soil. For the chemically-modified sludge samples, the concentrations of the metal conaminants as well as the nutrient levels of the crops (both in the shoot and root tissues) grown in the stabilized amended soil were increased as compared to the control. However, all the trace metal concentrations in the crop were below stipulated toxicity levels. The experimental results indicate that it is feasible to plant on a mixture of natural soil and stabilized sewage sludge provided the dosage applied is carefully controlled.

  11. Effects of poultry manure on soil biochemical properties in phthalic acid esters contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Xiaojian; Ren, Xuqin; Zhou, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of poultry manure (PM) on soil biological properties in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils. An indoor incubation experiment was conducted. Soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil enzymatic activities, and microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were measured during incubation period. The results indicated that except alkaline phosphatase activity, DBP and DEHP had negative effects on Cmic, dehydrogenase, urease, protease activities, and contents of total PLFA. However, 5 % PM treatment alleviated the negative effects of PAEs on the above biochemical parameters. In DBP-contaminated soil, 5 % PM amendment even resulted in dehydroenase activity and Cmic content increasing by 17.8 and 11.8 % on the day 15 of incubation, respectively. During the incubation periods, the total PLFA contents decreased maximumly by 17.2 and 11.6 % in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without PM amendments, respectively. Compared with those in uncontaminated soil, the total PLFA contents increased slightly and the value of bacPLFA/fugalPLFA increased significantly in PAE-contaminated soils with 5 % PM amendment. Nevertheless, in both contaminated soils, the effects of 5 % PM amendment on the biochemical parameters were not observed with 10 % PM amendment. In 10 % PM-amended soils, DBP and DEHP had little effect on Cmic, soil enzymatic activities, and microbial community composition. At the end of incubation, the effects of PAEs on these parameters disappeared, irrespective of PM amendment. The application of PM ameliorated the negative effect of PAEs on soil biological environment. However, further work is needed to study the effect of PM on soil microbial gene expression in order to explain the change mechanisms of soil biological properties. PMID:26298343

  12. Improving Soil Quality with Organic Amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally sound and productive crop and soil management practices that promote soil organic matter content, use crop rotation and reduced tillage, and reduce pesticide inputs are essential for maintaining the soil resource. Surveys have verified the relationship between on-farm practices that ...

  13. Arsenic mobility in the amended mine tailings and its impact on soil enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koo, Namin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of soil amendments [Ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)), red mud, Fe(II) with calcium carbonate (Fe(II)/L) or red mud (RM/F), zero-valent iron (ZVI), furnace slag, spent mushroom waste and by-product fertilizer] on arsenic (As) stabilization and to establish relationships between soil properties, As fractions and soil enzyme activities in amended As-rich gold mine tailings (Kangwon and Keumkey). Following the application of amendments, a sequential extraction test and evaluation of the soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase) were conducted. Weak and negative relationships were observed between water-soluble As fractions (As(WS)) and oxalate extractable iron, while As(WS) was mainly affected by dissolved organic carbon in alkaline tailings sample (Kangwon) and by soil pH in acidic tailings sample (Keumkey). The soil enzyme activities in both tailings were mainly associated with As(WS). Principal component and multiple regression analyses confirmed that As(WS) was the most important factor to soil enzyme activities. However, with some of the treatments in Keumkey, contrary results were observed due to increased water-soluble heavy metals and carbon sources. In conclusion, our results suggest that to simultaneously achieve decreased As(WS) and increased soil enzyme activities, Kangwon tailings should be amended with Fe(II), Fe(II)/L or ZVI, while only ZVI or RM/F would be suitable for Keumkey tailings. Despite the limitations of specific soil samples, this result can be expected to provide useful information on developing a successful remediation strategy of As-contaminated soils. PMID:21850414

  14. Efficacy of 1,3-Dichloropropene in Soil Amended with Compost and Unamended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, C.; Nelson, S. D.; Dickson, D. W.; Allen, L. H.; Peterson, L. G.

    2001-01-01

    1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a likely alternative soil fumigant for methyl bromide. The objective was to determine root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, survival in microplots after exposure to 1,3-D for various periods of time in soil that have previously been amended with compost. The treatments were 1,3-D applied broadcast at 112 liters/ha and untreated controls in both compost-amended and unamended soil. Soil samples were collected from each microplot at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after fumigation at three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm). One week after fumigation, six tomato seedlings were transplanted into each microplot and root galling was recorded 6 weeks later. Plants grown in fumigated compost-amended soil had more galls than plants from fumigated unamended soil at P ≤ 0.1. Gall indices from roots in fumigated soil amended with compost were not different from nonfumigated controls. Based on soil bioassays, the number of galls decreased with increasing time after fumigation in both compost-amended and unamended soil at 0-to-15 and 15-to-30 cm depths, but not at 30 to 45 cm deep. Higher soil water content due to the elevated levels of organic matter in the soil at these depths may have interfered with 1,3-D movement, thus reducing its efficacy. PMID:19265889

  15. Effect of organic amendments on the mobility of trace elements in phytoremediated techno-soils: role of the humic substances.

    PubMed

    Hattab, N; Soubrand, M; Guégan, R; Motelica-Heino, M; Bourrat, X; Faure, O; Bouchardon, J L

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of aided phytostabilization using organic amendments such as ramial chipped wood (RCW) and composted sewage sludge (CSS) was studied on contaminated techno-soils, on nine experimental plots. The objective was to characterize the role of fulvic (FA) and humic acids (HA) on the mobilization of trace elements, specifically As, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn. Results showed that the addition of CSS increased the total organic carbon and nitrogen content more than with RCW and as a result, the C/N ratio in the CSS soil was higher than in the RCW and non-amended (NE) soil, reflecting the high decomposition of soil organic matter in the CSS soil compared with the other soils. The RCW and CSS amendments increased the hydrogen index (HI) values and the oxygen index (OI) values compared with the NE soil, especially for the soil treated with CSS which contained more aliphatic than aromatic compounds. The addition of CSS to the techno-soil significantly increased the percentage of C org associated with the HA fractions compared with the RCW and NE soils. The soil amended with CSS showed the highest E 4/E 6 ratio and the lowest E 2/E 3 ratio of FA. Zn and As were more abundant in the FA fraction than in the HA fraction, whereas Pb, Cu and Mo were more associated to HA than to FA in the treated and untreated soils, which may explain the difference in their mobility and availability. PMID:24854499

  16. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  17. SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

  18. Application of mesotrione at different doses in an amended soil: Dissipation and effect on the soil microbial biomass and activity.

    PubMed

    Pose-Juan, Eva; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Rodríguez-Cruz, María Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the dissipation of mesotrione applied at three doses (2, 10 and 50 mg kg(-1) dw) in an unamended agricultural soil, and this same soil amended with two organic residues (green compost (C) and sewage sludge (SS)). The effects of herbicide and organic residue on the abundance and activity of soil microbial communities were also assessed by determining soil microbial parameters such as biomass, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and respiration. Lower dissipation rates were observed for a higher herbicide dose. The highest half-life (DT50) values were observed in the SS-amended soil for the three herbicide doses applied. Biomass values increased in the amended soils compared to the unamended one in all the cases studied, and increased over the incubation period in the SS-amended soil. DHA mean values significantly decreased in the SS-amended soil, and increased in the C-amended soil compared to the unamended ones, under all conditions. At time 0 days, respiration values were significantly higher in SS-amended soils (untreated and treated with mesotrione) than in the unamended and C-amended soils. The effect of mesotrione on soil biomass, DHA and respiration was different depending on incubation time and soil amendment and herbicide dose applied. The results support the need to consider the possible non-target effects of pesticides and organic amendments simultaneously applied on soil microbial communities to prevent negative impacts on soil quality. PMID:26188530

  19. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: Biochars are a soil amendment produced from lignocellulosic and manure feedstocks. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments because of differences in their physical and chemical properties. Biochar could deliver more effective service as a soil amendment if its chemis...

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC SPECIATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LEAD IN PHOSPHATE AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The immobilization of Pb in contaminated soils as pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3CI, OH, F] through the addition of various phosphate amendments has gained much attention in the remediation community. However, it is difficult to fully determine the specia...

  1. Modeling nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Vukovich, Jeff; Peirce, Jeffrey

    Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory in conjunction with a dynamic flow-through chamber system, nitric oxide concentrations [NO] were measured and NO fluxes were calculated during the summer, winter and spring of 1999/2000. The field site where these measurements were conducted was an agricultural soil amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment facility. These NO flux values were then used to assess the impact of including biosolid amended soils as a land-use class in an air quality model. The average NO flux from this biosolid amended soil was found to be exponentially dependent on soil temperature [NO Flux ( ng N m-2 s-1)=1.07 exp(0.14 T soil) ; R2=0.81—NO Flux=71.3 ng N m -2 s-1 at 30°C]. Comparing this relationship to results of the widely applied biogenic emissions inventory system (BEIS2) model revealed that for this field site, if the BEIS2 model was used, the NO emissions would have been underestimated by a factor of 26. Using this newly developed NO flux algorithm, combined with North Carolina Division of Water Quality statistics on how many biosolid amended acres are permitted per county, county-based NO inventories from these biosolid amended soils were calculated. Results from this study indicate that county-level biogenic NO emissions can increase by as much as 18% when biosolid amended soils are included as a land-use class. The multiscale air quality simulation platform (MAQSIP) was then used to determine differences in ozone (O 3) and odd-reactive nitrogen compounds (NO y) between models run with and without the biosolid amended acreages included in the inventory. Results showed that during the daytime, when atmospheric mixing heights are typically at their greatest, any increase in O 3 or NO y concentrations predicted by the model were small (<3%). In some locations during late evening/early morning hours, ozone was found to be consumed by as much as 11%.

  2. Metal and nanoparticle occurrence in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wang, Yifei; Westerhoff, Paul; Hristovski, Kiril; Jin, Virginia L; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-07-01

    Metals can accumulate in soils amended with biosolids in which metals have been concentrated during wastewater treatment. The goal of this study is to inspect agricultural sites with long-term biosolid application for a suite of regulated and unregulated metals, including some potentially present as commonly used engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Sampling occurred in fields at a municipal and a privately operated biosolid recycling facilities in Texas. Depth profiles of various metals were developed for control soils without biosolid amendment and soils with different rates of biosolid application (6.6 to 74 dry tons per hectare per year) over 5 to 25 years. Regulated metals of known toxicity, including chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, had higher concentrations in the upper layer of biosolid-amended soils (top 0-30 cm or 0-15 cm) than in control soils. The depth profiles of unregulated metals (antimony, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, gold, silver, tantalum, tin, tungsten, and zirconium) indicate higher concentrations in the 0-30 cm soil increment than in the 70-100 cm soil increment, indicating low vertical mobility after entering the soils. Titanium-containing particles between 50 nm and 250 nm in diameter were identified in soil by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. In conjunction with other studies, this research shows the potential for nanomaterials used in society that enter the sewer system to be removed at municipal biological wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in agricultural fields. The metal concentrations observed herein could be used as representative exposure levels for eco-toxicological studies in these soils. PMID:24742554

  3. Biochar amendment immobilizes lead in rice paddy soils and reduces its phytoavailability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Honghong; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Shanli; Wang, Mingkuang; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment. PMID:27530495

  4. Biochar amendment immobilizes lead in rice paddy soils and reduces its phytoavailability.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghong; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Shanli; Wang, Mingkuang; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment. PMID:27530495

  5. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  6. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  7. Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Sharma, Bhavisha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sengupta, Chandan; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances. PMID:24984834

  8. Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.

    PubMed

    Gartler, Jörg; Robinson, Brett; Burton, Karen; Clucas, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with Zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. We grew beetroot (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), leek (Allium ampeloprsum), onion (Allium cepa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and courgette (also called zucchini - Cucurbita pepo) in an unamended soil (silt loam, pH 5.6), and soil amended (by volume) with 10% biosolids, 20% biochar, and 10% biosolids+20% biochar. The biosolids and biosolids+biochar treatments significantly increased the biomass and Zn concentration of most species, with a large interspecific variation. Beetroot showed the greatest increase, with dry weight Zn concentrations of up to 178 and 1200 mg kg(-1) in the bulbs and leaves respectively. Cadmium, Cu and Pb were below guideline levels in all samples, except the leaves of spinach and beetroot, which slightly exceeded the World Health Organisation's maximum permitted concentration of 0.1 mg Cd kg(-1) fresh weight. A mixture of biosolids and biochar is an effective means to biofortify crops with edible leaves as well as beetroot with Zn. Future research should investigate the efficacy of the system in other soil types and the role of biochar in the immobilisation/inactivation of organic contaminants and pathogens contained within the biosolids. PMID:23146312

  9. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil: Progress report, 1 June 1988--15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1989-03-15

    This is the first progress report that is submitted to the US Department of Energy on the research performed during the first year of the project which started on June 1, 1988. This project for coal fly ash research was approved to study the chemical composition of fly ashes collected from several coal-powered power plants located in Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities and explore the possibility of utilizing the fly ash as an amendment to organic compost for vegetation. The schedule for the first year of the project includes the construction of a greenhouse, analysis of fly ash samples, preparation of compost, planting the seeds for and harvesting the fall-winter plants, analysis of the winter plant materials and potting the spring-summer plants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  11. Effect of organic waste amendments on zinc adsorption by two soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, L.M. . Georgia Experiment station)

    1999-03-01

    Two soils (fine and coarse textured) were amended with five organic wastes or humic acid. One adsorption experiment was carried out at 1 mmol L[sup [minus]1] Zn and at pH levels from 4 to 8. A second experiment was at pH 6 and 0 to 4 mmol/L[sup [minus]1] Zn. The greatest variation in Zn adsorption among organic treatments came at pH 6, with a lesser range for the fine textured soil (pH 5--6) and a wider range for the sandy soil (pH 5--7). Adsorption followed a two-site Langmuir model, and maxima were higher for the finer textured soil compared with the sandy soil. Adsorption maxima were not changed by the organic wastes for the fine textured soil, but all were increased over the controls for the sandy soil. Zinc adsorption for poultry litter was lower than the control for the sandy soil. Industrial sewage sludge and humic acid increased Zn adsorption more than did commercial compost, spent mushroom compost, and cotton litter. It was concluded that organic materials have more influence on Zn adsorption for sandy soils than for fine textured soils and that most materials will increase Zn adsorption, whereas those with high soluble C can decrease Zn adsorption.

  12. Effect of compost amendment on soil organic matter and humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Gil, C.; Jurado, M.; Pons, V.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Organic soil amendments are increasingly being examined for their potential use to improve soil functions and quality. We studied the effect of compost amendment on soil organic matter (SOM) and humic substances. The study was carried out on Luvic Calcisol in the Valencian Community (East Spain) used as a citrus fruit orchard. Four plots were amended at dose 0, 6, 12 and 36 Mg ha-1 of rice residue and sewage sludge compost. Seven soil samples for each treatment at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm were taken in the first seven months after application. Soil characteristics, SOM, mineral nitrogen, total nitrogen, NH4+-N, and fulvic and humic acids were determined. The results demonstrated that the use of organic compost considerably increases SOM, total nitrogen and the humic substances such as the applied dose. The level of humic substances remained without significant variations during the experimental period. The dose of 36 Mg ha-1 proved the most efficient. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for partial funding and support (MIMAN project 4.3-141/2005/3-B and MICINN project CGL2006-09776).

  13. Biochar: A soil amendment worth considering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a fine-grained, carbon enriched product created when biomass (e.g. wood waste, manures) is burned at relatively low temperatures (less than 1300oF) and under an anoxic (lack of oxygen) atmosphere. The benefits of biochar addition to soils have long since been recognized. Amazonian dark ...

  14. Hydrogen peroxide as a greenhouse soil amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are anecdotal reports that hydrogen peroxide provides growth benefits beyond controlling plant infection and plant stress. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of soil applications of hydrogen peroxide solutions on plant growth and flowering. Nasturtium (Tropaeolum maju...

  15. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., when applied at rates above 300 kg N/ha. Additional available carbon must be provided with urea to permit soil microorganisms to metabolize excess N and avoid phytotoxic effects. There is a direct relation between the amount of "protein" N in organic amendments and their effectiveness as nematode population suppressants. Most nematicidal amendments are oil cakes, or animal excrements containing 2-7% (w:w) N; these materials are effective at rates of 4-10 t/ha. Organic soil amendments containing mucopolysaccharides (e.g., mycelial wastes, chitinous matter) are also effective nematode suppressants. PMID:19294153

  16. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Cubadda, Francesco; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg(-1)) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25917693

  17. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. PMID:26135976

  18. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in crop straw biochar-amended soil is related to the heavy metal content of both biochar and soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Huang, Dao-You; Ren, Xue-Fei; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Chao; He, Yan-Bing; Luo, Zun-Chang; Zhu, Qi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Crop straw biochar incorporation may be a sustainable method of amending soil, but feedstock-related Cd and Pb content is a major concern. We investigated the effects of heavy metal-rich (RC) and -free biochar (FC) on the phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in two acidic metalliferous soils. Biochar significantly increased soil pH and improved plant growth. Pb in soil and plant tissues significantly decreased after biochar application, and a similar pattern was observed for Cd after FC application. RC significantly increased NH4NO3-extractable Cd in both lightly contaminated (YBS) and heavily contaminated soils (RS). The Cd content of plants grown on YBS increased, whereas it decreased on RS. The Cd and Pb input-output balance suggested that RC application to YBS might induce a soil Cd accumulation risk. Therefore, identifying heavy metal contamination in biochar is crucial before it is used as a soil amendment. PMID:26720720

  20. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  1. Effects of Organic Amendments and Tillage on Soil Microorganisms and Microfauna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of organic amendment and tillage on the soil food web at two depths in a field experiment was investigated. Over a three-year period, field plots received seasonal organic amendments, and the amendments were either incorporated into the soil (tilled) or not (no-till) as part of a tomato:...

  2. Rhizosphere Environment and Labile Phosphorus Release from Organic Waste-Amended Soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Thanh H.

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and biofertilizers are primary sources of nutrients for organic crop production. However, soils treated with large amounts of nutrient-enriched manure have elevated phosphorus (P) levels in regions of intensive animal agriculture. Surpluses occurred in these amended soils, resulting in large pools of exchangeable inorganic P (Pi) and enzyme-labile organic P (Po) that averaging 30.9 and 68.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Organic acids produced during crop residue decomposition can promote the complexation of counter-ions and decouple and release unbound Pi from metal and alkali metal phosphates. Animal manure and cover crop residues also contain large amounts of soluble organic matter, and likely generate similar ligands. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in P spatial distribution in such amended fields, arising from variances in substrate physical forms ranging from slurries to dried solids, composition, and diverse application methods and equipment. Distinct clusters of Pi and Po were observed, where accumulation of the latter forms was associated with high soil microbial biomass C and reduced phosphomonoesterases' activity. Accurate estimates of plant requirements and lability of soil P pools, and real-time plant and soil P sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in crop production systems. An in situ X-ray fluorescence-based approach to sensing canopy and soil XRFS-P was developed to improve the yield-soil P relationship for optimal nutrient recommendations in addition to allowing in-the-field verification of foliar P status.

  3. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  4. Impact of FGD gypsum soil amendment applications on soil and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for improving soil quality and other environmental benefits. Gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years. It is a soluble source of calcium and sulfur- for crops and has been shown to i...

  5. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment on soil biology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  6. Misrepresentation and amendment of soil moisture in conceptual hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Although many conceptual models are very effective in simulating river runoff, their soil moisture schemes are generally not realistic in comparison with the reality (i.e., getting the right answers for the wrong reasons). This study reveals two significant misrepresentations in those models through a case study using the Xinanjiang model which is representative of many well-known conceptual hydrological models. The first is the setting of the upper limit of its soil moisture at the field capacity, due to the 'holding excess runoff' concept (i.e., runoff begins on repletion of its storage to the field capacity). The second is neglect of capillary rise of water movement. A new scheme is therefore proposed to overcome those two issues. The amended model is as effective as its original form in flow modelling, but represents more logically realistic soil water processes. The purpose of the study is to enable the hydrological model to get the right answers for the right reasons. Therefore, the new model structure has a better capability in potentially assimilating soil moisture observations to enhance its real-time flood forecasting accuracy. The new scheme is evaluated in the Pontiac catchment of the USA through a comparison with satellite observed soil moisture. The correlation between the XAJ and the observed soil moisture is enhanced significantly from 0.64 to 0.70. In addition, a new soil moisture term called SMDS (Soil Moisture Deficit to Saturation) is proposed to complement the conventional SMD (Soil Moisture Deficit).

  7. Phosphorus mitigation during springtime runoff by amendments applied to grassed soil.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Kämppä, J; Turtola, E; Närvänen, A; Jauhiainen, L; Uusitalo, R

    2012-01-01

    Permanent grass vegetation on sloping soils is an option to protect fields from erosion, but decaying grass may liberate considerable amounts of dissolved reactive P (DRP) in springtime runoff. We studied the effects of freezing and thawing of grassed soil on surface runoff P concentrations by indoor rainfall simulations and tested whether the peak P concentrations could be reduced by amending the soil with P-binding materials containing Ca or Fe. Forty grass-vegetated soil blocks (surface area 0.045 m, depth 0.07 m) were retrieved from two permanent buffer zones on a clay and loam soil in southwest Finland. Four replicates were amended with either: (i) gypsum from phosphoric acid processing (CaSO × 2HO, 6 t ha), (ii) chalk powder (CaCO, 3.3 t ha), (iii) Fe-gypsum (6 t ha) from TiO processing, or (iv) granulated ferric sulfate (Fe[SO], 0.7 t ha), with four replicates serving as untreated controls. Rainfall (3.3 h × 5 mm h) was applied on presaturated samples set at a slope of 5% and the surface runoff was analyzed for DRP, total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and suspended solids. Rainfall simulation was repeated twice after the samples were frozen. Freezing and thawing of the samples increased the surface runoff DRP concentration of the control treatment from 0.19 to 0.46 mg L, up to 2.6-3.7 mg L, with DRP being the main P form in surface runoff. Compared with the controls, surface runoff from soils amended with Fe compounds had 57 to 80% and 47 to 72% lower concentrations of DRP and TP, respectively, but the gypsum and chalk powder did not affect the P concentrations. Thus, amendments containing Fe might be an option to improve DRP retention in, e.g., buffer zones. PMID:22370404

  8. Boiler wood ash as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    Each of the 88 pulp and paper mills in the southeastern United States produces an average of 43 t of boiler ash daily (47 US tons). Forty percent is wood ash, 5% is coal ash, and the remaining is a combination ash. An analysis of boiler ash from 14 Alabama pulp and paper mills averaged 38% CaCO3 equivalent with a dry density of 500 kg m{sup -3}. Most agricultural soils in the southeastern US require periodic application of ground limestone in order to maintain productivity. Using boiler wood ash and combination ash as an alternative to ground limestone is agronomically productive, environmentally safe, and fiscally sound for both the ash producer and the landowner/ farmer. While plant, nutrient content of ash is variable, it should be considered as an incidental source of plant nutrients for field crops. Metals and phytotoxic components are very low. Extensive research has been reported on the value and safety of wood-fired boiler ashes. Nevertheless, research and development projects continue in efforts to assure safe use of boiler wood ash as an alternative soil liming material.

  9. Potential for Carbon Sequestration using Organic Amendments on Rangeland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2009-12-01

    Managed rangelands represent a geographically large land-use footprint and thus have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil through changes in management practices. Organic amendments are frequently added to agricultural and rangeland soils in an effort to improve fertility and yield, yet little is known about their impact on greenhouse gas dynamics and soil biogeochemical dynamics, especially in rangeland soils. This research aims to explore the effects of organic amendments on soil chemical and physical properties, plant inputs, and soil C and N dynamics in managed rangeland ecosystems. Our research uses field manipulations at two Mediterranean grassland ecosystems replicated within and across bioclimatic zones: the Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) in Browns Valley, CA and the Nicasio Native Grass Ranch in Nicasio, CA. Both sites are dominated by annual grasses and are moderately grazed by cattle. Three replicate blocks at each site contain 60m x 25m treatment plots (organic amendments and control) with 5m buffer strips. Organic amendments were applied at a level of 14 MgC/ha (equivalent to a 1.27cm surface dressing) at the beginning of the wet season (December 2008). During the wet season (October through June), carbon dioxide (CO2) flux was measured weekly using a LI-8100, while fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured biweekly using static flux chambers. During the dry season (June through September), fluxes were measured biweekly and monthly, respectively. Soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) were measured prior to treatment and seven months following treatment at 0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm depths. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously. Changes in oxidative and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities are also being explored. After the first year of management, both sites responded similarly to treatments in both trend and magnitude. For example, at SFREC, total soil

  10. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  11. EFFECTS OF A BIOLOGICAL AMENDMENT ON CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOILS RECEIVING DIFFERENT ORGANIC AMENDMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological fertilizers consisting of suspensions of selected microorganisms are often used in conjunction with various organic materials for amending soils to improve soil quality and plant growth. The effects of a biological fertilizer on chemical and biological properties of soil were investigated...

  12. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  13. Biochar: an effective amendment for remediating contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lu-Lu; Liu, Wei-Tao; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from incomplete combustion of biomass.Applying biochar as an amendment to treat contaminated soils is receiving increasing attention, and is a promising way to improve soil quality. Heavy metals are persistent and are not environmentally biodegradable. However, they can be stabilized in soil by adding biochar. Moreover, biochar is considered to be a predominant sorptive agent for organic pollutants, having a removal efficiency of about 1 order of magnitude higher than does soil/sediment organic matter or their precursor substances alone.When trying to stabilize organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, several features of biochar' s sorption capacity should be considered, viz., the nature of the pollutants to be remediated, how the biochar is prepared, and the complexity of the soil systemin which biochar may be used. In addition, a significant portion of the biochar or some of its components that are used to remediate soils do change over time through abiotic oxidation and microbial decomposition. This change process is commonly referred to as "aging:" Biochar "aging" in nature is inevitable, and aged biochar exhibits an effect that is totally different than non-aged biochar on stabilizing heavy metals and organic contaminants in soils.Studies that have been performed to date on the use of biochar to remediate contaminated soil are insufficient to allow its use for wide-scale field application.Therefore, considerable new data are necessary to expand both our understanding of how biochar performs in the field, and where it can be best used in the future for soil remediation. For example, how biochar and soil biota (microbial and faunal communities)interact in soils is still poorly understood. Moreover, studies are needed on how to best remove new species of heavy metals, and on how biochar aging affects sorption capacity are also needed. PMID:24162093

  14. Turnover of carbohydrate-rich vegetal matter during microaerobic composting and after amendment in soil.

    PubMed

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2011-09-01

    We propose that microaerobic composting (MC) can be used to decompose vegetal matter with a short turnover time and large carbon (C) recycling potential. We used a novel method for measuring the degree of fragmentation of water-insoluble acid-soluble (WIAS) polysaccharides as a proxy in tracking their relative degree of degradation (i.e., fragmentation endpoint index). Oak leaves and food scrap processed by MC reached a fragmentation end point within 2 weeks. After amending the MC products into soil, the half-life of the polysaccharide residues was ~6-7 times longer (~100-110 days) than that measured during MC. The main products given up during MC were volatile organic acids (VOAs), alcohols and soluble carbohydrates in the compost tea, and CO(2). These products accounted for about 2% of the initial carbon in the feedstock. Very small amounts of VOAs, particularly butyric acid, were formed in the amended soil. Based on a residence time of materials in fermentors of 2 weeks, a ~100-m(3) capacity MC facility could process 2,000-4,000 metric tons of vegetable matter amended in ten hectares of arable land per year. PMID:21537893

  15. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  16. Improving Water Quality and Conserving Soil Using Soil Amendments.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage such a no-tillage has widely been shown to control soil erosion compared to other forms of management that involved some extent of tillage. However, in no-tillage most if not all the chemicals are placed near or on the soil surface which makes their movement more likely to occu...

  17. Effects of various soil amendments on soil test P values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of animal manures have increased soil test P values in many parts of the United States, especially where concentrated animal feeding operations dominate, and thus increased the risk that soil P will be transferred to surface water and decrease water quality. To continue farming in thes...

  18. Some adverse effects of soil amendment with organic Materials-The case of soils polluted by copper industry phytostabilized with red fescue.

    PubMed

    Cuske, Mateusz; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Dradrach, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The study was aimed to examine the effects of soil amendment with organic waste materials on the growth of red fescue and the uptake of Cu and Zn by this grass, in view of its potential usage for phytostabilization of Cu-polluted soils. Five soils, containing 301-5180 mg/kg Cu, were collected from the surroundings of copper smelter Legnica, and amended with lignite (LG) and limed sewage sludge (SS). Plant growth and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the shoots and roots of grass were measured in a pot experiment and related to the results of Pytotoxkit and Microtox® tests performed on soil solution. The effects of soil amendment with LG and SS differed greatly, and depended on soil properties. In some cases, the application of alkaline SS resulted in dramatic increase of Cu phytotoxicity and its enhanced uptake by plants, while application of LG to slightly acidic soil caused increased accumulation of Zn in plants, particularly in their roots. The study confirmed good suitability of red fescue for phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soils except for those extremely polluted. Organic amendments to be used for metal immobilization should be thoroughly examined prior to application. PMID:26853183

  19. Use of oily waste organics as amendment to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.E.; Taboada, M.A.; Rodriguez, D.; Caso, O.; Portal, R.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of oily waste organics (OWO) from petroleum wells used as amendment in soils of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) was studied. The soil in Tierra del Fuego is dominated by a xeric heath community of very little forage value for sheep. In a pot experiment, applying OWO as a band 2 cm below the soil surface decreased water evaporation, increased the soil temperature by 15%, and decreased the growth of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) by 29% with respect to the control. In another pot experiment, OWO was mixed with soil, fertilized with N and P, and incubated for 0, 18, 39, and 75 days at 4 and 30 C. Incubation increased the population of nitrifier bacteria in soil only when OWO was applied at 0 or 10%; at 20% nitrifier bacteria were depressed. Fertilization increased the growth of orchard grass and overcame any depressive effect of OWO on shoot yield. In a third experiment, the percentage of germination of orchard seeds was not affected by adding up to 40% of OWO, although the addition of OWO depressed root elongation rate. In a field experiment, adding OWO between rows of potato plants increased soil water content and total potato yield.

  20. EVALUATION OF A SOIL AMENDMENT PROCESS DEMONSTRATION FOR REDUCING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA evaluated an in situ application of a soil amendment process at a residential site that was contaminated with lead. The goal of the evaluation was to determine if the soil amendment process resulted in lower concentrations of bioavailable lead in the contaminated soils...

  1. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils. PMID:27234831

  2. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Engracia; de Mora, Alfredo Pérez; Felipe, Efraín; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl(2)-soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. PMID:16005126

  3. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  4. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierz, Marcin; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Kraska, Piotr; Pałys, Edward; Andruszczak, Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    In the present study the persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) applied with biochar to acidic soil (loamy sand) was studied in two and half year field experiment. An experiment was carried out in three experimental plots (15 m(2) each). The biochar was introduced in the following doses: soil without fertilization - control (C-BC00), soil with 30 t ha(-1) (B-BC30) and soil with 45 t ha(-1) (A-BC45) of biochar. Biochar addition to soils resulted in an increase in the PAHs content from 0.239 μg g(-1) in control soil to 0.526 μg g(-1) and 1.310 μg g(-1) in 30 and 45 t ha(-1) biochar-amended soil respectively. However during the experimental period the PAHs content decreased to a level characteristic for the control soil. The highest losses of PAHs were observed during the first 105 days of the experiment. Three and four rings PAHs were the most susceptible for degradation and leaching. Migration of PAHs from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm soil horizon was also observed. PMID:26735727

  5. Carbon mineralization and nutrient availability in calcareous sandy soils amended with woody waste biochar.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul; Ok, Yong Sik; Ahmad, Mahtab; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have reported the positive effect of biochar on soil carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement in acidic soils. However, biochar may have different impacts on calcareous sandy soils. A 90-day incubation experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of woody waste biochar (10 g kg(-1)) on CO2-C emissions, K2SO4-extractable C and macro-(N, P and K) and micro-(Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) nutrient availability in the presence or absence of poultry manure (5 g kg(-1) soil). The following six treatments were applied: (1) conocarpus (Conocarpus erectus L.) waste (CW), (2) conocarpus biochar (BC), (3) poultry manure (PM), (4) PM+CW, (5) PM+BC and (6) untreated soil (CK). Poultry manure increased CO2-C emissions and K2SO4-extractable C, and the highest increases in CO2-C emission rate and cumulative CO2-C and K2SO4-extractable C were observed for the PM+CW treatment. On the contrary, treatments with BC halted the CO2-C emission rate, indicating that the contribution of BC to CO2-C emissions is negligible compared with the soils amended with CW and PM. Furthermore, the combined addition of PM+BC increased available N, P and K compared with the PM or BC treatments. Overall, the incorporation of biochar into calcareous soils might have benefits in carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement. PMID:26037818

  6. Effects of temperature and amendments on nitrogen mineralization in selected Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Surapaneni, Aravind

    2015-06-01

    The effects of temperature (18, 24, and 37 °C) and form of nitrogen (N) input from various sources (organic-green waste compost, biosolids, and chicken manure; inorganic-urea) on N transformation in three different Australian soils with varying pH (4.30, 7.09, and 9.15) were examined. Ammonification rate (ammonium concentration) increased with increase in temperature in all soil types. The effect of temperature on nitrification rate (nitrate concentration) followed 24 > 37 > 18 °C. Nitrification rate was higher in neutral and alkaline soils than acidic soil. Mineral N (bioavailable N) concentration was high in urea treatments than in organic N source treatments in all soil types. Acidic soil lacked nitrification activity resulting in low nitrate (NO3) buildup in urea treatment, whereas a significant NO3 buildup was noticed in green waste compost treatment. In neutral and alkaline soils, the nitrification activity was low at 37 °C in urea treatment but with a significant NO3 buildup in organic amendment added soils. Addition of organic N sources supplied ammonia oxidizing bacteria thereby triggering nitrification in the soils (even at 37 °C). This study posits the following implications: (1) inorganic fertilizer accumulate high NO3 content in soils in a short period of incubation, thereby becoming a potential source of NO3 leaching; (2) organic N sources can serve as possible source of nitrifying bacteria, thereby increasing bioavailable N (NO3) in soils regardless of the soil properties and temperature. PMID:24114384

  7. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  8. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: I. Effects on trace elements and nutrients solubility and leaching risk.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2014-07-01

    A mesocosm experiment, in columns, was conducted in a growth chamber to assess the viability of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost; in combination with hydrated lime) for the remediation of a highly acidic and trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil and the reduction of its associated leaching risks. Their influence on the evolution throughout the soil depth of the physicochemical properties (including TEs mobility) of the soil and soil solution (in situ periodic collection) and on Lolium perenne growth and foliar TEs accumulation was evaluated. Soluble and extractable concentrations of the different TEs were considerably high, although the organic amendments (with lime) and lime addition successfully decreased TEs mobility in the top soil layer, as a consequence of a rise in pH and changes in the redox conditions. Compost and pig slurry increased the soluble organic-C and dissolved N, K and P of the soil, producing a certain downwards displacement of N and K. The organic amendments allowed the growth of L. perenne in the soil, thus indicating improvement of soil conditions, but elevated TEs availability in the soil led to toxicity symptoms and abnormally high TEs concentrations in the plants. An evaluation of the functioning and ecotoxicological risks of the remediated soils is reported in part II: this allows verification of the viability of the amendments for remediation strategies. PMID:24875879

  9. Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Properties and Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties and soil carbon sequestration, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties as well as soil carbon sequestration. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates and the amount of soil carbon storage.

  10. Does thermal carbonization (Biochar) of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Sun, J. N.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-02-01

    Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  11. Effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of pesticide chlorantraniliprole in soil to earthworm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Jie; Liu, Xian-Jin; Jiang, Wayne; Zhang, Chao-Lan; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in soils with different physico-chemical properties, the uptake of CAP from various soils by earthworms was studied. It was observed that the biochar amendment of the soils affected the sorption of CAP, but the magnitude of the sorption enhancement by biochar amendment among the soils was varied, presumably due to the attenuation of the sorptivity of the biochar when amended in the soil. The amendment with biochars leads to a decrease in the bioavailability of CAP in the soils to earthworms, and more prominent for biochar BC850 amendment. In the soil with a CAP concentration of 10 mg kg(-1), the residue of CAP in the earthworm tissues was found to be 9.65 mg kg(-1), in comparison with that the CAP residue was 4.05 mg kg(-1) in BC450 amended soil and 0.59 mg kg(-1) in BC850, respectively. The degree of bioavailability reduction by same level of biochar amendment was different among soils with different properties. The results demonstrate that the properties of soils are important to performance of biochar in soil. PMID:22776710

  12. Biosolids compost amendment for reducing soil lead hazards: a pilot study of Orgro amendment and grass seeding in urban yards.

    PubMed

    Farfel, Mark R; Orlova, Anna O; Chaney, Rufus L; Lees, Peter S J; Rohde, Charles; Ashley, Peter J

    2005-03-20

    In situ inactivation of soil Pb is an alternative to soil removal and replacement that has been demonstrated in recent years at industrial sites with hazardous soil Pb concentrations. Most children exposed to elevated soil Pb, however, reside in urban areas, and no government programs exist to remediate such soils unless an industrial source caused the contamination. Modern regulated biosolids composts have low Pb concentrations and low bioaccessible Pb fractions and can improve grass growth on urban soils. High Fe and P biosolids composts can reduce the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of soil Pb and can aid in establishing vegetation that would reduce soil transfer into homes. For these reasons, we conducted a field test of their use to reduce Pb bioaccessibility in urban soils in Baltimore, MD USA. We chose biosolids compost for its expected reduction in the bioaccessible Pb fraction of urban soils, ease of use by urban residents, and ability to beautify urban areas. Nine urban yards with mean soil Pb concentrations >800 mg Pb kg(-1) were selected and sampled at several distances from the house foundation before soil treatment. The soils were rototilled to 20 cm depth to prepare the sites, and resampled. The yards were then amended with 6-8 cm depth of Orgro biosolids compost (110-180 dry t/ha) rich in Fe and P, mixed well by rototilling, and resampled. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) was seeded and became well established. Soils were resampled 1 year later. At each sampling time, total soil Pb was measured using a modified U.S. EPA nitric acid hotplate digestion method (SW 846 Method 3050) and bioaccessible Pb fraction was measured using the Solubility/Bioaccesibility Research Consortium standard operating procedure with modifications, including the use of glycine-buffered HCl at pH 2.2. Samples of untreated soils were collected from each yard and mixed well to serve as controls for the Pb bioaccessibility of field treated soils over time independent of

  13. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Evanylo, G.K.; Abaye, A.O.; Dundas, C.; Zipper, C.E.; Lemus, R.; Sukkariyah, B.; Rockett, J.

    2005-10-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha{sup -1} (dry weight). The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall fescue, and crownvetch) shared the physiological and reproductive characteristics of low fertility requirements, drought and moisture tolerance, and propagation by rhizome and/or stolons. Of these five species, two (tall fescue and sericea lespedeza) are or have been seeded commonly on Appalachian coal surface mines, and often dominate abandoned pasture sites. Despite the high rates of heavy metal-bearing biosolids applied to the soil, plant uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn were well within critical concentrations more than a decade after establishment of the vegetation.

  14. Influence of biochar amendments on the sorption-desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor, bentazone and pyraclostrobin pesticides to an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, A; Cox, L; Spokas, K; Hermosín, M C; Cornejo, J; Koskinen, W C

    2014-02-01

    The many advantageous properties of biochar have led to the recent interest in the use of this carbonaceous material as a soil amendment. However, there are limited studies dealing with the effect of biochar on the behavior of pesticides applied to crops. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of various biochars on the sorption-desorption of the herbicides aminocyclopyrachlor (6-amino-5-chloro-2-cyclopropyl-4-pyrimidinacarboxylic acid) and bentazone (3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide) and the fungicide pyraclostrobin (methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl) pyrazol-3-yloxymethil]-N-methoxycarbanilate) to a silt loam soil. Aminocyclopyrachlor and bentazone were almost completely sorbed by the soils amended with the biochars produced from wood pellets. However, lower sorption of the herbicides was observed in the soils amended with the biochar made from macadamia nut shells as compared to the unamended soil, which was attributed to the competition between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the biochar and the herbicides for sorption sites. Our results showed that pyraclostrobin is highly sorbed to soil, and the addition of biochars to soil did not further increase its sorption. Thus, addition of biochars to increase the retention of low mobility pesticides in soil appears to not be necessary. On the other hand, biochars with high surface areas and low DOC contents can increase the sorption of highly mobile pesticides in soil. PMID:24144943

  15. Biochar and compost as amendments in copper-enriched vineyard soils - stabilization or mobilization of copper?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Gerhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Wimmer, Bernhard; Bell, Stephen; Chamier Glisczinski, Julia; Pardeller, Georg; Dersch, Georg; Rosner, Franz; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an important ingredient for several fungicides that have been used in agriculture. For organic viticulture, several diseases as e.g. downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) can only be antagonized with Cu-containing fungicides. This long-lasting dependence on Cu-fungicides has led to a gradual Cu enrichment of vineyard soils in traditional wine-growing areas, occasionally exceeding 300 mg/kg. Although these concentrations do not affect the vines or wine quality, they may impair soil microbiological functions in the top soil layer or the root growth of green cover plants. Therefore measures are demanded that reduce the bioavailability of copper, thereby reducing the ecotoxicological effects. The use of biochar and compost as soil amendment has been suggested as a strategy to immobilize Cu and reduce the exchangeable fractions. This study consisted of lab and greenhouse experiments that were designed to test the sorption and desorption behavior of copper in vineyard soils with or without biochar and/or compost as soil amendment. Slightly acidic soils (pH<6) showed a clearer biochar-induced immobilization of copper with biochar than neutral or alkaline soils. The analyses of leachate waters of microlysimeter experiments showed that the biochar effects were more evident for a reduction of the ionic form Cu2+ than for total soluble copper, even in alkaline soils. Biochar modified with citric or tartaric acid did not significantly decrease the solubility of copper based on total dissolved concentrations although CEC was higher than in unmodified biochar. Treatments consisting of compost only or that had an equal amount of compost and biochar rather had a mobilizing effect on biochar. Sorption experiments with different DOC concentrations and biochar, however, showed a positive effect on copper sorption. Apparently in vineyard soils the predisposition to form organic-Cu-complexes may outbalance the binding possibilities of these complexes to biochar, occasionally

  16. Copper phytoavailability and uptake by Elsholtzia splendens from contaminated soil as affected by soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Yang, Xiao-E; Jiang, Li-Ying; He, Zhen-Li

    2005-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to evaluate bioavailability of Cu in contaminated paddy soil (PS) and phytoremediation potential by Elsholtzia splendens as affected by soil amendments. The results from pot experiment showed that organic manure (M) applied to the PS not only remarkably raised the H2O exchangeable Cu, which were mainly due to the increased exchangeable and organic fractions of Cu in the PS by M, but also stimulated plant growth and Cu accumulation in E. splendens. At M application rate of 5.0%, shoot Cu concentration in the plant increased by four times grown on the PS, so as to the elevated shoot Cu accumulation by three times as compared to the control. In the field trial, soil amendments by M and furnace slag (F), and soil preparations like soil capping (S) and soil discing (D) were performed in the PS. Soil capping and discing considerably declined total Cu in the PS. Application of M solely or together with F enhanced plant growth and increased H2O exchangeable Cu levels in the soil. The increased extractability of Cu in the rhizosphere of E. splendens was noted, which may have mainly attributed to the rhizospheric acidification and chelation by dissolved organic matter (DOM), thus resulting in elevating Cu uptake and accumulation by E. splendens. Amendments with organic manure plus furnace slag (MF) to the PS caused the highest exactable Cu with saturated H2O in the rhizospheric soil of E. splendens after they were grown for 170 days in the PS, thus achieving 1.74 kg Cu ha(-1) removal from the contaminated soil by the whole plant of E. splendens at one season, which is higher than those of the other soil treatments. The results indicated that application of organic manure at a proper rate could enhance Cu bioavailability and increase effectiveness of Cu phytoextraction from the contaminated soil by the metal-tolerant and accumulating plant species (E. splendens). PMID:15792303

  17. The effect of chemical and organic amendments on sodium exchange equilibria in a calcareous sodic soil.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Faranak; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the reclamation of a calcareous sodic soil with the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) value of 26.6% was investigated using the cheap and readily available chemical and organic materials including natural bentonite and zeolite saturated with calcium (Ca2+), waste calcite, three metal oxide nanoparticles functionalized with an acidic extract of potato residues, and potato residues. Chemical amendments were added to the soil at a rate of 2%, while potato residues were applied at the rates of 2 and 4% by weight. The ESP in the amended soils was reduced in the range of 0.9-4.9% compared to the control soil, and the smallest and the largest decline was respectively observed in treatments containing waste calcite and 4% of potato residues. Despite the reduction in ESP, the values of this parameter were not below 15% at the end of a 40-day incubation period. So, the effect of solutions of varying sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 on sodium (Na+) exchange equilibria was evaluated in batch systems. The empirical models (simple linear, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) fitted well to experimental data. The relations of quantity to intensity (Q/I) revealed that the potential buffering capacity for Na+ (PBCNa) varied from 0.275 to 0.337 ((cmolc kg(-1)) (mmol L(-1))(-1/2)) in the control soil and amended soils. The relationship between exchangeable sodium ratio (ESR) and SAR was individually determined for the control soil and amended soils. The values of Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG) of Na+ differed from the value suggested by U.S. Salinity Laboratory (USSL). The PHREEQC, a geochemical computer program, was applied to simulate Na+ exchange isotherms by using the mechanistic cation exchange model (CEM) along with Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficients. The simulation results indicated that Na+ exchange isotherms and Q/I and ESR-SAR relations were influenced by the type of counter anions. The values of K G increased in

  18. Aerosol emissions from biochar-amended agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Sharratt, B. S.; Li, J. J.; Olshvevski, S.; Meng, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. In this regard, novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale biochar application may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon in agricultural areas. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence understanding the soil properties affected by biochar addition needs to be investigated to identify the tradeoffs and synergies of large-scale biochar application. Even though several studies have investigated the impacts of biochar application on a variety of soil properties, very few studies have investigated the impacts on soil erosion, in particular wind (aeolian) erosion and subsequent particulate emissions. Using a combination of wind tunnel studies and laboratory experiments, we investigated the dust emission potential of biochar-amended agricultural soils. We amended biochar (unsieved or sieved to appropriate particle size; application rates ranging from 1 - 5 % of the soil by weight) to three soil types (sand, sandy loam, and silt loam) and estimated the changes in threshold shear velocity for wind erosion and dust emission potential in comparison to control soils. Our experiments demonstrate that emissions of fine biochar particles may result from two mechanisms (a) very fine biochar particles (suspension size) that are entrained into the air stream when the wind velocity exceeds the threshold, and (b) production of fine biochar particles originating from the abrasion by quartz grains. The results indicate that biochar application significantly increased particulate emissions and more interestingly, the rate of increase was found to be higher in the intermediate range of biochar application. As fine biochar particles effectively adsorb/trap contaminants and pathogens from the soil, the preferential erosion of fine biochar particles by wind may lead to concentration of contaminants in the

  19. Mobility of selected trace elements in Mediterranean red soil amended with phosphogypsum: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kassir, Lina Nafeh; Darwish, Talal; Shaban, Amin; Ouaini, Naim

    2012-07-01

    Soil amendment by phosphogypsum (PG) application becomes of increasing importance in agriculture. This may lead, however, to soil, plant, and groundwater contamination with trace elements (TEs) inherently present in PG. Monitoring of selected TEs (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) distribution and mobility in a Mediterranean red soil profile has been performed in soil parcels applied with PG over a 16-month period. Concentrations were measured in soil and plant samples collected from various depth intervals at different points in time. TEs sequential extraction was performed on soil and PG samples. Results showed soil profile enrichment peaked 5 months after PG application for Cd, and 12 months for Pb, Zn, and Cu. Rainwater, pH, total organic carbon, and cationic exchange capacity were the main controlling factors in TEs accumulation in soils. Cd was transferred to a soil depth of about 20 cm. Zn exhibited mobility towards deeper layers. Pb and Cu were accumulated in around 20-55-cm-deep layers. PG increased the solubility of the studied TEs; PG-applied soils contained TEs bound to exchangeable and acid-soluble fractions in higher percentages than reference soil. Pb, Zn, and Cu were sorbed into mineral soil phases, while Cd was mainly found in the exchangeable (bio-available) form. The order of TEs decreasing mobility was Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu. Roots and leaves of existed plants, Cichorium intybus L., accumulated high concentrations of Cd (1-2.4 mg/kg), exceeding recommended tolerable levels, and thus signifying potential health threats through contaminated crops. It was therefore recommended that PG should be applied in carefully established, monitored, and controlled quantities to agricultural soils. PMID:21796359

  20. SITE EVALUATION OF SOIL AMENDMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE CROOKSVILLE/ROSEVILLE POTTERY AREA OF CONCERN - STAR ORGANICS SOIL RESCUE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report briefly summarizes Star Organics treatment technology demonstration of a soil amendment process for lead contaminated soil at Roseville, OH. The evaluation included leaching, bioavailability, geotechnical, and geochemical testing methods.

  1. Biochar Amendment to the Soil Surface Reduces Fumigant Emissions and Enhances Soil Microorganism Recovery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guoqing; Ashworth, Daniel J; Gan, Jay; Yates, Scott R

    2016-02-01

    During soil fumigation, it is ideal to mitigate soil fumigant emissions, ensure pest control efficacy, and speed up the recovery of the soil microorganism population established postapplication. However, no current fumigant emission reduction strategy can meet all these requirements. In the present study, replicated soil columns were used to study the effect of biochar derived from rice husk (BR) and green waste (BG) applied to the soil surface on 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) emissions and soil gas distribution, and on microorganism population re-establishment. Relative to fumigated bare soil (no emission reduction strategy), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) treatments, BR gave dramatic emission reductions for both fumigants with no obvious emission peak, whereas BG was very effective only for 1,3-D. With BR application, the concentration of fumigant in the soil gas was higher than in the bare soil and ATS treatment. After the soil column experiment, mixing the BR with the fumigated soil resulted in higher soil respiration rates than were observed for HDPE and ATS treatments. Therefore, biochar amendment to the soil surface may be an effective strategy for fumigant emission reduction and the recovery of soil microorganism populations established postapplication. PMID:26726779

  2. INFLUENCE OF AN ORGANIC WASTE USED AS SOIL AMENDMENT ON TRIAZINE HERBICIDE SORPTION AND AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we have studied the influence of an organic waste generated in the olive oil mill process, used as soil amendment, on atrazine and terbuthylazine sorption and availability in soil. The soils studied were two sandy soils with different origin, Spain and Minnesota and the effect of soil a...

  3. RESPONSE OF SOIL MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES TO CD, PB, AND ZN SALT AMENDMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal pollution of soil has been recognized as a major factor impeding soil microbial processes. We studied responses of the soil biological activities to metal stress simulated by soil amendment with Zn, Pb and Cd chlorides. The amounts of heavy metal salts added to five metal polluted soils ...

  4. Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong

    2012-01-15

    Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge. PMID:22112800

  5. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years. PMID:19054545

  6. Lead and zinc bioavailability to Eisenia fetida after phosphorus amendment to repository soils.

    PubMed

    Ownby, David R; Galvan, Kari A; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    Four phosphorus forms were investigated as potential soil amendments to decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Zn in two repository soils to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Treatments were evaluated by examining differences in bioaccumulation factors between amended and non-amended soils. Triple super phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased both Pb and Zn bioavailability in both soils. Rock phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased Zn bioavailability, but not Pb bioavailability in both repository soils. Monocalcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg did not significantly decrease Pb or Zn bioavailability to earthworms in either repository soil. In order to optimize phosphorus amendments, additional phosphorus (up to 15,000 mg P/kg) and lowered pH were used in a series of tests. The combination of lowering the pH below 6.0 and increasing phosphorus concentrations caused complete mortality in all triple super phosphate amended soils and partial mortality in the highest rock phosphate amended soils. Results indicate that triple super phosphate and rock phosphate are viable soil amendments, but care should be taken when optimizing amendment quantity and pH so that adverse environmental effects are not a by-product. PMID:15840539

  7. EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS ON SORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR OF CADMIUM IN BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  8. EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS ON PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF CD IN LONG-TERM AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  9. SITE Technology Capsule. Demonstration of Rocky Mountain Remediation Services Soil Amendment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report briefly summarizes the Rocky Mountain Remediation Services treatment technology demonstration of a soil amendment process for lead contaminated soil at Roseville, OH. The evaluation included leaching, bioavailability, geotechnical, and geochemical methods.

  10. Biochar amendment to soil changes dissolved organic matter content and composition.

    PubMed

    Smebye, Andreas; Alling, Vanja; Vogt, Rolf D; Gadmar, Tone C; Mulder, Jan; Cornelissen, Gerard; Hale, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Amendments of biochar, a product of pyrolysis of biomass, have been shown to increase fertility of acidic soils by enhancing soil properties such as pH, cation-exchange-capacity and water-holding-capacity. These parameters are important in the context of natural organic matter contained in soils, of which dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the mobile and most bioavailable fraction. The effect of biochar on the content and composition of DOM in soils has received little research attention. This study focuses on the effects of amendments of two different biochars to an acidic acrisol and a pH-neutral brown soil. A batch experiment showed that mixing biochar with the acrisols at a 10 wt.% dose increased the pH from 4.9 to 8.7, and this resulted in a 15-fold increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration (from 4.5 to 69 mg L(-1)). The pH-increase followed the same trend as the release of DOM in the experiment, causing higher DOM solubility and desorption of DOM from mineral sites. The binding to biochar of several well-characterised reference DOM materials was also investigated and results showed a higher sorption of aliphatic DOM to biochar than aromatic DOM, with DOM-water partitioning coefficients (Kd-values) ranging from 0.2 to 590 L kg(-1). A size exclusion occurring in biochar's micropores, could result in a higher sorption of smaller aliphatic DOM molecules than larger aromatic ones. These findings indicate that biochar could increase the leaching of DOM from soil, as well as change the DOM composition towards molecules with a larger size and higher aromaticity. PMID:25980657

  11. Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

  12. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  13. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-10-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  14. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Selevsek, N; Torres, I F; Hernández, T; García, C

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  15. Degradation of phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by indigenous and inoculated microorganisms in sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Roslev, P.; Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.

    1998-12-01

    The metabolism of phthalic acid (PA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) in sludge-amended agricultural soil was studied with radiotracer techniques. The initial rates of metabolism of PA and DEHP were estimated to be 731.8 and 25.6 pmol/g (dry weight) per day, respectively. Indigenous microorganisms assimilated 28 and 17% of the carbon in [{sup 14}C]PA and [{sup 14}C]DEHP, respectively, into microbial biomass. The rates of DEHP metabolism were much greater in sludge assays without soil than in assays with sludge-amended soil. Mineralization of [{sup 14}C]DEHP to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} increased fourfold after inoculation of sludge and soil samples with DEHP-degrading strain SDE 2. The elevated mineralization potential was maintained for more than 27 days. Experiments performed with strain SDE 2 suggested that the bioavailability and mineralization of DEHP decreased substantially in the presence of soil and sludge components. The microorganisms metabolizing PA and DEHP in sludge and sludge-amended soil were characterized by substrate-specific radiolabelling, followed by analysis of {sup 14}C-labelled phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids ({sup 14}C-PLFAs).

  16. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p < 0.05) EDTA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in the two soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71%) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer. PMID:25772873

  17. Potential effects of vinasse as a soil amendment to control runoff and soil loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbavi, Z.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.

    2016-02-01

    Application of organic materials are well known as environmental practices in soil restoration, preserving soil organic matter and recovering degraded soils of arid and semiarid lands. Therefore, the present research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of vinasse, a byproduct mainly of the sugar-ethanol industry, on soil conservation under simulated rainfall. Vinasse can be recycled as a soil amendment due to its organic matter content. Accordingly, the laboratory experiments were conducted by using 0.25 m2 experimental plots at 20 % slope and rainfall intensity of 72 mm h-1 with 0.5 h duration. The effect of vinasse was investigated on runoff and soil loss control. Experiments were set up as a control (with no amendment) and three treated plots with doses of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 L m-2 of vinasse subjected to simulated rainfall. Laboratory results indicated that vinasse at different levels could not significantly (P > 0.05) decrease the runoff amount and soil loss rate in the study plots compared to untreated plots. The average amounts of minimum runoff volume and soil loss were about 3985 mL and 46 g for the study plot at a 1 L m-2 level of vinasse application.

  18. Soil quality, crop productivity and soil organic matter (SOM) priming in biochar and wood ash amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Eleanor Swain; Chadwick, David; Hill, Paul; Jones, Davey

    2016-04-01

    The application of energy production by-products as soil amendments to agricultural land is rapidly growing in popularity, however the increasing body of literature on primarily biochar but also wood ash have yielded contrary evidence of the range of these soil amendments function sensitivity in soil. This study aims to assess the efficacy of two by-products; biochar and wood ash to provide nutrients to grassland as well as the potential to improve overall soil quality. The study of soil amendments at field scale are scarce, and the agronomic benefits of biochar and wood ash in temperate soils remain unclear. We used replicated field plots with three soil treatments (biochar, wood ash and control) to measure the soil and crop properties over twelve months, including PLFA analysis to quantify the total soil microbial biomass and community structure. After a soil residency of one year, there were no significant differences in soil EC, total N, dissolved organic N (DON), dissolved organic C (DOC), NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations, between biochar amended, wood ash amended and un-amended soil. In contrast, the application of biochar had a significant effect on soil moisture, pH, PO4-P concentrations, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total organic carbon (TOC), whilst the wood ash amendment resulted in an increase in soil pH only. There were no significant treatment effects on the growth performance or nutrient uptake of the grass. In a parallel laboratory incubation study, the effects of biochar and wood ash on soil C priming was explored, in which soil with 14C-labelled native SOC was amended with either biochar or wood ash at the same rate as the field trial. The rates of 14CO2 (primed C) production was measured with a liquid scintillation counter over a 50 day period. The 14CO2 that evolved during decomposition likely originated from conversions in the (microbial) biomass. The results indicated that biochar application did not prime for the loss of native SOC (i.e. there

  19. Behaviour of fullerenes (C60) in the terrestrial environment: potential release from biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Divina A; Kookana, Rai S; Kirby, Jason K; Martin, Sheridan M; Shareef, Ali; Du, Jun; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2013-11-15

    Owing of their wide-range of commercial applications, fullerene (C60) nanoparticles, are likely to reach environments through the application of treated sludge (biosolids) from wastewater treatment plants to soils. We examined the release behaviour of C60 from contaminated biosolids added to soils with varying physicochemical characteristics. Incubation studies were carried out in the dark for up to 24 weeks, by adding biosolids spiked (1.5mg/kg) with three forms of C60 (suspended in water, in humic acid, and precipitated/particulate) to six contrasting soils. Leaching of different biosolids+soil systems showed that only small fractions of C60 (<5% of applied amount) were released, depending on incubation time and soil properties (particularly dissolved organic carbon content). Release of C60 from unamended soils was greater (at least twice as much) than from biosolids-amended soils. The form of C60 used to spike the biosolids had no significant effect on the release of C60 from the different systems. Contact time of C60 in these systems only slightly increased the apparent release up to 8 weeks, followed by a decrease to 24 weeks. Mass balance analysis at the completion of the experiment revealed that 20-60% of the initial C60 applied could not be accounted for in these systems; the reasons for this are discussed. PMID:24076573

  20. Phosphorus Speciation in Manure and Manure-Amended Soils Using XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sato,S.; Solomon, D.; Hyland, C.; Ketterings, Q.; Lehmann, J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggested an increase in the proportion of calcium phosphates (CaP) of the total phosphorus (P) pool in soils with a long-term poultry manure application history versus those with no or limited application histories. To understand and predict long-term P accumulation and release dynamics in these highly amended soils, it is important to understand what specific P species are being formed. We assessed forms of CaP formed in poultry manure and originally acidic soil in response to different lengths of mostly poultry manure applications using P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra of poultry manure showed no evidences of crystalline P minerals but dominance of soluble CaP species and free and weakly bound phosphates (aqueous phosphate and phosphate adsorbed on soil minerals). Phosphate in an unamended neighboring forest soil (pH 4.3) was mainly associated with iron (Fe) compounds such as strengite and Fe-oxides. Soils with a short-term manure history contained both Fe-associated phosphates and soluble CaP species such as dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Long-term manure application resulted in a dominance of CaP forms confirming our earlier results obtained with sequential extractions, and a transformation from soluble to more stable CaP species such as {beta}-tricalcium calcium phosphate (TCP). Even after long-term manure application (>25 yr and total P in soil up to 13 307 mg kg{sup -1}), however, none of the manure-amended soils showed the presence of crystalline CaP. With a reduction or elimination of poultry manure application to naturally acidic soils, the pH of the soil is likely to decrease, thereby increasing the solubility of Ca-bonded inorganic P minerals. Maintaining a high pH is therefore an important strategy to minimize P leaching in these soils.

  1. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars contain an assemblage of organic and inorganic compounds; they can be used as an amendment for carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments, however, because of differences in their chemical composition. In this study, we demonstrate how bio...

  2. Monometal and competitive adsorption of heavy metals by sewage sludge-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sewage sludge-amended soils may alter their ability to adsorb heavy metals over time, due to the decomposition of sludge-borne organic matter. Thus, we studied Cd, Ni, and Zn adsorption by a sewage sludge-amended soil (Typic Xerofluvent) before and after one-year incubation in both monometal and com...

  3. Use of organic amendments as a bioremediation strategy to reduce the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos insecticide in soils. Effects on soil biology.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; Gómez, Isidoro; Del Toro, Marina

    2011-10-01

    The sorption capacity of both an organic municipal solid waste by-product (MSW) and a cow manure (CM) in a soil polluted with chlorpyrifos, as well as its effect on soil microbial activity, and weight, reproductive parameters and glutathione-S-transferase activity of two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris) were studied. Chlorpyrifos was added at the recommended application rate (5 L ha(-1); 768 mg chlorpyrifos kg(-1)) and treated with MSW at a rate of 10% and CM at a rate of 5.8% in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. An unamended polluted soil was used as control. Earthworm cocoon number, average weight of cocoon, and number of juveniles per cocoon were measured after 30 days of incubation, whereas soil enzymatic activities, earthworm weight, and glutathione-S-transferase activity of earthworms were measured after 3, 45 and 90 days. Soil enzymatic activities, reproductive and glutathione-S-transferase activity in both worms decreased in polluted soil. The inhibition percentage of soil enzymatic activities, reproductive and glutathione-S-transferase activity in both worms was lower in MSW-amended soil than for CM-amended soil. The toxic effect of chlorpyrifos on E. fetida was lowest compared to L. terrestris. This suggested that the addition of organic wastes with higher humic than fulvic acid concentration is more beneficial for remediation of soils polluted with chlorpyrifos. PMID:21813178

  4. Decay of enteric microorganisms in biosolids-amended soil under wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, K R; Sidhu, J P S; Pritchard, D L; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-08-01

    There is a growing need for better assessment of health risks associated with land-applied biosolids. This study investigated in-situ decay of seeded human adenovirus (HAdV), Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage (MS2) in biosolids-amended soil under wheat cultivation. The biosolids seeded with microorganisms were placed in decay chambers which were then placed in the topsoil (10 cm depth) at three different sites. Sites were selected in arid wheat-growing regions of Australia with loamy-sand soil type (Western Australia) and sandy soil (South Australia). Seeded E. coli and S. enterica had a relatively short decay time (T90 = 4-56 days) in biosolids-amended soil compared to un-amended soil (T90 = 8-83 days). The decreasing soil moisture over the wheat-growing season significantly (P < 0.05) influenced survival time of both bacteria and MS2 at Western Australia (Moora) and South Australia (Mt Compass) sites, particularly in the un-amended soils. Increasing soil temperature also significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the decay of MS2 at these sites. In this study, no notable decline in HAdV numbers (PCR detectable units) was observed in both biosolids-amended and the un-amended soils at all three sites. The HAdV decay time (T90 ≥ 180 days) in biosolids-amended and un-amended soils was significantly higher than MS2 (T90 = 22-108 days). The results of this study suggest that adenovirus could survive for a longer period of time (>180 days) during the winter in biosolids-amended soil. The stability of adenovirus suggests that consideration towards biosolids amendment frequency, time, rates and appropriate withholding periods are necessary for risk mitigation. PMID:24793663

  5. Characterization of phosphorus in sludges and sludge amended soils using /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinedi, Z.R.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy was an effective tool in the characterization of phosphorus (P) in municipal sewage sludges and sludge amended soils. Waste activated and aerobically digested sludges contained higher percentages of organic P than anaerobically digested sludges. The /sup 31/P Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (/sup 31/P CP MAS) spectrum of an aerobically digested sludge indicated the presence of a significant organic P fraction over the inorganic P fraction. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of sludge-borne phospholipids dissolved in cholate, to which a complexing agent was added, were found to be better resolved than those dissolved in chloroform. Phytic acid and ribonucleic acid were shown to be constituents of organic P in sludges based upon their susceptibility to different phosphoric ester hydrolases. Sludge amended soils were incubated to examine the transformations of sludge-borne P in soils. It was found that soil pH affected the biodegradation of organic P as well as that of pyrophosphate. Phosphorus-monoesters and pyrophosphates hydrolyzed after 70 days of incubation under alkaline soil condition while they persisted beyond 140 days of incubation under acid soil condition. The P-diesters completely hydrolyzed after 28 days of incubation under acid and alkaline soil conditions. The solubility study showed that the P in a sludge amended soil was undersaturated with respect to Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P minerals considered. The finding suggested that the activity of the P solid phase under study might be less than unity which would be indicative of a coprecipitated solid solution.

  6. Extractability and Bioavailability of Pb and As in Historically Contaminated Orchard Soil: Effects of Compost Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Margaret; Yiping, Tai; Ping, Zhuang; McBride, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. PMID:23474982

  7. Extractability and bioavailability of Pb and As in historically contaminated orchard soil: effects of compost amendments.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Margaret; Tai, Yiping; Zhuang, Ping; McBride, Murray B

    2013-06-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. PMID:23474982

  8. Evaluation of antibiotic mobility in soil associated with swine-slurry soil amendment under cropping conditions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, C; Flores, C; Caixach, J; Mita, L; Piña, B; Comas, J; Bayona, J M

    2014-11-01

    Interest in identifying pools of antibacterial-resistance genes has grown over the last decade, with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) receiving particular attention. In this paper, a mesoscale study aimed at evaluating the vertical transport of common VAs-namely, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in agricultural soil subjected to drip irrigation-was performed under greenhouse conditions. Accordingly, leachates of cropped and uncropped soil, amended with swine-slurry leading to 19-38 μg kg(-1) (dry mass) antibiotics in the soil, were analyzed over the course of the productive cycle of a lettuce (42 days) with three sampling campaigns (N = 24). High lincomycin (LCM) concentrations (30-39 μg L(-1)) were detected in the leachates collected from the swine-slurry-amended soil. The highest LCM mass recovered in the leachates (30.1 ± 1.63 %) was obtained from cropped experimental units. In addition, the LCM leaching constant and its leaching potential as obtained from the first-order model were higher in the leachates from the cropped experimental units. Lower concentrations of sulfadimethoxine were also detected in leachates and in soil. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline occurred only in soil, which is consistent with high soil interaction. PMID:24938815

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals in a long-term poultry waste-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.X.; Kingery, W.L.; Selim, H.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2000-03-01

    Various metals are added to poultry diets to facilitate weight increase and disease prevention. The large amounts of poultry waste produced annually are dispersed intensively over relatively small areas of land, resulting in accumulations that pose potential environmental risks to the surface and groundwater. The focus of this study was to assess the distribution of heavy metals among various solid-phase fractions in soil profiles from a 25-year poultry waste-amended soil. Copper and Zn accumulated close to the soil surface where the total amounts of Cu and Zn in waste-amended soils were significantly higher than in nonamended soils. The total metal concentrations in amended soils were not critically high. Copper in the amended soil was present mostly in the organic matter (OM) fraction (46.9%), whereas Zn was found in the easily reducible oxide (ERO) fraction (47.3%). This suggests that the Cu and Zn in this long-term amended soil are potentially bioavailable and mobile. The authors observed the mobility of Zn through much of the soil profile of the long-term waste-amended soil. Zinc in this soil profile was found primarily in forms of the residual (RES) and crystalline iron oxide bound (CryFe) fractions, followed by the organic matter-bound and exchangeable (EXC) fractions.

  10. Alkaline biosolids and EDTA for phytoremediation of an acidic loamy soil spiked with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Wong, Winnie W Y; Wei, Zhenggui; Jagadeesan, Hema

    2004-05-25

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the growth of Brassica juncea and Cd phytoextraction in a mimicked Cd contaminated acidic loamy soil amended with alkaline biosolids, prepared from sewage sludge and coal fly ash, in the presence and absence of EDTA at 2 mmol kg(-1). The acidic loamy soil was spiked with 0, 5, 20, 50 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1) in the form of CdCO(3) and then amended with 4% alkaline biosolids (w/w). Alkaline biosolids and 0.12% CaCO(3) amendments resulted in a higher biomass than unamended soil spiked with 20 mg kg(-1) Cd where plants did not survive and of the two amendments, alkaline biosolids amendment had higher plant dry weight yield and phytoextraction of Cd. Adding 2 mmol kg(-1) EDTA to alkaline biosolids amended soil significantly increased the solubility of Cd ions by 9- to 29-fold, but plant Cd accumulation decreased by a factor of 24-48%. The results indicate that alkaline biosolids amendment is an effective approach for assisting growth of B. juncea and phytoextraction of Cd from the contaminated acidic loamy soil, but further application of chelating agents did not enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of Cd. PMID:15081709

  11. [Impact of biochar amendment on the sorption and dissipation of chlorantraniliprole in soils].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Yu, Xiang-Yang; Shen, Yaen; Zhang, Chao-Lan; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2012-04-01

    The effects of biochar amendment on sorption and dissipation of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in 5 different agricultural soils were studied. Red gum wood (Eucalyptus spp.) derived biochar was amended into a black soil, a yellow soil, a red soil, a purplish soil, and a fluvo-aquic soil at the rate of 0.5% (by weight). The sorption and dissipation behaviors of CAP in soils with and without biochar amendment were measured by batch equilibration technique and dissipation kinetic experiment, respectively. The objective was to investigate the impact of biochar application on the environmental fate of pesticides in agricultural soils with different physical-chemical properties, and evaluate the potential ecological impacts of field application of biochar materials. The results showed that biochar application in soils could enhance the sorption of CAP, but the magnitudes were varied among soils with different properties. Amendment of 0.5% (by weight) biochar in the black soil, which have high content of organic matter (4.59%), resulted in an increase of sorption coefficient (K(d)) by 2.17%; while for the fluvo-aquic soil with organic matter content of 1.16%, amendment of biochar at the same level led to an increase of 139.13%. The sorption capacity of biochar was partially suppressed when biochar was mixed with soils. The calculated K(Fbiochar) of biochar after mixed in the black soil, yellow soil, red soil, purplish soil, and fluvo-aquic soil were decreased by 96.94%, 90.6%, 91.31%, 68.26%, and 34.59%, respectively, compared to that of the original biochar. The half-lives of CAP in black soil, yellow soil, red soil, purplish soil, and fluvo-aquic soil were 115.52, 133.30, 154.03, 144.41 and 169.06 d, respectively. In soils amended with biochar, the corresponding half-lives of CAP were extended by 20.39, 35.76, 38.51, 79.19, and 119.75 d, respectively. Similar to the effects of biochar on CAP sorption, in soil with higher content of organic matter, the retardation of CAP

  12. Hardwood tree growth on amended mine soils in west virginia.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Kokes, Lindsay; Delong, Curtis; Thomas, Calene; Emerson, Paul; O'Dell, Keith; Skousen, Jeff

    2013-09-01

    Each year surface mining in Appalachia disrupts large areas of forested land. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act requires coal mine operators to establish a permanent vegetative cover after mining, and current practice emphasizes soil compaction and planting of competitive forage grasses to stabilize the site and control erosion. These practices hinder recolonization of native hardwood trees on these reclaimed sites. Recently reclamation scientists and regulators have encouraged re-establishment of hardwood forests on surface mined land through careful selection and placement of rooting media and proper selection and planting of herbaceous and tree species. To evaluate the effect of rooting media and soil amendments, a 2.8-ha experimental plot was established, with half of the plot being constructed of weathered brown sandstone and half constructed of unweathered gray sandstone. Bark mulch was applied to an area covering both sandstone types, and the ends of the plot were hydroseeded with a tree-compatible herbaceous seed mix, resulting in eight soil treatments. Twelve hardwood tree species were planted, and soil chemical properties and tree growth were measured annually from 2007 to 2012. After six growing seasons, average tree volume index was higher for trees grown on brown sandstone (5333 cm) compared with gray sandstone (3031 cm). Trees planted in mulch outperformed trees on nonmulched treatments (volume index of 6187 cm vs. 4194 cm). Hydroseeding with a tree-compatible mix produced greater ground cover (35 vs. 15%) and resulted in greater tree volume index than nonhydroseed areas (5809 vs. 3403 cm). Soil chemical properties were improved by mulch and improved tree growth, especially on gray sandstone. The average pH of brown sandstone was 5.0 to 5.4, and gray sandstone averaged pH 6.9 to 7.7. The mulch treatment on gray sandstone resulted in tree growth similar to brown sandstone alone and with mulch. After 6 yr, tree growth on brown sandstone was

  13. Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, fertility and carbon sequestration in soil. How this material might impact agricultural soils within temperate regions is largely unknown, Validation of biochar as a beneficial soil amendment and carbon sink would add important...

  14. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (a...

  15. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLID-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We hypothesized not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in soil systems. To test this hypothesis we conducted Cd adsorption experiments on different fractions of biosolids, biosolid amended soils, and unamended soils. Soils were c...

  16. Kinetics as a tool to assess the immobilization of soil trace metals by binding phase amendments for in situ remediation purposes.

    PubMed

    Varrault, Gilles; Bermond, Alain

    2011-08-30

    Many soil remediation techniques consist in decreasing the mobility of trace metals by means of adding trace metal binding phases. For this study, whose aim is to assess the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment, a kinetic fractionation method that provides the labile and slowly labile trace metal amounts in soil has been introduced. Manganese oxides (vernadite) and insolubilized humic acids (IHA) have been used as binding phases for the remediation of four heavily polluted soils. Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation, whereas IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. In most cases, the labile metal fractions decrease dramatically in amended soils (up to 50%); on the other hand, the amounts of total extracted metal near the point of thermodynamic equilibrium often show no significant difference between the amended soil and the control soil. These results highlight the utility of kinetic fractionation in assessing the efficiency of soil remediation techniques and, more generally, in evaluating trace metal mobility in soils and its potential advantages compared to extraction schemes performed under equilibrium conditions. In the future, this kinetic method could be considerably simplified so as to consume much less time allowing its routine use. PMID:21708424

  17. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  18. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  19. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments. PMID:26513264

  20. Biochar Amendment for Reducing Leachability of Nitro Explosives and Metals from Contaminated Soils and Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Su

    2016-05-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of nitro explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene [DNT], 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT], and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX]) in biochar-amended soils and toxic metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in biochar-amended mine tailings were investigated via various types of leaching procedures in laboratory-scale batch experiments. The results from the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction showed that approximately 55 to 95% of the explosives were released from the contaminated soils and would thus be considered as mobile. With the addition of biochar, the extracted concentrations of explosives were reduced to less than 10% of the initial concentrations after 10 d. According to the results from a Korean waste leaching method, the TCLP method, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, adding biochar to mine tailings reduced the extractability and bioavailability of metals. The chemical forms of the metals, types of extractants, pH, and curing period strongly affected the extractability of metals from mine tailings. The results suggest that biochar is a promising immobilizer of explosives and metals in contaminated soils and mine tailings under limited conditions. PMID:27136167

  1. Biochar and compost amendments enhance copper immobilisation and support plant growth in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah; Bardos, R Paul; Kidd, Petra S; Mench, Michel; de Leij, Frans; Hutchings, Tony; Cundy, Andrew; Joyce, Chris; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Herzig, Rolf; Menger, Pierre

    2016-04-15

    Contamination of soil with trace elements, such as Cu, is an important risk management issue. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three biochars and compost on plant growth and the immobilisation of Cu in a contaminated soil from a site formerly used for wood preservation. To assess Cu mobility, amended soils were analysed using leaching tests pre- and post-incubation, and post-growth. Amended and unamended soils were planted with sunflower, and the resulting plant material was assessed for yield and Cu concentration. All amendments significantly reduced leachable Cu compared to the unamended soil, however, the greatest reductions in leachable Cu were associated with the higher biochar application rate. The greatest improvements in plant yields were obtained with the higher application rate of biochar in combination with compost. The results suggest joint biochar and compost amendment reduces Cu mobility and can support biomass production on Cu-contaminated soils. PMID:26850677

  2. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment. PMID:26850860

  3. Soil Amendement by green supplement: dry cowdung powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barot, N. S.; Bagla, H.

    2009-04-01

    Soil is a heavenly resource, a living, breathing and ever changing dynamic ecosystem. Retrogression and degradation of soil system is the result of continuous encroachment done by global anthropogenic activities. Mother earth's monition has increased the local concern to explore solution for the healthy sustainability of soil. At this hour of need it is crucial to regain the health of soil by utilizing eco-friendly solution and the promising one is Dry Cow Dung powder. Cow Dung is bio- organic, complex, polymorphic fecal matter of the bovine species, enriched with ‘Humic acid' (HA), ‘Fulvic Acid' etc. The HA in Cow Dung has been extracted using Neutralization Reaction and its presence is confirmed by comparing it with FTIR spectra of Std HA (IHSS). Property of metal ion adsorption of Standard and Extracted HA has been confirmed using ‘Tracer Technique'. Cow Dung is renewable, easy and freely available with least contaminants as the process of Humification takes place during drying stage hence speciation of any type is not required due to its Biological matrix. Any pre or post conditioning of cow dung powder is not required reducing undesired chemical sink in milieu. It will surely contribute in closing the natural nutrient cycle and increase the fertility as well as carbon pool of soil due to abundance of useful microflora. If compared to present day usage of synthetic and semi- synthetic products, employing Dry Cow Dung powder as agrarian booster will be surely a Green solution! It's rightly said that "The nation which destroys its soil, destroys itself!", hence we need to pursue instant remedies to mitigate our self destruction because healthy soil is the only life line for Survival!

  4. Soil amendement by green supplement : Dry cowdung powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barot, N.; Bagla, H.

    2009-04-01

    Soil is a heavenly resource, a living, breathing and ever changing dynamic ecosystem. Retrogression and degradation of soil system is the result of continuous encroachment done by global anthropogenic activities. Mother earth's monition has increased the local concern to explore solution for the healthy sustainability of soil. At this hour of need it is crucial to regain the health of soil by utilizing eco-friendly solution and the promising one is Dry Cow Dung powder. Cow Dung is bio- organic, complex, polymorphic fecal matter of the bovine species, enriched with ‘Humic acid' (HA), ‘Fulvic Acid' etc. The HA in Cow Dung has been extracted using Neutralization Reaction and its presence is confirmed by comparing it with FTIR spectra of Std HA (IHSS). Property of metal ion adsorption of Standard and Extracted HA has been confirmed using ‘Tracer Technique'. Cow Dung is renewable, easy and freely available with least contaminants as the process of Humification takes place during drying stage hence speciation of any type is not required due to its Biological matrix. Any pre or post conditioning of cow dung powder is not required reducing undesired chemical sink in milieu. It will surely contribute in closing the natural nutrient cycle and increase the fertility as well as carbon pool of soil due to abundance of useful microflora. If compared to present day usage of synthetic and semi- synthetic products, employing Dry Cow Dung powder as agrarian booster will be surely a Green solution! It's rightly said that "The nation which destroys its soil, destroys itself!", hence we need to pursue instant remedies to mitigate our self destruction because healthy soil is the only life line for Survival!

  5. Rapid transport and transformation of phosphorus species during the leaching of poultry manure amended soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Courtney; Cade-Menun, Barbara; Liu, Corey; Hill, Jane

    2015-04-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from soils due to leaching is a major concern in heavily fertilized agricultural regions. The mobility and transformation of P species will depend on the source of manure fertilizer, leaching regime, and the extent of soil P saturation within the soil profile. We investigate spatial and temporal changes in the distribution of P species within a poultry manure-amended soil at two depths (0-5, 10-15 cm) as well as leachate P fractions during 10 weeks of leaching. Leachate P was primarily composed of dissolved fractions (soluble reactive P; dissolved unreactive P) and reached a maximum in the fourth week of leaching. In soils, the degree of P saturation (80%) and water extractable P (9 mg kg-1) were also greatest in week 4. 31P NMR spectra of the 0-5 cm depth indicate that surface soils were most similar to the poultry manure in week 4. During peak leaching, the proportion of orthophosphate (OrthoP) at the soil surface (0-5 cm; 80%) was greater than that from the lowest depth (10-15 cm; 72%), which contained relatively larger proportions of monoester-(17%) and diester-P classes (10%). Poultry manure likely contributed to the mobile pool of P species, including OrthoP, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (myo-IHP), and nucleic acids. The appearance of neo- and D-chiro-IHP, as well as phospholipid signals during the leaching period indicate possible short-term (<10 week) contributions of organic P to the generation and leaching of OrthoP, under P-saturated conditions. Further work is needed to determine how fertilization and leaching will affect the mobility and transformation of P species across a wider range of soil types. Keywords: Phytate, organic phosphorus, degree of phosphorus saturation, soil, leachate, poultry manure

  6. Potential effects of vinasse as a soil amendment to control runoff and soil loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbavi, Z.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.

    2015-07-01

    Application of organic materials are well known as environmental practices in soil restoration, preserving soil organic matter and recovering degraded soils of arid and semiarid lands. So, the present research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of vinasse, on soil conservation under simulated rainfall. Vinasse can be recycled as a soil amendment due to its organic matter. Accordingly, the laboratory experiments were conducted by using 0.25 m2-experimental plots at 20 % slope and rainfall intensity of 72 m h-1 with 0.5 h duration. The effect of three rates of vinasse at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 L m-2 was investigated on runoff and soil loss control. Laboratory results indicated that vinasse at different levels could nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) decrease the runoff amount and soil loss rate in the study plots compared to untreated plots except 1.5 L m-2 which nonsignificantly increased the runoff volume. Also, the results indicated that the soil loss amount at the vinasse application rate of 1 L m-2 was the least. The average amounts of minimum runoff volume and soil loss were about 3985 mL and 46 g for the study plot at 1 L m-2 level of vinasse application.

  7. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. PMID:25898984

  8. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin S; Dangi, Sadikshya R; Zambrano, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg(-1) and 88 μg L(-1), and 0.92 mg kg(-1) and 48.6 μg L(-1) at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg(-1) and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg(-1) in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  9. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Arroyo, Irvin S.; Dangi, Sadikshya R.; Zambrano, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0–30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 μg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 μg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0–5 and 0–30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  10. Impact of soil amendments and the plant rhizosphere on PAH behaviour in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis; Karlson, Ulrich G

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous amendments reduce PAH dissolved concentrations (Cfree), limiting their uptake and toxicity. A soil contaminated with PAHs was mixed with activated carbon (AC), charcoal or compost and planted with radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Cfree, chemical activities and diffusive uptake of the PAHs measured over 2 months. For AC, Cfree and diffusive uptake were decreased by up to 94% compared to the unamended soil within one week. In addition, the sum chemical activity of the PAHs remained below the threshold for baseline toxicity. In contrast, charcoal and compost only led to modest reductions in Cfree and diffusive uptake, with sum chemical activities that could potentially result in baseline toxicity being observed. Furthermore, both Cfree and diffusive uptake were lower in the planted compared to unplanted soils. Therefore, only AC successfully reduced PAH acute toxicity in the soil, but plant-promoted microbial degradation may also play an important role in PAH attenuation. PMID:24583710

  11. Elucidating Biogeochemical Reduction of Chromate via Carbon Amendments and Soil Sterilization

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, Tracy L; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A.; Fendorf, Scott; Baldwin, Mark E; Jardine, Philip M

    2007-02-01

    Sterilized and non-sterilized soil columns were amended with three different carbon sources to elucidate the potential for geochemical and biological Cr{sup 6+} reduction. Cr{sup 6+} was reduced to Cr{sup 3+} in the non-sterilized lactate, ethanol, and acetate-amended soils; however, soils amended with lactate reduced significantly more chromium. Soils sterilized by {gamma}-irradiation reduced almost no Cr{sup 6+}, indicating that Cr{sup 6+} reduction was at least indirectly biological in nature. Analyses of small subunit (ssu) rRNA genes amplified from the column sediments showed significantly different bacterial populations within the amended soils that may be due to carbon source or to aerobic micropockets within the sediment columns.

  12. Biochar soil amendment: Impact of soil types on heavy metal sorption-desorption behaviors and repeated nutrient leaching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on soil types, properties of chars especially pH and leachable organic/inorganic components can have varying impacts when used as a soil amendment. We have investigated sorption-desorption behaviors of metal contaminant of concern in shooting ranges and urban soils (Cu), nutrient supply (...

  13. Global Warming Potential from early phase decomposition of soil organic matter amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter amendments to soil are widely used as a method of enhancing nutrient availability for crops or grassland. Amendments such as composted manure or greenwaste also have the co-benefits of potentially increasing soil carbon (C) stocks (DeLonge et al., 2013) and diverting organic waste from landfills or manure lagoons. However, application of organic matter amendments can also stimulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study we determined how the chemical quality of organic matter amendments affected soil C and N content and GHG emissions during early stage decomposition. California grassland soils were amended with six different amendments of varying C and N content including three composts and three feedstocks (goat and horse bedding and cattle manure). Amendments and soils were incubated in the laboratory for 7 weeks; GHG fluxes were measured weekly. The three feedstocks emitted significantly more GHGs than the composted materials. With the exception of cow manure, N content of the amendment was linearly correlated with global warming potential emitted (R2= 0.66, P <0.0001). C:N ratios were not a significant predictor of GHG emissions. Cow manure stimulated a net loss of C (or C equivalents) in the mineral soil, as expected. However, greenwaste compost also surprisingly resulted in net C losses, while goat bedding, horse bedding, and the other compost were either C neutral or a slight net C sink at the end of the incubation. Ongoing analyses are examining the fate of the C incorporated from the amendment to the soil as occluded or free light fraction, as well as N mineralization rates. Our data suggest that N content of organic matter amendments is a good predictor of initial GHG emissions. The study also indicates that composting greenwaste with N-rich bedding and manure can result in lower GHG emissions and C sequestration compared to the individual uncomposted components.

  14. Trace element biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system of a temperate agricultural soil amended with different biochars.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Buecker, Jannis; Oburger, Eva; Wenzel, Walter W; Enders, Akio; Lehmann, Johannes; Soja, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    Various biochar (BC) types have been investigated as soil amendment; however, information on their effects on trace element (TE) biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system is still scarce. In the present study, we determined aqua-regia (AR) and water-extractable TEs of four BC types (woodchips (WC), wheat straw (WS), vineyard pruning (VP), pyrolyzed at 525 °C, of which VP was also pyrolyzed at 400 °C) and studied their effects on TE concentrations in leachates and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) tissue in a greenhouse pot experiment. We used an acidic, sandy agricultural soil and a BC application rate of 3% (w/w). Our results show that contents and extractability of TEs in the BCs and effectuated changes of TE biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system strongly varied among the different BC types. High AR-digestable Cu was found in VP and high B contents in WC. WS had the highest impact on TEs in leachates showing increased concentrations of As, Cd, Mo, and Se, whereas WC application resulted in enhanced leaching of B. All BC types increased Mo and decreased Cu concentrations in the plant tissue; however, they showed diverging effects on Cu in the leachates with decreased concentrations for WC and WS, but increased concentrations for both VPs. Our results demonstrate that BCs may release TEs into the soil-water-plant system. A BC-induced liming effect in acidic soils may lead to decreased plant uptake of cationic TEs, including Pb and Cd, but may enhance the mobility of anionic TEs like Mo and As. We also found that BCs with high salt contents (e.g., straw-based BCs) may lead to increased mobility of both anionic and cationic TEs in the short term. PMID:25315931

  15. Carbon flux from plants to soil microbes is highly sensitive to nitrogen addition and biochar amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Solaiman, Z. M.; Kilburn, M. R.; Clode, P. L.; Fuchslueger, L.; Koranda, M.; Murphy, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    The release of carbon through plant roots to the soil has been recognized as a governing factor for soil microbial community composition and decomposition processes, constituting an important control for ecosystem biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, there is increasing awareness that the flux of recently assimilated carbon from plants to the soil may regulate ecosystem response to environmental change, as the rate of the plant-soil carbon transfer will likely be affected by increased plant C assimilation caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. What has received less attention so far is how sensitive the plant-soil C transfer would be to possible regulations coming from belowground, such as soil N addition or microbial community changes resulting from anthropogenic inputs such as biochar amendments. In this study we investigated the size, rate and sensitivity of the transfer of recently assimilated plant C through the root-soil-mycorrhiza-microbial continuum. Wheat plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in split-boxes which were filled either with soil or a soil-biochar mixture. Each split-box consisted of two compartments separated by a membrane which was penetrable for mycorrhizal hyphae but not for roots. Wheat plants were only grown in one compartment while the other compartment served as an extended soil volume which was only accessible by mycorrhizal hyphae associated with the plant roots. After plants were grown for four weeks we used a double-labeling approach with 13C and 15N in order to investigate interactions between C and N flows in the plant-soil-microorganism system. Plants were subjected to an enriched 13CO2 atmosphere for 8 hours during which 15NH4 was added to a subset of split-boxes to either the root-containing or the root-free compartment. Both, 13C and 15N fluxes through the plant-soil continuum were monitored over 24 hours by stable isotope methods (13C phospho-lipid fatty acids by GC-IRMS, 15N/13C in bulk plant

  16. Acidic deposition and soil processes

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, R.M.; April, R.H.

    1985-08-01

    The results of the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) show that the sensitivity of a watershed to surface water acidification is determined by the flow paths of water through the terrestrial system. If the water infiltrates through the soils into the groundwater system, acid neutralization occurs through weathering reactions involving minerals in the soils and till. Runoff and shallow interflow result in acid surface waters. Flow paths are determined in the ILWAS watersheds by the thickness of the glacial till. Complete neutralization can occur even in areas underlain by sensitive bedrock if the flow path through the mineral horizons is long enough. This appears to hold even in areas outside of the Adirondacks. 11 references, 5 figures.

  17. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C; Shepherd, Jessica G; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-03-15

    The term "marginal biomass" is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average+82.8% Cr, +226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition +22.5 mg Cr kg(-1) biochar and +44.4 mg Ni kg(-1) biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. PMID:26789369

  18. Characterizing and modeling of extensive atrazine elution tailing for stable manure-amended agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Non-ideal sorption and extensive elution tailing behavior of atrazine was evaluated for an agricultural soil with and without stable manure amendment (10% by weight). A series of laboratory experiments showed that the sorption of atrazine was described by rate-limited, nonlinear reversible processes (Freundlich isotherm) for both non-amended and amended soil. Non-ideal transport of atrazine exhibited extensive low concentration elution tailing due to the most likely organic carbon fraction in the soil. This tailing behavior was more pronounced and extensive for soil with 10% stable-manure amendment. Two-site transport modeling analyses including non-linear sorption and rate-limited sorption-desorption provided a reasonably good match to the atrazine breakthrough curves but were unable to match the long-term concentration tailing, even for non-amended soil. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution function was used to successfully simulate atrazine transport early-time breakthrough and long-term concentration tailing for both non-amended and amended soil conditions. PMID:25303664

  19. Growth, yield and elemental status of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in fly ash amended soils.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mamata; Sahu, Rajani K; Padhy, Rabindra N

    2007-03-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal in Orissa (India) was used for amending soil at levels equivalent to 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 metric tons per ha in which, rice was grown and elemental residues of amended soil and plant parts were enumerated. FA amendments caused significant improvement in soil quality and germination percentage of rice seeds. Growth (shoot length, leaf area and pigment composition) and yield (panicle length, seeds per panicle, seed weight and yield per plant) of rice increased with an increase in FA amendments. Catalase and peroxidase activities of young leaves increased initially in plants cultivated at lower FA levels but declined sharply at higher FA levels while the protein content of seeds improved at higher FA levels. Sodium content of rice-roots did not change with FA amendments but the contents of K, P, Mn, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd showed a progressive increase. Seeds of plants grown in FA amended soils accumulated Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd in amounts below allowable limits. Based on the data obtained we found that flooded-rice soil amended at 10 metric tons FA per ha level of FA not only improved the physical properties of the soil but also contributed to better growth and yield of rice. PMID:17253160

  20. Vegetation establishment on soil-amended weathered fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Semalulu, O.; Barnhisel, R.I.; Witt, S.

    1998-12-31

    A field study was conducted with the following objectives in mind: (1) to study the effect of soil addition to weathered fly ash on the establishment and survival of different grasses and legumes, (2) to identify suitable grasses and/or legume species for vegetation of fly ash, (3) to study the fertilizer N and P requirements for successful vegetation establishment on fly ash and ash-soil mixtures, (4) to examine the nutrient composition of the plant species tested, and (5) to study the plant availability of P from fly ash and ash-soil mixtures. Three rooting media were used: weathered fly ash, and 33% or 50% soil blended with the ash. Four experiments were established on each of these media to evaluate warm season grasses in pure stands, warm season grasses inter-seeded with legumes, cool season grasses, and cool season grasses inter-seeded with legumes. Soil used in this study was more acidic than the fly ash. Only the results from characterization of the rooting media, ground cover, and yield will be presented here.

  1. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weiwei; Ding, Weixin; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant) straw in absence (BC0) and presence (BCN) of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05), and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C) were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than DOC in biochar (1.75%) and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+) bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G−) bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil. PMID:26192282

  2. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiwei; Ding, Weixin; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant) straw in absence (BC0) and presence (BCN) of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05), and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C) were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than DOC in biochar (1.75%) and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+) bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G-) bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil. PMID:26192282

  3. Marble waste and pig manure amendments decrease metal availability, increase soil quality and facilitate vegetation development in bare mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, José A.; Gómez, M. Dolores; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In order to bring out a functional and sustainable land use in a highly contaminated mine tailing, firstly environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated by suitable reclamation activities. Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards, such as acidity and toxic metals reaching to waters through wind and water erosions and leaching. As a consequence, soils have no vegetation and low soil organic matter and nutrients. Various physicochemical and biochemical properties, together with exchangeable metals were measured before, 6 months and 12 months after the application of marble waste and pigs manure as reclamation strategy in a tailing pond from SE Spain to reduce hazards for environment and human health. Three months after the last addition of amendments, eight different native shrub species where planted for phytostabilization. Results showed the pH increased up to neutrality. Aggregates stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, microbial biomass and microbial activity increased with the application of the amendments, while exchangeable metals drastically decreased (~90%). After one year of plantation, only 20% planted species died, with a high growth of survivals reaching flowering and fructification. This study confirms the high effectiveness of initial applications of marble wastes together with pig manure and plantation of shrub species to initialize the recovery of the ecosystem in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Key Words: pig manure, marble waste, heavy metals, mine soil. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project MIPOLARE (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000439). J.A. Acosta acknowledges a "Saavedra Fajardo" contract from Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia (Spain)

  4. Assessing biochar ecotoxicology for soil amendment by root phytotoxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Menta, Cristina; Bandiera, Marianna; Malcevschi, Alessio; Jones, Davey L; Vamerali, Teofilo

    2016-03-01

    Soil amendment with biochar has been proposed as effective in improving agricultural land fertility and carbon sequestration, although the characterisation and certification of biochar quality are still crucial for widespread acceptance for agronomic purposes. We describe here the effects of four biochars (conifer and poplar wood, grape marc, wheat straw) at increasing application rates (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50% w/w) on both germination and root elongation of Cucumis sativus L., Lepidium sativum L. and Sorghum saccharatum Moench. The tested biochars varied in chemical properties, depending on the type and quality of the initial feedstock batch, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) being high in conifer and wheat straw, Cd in poplar and Cu in grape marc. We demonstrate that electrical conductivity and Cu negatively affected both germination and root elongation at ≥5% rate biochar, together with Zn at ≥10% and elevated pH at ≥20%. In all species, germination was less sensitive than root elongation, strongly decreasing at very high rates of chars from grape marc (>10%) and wheat straw (>50%), whereas root length was already affected at 0.5% of conifer and poplar in cucumber and sorghum, with marked impairment in all chars at >5%. As a general interpretation, we propose here logarithmic model for robust root phytotoxicity in sorghum, based on biochar Zn content, which explains 66% of variability over the whole dosage range tested. We conclude that metal contamination is a crucial quality parameter for biochar safety, and that root elongation represents a stable test for assessing phytotoxicity at recommended in-field amendment rates (<1-2%). PMID:26884353

  5. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar is organic matter that has been pyrolized under low oxygen conditions for use as a soil amendment. Currently biochar is viewed as a way to improve soil quality (e.g., increased nutrient and water holding capacity) and increase in soil carbon (C) sequestration. The use of biochar in soil is not new, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that control the interactions between biochar and soil following amendment. In the past, the effects of biochar addition on crop yields, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in both in-situ and controlled experiments have produced inconsistent results. These discrepancies may be uncovered in part by chemical and physical characterization of the biochar prior to amendment and identification of soil- and biochar-specific interactions. Furthermore, a more holistic consideration of the system may demonstrate the virtues of biochar amendment beyond the typical considerations of yield and gas flux. We expect that as the differences between the physical and chemical properties of the biochar and the soil increase, the impact on the soil quality metrics will also increase. For this study, we used a waste product (i.e., anaerobic digester sludge) biochar with 81.5% C, pH of 10.44, pH-independent charge for anion exchange capacity (AEC) and a pH-dependent charge for cation exchange capacity (CEC), 4.14% moisture content and 25.75 cmol¬c /kg exchangeable base cations. This biochar was incorporated into both a low and a high fertility Hawaiian field soil to quantitate biochar effects on crop yield, soil pH, CEC, AEC, hot and cold water extractable C and nitrogen, bulk density, phosphorus, soil microbial ecology, and GHG flux in varying soil conditions. Compared to the higher fertility soil, we hypothesized that the low fertility soil would demonstrate a greater increase in soil quality, including higher pH, CEC and water holding capacity. Two crop management practices were included with each soil: traditional

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Raghunath; Taupe, Natalie; Pelissetti, Simone; Petruzzelli, Laura; Bertora, Chiara; Leahy, James J; Grignani, Carlo

    2016-01-15

    Manure-derived biochars can offer a potential option for the stabilization of manure, while mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and the attenuation of nitrous oxide emission. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess the effects of four different manure-derived biochars produced from different feedstocks (poultry litter and swine manure) at different temperatures (400 or 600 °C). A commonly available standard wood chip biochar, produced at a greater temperature (1000 °C), and non-amended treatments were used as references. Two different soils (sandy and silt-loam) were amended with 2% (w/w) biochar on a dry soil weight basis (corresponding to 20 Mg ha(-1)), with the soil moisture being adjusted to 75% saturation level. After a pre-incubation period (21 days), 170 kg N ha(-1) of NH4NO3 fertilizer was added. Measurements of CO2, N2O, CH4 emissions and soil N mineralisation were carried out on different days during the 85 days of incubation. The net C mineralization and N2O emissions from both soils amended with poultry litter biochar at 400 °C were significantly greater than the other biochar treatments. Nitrate availability was greater in both soils in which the manure-derived biochar was used instead of the standard biochar. All of the biochars increased the pH of the silt-loam, sub-acid soil, but failed to improve the cation exchange capacities (CEC) in either soil. Total C and N, P, K and Mg (except Ca) were significantly increased in the manure-derived biochar amended soils, compared to the Control, and were positively correlated to the biochar nutrient contents. This study indicates that the soil application of biochar engenders effects that can vary considerably according to the biochar properties, as determined on the basis of the feedstock types and process conditions. Low-temperature biochar production from manure represents a possible way of producing a soil amendment that can stabilize C while supplying a

  7. IMPACTS OF SOIL AMENDMENT HISTORY ON NITROGEN AVAILABILITY FROM MANURE AND FERTILIZER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated, long-term additions of organic material not only increase stocks of mineralizable soil nitrogen (N), but also bring about changes in soil characteristics that influence N dynamics. We conducted an aerobic incubation to explore how soil amendment history affects the transformation and avai...

  8. Effects of poultry manure amendment on soil phosphorus fractions, phosphatase activity, and phosphorus uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure (PM) contains a large amount of P, and adding this manure to soil can impact the availability of native soil P to plants. To investigate the effects of PM on soil P availability, we grew ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in greenhouse pots amended with poultry manure. Biomass was harvested at...

  9. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues relative to an unamended control soil was assessed using Lumbricus terrestris in 4-L soil microcos...

  10. Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of a biochar made from switchgrass on four soil enzymes (ß- glucosidase, ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase) to determine if biochar would consistently modify soil biological activities. Inconsistent results from enzyme assays of char-amended soils s...

  11. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of Soil Lead Depends on the Bioaccessible Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils...

  12. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR PB SPECIATION IN AN AMENDED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immobilization of pyromorphite (Pbs(PO4hCI) via P amendments to Pb contaminated soils is proving to be a viable method of remediation. However, the issue of ascertaining the amount of soil Pb converted to pyromorphite is difficult in heterogeneous soil systems. Previous attempts ...

  13. Metolachlor sorption and degradation in soil amended with fresh and aged biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of organic amendments such as biochar to soils can influence pesticide sorption-desorption processes, and in turn, pesticide availability and biodegradation. Availability is affected by both the physical and chemical properties of soils and pesticides, as well as soil-pesticide contact time...

  14. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P < 0.05) higher than that in neutral (pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively. PMID:19459394

  15. Phosphorus release from dairy manure, the manure-derived biochar, and their amended soil: effects of phosphorus nature and soil property.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Harris, Willie

    2014-07-01

    Land application of animal manure often risks excessive phosphorus (P) release into the surrounding water. The aim of this study was to convert the dairy manure into biochar, followed by their application into soil, and then to investigate P release from the manure and its derived biochar as well as from the manure- and biochar-amended soil. The results showed that P release was reduced when the manure was converted into biochar due to formation of less-soluble whitlockite [(Ca, Mg)(PO)]. The cumulative P released from biochar over 240 h was 0.26 g kg, a 76% reduction of that from the manure (1.07 g kg). The kinetic release of P from the manure was determined by the fast desorption process and was better fitted to Elovich equation, whereas P release from biochar was initially controlled by the diffusion process and then by slow but steady dissolution of (Ca,Mg)(PO), following the parabolic diffusion and linear models, respectively. When the manure or biochar was incorporated into the soil, P release in the CaCl and simulated acid rain water extraction from biochar-amended soil was consistently lower than that from the manure-amended soil during 210-d incubation. The lower P release in the biochar-amended soil was determined by stable P form (Ca, Mg)(PO) in the biochar itself, but less from the soil property effect. Results indicated that initial high P release from manure can be mitigated by converting the manure into biochar. PMID:25603098

  16. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  17. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  18. Olive mill waste biochar: a promising soil amendment for metal immobilization in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hmid, Amine; Al Chami, Ziad; Sillen, Wouter; De Vocht, Alain; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of biochar from olive mill waste for in situ remediation of metal contaminated soils was evaluated. Biochar was mixed with metal contaminated soil originating from the vicinity of an old zinc smelter. Soil-biochar mixtures were equilibrated for 30 and 90 days. At these time points, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals were determined, and effects of the biochar amendment on soil toxicity were investigated using plants, bacteria, and earthworms. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) growth, metal content, antioxidative enzymes activities, and soluble protein contents were determined. Furthermore, effects on soil microbial communities (activity, diversity, richness) were examined using Biolog ECOplates. After 120 days of soil-biochar equilibration, effects on weight and reproduction of Eisenia foetida were evaluated. With increasing biochar application rate and equilibration period, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals decreased, and growth of bean plants improved; leaf metal contents reduced, the activities of antioxidative stress enzymes decreased, and soluble protein contents increased. Soil microbial activity, richness, and diversity were augmented. Earthworm mortality lowered, and their growth and reproduction showed increasing trends. PMID:25146122

  19. Biochar impacts soil microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling in an acidic soil planted with rape.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Hu; Yao, Huai-Ying; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-08-19

    Biochar has been suggested to improve acidic soils and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, little has been done on the role of biochar in ameliorating acidified soils induced by overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, we designed a pot trial with an acidic soil (pH 4.48) in a greenhouse to study the interconnections between microbial community, soil chemical property changes, and N2O emissions after biochar application. The results showed that biochar increased plant growth, soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, and soil cation exchange capacity. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that biochar application increased α-diversity significantly and changed the relative abundances of some microbes that are related with carbon and nitrogen cycling at the family level. Biochar amendment stimulated both nitrification and denitrification processes, while reducing N2O emissions overall. Results of redundancy analysis indicated biochar could shift the soil microbial community by changing soil chemical properties, which modulate N-cycling processes and soil N2O emissions. The significantly increased nosZ transcription suggests that biochar decreased soil N2O emissions by enhancing its further reduction to N2. PMID:25054835

  20. Biochar amendment to lead-contaminated soil: Effects on fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity and phytotoxicity to rice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Xi; Guo, Yiming; Zeng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Zhichao

    2015-09-01

    The amendment effects of biochar on total microbial activity was measured by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, and phytotoxicity in Pb(II)-contaminated soils was examined by the application of 4 different biochars to soil, with rice as a test plant. The FDA hydrolytic activities of biochar-amended soils were much higher than that of the control. The survival rate of rice in lead-contaminated biochar-amended soils showed significant improvement over the control, especially for bamboo biochar-amended soil (93.3%). In addition, rice grown in lead-contaminated control sediment displayed lower biomass production than that in biochar-amended soil. The immobilization of Pb(II) and the positive effects of biochar amendment on soil microorganisms may account for these effects. The results suggest that biochar may have an excellent ability to mitigate the toxic effects of Pb(II) on soil microorganisms and rice. PMID:25900615

  1. Carbon amendment and soil depth affect the distribution and abundance of denitrifiers in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M; Khalil, M I; Jahangir, M M R; Lee, C; Cardenas, L M; Collins, G; Richards, K G; O'Flaherty, V

    2016-04-01

    The nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding (nosZ) genes of denitrifying populations present in an agricultural grassland soil were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Samples from three separate pedological depths at the chosen site were investigated: horizon A (0-10 cm), horizon B (45-55 cm), and horizon C (120-130 cm). The effect of carbon addition (treatment 1, control; treatment 2, glucose-C; treatment 3, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on denitrifier gene abundance and N2O and N2 fluxes was determined. In general, denitrifier abundance correlated well with flux measurements; nirS was positively correlated with N2O, and nosZ was positively correlated with N2 (P < 0.03). Denitrifier gene copy concentrations per gram of soil (GCC) varied in response to carbon type amendment (P < 0.01). Denitrifier GCCs were high (ca. 10(7)) and the bac:nirK, bac:nirS, bac:nir (T) , and bac:nosZ ratios were low (ca. 10(-1)/10) in horizon A in all three respective treatments. Glucose-C amendment favored partial denitrification, resulting in higher nir abundance and higher N2O fluxes compared to the control. DOC amendment, by contrast, resulted in relatively higher nosZ abundance and N2 emissions, thus favoring complete denitrification. We also noted soil depth directly affected bacterial, archaeal, and denitrifier abundance, possibly due to changes in soil carbon availability with depth. PMID:26762934

  2. BIOLOGICAL AMENDMENTS AND CROP ROTATIONS FOR MANAGING SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOILBORNE DISEASES OF POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various biological amendments, including commercial biocontrol agents, microbial inoculants, mycorrhizae, and an aerobic compost tea (CT), were evaluated, alone and in conjunction with different crop rotations, for their efficacy in introducing beneficial microorganisms, affecting soil microbial com...

  3. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils. PMID:25172460

  4. The effect of biochar amendment on the soil microbial community - PLFA analyses and 13C labeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watzinger, A.; Feichtmair, S.; Rempt, F.; Anders, E.; Wimmer, B.; Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Horacek, M.; Zehetner, F.; Kloss, S.; Richoz, S.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of biochar amendment on plant growth and on the chemical / physical soil characteristics are well explored but only few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. The response of the soil microbial community to biochar amendment was investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis in (i) a large scale pot experiment, (ii) a small scale pot experiment using 13C labeled biochar and (iii) an incubation study using 13C labeled biochar. In the large scale pot experiment, three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four different types of biochar were investigated. In total, 25 treatments with 5 replicates each were set up and monitored over a year. The results from the pot experiments showed no significant influence of biochar amendment on the total microbial biomass in the first 100 days after biochar addition. However, discriminant analysis showed a distinction of biochar and control soils as well as a strong effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the microbial composition. The effect of biochar was dependent on the type of soil. In the Planosol, some PLFAs were affected positively, especially when adding biochar with a low pyrolysis temperature, in the first month. In the long term, microbial community composition altered. Growth of fungi and gram negative bacteria was enhanced. In the Chernozem, PLFAs from various microbial groups decreased in the long term. Variability in the incubation study was low. Consequently, many PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar amendment. Again, in the Planosol, gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and, after 2 weeks, gram positive bacteria increased under biochar amendment whereas in the chernozem total microbial biomass and gram positive bacteria were negatively affected in the long term. The 13C labeling studies confirmed the low degradability of the biochar, i.e. no alteration of the content and the δ13C in the soil organic matter within 100 days

  5. [Effects of specific microbial biocides on N transformation in soil with glucose amendment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Jiandong; Han, Lin; Wang, Jingkuan

    2006-05-01

    In an incubation test of soil with glucose amendment, two kinds of nitrogenous fertilizer and three kinds of specific microbial biocides were applied, and the contents of soil NH(4+)-N, NO3(-)-N, glucosamine and muramic acid were measured to differentiate the relative contribution and timing characteristics of soil microbes in nitrogen immobilization. The results showed that penicillin and streptomycin decreased the transformation rate of NH(4+)-N markedly, with more significant effects than actidione. The amount ratio of glucosamine to muramic acid after applying penicillin and streptomycin rapidly increased first, and tended to equilibrium then. With the application of actidione, the transformation rate of NO3(-)-N decreased continuously, and the synthesis of glucosamine was inhibited, while penicillin and streptomycin had no significant effects on them. At the early stage of incubation, bacteria could rapidly immobilize both NH(4+)-N and NO3(-)-N, with NH(4+)-N preferred, while at the later stage of incubation, fungi were the dominant contributor to nitrogen transformation, and had much stronger ability of utilizing NO3(-)-N than bacteria. PMID:16883809

  6. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r = 0.957 **, P < 0.01). The amount of isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation ( DT50) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal inceased from 0 to 50 g kg - 1 (for Paddy soil, DT50 values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT50 from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT50 from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  7. Impact of woodchip biochar amendment on the sorption and dissipation of pesticide acetamiprid in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Mu, Chang-Li; Gu, Cheng; Liu, Cun; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2011-11-01

    Pyrolysis of vegetative biomass into biochar and application of the more stable form of carbon to soil have been shown to be effective in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, improving soil fertility, and sequestering soil contaminants. However, there is still lack of information about the impact of biochar amendment in agricultural soils on the sorption and environmental fate of pesticides. In this study, we investigated the sorption and dissipation of a neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid in three typical Chinese agricultural soils, which were amended by a red gum wood (Eucalyptus spp.) derived biochar. Our results showed that the amendment of biochar (0.5% (w/w)) to the soils could significantly increase the sorption of acetamiprid, but the magnitudes of enhancement were varied. Contributions of 0.5% newly-added biochar to the overall sorption of acetamiprid were 52.3%, 27.4% and 11.6% for red soil, paddy soil and black soil, respectively. The dissipation of acetamiprid in soils amended with biochar was retarded compared to that in soils without biochar amendment. Similar to the sorption experiment, in soil with higher content of organic matter, the retardation of biochar on the dissipation of acetamiprid was lower than that with lower content of organic matter. The different effects of biochar in agricultural soils may attribute to the interaction of soil components with biochar, which would block the pore or compete for binding site of biochar. Aging effect of biochar application in agricultural soils and field experiments need to be further investigated. PMID:21862101

  8. Organic phosphorus fractions in organically amended paddy soils in continuously and intermittently flooded conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changming; Yang, Linzhang; Jianhua, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic phosphorus (SOP) can greatly contribute to plant-available P and P nutrition. The study was conducted to determine the effects of organic amendments on organic P fractions and microbiological activities in paddy soils. Samples were collected at the Changshu Agro-ecological Experiment Station in Tahu Lake Basin, China, from an experiment that has been performed from 1999 to 2004, on a paddy soil (Gleysols). Treatments consisted of swine manure (SM), wheat straw (WS), swine manure plus wheat straw (SM + WS), and a control (chemical fertilization alone). Organic amendments markedly increased soil total organic phosphorus (TOP) and total organic carbon (TOC), especially in continuously flooded conditions. Based on the fractionation of SOP, organic amendments significantly increased soil labile organic phosphorus (LOP), moderately labile organic phosphorus (MLOP), and moderately stable organic phosphorus (MSOP) compared with the control. For SM and SM + WS treatments, LOP in continuously flooded soils decreased by 30.1 and 36.4%, respectively, compared to intermittently flooded soils. In organically amended soils, continuous flooding showed significantly lower microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) and alkaline phosphatase activities (APA) than intermittent flooding. In intermittently flooded conditions, incorporating organic amendments into soil resulted in greater P uptake and biomass yield of rice than the control. In the intermittently flooded soils, APA (P < 0.05) and MBP (P < 0.01) were significantly and positively related to TOP, LOP, MLOP, and MSOP, whereas in continuously flooded soils, there was a significant (P < 0.05) negative relationship between MBP, TOP, and MSOP. Based on soil organic P fractions and soil enzymatic and microbiological activities, continuous flooding applied to paddy soils should be avoided, especially when swine manure is incorporated into paddy soil. PMID:16738400

  9. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis. PMID:26606935

  10. Desorption and dissolution of heavy metals from contaminated soil using Shewanella sp. (HN-41) amended with various carbon sources and synthetic soil organic matters.

    PubMed

    Ayyasamy, Pudukadu Munusamy; Chun, Saho; Lee, Sanghoon

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metals in soil are considered a major environmental problem facing many countries around the world. Contamination of heavy metals occurs in soil due to both anthropogenic and natural causes. During the last two decades, extensive attention has been paid to the management and control of soil contamination. Decontamination of heavy metals in the soil has been a challenge for a long time. Microbial solubilization is one of promising process for remediation of heavy metals from contaminated sites. In this study, we attempted to treat soil contaminated with heavy metals using a facultative anaerobic bacterium Shewanella sp. (HN-41). The effect of carbon sources on the dissolution and conversion of heavy metals was first investigated using a defined medium containing 1 g of highly contaminated soil to select the most effective carbon source. Among three carbon sources, namely glucose, acetic acid and lactic acid, glucose at 10 mM was found to be the most effective. Therefore, glucose was used as a representative carbon source for the second part of the biological treatment in the defined medium, amended with humic acid (HA) and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (ADQS), respectively. Among the heavy metals, iron and manganese exhibited the highest dissolution efficiency in the medium supplemented with glucose at 10mM. The rates of dissolution and removal of heavy metals were little bit higher in the medium amended with humic acid and ADQS. Per these results outlined above, a combined system of humic acid and ADQS incorporated with glucose was found to be effective for the removal of heavy metals from soil. PMID:18541365

  11. Utilization of vinasses as soil amendment: consequences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moran-Salazar, R G; Sanchez-Lizarraga, A L; Rodriguez-Campos, J; Davila-Vazquez, G; Marino-Marmolejo, E N; Dendooven, L; Contreras-Ramos, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vinasses are a residual liquid generated after the production of beverages, such as mezcal and tequila, from agave (Agave L.), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). These effluents have specific characteristics such as an acidic pH (from 3.9 to 5.1), a high chemical oxygen demand (50,000-95,000 mg L(-1)) and biological oxygen demand content (18,900-78,300 mg L(-1)), a high total solids content (79,000 and 37,500 mg L(-1)), high total volatile solids 79,000 and 82,222 mg L(-1), and K(+) (10-345 g L(-1)) content. Vinasses are most commonly discarded onto soil. Irrigation of soil with vinasses, however, may induce physical, chemical and biochemical changes and affect crop yields. Emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane, might increase from soils irrigated with vinasses. An estimation of GHG emission from soil irrigated with vinasses is given and discussed in this review. PMID:27441131

  12. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Abioye, O. P.; Agamuthu, P.; Abdul Aziz, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration. PMID:22919502

  13. Effect of dairy manure rate and the stabilization time of amended soils on atrazine degradation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Paula; Briceño, Gabriela; Candia, Maribel; Mora, Maria de la Luz; Demanet, Rolando; Palma, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    The application rate of liquid cow manure (LCM) in the field and the stabilization time of amended soils before application of pre-plant herbicides are factors that determine their efficiency. This study includes evaluation of residual atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil and amended soils with equivalent rate of 100,000; 200,000; and 300,000 L ha(-1) of LCM and the effect of pre-incubation time of amended soils on atrazine degradation. The study was carried out under controlled conditions using an Andisol with previous historical application of atrazine. The respiratory activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) studies indicated that the time necessary for stabilization of amended soils is over 20-30 d. During the measurement of respiratory and FDA activity, no significant differences were observed when atrazine was applied. The half-life of atrazine ranged from 5 to 8d and the relative distribution of degradation products seem to be affected by the application of LCM. The pre-incubation time of amended soil and LCM dose would not affect atrazine degradation rate, when the soil has a history of herbicide application. However, repeated applications of LCM in a long period of time could change the soil pH and increase the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which could further contribute to a faster degradation of atrazine. Both effects would reduce the effectiveness of atrazine in weed control. PMID:19744695

  14. Influence of amendments on soil arsenic fractionation and phytoavailability by Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiulan; Zhang, Min; Liao, Xiaoyong; Tu, Shuxin

    2012-06-01

    Increasing availability of soil arsenic is of significance for accelerating phytoremediation efficiency of As-polluted sites. The effects of seven amendments, i.e., citrate, oxalate, EDTA, sodium polyacrylate (SPA), phosphate rock (PR), single superphosphate (SSP), and compost on fractionation and phytoavailability of soil As were investigated in lab culture experiment. The results showed that the addition of PR, SPA, EDTA or compost to soils significantly increased the concentration of NaHCO(3)-extractable As over a 120 d incubation period compared with the control (amendment-free) soil. Then, the four amendments were selected to add to As-contaminated soil growing Pteris vittata. It was concluded that As accumulation by the fern increased significantly under the treatments of PR and SPA by 25% and 31%, respectively. For As fractionation in soil, SPA increased Fe-As significantly by 51% and PR increased Ca-As significantly by 18%, while both the two amendments reduced occluded-As by 16% and 19%, respectively. Adding PR and SPA in soil increased the activities of urease and neutral phosphatase resulting from the improvement the fertility and physical structure of the soil, which benefits plant growth and As absorption of P. vittata. The results of the research revealed that both PR and SPA were effective amendments for improving phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites by P. vittata. PMID:22463947

  15. Biodegradation of used motor oil in soil using organic waste amendments.

    PubMed

    Abioye, O P; Agamuthu, P; Abdul Aziz, A R

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day(-1)) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day(-1)) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration. PMID:22919502

  16. Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

  17. Chromium fractionation and plant availability in tannery-sludge amended soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allué, Josep; Moya Garcés, Alba; Bech, Jaume; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    soils with the highest sludge dose (20 g kg-1). Soils from the different treatments were potted (5 L) and planted with Trigonella foenum graecum seeds (1 plant per pot). Plants were harvested in the vegetative stage and processed for tissue analysis of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb. A sequential extraction procedure was applied to the soil for getting insight into the operationally defined soil fractions that incorporate the tannery sludge derived Cr. In any of the treatments Cr was detectable in the exchangeable and easily reducible fractions. In control soils around 10% of soil Cr was in the moderately reducible fraction and the rest in the residual fraction. Contrastingly tannery sludge amended soils incorporated most Cr in the moderately reducible fraction extracted by acid oxalate. This distribution in relation to plant Cr concentrations will be discussed. Acknowledgement: Supported by the Spanish Government (project BFU2010-14873)

  18. Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  20. Metolachlor Sorption and Degradation in Soil Amended with Fresh and Aged Biochars.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Spokas, Kurt A; Hall, Kathleen E; Cox, Lucia; Koskinen, William C

    2016-04-27

    Addition of organic amendments such as biochar to soils can influence pesticide sorption-desorption processes and, in turn, the amount of pesticide readily availability for transport and biodegradation. Sorption-desorption processes are affected by both the physical and chemical properties of soils and pesticides, as well as soil-pesticide contact time, or aging. Changes in sorption-desorption of metolachlor with aging in soil amended with three macadamia nut shell biochars aged 0 (BCmac-fr), 1 year (BCmac-1yr), and 2 years (BCmac-2yr) and two wood biochars aged 0 (BCwood-fr) and 5 years (BCwood-5yr) were determined. Apparent sorption coefficient (Kd-app) values increased with incubation time to a greater extent in amended soil as compared to unamended soils; Kd-app increased by 1.2-fold for the unamended soil, 2.0-fold for BCwood-fr, 1.4-fold for BCwood-5yr, 2.4-fold for BCmac-fr, 2.5-fold for BCmac-1yr, and 1.9-fold for BCmac-4yr. The increase in calculated Kd-app value was the result of a 15% decrease in the metolachlor solution concentration extractable with CaCl2 solution with incubation time in soil as compared to a 50% decrease in amended soil with very little change in the sorbed concentration. Differences could possibly be due to diffusion to less accessible or stronger binding sites with time, a faster rate of degradation (in solution and on labile sites) than desorption, or a combination of the two in the amended soils. These data show that transport models would overpredict the depth of movement of metolachlor in soil if effects of aging or biochar amendments are not considered. PMID:27050383

  1. Effect of biochar or activated carbon amendment on the volatilisation and biodegradation of organic soil pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, David; Meynet, Paola; Bushnaf, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biochar or activated carbon added to contaminated soil may temporarily reduce the volatilisation of organic pollutants by enhanced sorption. The long-term effect of sorbent amendments on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures (VPHs) will depend on the responses of the soil bacterial community members, especially those which may utilize VPHs as carbon substrates. We investigated the volatilisation and biodegradation of VPHs emanating from NAPL sources and migrating through one meter long columns containing unsaturated sandy soil with and without 2% biochar or activated carbon amendment. After 420 days, VPH volatilisation from AC amended soil was less than 10 percent of the cumulative VPH volatilisation flux from unamended soil. The cumulative CO2 volatilisation flux increased more slowly in AC amended soil, but was comparable to the untreated soil after 420 days. This indicated that the pollution attenuation over a 1 meter distance was improved by the AC amendment. Biochar was a weaker VPH sorbent than AC and had a lesser effect on the cumulative VPH and CO2 fluxes. We also investgated the predominant bacterial community responses in sandy soil to biochar and/or VPH addition with a factorially designed batch study, and by analyzing preserved soil samples. Biochar addition alone had only weak effects on soil bacterial communities, while VPH addition was a strong community structure shaping factor. The bacterial community effects of biochar-enhanced VPH sorption were moderated by the limited biomass carrying capacity of the sandy soil investigated which contained only low amounts of inorganic nitrogen. Several Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas putida strains, became dominant in VPH polluted soil with and without biochar. The ability of these versatile VPH degraders to effectively regulate their metabolic pathways according to substrate availabilities may additionally have moderated bacterial community structure responses to the presence of biochar

  2. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  3. Effect of organic amendment and plant roots on the solubility and mobilization of lead in soils at a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H; Kairesalo, T

    2006-01-01

    Lead (Pb) dissolving gradually from spent pellets constitutes a serious environmental risk in and near shooting ranges, and remediation measures are necessary to prevent its movement to deeper soil layers and ground water. In this study, the effectiveness of organic amendment and plant roots in stabilizing Pb was assessed in a microcosm experiment. Planted (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.) and unplanted microcosms consisting of coarse-textured mineral soil covered with Pb-contaminated humic topsoil were coated with uncontaminated peat layers of 1 to 3 cm and incubated for 77 d. In a percolation test, the microcosms were washed with ultra pure water to simulate heavy rain so as to rinse water-soluble lead (Pbw) from the topsoil layer. Although Pbw remained below detection limits in the mineral soils in all test units, acid-soluble lead (Pba) increased. Peat amendment diminished Pba in the mineral soil layer, this effect being more pronounced in planted soils, indicating that Pb was taken up by the plants. The percolation test showed that the effect of Scots pine seedlings on Pb movement was minor when peat was added. A long-term dissolution test revealed that considerably more Pb was released from old pellets into soil extracts than from new ones, whereas only traces of Pb, if any, were dissolved in sterilized pure water. PMID:16738387

  4. Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep

    2013-04-01

    This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations.

  5. Temperature and moisture responses to carbon mineralization in the biochar-amended saline soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junna; He, Fuhong; Zhang, Zhenhua; Shao, Hongbo; Xu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of temperature and moisture on carbon mineralization (Cmin) in a saline soil system with biochar amendment. The dynamics of Cmin were monitored in a biochar-amended saline soil for 220days by incubation experiments under different conditions of temperature (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) and moisture (30%, 70% and 105% of the water-holding capacity). Results showed that as the incubation temperature rose, cumulative Cmin consistently increased in soil added with 0-4% biochar. The two-compartment model could well describe the dynamics of Cmin. The temperature rise increased the concentration of labile C in soil, but reduced the turnover time of labile and recalcitrant C pools and the value of temperature coefficient Q10. The response of Cmin to moisture was varying in soil amended with different levels of biochar. In the control treatment (soil alone), cumulative Cmin increased only when soil moisture was >105%. In the biochar treatments, however, 70% of water-holding capacity was optimal for Cmin, except for 2%-biochar treatment at 35°C. The findings highlight the necessity to consider the combined effects of soil moisture, temperature and the amount of biochar added for assessing Cmin in biochar-amended saline soils. PMID:27348703

  6. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  7. Evaluation and selection of soil amendments for field testing to reduce P losses

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Brinton, S.; Silveira, M.L.

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of chemical amendments in reducing P losses from manure impacted Florida soil was evaluated using a variety of protocols, including total elemental analysis, short-term laboratory equilibrations, column leaching experiments, and simulated rainfall studies. Amendments used included: two Fe-humates (a Fe-water treatment residual (WTR) and a titanium-mine waste), two Al-WTRs, one Ca-WTR, a coal combustion slag, a Si-rich material (Pro-Sil), a Leonardite material (dinoSoil), and two agricultural materials (lime and gypsum). In equilibration studies, Al-WTRs were the most effective at sorbing P, while Fe-humate sorbed the least P of all treatments. Other amendments effectively reduced soluble P, but increased suspension pH and electrical conductivity (EC) to an extent expected to adversely affect plant growth. Gypsum was the most effective amendment in reducing P leaching in small column studies. DinoSoil treatment significantly altered the soil hydraulic properties, yielding the greatest runoff volumes in a simulated rainfall study. Total P loss (runoff + leachate) was largely determined by the leaching component, and was essentially all soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) for both bare and grassed soil surfaces. AD treatments reduced runoff SRP compared to the control. Amendment effects in the grassed rainfall study (dominated by leaching) were inconsistent with results from the small column leaching study, possibly due to the different hydraulic conditions and kinetic factors involved in the two studies. The Al-WTRs amendments were recommended for field evaluation.

  8. Linear spectral unmixing to monitor crop growth in typical organic and inorganic amended arid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Battay, A.; Mahmoudi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The soils of the GCC countries are dominantly sandy which is typical of arid regions such as the Arabian Peninsula. Such soils are low in nutrients and have a poor water holding capacity associated with a high infiltration rate. Soil amendments may rehabilitate these soils by restoring essential soil properties and hence enable site revegetation and revitalization for crop production, especially in a region where food security is a priority. In this study, two inorganic amendments; AustraHort and Zeoplant pellet, and one organic locally produced compost were tested as soil amendments at the experimental field of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture in Dubai, UAE. The main objective is to assess the remote sensing ability to monitor crop growth, for instance Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), having these amendments, as background with the soil. Three biomass spectral vegetation indices were used namely; NDVI, TDVI and SAVI. Pure spectral signatures of the soil and the three amendments were collected, using a field spectroradiometer, in addition to the spectral signatures of Okra in two growing stages (vegetative and flowering) in the field with a mixed F.O.V of the plant and amended soil during March and May 2015. The spectral signatures were all collected using the FieldSpec® HandHeld 2 (HH2) in the spectral range 325 nm - 1075 nm over 12 plots. A set of 4 plots were assigned for each of the three amendments as follow: three replicates of a 1.5 by 1.5 meter plot with 3kg/m2 of each amendment and 54 plants, one plot as control and all plots were given irrigation treatments at 100% based on ETc. Spectra collected over the plots were inversed in the range of 400-900 nm via a Linear Mixture Model using pure soil and amendments spectral signatures as reference. Field pictures were used to determine the vegetation fraction (in term of area of the F.O.V). Hence, the Okra spectral signatures were isolated for all plots with the three types of amendments. The

  9. Response of pepper plants (Capsicum annum L.) on soil amendment by inorganic and organic compounds of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Goessler, Walter; Pavlíková, Daniela; Schmeisser, Ernst

    2007-01-01

    The influence of soil contamination by inorganic and organic arsenic compounds on uptake, accumulation, and transformation of arsenic in pepper (Capsicum annum L.) was investigated in greenhouse pot experiments under controlled conditions. Pepper plants were cultivated in substrate amended by aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid (MA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) applied individually into cultivation substrate at concentrations of 15 mg As per kg of substrate. The plant availability of the arsenicals increased in the order arsenite = arsenate < MA < DMA. The highest arsenic concentrations were found in roots followed by stems, leaves, and fruits regardless of arsenic compound applied. In the control samples of pepper fruits, As(III), As(V), and DMA were present (25%, 37%, and 39% of the water-extractable arsenic). In control stems + leaves and roots, As(V) was the major compound (63% and 53% in a phosphate buffer extract) followed by As(III) representing 33% and 42%. Additionally, low concentrations (not exceeding 5%) of DMA and MA were detected as well. In all the soils analyzed after the first harvest of pepper fruits, arsenate was the dominating compound followed by arsenite. Methylarsonic acid, methylarsonous acid, and DMA were present at varying concentrations depending on the individual soil treatments. In the treated plants, the arsenic compounds in plant tissues reflected predominantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds present in soil after amendment, and this pattern was more significant in the first part of vegetation period. The results confirmed the ability of generative parts of plants to accumulate preferably organic arsenic compounds, whereas in the roots and aboveground biomass, mainly inorganic arsenic species are present. Evidently, the source of soil arsenic contamination affects significantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds in soil and subsequently the distribution of arsenic compounds within

  10. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished. PMID:24078235

  11. Use of poly(lactic acid) amendments to promote the bacterial fixation of metals in zinc smelter tailings.

    PubMed

    Edenborn, H M

    2004-04-01

    The ability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to serve as a long-term source of lactic acid for bacterial sulfate reduction activity in zinc smelter tailings was investigated. Solid PLA polymers mixed in water hydrolyzed abiotically to release lactic acid into solution over an extended period of time. The addition of both PLA and gypsum was required for indigenous bacteria to lower redox potential, raise pH, and stimulate sulfate reduction activity in highly oxidized smelter tailings after one year of treatment. Bioavailable cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were all lowered significantly in PLA/gypsum treated soil, but PLA amendments alone increased the bioavailability of lead, nickel and zinc. Similar PLA amendments may be useful in constructed wetlands and reactive barrier walls for the passive treatment of mine drainage, where enhanced rates of bacterial sulfate reduction are desirable. PMID:14693443

  12. Effects of biosolids and FGD-gypsum amended soil on metal uptake by lettuce and Edamame soybean and nodules development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids and flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum amended soils are a rich nutrient source for plant growth and could reduce soil contamination by synthetic fertilizers. According to previous studies, these soil amendments have also enhanced some rhizobacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum) in the rh...

  13. Effects of winter cover crop, soil amendment, and variety on organic rice production and greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen supply and disease are two main challenges in organic rice production. Cover crop and soil amendment can be options to increase soil N while keeps rice health. The objective of this study was to test the effects of cover crop and soil amendment on the production of organic rice. Three popul...

  14. Transport of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in biochar-amended soils with different textures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar amendment has been shown to affect bacterial transport in soils. The effect of soil texture on the transport of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in soils amended with 2 % poultry litter or pine chip biochars pyrolyzed under two temperatures (350 and 700 'C...

  15. Effect of wood ash application on soil solution chemistry of tropical acid soils: incubation study.

    PubMed

    Nkana, J C Voundi; Demeyer, A; Verloo, M G

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wood ash application on soil solution composition of three tropical acid soils. Calcium carbonate was used as a reference amendment. Amended soils and control were incubated for 60 days. To assess soluble nutrients, saturation extracts were analysed at 15 days intervals. Wood ash application affects the soil solution chemistry in two ways, as a liming agent and as a supplier of nutrients. As a liming agent, wood ash application induced increases in soil solution pH, Ca, Mg, inorganic C, SO4 and DOC. As a supplier of elements, the increase in the soil solution pH was partly due to ligand exchange between wood ash SO4 and OH- ions. Large increases in concentrations of inorganic C, SO4, Ca and Mg with wood ash relative to lime and especially increases in K reflected the supply of these elements by wood ash. Wood ash application could represent increased availability of nutrients for the plant. However, large concentrations of basic cations, SO4 and NO3 obtained with higher application rates could be a concern because of potential solute transport to surface waters and groundwater. Wood ash must be applied at reasonable rates to avoid any risk for the environment. PMID:12365502

  16. Effect of biochar amendment on tylosin adsorption-desorption and transport in two different soils.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K; Eberhardt, Thomas L; Groom, Les

    2012-01-01

    The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption and transport of tylosin, a macrolide class of veterinary antibiotic, is little known. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and transport of tylosin in forest and agricultural corn field soils amended with hardwood and softwood biochars. Tylosin adsorption was rapid at initial stages, followed by slow and continued adsorption. Amounts of adsorption increased as the biochar amendment rate increased from 1 to 10%. For soils with the hardwood biochar, tylosin adsorption was 10 to 18% higher than that when using the softwood biochar. Adsorption kinetics was well described by Elovich equation ( ≥ 0.921). As the percent of biochar was increased, the rates of initial reactions were generally increased, as indicated by increasing α value at low initial tylosin concentration, whereas the rates during extended reaction times were generally increased, as indicated by decreasing β value at high initial tylosin concentration. A considerably higher amount of tylosin remained after desorption in the corn field soil than in the forest soil regardless of the rate of biochar amendment, which was attributed to the high pH and silt content of the former. The breakthrough curves of tylosin showed that the two soils with biochar amendment had much greater retardation than those of soils without biochar. The CXTFIT model for the miscible displacement column study described well the peak arrival time as well as the maximum concentration of tylosin breakthrough curves but showed some underestimation at advanced stages of tylosin leaching, especially in the corn field soil. Overall, the results indicate that biochar amendments enhance the retention and reduce the transport of tylosin in soils. PMID:22751061

  17. Arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation in the soils amended with organoarsenicals and drinking-water treatment residuals based on a long-term greenhouse study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C.; Datta, Rupali

    2014-10-01

    SummaryAlthough organoarsenical pesticides are no longer applied to agricultural fields in the US, their widespread use until recently, toxicity, and potential transformation to inorganic arsenic has raised serious concern. Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) have been proposed as a low-cost amendment for remediation of organoarsenical pesticide contaminated soils. A long-term greenhouse study was initiated to evaluate the effect WTR application on bioaccessibility, geochemical partitioning, and speciation of the Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Two soils (Immokalee and Orelia series) were spiked with DMA (1500 mg As kg-1) and amended with an Al- and Fe-based WTR at two rates (5% and 10% by wt.). Soil sampling was done immediately after spiking (time zero) and after 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 3 (time final) years of equilibration and subjected to bioaccessibility test and sequential extraction. Results showed that compared to the unamended (no WTR) control, As bioaccessibility in the WTR-amended soils significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by 40-70% in 3 years. The Fe-WTR was more effective than Al-WTR in decreasing soil As bioaccessibility. The in vitro and water-extracted samples were subjected to As speciation at time zero and time final. Results showed transformation of DMA into inorganic As, irrespective of WTR amendments. The Orelia soil showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher transformation than the Immokalee soil.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether accumulation in an agricultural soil ecosystem receiving wastewater sludge amendments.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, Michael O; Mears, Greg L; Harvey, Ellen; La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C

    2014-06-17

    Few studies have addressed bioaccumulation of organic pollutants associated with land-application of biosolids. We thus examined PBDE burdens within a soil ecosystem receiving long-term sludge amendments and a reference soil ecosystem receiving only manure inputs. No PBDEs were detected in reference site samples, but sludge-amended soils contained 17 600 ± 2330 μg/kg ∑3-7PBDE (total organic carbon (TOC) basis). ∑3-7PBDE burdens were highest in soil invertebrates with the greatest contact with sludge-amended soil (e.g., ∑3-7PBDE of 10 300 ± 2670 and 3000 ± 200 μg/kg lipid for earthworms and detritivorous woodlice, respectively). PBDEs were below quantitation limits in vegetation from the sludge-amended site. Surprisingly, we measured quantifiable PBDE burdens in only a single sample of predaceous ground spiders from the sludge-amended site. BDE-209 burdens in sludge-amended soil and earthworms were 7500 ± 2800 μg/kg TOC and 6500 ± 4100 μg/kg lipid, respectively. BDE 209 was detected in fewer taxa, but the burden in a detritivorous millipede composite was high (86 000 μg/kg lipid). PBDE congener patterns differed among species, with worms and ground beetles exhibiting Penta-BDE-like patterns. Penta-BDE biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged from 0.006 to 1.2, while BDE-209 BSAFs ranged from 0.07 to 10.5. δ(13)C and δ(15)N isotope signatures were poorly correlated with PBDE burdens, but sludge-amended samples were significantly δ(15)N enriched. PMID:24905849

  19. Phosphorus release behaviors of poultry litter biochar as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Lin, Yingxin; Chiu, Pei C; Imhoff, Paul T; Guo, Mingxin

    2015-04-15

    Phosphorus (P) may be immobilized and consequently the runoff loss risks be reduced if poultry litter (PL) is converted into biochar prior to land application. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the water extractability of P in PL biochar and its release kinetics in amended soils. Raw PL and its biochar produced through 400°C pyrolysis were extracted with deionized water under various programs and measured for water extractable P species and contents. The materials were further incubated with a sandy loam at 20 g kg(-1) soil and intermittently leached with water for 30 days. The P release kinetics were determined from the P recovery patterns in the water phase. Pyrolysis elevated the total P content from 13.7 g kg(-1) in raw PL to 27.1 g kg(-1) in PL biochar while reduced the water-soluble P level from 2.95 g kg(-1) in the former to 0.17 g kg(-1) in the latter. The thermal treatment transformed labile P in raw PL to putatively Mg/Ca phosphate minerals in biochar that were water-unextractable yet proton-releasable. Orthophosphate was the predominant form of water-soluble P in PL biochar, with condensed phosphate (e.g., pyrophosphate) as a minor form and organic phosphate in null. Release of P from PL biochar in both water and neutral soils was at a slower and steadier rate over a longer time period than from raw PL. Nevertheless, release of P from biochar was acid-driven and could be greatly promoted by the media acidity. Land application of PL biochar at soil pH-incorporated rates and frequency will potentially reduce P losses to runoffs and minimize the adverse impact of waste application on aquatic environments. PMID:25644841

  20. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  1. Phosphorus Depletion From Rhizosphere Solution by Maize Grown in Compost-amended Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of rhizosphere processes is essential for characterizing soil nutrient availability. Our objective in this controlled-climate study was to evaluate phosphorus (P) dynamics in the rhizosphere of juvenile maize (Zea mays L.) grown in soil amended with compost. Maize seedlings were transplant...

  2. Field application of PAM as an amendment in deep-tilled US southeastern Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) was added to sandy coastal plain soils to improve physical properties and yield. Soils were amended with 8 treatments of linear and cross-linked PAMs or controls. Treatments and controls included the following: 1. spraying a 600 mg/kg solution of linear PAM behind a subsoil shan...

  3. Contaminant Immobilization and Nutrient Release by Biochar Soil Amendment: Roles of Natural Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as CuII, CdII, and NiII is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and r...

  4. Reversible and irreversible sorption of agrochemicals in biochar amended soils: synergistic effects of heavy metals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendment of biochar products from thermochemical waste-to-energy conversion (slow/fast pyrolysis and gasification) of biomass has received considerable interests for both contaminated and agricultural sites. Recalcitrant nature of biochar manifests in their decade-long effectiveness in soil a...

  5. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  6. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  7. Corn grain yield and soil properties under decade-long broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  8. Lead Retention in a Calcareous Soil Influenced by Calcium and Phosphate Amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphate amendments in calcareous lead (Pb)-contaminated soils to immobilize Pb may be hindered due to competition of Pb with calcium (Ca) that may inhibit the retention of Pb as a precipitation mechanism. This study explored the retention of Pb in a calcareous soil spiked and ...

  9. SORPTION AND DESORPTION OF CADMIUM BY DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS - AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Series of Cd sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd-salt, and unamended soils (control) to test the hypothesize that not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in...

  10. Effects of organic amendment on degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), are promising alternatives to the phased-out methyl bromide. However, these fumigants are volatile organic compounds and contribute to air pollution from emissions. Organic amendment to soils has been found to reduce emissions by incr...

  11. Relationship between phosphorus forms and phosphatase activity in soils amended with poultry manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up to 80% of the phosphorus (P) in poultry manure (PM) can be present in organic forms that require mineralization via phosphatase enzymes prior to plant utilization. To determine the correlation between soil P distribution and phosphatase activity we sequentially extracted two Maine soils amended...

  12. Trace metal enrichment and distribution in a poultry litter-amended soil under different tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant nutrients and minor elements contamination resulting from enrichment due to agronomic practices such as poultry litter amendment of soils, tillage practices, and crop rotation patterns that have long been investigated to determine their impacts on yield, as well as soil and environmental susta...

  13. The mechanisms for 1,3-dichloropropene dissipation in biochar-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar has the potential to reduce fumigant emissions to protect air quality; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine effects of biochar properties, amendment rate, soil moisture, temperature, and soil type on degradation and adsorption charact...

  14. Amelioration of physical strength in waste foundry green sands for reuse as a soil amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important for U.S. foundries to find ways of diverting 8-12 million tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) away from landfills each year. A major drawback to the reuse of some WFSs as a soil amendment is their high soil str...

  15. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  16. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcóllar (Spain): the effect of soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2005-11-01

    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH < 5 were limed for the second crop. Soil acidification conditioned plant growth and metal accumulation. The addition of lime and the organic amendments achieved higher plant biomass production, although effects concerning metal bioavailability and accumulation were masked somewhat by pH variability with time and between and within plots. Tissue metal concentrations of B. juncea were elevated for Zn, Cu and Pb, especially in leaves of plants from plots with low pH values (maxima of 2029, 71 and 55 microg g(-1), respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. PMID:15894412

  17. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  18. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  19. Residues of bioenergy production chains as soil amendments: immediate and temporal phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gell, Kealan; van Groenigen, JanWillem; Cayuela, Maria Luz

    2011-02-28

    The current shift towards bioenergy production increases streams of bioenergy rest-products (RPs), which are likely to end-up as soil amendments. However, their impact on soil remains unclear. In this study we evaluated crop phytotoxicity of 15 RPs from common bioenergy chains (biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol and pyrolysis). The RPs were mixed into a sandy soil and the seedling root and shoot elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were measured. Immediate phytotoxic effects were observed with biodiesel and bioethanol RPs (root elongation reduced to 14-60% for the three crops; P<0.05). However, phytotoxicity was no longer significant after seven days. Digestates had no phytotoxic effect whereas biochars ranged from beneficial to detrimental depending on the original feedstock and temperature of pyrolysis. Biochar amendment alleviated phytotoxicity of bioethanol by-products for wheat and radish. Phytotoxicity assessment is critical for successful soil amendment with bioenergy RPs. PMID:21256672

  20. Assisted attenuation of a soil contaminated by diuron using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic amendments.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Bellido, Marina; Madrid, Fernando; Morillo, Esmeralda; Villaverde, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Diuron desorption and mineralisation were studied on an amended and artificially contaminated soil. The amendments used comprised two different composted organic residues i.e., sewage sludge (SS) mixed with pruning wastes, and urban solid residues (USR), and two different solutions (with inorganic salts as the micronutrients and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD)). After applying micronutrients to activate the soil flora, 15.5% mineralisation could be reached after 150 days, indicating that the soil has a potential capacity to mineralise the herbicide through biostimulation-assisted attenuation. Diuron mineralisation was also improved when HPBCD solutions were applied. Indeed, the extent of herbicide mineralisation reached 29.7% with this application. Moreover, both the lag phase and the half-life time (DT50) were reduced to 33 and 1,778 days, respectively, relative to the application of just micronutrients (i.e., 39 and 6297 days, respectively). Organic amendments were also applied (i.e., USR and SS) on the contaminated soil: it was found that the diuron mineralisation rate was improved as the amendment concentration increased. The joint application of all treatments investigated at the best conditions tested was conducted to obtain the best diuron mineralisation results. The micronutrient amendment plus 4% USR or SS amendment plus HPBCD solution (10-fold diuron initially spiked) caused an extent of diuron mineralisation 33.2 or 46.5%, respectively. PMID:25310830

  1. Effect of oxygen amendments and soil pH on bioremediation of industrially contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1996-04-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by-products of coal conversion processes, have contaminated soils near coal plant sites either through accidental spills or systematic discharge. Because these compounds are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, remediation of such sites is a legitimate concern. For this study, contaminated soil samples were obtained from the Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary clean-up facility. Preliminary analysis of the soil was done for contaminant characterization and determination of initial contamination levels. Acinetobacter sp. was used for aerobic treatment of soil over a five-week period under optimum conditions. Because the rate of biodegradation is influenced by the pH, it is of interest to study the effect of pH on remediation efficiency in the physiological pH range of 5.0 to 9.0. Also, oxygen amendment via hydrogen peroxide solution was used to improve remediation in a packed bed, and the results were compared with those obtained under completely mixed conditions.

  2. Trade-offs between soil hydrology and plant disease effects after biochar amendment in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Frank; Silva, Flavio; Amaro, Antonio; Pinto, Gloria; Mesquita, Raquel; Jesus, Claudia; Alves, Artur; Keizer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can affect multiple soil-based ecosystem services to varying extents, leading to trade-offs. Improvements in plant-available water have predominantly been found at high biochar application rates in sandy soils. Reductions in plant diseases after biochar application have been found in various horticultural plants, and trees such as maple and oak, mostly at relatively low biochar application rates. Serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed, and eucalypts are the major tree species in commercial forestry plantations of Portugal, forming an important economic activity. Here we investigated simultaneous effects on plant available water and on disease suppression of eucalypt, in a completely randomised full factorial greenhouse pot experiment, using a range of woody feedstock biochar concentrations in sandy soil. Treatments included plant inoculation with the fungus Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and cycles of acute drought stress. Preliminary results showed delayed wilting for plants treated with 3-6% biochar, but also increased stem lesion length. These results suggest a trade-off between effects on water availability and disease for Eucalyptus globulus plants in the selected sandy soil amended with this specific biochar, at the selected application rates.

  3. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the "soil benefit" category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  4. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the “soil benefit” category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  5. Assessment of tomato and wine processing solid wastes as soil amendments for biosolarization.

    PubMed

    Achmon, Yigal; Harrold, Duff R; Claypool, Joshua T; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-02-01

    Pomaces from tomato paste and wine production are the most abundant fruit processing residues in California. These residues were examined as soil amendments for solarization to promote conditions conducive to soil disinfestation (biosolarization). Simulated biosolarization studies were performed in both aerobic and anaerobic soil environments and soil temperature elevation, pH, and evolution of CO2, H2 and CH4 gases were measured as metrics of soil microbial activity. Tomato pomace amendment induced conditions associated with soil pest inactivation, including elevation of soil temperature by up to 2°C for a duration of 4days under aerobic conditions and a reduction of soil pH from 6.5 to 4.68 under anaerobic conditions. White wine grape pomace amendment showed similar trends but to a lesser extent. Red wine grape pomace was generally less suitable for biosolarization due to significantly lower soil temperature elevations, reduced acidification relative to the other pomaces and induction of methanogenesis in the soil. PMID:26525530

  6. Sorption of dissolved lead from shooting range soils using hydroxyapatite amendments synthesized from industrial byproducts as affected by varying pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Taki, Tomohiro; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-04-01

    For immobilization technologies to be successful, the use of readily available and cost advantageous amendment is important when the remediation targets vast amounts of contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the byproduct-synthesized hydroxyapatite can be used as an immobilizing amendment for dissolved Pb from a shooting range soil, and to model the kinetic data collected from dissolution experiments. A soil-solution kinetic experiment was conducted under fixed pH conditions as a function of time. A Pb-contaminated soil was reacted with various hydroxyapatite amendments to determine the dissolution rate and mineral products of soil Pb. Three types of amendments used were pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatites synthesized from gypsum waste (CHA), and synthesized from incinerated poultry litter (PHA). The dissolved Pb concentration decreased with the addition of amendments at pH 3-7. Both CHA and PHA were more effective than HA for attenuating Pb dissolution at pH 6 and above. According to the thermodynamic calculation at pH 6, the dissolved Pb concentration for CHA and PHA treatments was predicted to be 66% and 50% lower than that of HA treatment, respectively. A better Pb immobilization effect demonstrated by CHA and PHA resulted in their greater solubility at higher pH, which may promote the formation of chloropyromorphite precipitates. Dissolution kinetics of soil Pb was adequately explained by pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations in acid pH ranges. According to the ion exchange model, an adequate agreement between the experimental data and regression curves was shown in the initial 40 min of the reaction process, but the accuracy of model predictability decreased thereafter. According to kinetic models and dissolution phenomena, CHA and PHA amendments had better Pb sorption capacity with rapid kinetics than pure hydroxyapatite at weak acid to neutral pH. PMID:19111967

  7. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm 2000-250 μm 250-53 μm and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture.

  8. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000–250 μm; 250–53 μm; and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000–250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture. PMID:26423355

  9. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000-250 μm; 250-53 μm; and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture. PMID:26423355

  10. Arsenic species in broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, soils, maize (Zea mays L.), and groundwater from litter-amended fields.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Elisa; Zeigler, Georgia; Beck, E Glenn; Grove, John; Sikora, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Manure and bedding material (litter) generated by the broiler industry (Gallus gallus domesticus) often contain high levels of arsenic (As) when organoarsenical roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid are included in feed to combat disease and improve weight gain of the birds. This study was conducted to determine As levels and species in litter from three major broiler producing companies, and As levels in soils, corn tissue (Zea mays L.), and groundwater in fields where litter was applied. Total As in litter from the three different integrators ranged between <1 and 44 mg kg(-1). Between 15 and 20% of total As in litter consisted of mostly of arsenate, with smaller amounts of roxarsone and several transformation products that were extractable with phosphate buffer. Soils amended with litter had higher levels of bioavailable As (extractable with Mehlich 3 solution and taken up by corn leaves). Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue and groundwater, however, were below the World Health Organization thresholds, which was attributed to strong sorption/precipitation of arsenate in Fe- and Al-rich soils. Ecological impacts of amending soils with As-laden litter depend on the As species in the litter, and chemical and physical properties of soil that strongly affect As mobility and bioavailability in the environment. PMID:23010102

  11. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers. PMID:25935750

  12. Organic amendment of crop soil and its relation to hotspots of bacterial nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; McMillan, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Crop production in Australian soils requires a high use of fertilisers, including N, P and K for continues utilisation of the soil. Growers often grow crops in rotation of summer crop, such as cotton with winter crop, such as wheat in the same field. Growers are getting more and more aware about sustainability of the soil resources and the more adventurous ones use soil amendments, such as organic supplements in addition to the chemical fertilisers. We have collected soil samples from fields that were cultivated in preparation for planting cotton and tested the soil for its bacterial populations with potential to perform different functions, including those related to the nitrogen cycling. One of our aims was to determine whether organic amendments create hotspots for bacterial functions related to bacterial nitrogen cycling. This pan of the project will be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Adsorption-desorption of metolachlor and atrazine in Indian soils: effect of fly ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rakesh K; Singh, Neera

    2013-02-01

    The effect of two fly ashes as soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylphenyl)] and atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) was studied in alluvial and laterite soils. The adsorption data for both the herbicides fitted well the Freundlich equation, and Freundlich adsorption coefficient (K (f)) increased with an increase of fly ash amount. Both the fly ashes differed in their extent to increase herbicide sorption, and the effect was different in different soils. Atrazine was sorbed more in the soils/soils + fly ash mixtures than the metolachlor. The K (f) values showed significant correlation with the amount of fly ash amendment (correlation coefficient, R > 0.982). The desorption isotherms also fitted the Freundlich equation, and desorption showed hysteresis which increased with an increase in the content of fly ash amendment. The free energy change (ΔG) indicated that the sorption process is exothermic, spontaneous, and physical in nature. The study has shown that fly ash as soil amendment significantly increased the sorption of metolachlor and atrazine, but the effect is soil- and fly ash-specific. PMID:22572800

  14. Ionic thiocyanate (SCN(-)) production, fate, and phytotoxicity in soil amended with Brassicaceae seed meals.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Daniel; Morra, Matthew J; Borek, Vladimir; Snyder, André J; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L; Thill, Donald C

    2008-06-11

    Brassicaceae seed meals produce ionic thiocyanate (SCN (-)), a bioherbicidal compound. This study determined the fate of SCN (-) in a field soil amended with seed meals of Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea, and Brassica napus and quantified crop phytotoxicity by monitoring carrot ( Daucus carota) emergence. Meals were applied at 1 or 2 t ha (-1), and soils were sampled to 35 cm for SCN (-). Maximum SCN (-) (211 micromol kg (-1) of soil) was measured at 5 days in 0-5 cm samples from plots amended with S. alba meal at 2 t ha (-1). Less than 30 micromol of SCN (-) kg (-1) of soil was measured at soil depths below 15 cm. At 44 days, SCN (-) was <15 micromol kg (-1) of soil in all treatments. Emergence inhibition of carrots seeded 15-36 days after meal amendment was found only in S. alba treatments. The rapid decrease of SCN (-) concentrations in Brassicaceae meal-amended soil indicates limited potential for off-site environmental impacts. PMID:18442242

  15. Metolachlor and chlorothalonil dissipation in gypsum-amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cropping systems incorporate pesticides individually or as tank mixtures pre- and or at planting followed by sequential application of other pesticides during the growing season. Additionally fertilizers and amendments may be applied. Previous studies demonstrate significant interactive affects...

  16. Trade-offs between soil-based functions in wetlands restored with soil amendments of differing lability.

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Katherine A; Lehmann, Johannes; Schneider, Rebecca L; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments have been proposed as a means to speed the development of plant and soil processes that contribute to water quality, habitat, and biodiversity functions in restored wetlands. However, because natural wetlands often act as significant methane sources, it remains unknown if amendments will also stimulate emissions of this greenhouse gas from restored wetlands. In this study, we investigated the potential trade-offs of incorporating soil amendments into wetland restoration methodology. We used controlled field-scale manipulations in four recently restored depressional freshwater wetlands in western New York, USA to investigate the impact that soils amended with organic materials have on water-quality functions and methane production in the first three years of development. Results showed that amendments, topsoil in particular, were effective for stimulating the development of a suite of biological (microbial biomass increased by 106% and respiration by 26%) and physicochemical (cation exchange capacity increased by 10%) soil properties indicative of water-quality functions. Furthermore, increases in microbial biomass and activity lasted for a significantly longer period of time (years instead of days) than studies examining less recalcitrant amendments. However, amended plots also had 20% times higher potential net methane production than control plots three years after restoration. Wetlands restoration projects are implemented to achieve a variety of goals, commonly including habitat provision, biodiversity, and water-quality functions, but also carbon sequestration, flood abatement, cultural heritage and livelihood preservation, recreation, education, and others. Projects should strive to achieve their specific goals while also evaluating the potential tradeoffs between wetland functions. PMID:26255369

  17. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate leaching of a sandy soil amended with different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-04-01

    Organic wastes can be recycled as a source of plant nutrients, enhancing crop production by improving soil quality. However, the study of the dynamic of soil nutrient, especially the N dynamic, after soil application of any organic material is vital for assessing a correct and effective use of the material, minimizing the losses of nitrate in leachates and avoiding the negative environmental effects that it may cause in groundwater. To estimate the effect of three organic materials, a municipal solid waste compost (MWC), a non-composted paper mill sludge (PS), and an agroforest compost (AC) on the N dynamic of a sandy soil two experiments were carried out: an incubation experiment and a column experiment. The incubation experiment was conducted to estimate the N mineralization rate of the different soil-amendment mixtures. The soil was mixed with the organic amendments at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1) and incubated during 40 weeks at constant moisture content (70% of its water-holding capacity) and temperature (28 degrees C) under aerobic conditions. Organic amendment-soil samples showed an immobilization of N during the first weeks, which was more noticeable and longer in the case of PS-treated soil compared to the other two amendments due to its high C/N ratio. After this immobilization stage, a positive mineralization was observed for all treatment, especially in MWC treated soil. Contemporaneously a 1-year column (19 cm diameter and 60 cm height) experiment was carried out to estimate the nitrate losses from the soil amended with the same organic materials. Amendments were mixed with the top soil (0-15 cm) at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1). The columns were periodically irrigated simulating rainfall in the area of study, receiving in total 415 mm of water, and the water draining was collected during the experimental period and analysed for NO3-N. At the end of the experimental period NO3-N content in soil columns at three depths (0-20, 20-35 and

  18. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    PubMed

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil. PMID:26853755

  19. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acidic (pH 5.8) biochar was created using a low pyrolysis temperature (350 degrees celsius) and steam activation to potentially improve the soil physicochemical status of an eroded calcareous soil. Biochar was added at 0, 1, 2, and 10 percent (by weight) to an eroded Portneuf soil (coarse-silty,...

  20. Enhanced chlorophenol sorption of soils by rice-straw-ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Chyi; Tzou, Yu-Min; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Wu, Jeng-Tzung; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Wang, Shan-Li

    2010-05-15

    Rice-straw burning is a common post-harvest practice on rice paddy land, which results in the accumulation of rice-straw ash (RSA) in paddy soil. Because the occurrence of RSA in soil may affect the fate and transport of contaminants, this study investigated the sorption of 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) on RSA and RSA amended soils to evaluate the sorptive properties of RSA in soils. The results showed that the sorption of 3-CP to RSA proceeds through a surface reaction rather than through partitioning and that the neutral form of 3-CP is preferentially sorbed to the surface when compared to the deprotonated anionic form of 3-CP. The addition of RSA to the soils enhanced the overall 3-CP sorption, indicating that RSA amendment may be applied to retard the movement of 3-CP in contaminated soils. As the RSA content in the soils was increased from 0% to 2%, the Langmuir sorption maximum of the soils increased from 18-80 to 256-274 mg kg(-1). Thus, RSA contributed more to the total sorption of the soils than other major components in the soils. Nonetheless, the 3-CP sorption of the soils containing RSA was less than the combination of pure RSA and the soils, thereby indicating that the 3-CP sorption of RSA was suppressed. This may be attributed to the competition of organic matter or other soil components for the surface binding sites of RSA. PMID:20060642

  1. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  2. Potential bioavailability of lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in compost-amended urban soils.

    PubMed

    Attanayake, Chammi P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Martin, Sabine; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2015-05-01

    Urban soils may contain harmful concentrations of contaminants, such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), that can transfer from soil to humans via soil ingestion and consumption of food crops grown in such soils. The objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of adding different compost types to reduce both direct (soil-human) and indirect (soil-plant-human) exposure of Pb, As, and PAHs to humans. A field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at an urban garden site with elevated concentrations of Pb (475 mg kg), As (95 mg kg), and PAHs (23-50 mg kg). Soil amendments were composted biosolids, noncomposted biosolids, mushroom compost, leaf compost, and a nonamended control. Collard greens, tomatoes, and carrots were then grown in the amended and nonamended soils and nonamended soils that received urea in 2011. At the beginning of the second season, N-P-K fertilizer was added to all plots. The potential for direct and indirect exposure was evaluated. Soil Pb bioaccessibility was 1 to 4.3%, and As bioaccessibility was 7.3 to 12.3%. Composted biosolids reduced the bioaccessibility of soil Pb by ∼17% compared with the control but temporarily increased the bioaccessibility of As by ∼ 69% compared with the control when soluble inorganic P concentration in soil was elevated by P fertilizer application in 2012. The bioaccessibility of soil Pb decreased by ∼38% in all treatments when soluble inorganic P concentration in soil was elevated by P fertilizer. Compost amendments reduced the concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs in soil. Regardless of the treatments, the concentrations of Pb, As, and PAHs measured in the vegetables were low or nondetectable, except for Pb in carrots. Consumption of vegetables grown at this site will cause insignificant transfer of Pb, As, and PAHs to humans. PMID:26024273

  3. Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on effectiveness of remediation techniques on these soils is scarce. We tested effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to...

  4. Optimizing the combined application of amendments to allow plant growth in a multielement-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Romero-Puertas, M C; Mingorance, M D

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R(2) ≥ 0.94 and Q(2) ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils. PMID:26807942

  5. Emission reduction of 1,3-dichloropropene by soil amendment with biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Yan, Dongdong; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chenglei; Wang, Ruoqi; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-09-01

    Soil fumigation is an important treatment in the production chain of fruit and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions contribute to air pollution. Biochar as a soil amendment has shown the potential to reduce organic pollutants, including pesticides, in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. A laboratory column study was performed to determine the effects of soil applications of biochar for reducing emissions of the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). The experimental treatments comprised of unamended and amended with biochar at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% (w/w) in the top 5 cm soil layer. The unamended treatment resulted in the highest emission peak flux at 48 to 66 μg m s. Among the biochar amendment treatments, the highest peak flux (0.83 μg m s) was found in the biochar 0.5% treatment. The total emission loss was 35.7 to 40.2% of applied for the unamended treatment and <0.1 to 2.9% for the biochar-amendment treatments. A germination bioassay with cucumber seeds showed that ≥7 d of aeration would be needed to avoid phytotoxicity before replanting in biochar-containing fumigated soil. The results indicate that treatments with 0.5% or more biochar amendment reduced emission peak flux by >99.8% and showed total 1,3-D emission loss by >92% compared with that without biochar. The amendment of surface soil with biochar shows a great potential for reducing fumigant emissions. PMID:25603251

  6. Soil biochar amendment shapes the composition of N2O-reducing microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Harter, Johannes; Weigold, Pascal; El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Huson, Daniel H; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-08-15

    Soil biochar amendment has been described as a promising tool to improve soil quality, sequester carbon, and mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. The main sources of N2O in soils are microbially-mediated nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. While previous studies have focused on the link between N2O emission mitigation and the abundance and activity of N2O-reducing microorganisms in biochar-amended soils, the impact of biochar on the taxonomic composition of the nosZ gene carrying soil microbial community has not been subject of systematic study to date. We used 454 pyrosequencing in order to study the microbial diversity in biochar-amended and biochar-free soil microcosms. We sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons as well as fragments of common (typical) nosZ genes and the recently described 'atypical' nosZ genes. The aim was to describe biochar-induced shifts in general bacterial community diversity and taxonomic variations among the nosZ gene containing N2O-reducing microbial communities. While soil biochar amendment significantly altered the 16S rRNA gene-based community composition and structure, it also led to the development of distinct functional traits capable of N2O reduction containing typical and atypical nosZ genes related to nosZ genes found in Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pedobacter saltans, respectively. Our results showed that biochar amendment can affect the relative abundance and taxonomic composition of N2O-reducing functional microbial traits in soil. Thus these findings broaden our knowledge on the impact of biochar on soil microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling. PMID:27100017

  7. Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  8. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  9. Nitrogen mineralization rates of the acidic, xeric soils of the New Jersey Pinelands: laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Poovarodom, S.; Tate, R.L. III

    1988-05-01

    In a series of laboratory incubation studies, the authors evaluated the effects of temperature, moisture, and nitrogen amendment on nitrogen mineralization rates in the acidic Lakehurst and Atsion sands of the New Jersey Pinelands. The average potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N/sub 0/) values for the Lakehurst and Atsion sands were 87 and 94 ..mu..g/g, respectively. Mineralization constants (k) were 0.0501 and 0.0756/wk at 25 and 35/degrees/C, respectively, for the Lakehurst sand and were 0.0327 and 0.0452/wk for the Atsion sand. Maximum mineralization occurred at 35/degrees/C for both soils with Q/sub 10/ values ranging from 1.8 to 2.1. Optimal soil moisture tensions for nitrogen mineralization were between /minus/0.01 and /minus/0.03 MPa. A soil moisture tension of /minus/0.01 MPa reduced nitrogen mineralization with the Lakehurst sand, but not with the Atsion sand. Amendment of the soil with ammonium sulfate increased mineralization with the Atsion sand, but had no effect on the Lakehurst soil. Conversely, ammonium chloride amendment increased the nitrogen mineralization rates in the Lakehurst, but not the Atsion sand. Urea amendment inhibited nitrogen mineralization with both soils. No nitrate accumulation was observed in any of the nitrogen-amended samples.

  10. Organic and inorganic amendment application on mercury-polluted soils: effects on soil chemical and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Klouza, Martin; Holečková, Zlata; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a previous study performed in our laboratory, the use of organic and inorganic amendments can significantly modify the Hg mobility in soil. We have compared the effectiveness of organic and inorganic amendments such as digestate and fly ash, respectively, reducing the Hg mobility in Chernozem and Luvisol soils differing in their physicochemical properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare the impact of digestate and fly ash application on the chemical and biochemical parameters in these two mercury-contaminated soils in a model batch experiment. Chernozem and Luvisol soils were artificially contaminated with Hg and then incubated under controlled conditions for 21 days. Digestate and fly ash were applied to both soils in a dose of 10 and 1.5 %, respectively, and soil samples were collected after 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. The presence of Hg in both soils negatively affected to processes such as nitrification, provoked a decline in the soil microbial biomass C (soil microbial biomass C (MBC)), and the microbial activities (arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) in both soils. Meanwhile, the digestate addition to Chernozem and Luvisol soils contaminated with Hg improved the soil chemical properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N (Ntot), inorganic-N forms (N-NH4 (+) and N-NO3 (-))), as consequence of high content in C and N contained in digestate. Likewise, the soil MBC and soil microbial activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) were greatly enhanced by the digestate application in both soils. In contrast, fly ash application did not have a remarkable positive effect when compared to digestate in Chernozem and Luvisol soil contaminated with mercury. These results may indicate that the use of organic amendments such as digestate considerably improved the soil health in Chernozem and Luvisol compared with fly ash, alleviating the detrimental impact of Hg. Probably, the chemical properties present in

  11. Feather hydrolysate from Streptomyces sampsonii GS 1322: A potential low cost soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Jain, Richa; Jain, Aakanchha; Rawat, Neha; Nair, Meera; Gumashta, Raghvendra

    2016-06-01

    Process parameters for obtaining hydrolysate from hen feathers, i.e., initial pH (5.0-9.0) and incubation period (1-6 day), were set and studied, using Streptomyces sampsonii GS 1322 in submerged and solid state conditions. Under submerged conditions, complete hydrolysis of feathers was observed on fifth day [initial pH 8.0, 28 ± 2°C, shaking (150 rpm)] with release of soluble protein (2985 μg ml(-1)) and amino acids (2407 μg ml(-1)). Cell free hydrolysate showed hydrolysis of casein (18 mm), gelatin (26 mm), collagen (31 mm), hemoglobin (23 mm) and Tween 80 (35 mm) while 445 U keratinase activity. Total soluble protein reached 5 mg ml(-1) in solid state conditions. During Pot experimentation using barren agriculture soil the effect of feather hydrolysate on wheat crop were recorded. Significant increase (p<0.01) in wheat seed germination was observed in treated soils as compared to untreated. Treatment significantly increased plant height from 30 to 60 days and 30-90 days (p<0.001). Treated soil showed an increase in total microbial count, proteolytic activity, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and ammonifying bacteria, whereas pathogenic fungi load was reduced. S. sampsonii GS 1322 can be used for bio-processing of poultry wastes yielding feather hydrolysate rich in proteins and amino acids for development of low-cost organic amendment to accelerate wheat crop growth in barren agricultural land. PMID:26906933

  12. Reduced sulfentrazone phytotoxicity through increased adsorption and anionic species in biochar-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kailin; Yu, Bingqi; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Bai, Lianyang

    2016-05-01

    Burning straw in the field is a common agricultural practice. The effects of adding biochar derived from rice straw to soils on the phytotoxicity of sulfentrazone to Oryza sativa L. were observed. Overall, when 1 % biochar was added to three different soils, the phytotoxicity of sulfentrazone to O. sativa L. decreased, and the concentration that inhibits growth by 50 % (IC50) increased by 1.4 to 7.6 times. To illuminate the influencing mechanisms, the changes in sulfentrazone adsorption to the soil, the soil pH, and the bioavailable sulfentrazone extracted from the soil solution using hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction were studied. The Freundlich constant (K f ) of sulfentrazone to the soil increased 1.5 to 25 times relative to the K f in the three unamended soils, and the soil pH increased by 0.36 to 1.36 units resulted in a fraction of dissociated sulfentrazone increased by 10.2-17.4 %. In addition, the average concentrations of sulfentrazone in the three unamended soil solutions were 1.3-6.1 times relative to those in the three biochar-amended soil solutions. These results suggest that the sulfentrazone adsorption and soil pH increased when soils were amended with biochar, which decreased the bioavailable concentrations and reduced its phytotoxicity to O. sativa L. PMID:26865479

  13. Soil solution chemistry of a fly ash-, poultry litter-, and sewage sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

    2000-04-01

    Mixing coal fly ash (FA) with organic wastes to provide balanced soil amendments offers a potential viable use of this industrial by-product. When such materials are land-applied to supply nutrients for agronomic crops, trace element contaminant solubility must be evaluated. In this study, major and trace element soil solution concentrations arising from application of fly ash, organic wastes, and mixtures of the two were compared in a laboratory incubation. Two fly ashes, broiler poultry litter (PL), municipal sewage sludge (SS), and mixtures of FA with either PL or SS were mixed with a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludult) at rates of 32.3, 8.1, and 16.1 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil for FA, PL, and SS, respectively. Treatments were incubated at 22 C at 17% moisture content and soil solution was periodically extracted by centrifugation over 33 d. Initial soil solution concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and Cu were significantly greater in FA/OL treatments than the respective FA-only treatments. For Cu, increased solution concentrations were attributable to increased loading rates in FA/PL mixtures. Solution Cu concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved C (R{sup 2} > 0.96) in all PL treatments. Significant interactive effects for solution Mo and Se concentrations were observed for the FA/PL and may have resulted from the increased pH and competing anion concentrations of these treatments. Solution As concentrations showed a significant interactive effect for one FA/PL mixture. For the individual treatments, As was more soluble in the Pl treatment than either FA treatment. Except for soluble Se from on FA/SS mixture, trace element solubility in the FA/SS mixtures was not significantly different than the respective FA-only treatment.

  14. Phosphorus leaching from soils amended with thermally gasified piggery waste ash.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2009-09-01

    In regions with intensive livestock farming, thermal treatment for local energy extraction from the manure and export of the P rich ash as a fertilizer has gained interest. One of the main risks associated with P fertilizers is eutrophication of water bodies. In this study P and K mobility in ash from anaerobically digested, thermally gasified (GA) and incinerated (IA) piggery waste has been tested using water loads ranging from 0.1 to 200 ml g(-1). Leaching of P from soil columns amended with GA was investigated for one P application rate (205 kg P ha(-1) corresponding to 91 mg P kg(-1) soil dry matter) as a function of precipitation rate (9.5 and 2.5 mm h(-1)), soil type (Jyndevad agricultural soil and sand), amount of time elapsed between ash amendment and onset of precipitation (0 and 5 weeks) and compared to leaching from soils amended with a commercial fertilizer (Na(2)HPO(4)). Water soluble P in GA and IA constituted 0.04% and 0.8% of total ash P. Ash amended soil released much less P (0.35% of total P applied in sand) than Na(2)HPO(4) (97% and 12% of total P applied in Jyndevad and sand, respectively). PMID:19427189

  15. Recovering a copper mine soil using organic amendments and phytomanagement with Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    A 3-month greenhouse experiment was carried out for evaluating the effect of an amendment mixture and mustards on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and the metal uptake by plants. A settling pond soil was amended with increasing percentages of a technosol and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. Adding amendments and planting mustards increased the soil pH from 2.83 to 6.18 and the TSC from u.l to 131 g kg(-1) and generally reduced the CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations in the soil. However, the amendments increased the pseudo-total soil concentration of Ni from 9.27 to 31.9 mg kg(-1), Pb from 27.9 to 91.6 mg kg(-1) and Zn from 46.5 to 577 mg kg(-1). The technosol and biochar mixture increased the shoot biomass from 0.74 to 2.95 g and generally reduced the metal concentrations in plants, meaning B. juncea as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of mine soils. PMID:25262389

  16. Impact of Ca-amendments and soil management in physical properties linked to soil-water relationship in degraded Ultisols from South-Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal-Sancho, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, P.; León, P.; Gómez-Paccard, C.; Benito, M.; Espejo, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cañamerós raña formation in western Spain was cleared for cropping in 1940´s. Its highly weathered acidic soils (Ultisols) were deeply affected by tillage. The soil organic matter (SOM) content and specially the particulate organic matter (POM), a labile fraction, were drastically reduced, and most of their chemical and physical soil properties related to its quality were negatively affected. The extraction of Ca through the harvest and the release of Al retained in organic-Al complexes resulted in a lower Ca/Al ratio which increased the Al toxicity. These effects led to a drastic yield reduction and the abandon of many degraded fields after 20-70 years of unsustainable managements. On these degraded soils we studied the effect of different soil management strategies (no-till with wild pasture (WP) and no-till with an improved pasture (IP)), and amendment applications (sugar foam waste (SF), and SF + Phosphogypsum (PH) versus control (C)). One of the objectives of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of these practices to recover soil quality parameters, especially those related to soil-water relationship. A Split-plot experiment was established in a degraded field. We evaluated the changes in superficial infiltration, bulk density, and content of water-stable aggregates per 100 g of soil before the Ca-amendment applications and pasture establishments, and after 4.5 years. We also measured the changes in SOM and POM contents which are closely related with the previous parameters. The Ca applications reduced Al toxicity, improved the pasture yield and increased organic matter inputs to soil. The results showed a significant increase of POM in all treatment compared with the POM content at the beginning of this experiment. However the "SOM minus POM" which could be classified as recalcitrant organic matter did not show significant increments. The increase of POM had a positive effect on the content of water-stable aggregates per 100 g of soil and the water

  17. Biochemical activity and chemical-structural properties of soil organic matter after 17 years of amendments with olive-mill pomace co-compost.

    PubMed

    Aranda, V; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Masciandaro, G

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates soil fertility, biochemical activity and the soil's ability to stabilize organic matter after application of composted olive-mill pomace. This organic amendment was applied in two different olive groves in southern Spain having different soil typologies (carbonated and silicic). Olive grove soils after 17 years of organic management with application of olive-mill pomace co-compost were of higher quality than those with conventional management where no co-compost had been applied. The main chemical parameters studied (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, total extractable carbon (TEC), and humic-to-fulvic acids ratio), significantly increased in soils treated with the organic amendment. In particular, the more resistant pool of organic matter (TEC) enhanced by about six and eight fold in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively. Moreover, the amended silicic soils showed the most significant increases in enzyme activities linked to C and P cycles (β-glucosidase twenty-five fold higher and phosphatase seven fold higher). Organic management in both soils induced higher organic matter mineralization, as shown by the higher pyrrole/phenol index (increasing 40% and 150% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively), and lower furfural/pyrrole index (decreasing 27% and 71% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). As a result of mineralization, organic matter incorporated was also more stable as suggested by the trend of the aliphatic/aromatic index (decreasing 36% and 30% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). Therefore, management system and soil type are key factors in increasing long-term C stability or sequestration in soils. Thus application of olive-oil extraction by-products to soils could lead to important mid-to -long-term agro-environmental benefits, and be a valuable alternative use for one of the most widespread polluting wastes in the Mediterranean

  18. Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.; Moeldrup, P.; Roslev, P. . Environmental Engineering Lab.)

    1999-08-01

    Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial mineralization activity was described well by first-order kinetics, whereas mineralization in long-term incubations was described better by fractional power kinetics. The mineralization activity was much lower in the late phase presumably due to a decline in the bioavailability of DEHP caused by diffusion-limited desorption. The initial DEHP mineralization rate in sludge-amended soil varied between 3.7 and 20.3 ng of DEHP (g dw)[sup [minus]1]d[sup [minus]1] depending on incubation conditions. Aerobic DEHP mineralization was 4--5 times faster than anaerobic mineralization, DEHP mineralization in sludge-amended soil was much more temperature sensitive than was DEHP mineralization in soil without sludge. Indigenous microorganisms in the sewage sludge appeared to dominate DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. It was estimated that > 41% of the DEHP in sludge-amended soil will have escaped mineralization after 1 year. In the absence of oxygen, > 68% of the DEHP will not be mineralized within 1 year. Collectively, the data suggest that a significant fraction of the DEHP in sludge-amended soils may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.

  19. Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in agricultural soils amended with different organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Li; Wang, Haizhen; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2015-10-15

    Five organic fertilizers (vermicompost, pig manure, chicken manure, peat and oil residue) were applied to agricultural soils to study their effects on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survival changed greatly after organic fertilizers application, with shorter td values (survival time needed to reach the detection limit of 100 CFU g(-1)) (12.57±6.57 days) in soils amended with chicken manure and the longest (25.65±7.12 days) in soils amended with pig manure. Soil pH, EC and free Fe/Al (hydro) oxides were significant explanatory factors for E. coli O157:H7 survival in the original soils. Soil constituents (minerals and organic matter) and changes in their surface charges with pH increased the effect of soil pH on E. coli O157:H7 survival. However, electrical conductivity played a more important role in regulating E. coli O157:H7 survival in fertilizer-amended soils. This study highlighted the importance of choosing appropriate organic fertilizers in the preharvest environment to reduce food-borne bacterial contamination. PMID:25910457

  20. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  1. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  2. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C

    1976-01-01

    The Streptomyces populations inhabiting five acidic forest soils were examined. It was found that lowering the pH of a medium selective for streptomycetes (starch-casein agar) to the pH of the particular soil horizon being plated influenced both the total numbers and types of streptomycetes that were isolated from the soils examined in this study. On the acidified medium both the numbers of streptomycetes and the percentage of total bacteria on the plates represented by streptomycetes increased (as compared with the same medium with a pH of 7.2). These differences were greatest on the isolations from the most acid soils. The largest concentrations of streptomycetes were found in the surface horizon (0 to 15 cm) and the litter layer immediately over the surface mineral horizon. Acidity tolerance tests demonstrated that random samplings of isolates contained acidophilic, neutrophilic, and acidoduric strains, with the largest numbers of acidophiles being found on the acidified media from the most acid soils. There were no differences between overall utilization of selected carbohydrates among the isolates taken from either the neutral or acidic media, although a larger proportion of the acid media isolates produced acid from the carbohydrates. Evidence is presented which indicates that different types of streptomycetes were isolated on the acid media, and possible reasons for the presence of these acid-tolerant populations are discussed. PMID:10835

  3. The influence of organic amendments on soil aggregate stability from semiarid sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health. Under these conditions, vegetation cover in areas having degraded soils may be better sustained if the soil is amended with an external source of organic matter. The addition of organic materials to soils also increases infiltration rates and reduces erosion rates; these factors contribute to an available water increment and a successful and sustainable land management. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of various organic amendments on the aggregate stability of soils in afforested plots. An experimental paired-plot layout was established in southern of Spain (homogeneous slope gradient: 7.5%; aspect: N170). Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. The vegetation was planted in a grid pattern with 0.5 m between plants in each plot. During the afforestation process the soil was tilled to 25 cm depth from the surface. Soil from the afforested plots was sampled in: i) 6 months post-afforestation; ii) 12 months post-afforestation; iii) 18 months post-afforestation; and iv) 24 months post-afforestation. The sampling strategy for each plot involved collection of 4 disturbed soil samples taken from the surface (0-10 cm depth). The stability of aggregates was measured by wet-sieving. Regarding to soil aggregate stability, the percentage of stable aggregates has increased slightly in all the treatments in relation to control. Specifically, the differences were recorded in the fraction of macroaggregates (≥ 0.250 mm). The largest increases have been associated with straw mulch, pinus mulch and sludge. Similar results have been registered for the soil organic carbon content

  4. Pesticide mobility and leachate toxicity in two abandoned mine soils. Effect of organic amendments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Liébana, José Antonio; Mingorance, M Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu

    2014-11-01

    Abandoned mine areas, used in the past for the extraction of minerals, constitute a degraded landscape which needs to be reintegrated to productive or leisure activities. However these soils, mainly composed by silt or sand and with low organic matter content, are vulnerable to organic and inorganic pollutants posing a risk to the surrounding ecosystems and groundwater. Soils from two mining areas from Andalusia were evaluated: one from Nerva (NCL) in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Andalusia) and another one from the iron Alquife mine (ALQ) (SE Andalusia). To improve soil properties and fertility two amendments, stabilised sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CSL), were selected. The effect of amendment addition on the mobility of two model pesticides, thiacloprid and fenarimol, was assessed using soil columns under non-equilibrium conditions. Fenarimol, more hydrophobic than thiacloprid, only leached from native ALQ, a soil with lower organic carbon (OC) content than NCL (0.21 and 1.4%, respectively). Addition of amendments affected differently pesticide mobility: thiacloprid in the leachates was reduced by 14% in NCL-SSL and by 4% in ALQ-CSL. Soil OC and dissolved OC were the parameters which explained pesticide residues in soil. Chemical analysis revealed that leachates from the different soil columns did not contain toxic element levels, except As in NCL soil. Finally ecotoxicological data showed moderate toxicity in the initial leachates, with an increase coinciding with pesticide maximum concentration. The addition of SSL slightly reduced the toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri, likely due to enhanced retention of pesticides by amended soils. PMID:25169870

  5. Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

    2000-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

  6. Attenuation of Escherichia Coli in a biochar-amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in research on biochar have highlighted its tremendous potential for mitigating climate change, improving soil properties, and reducing chemical pollution of soils and groundwater. However, studies that evaluate its potential in treating bacterial contaminants are lacking. This study evalu...

  7. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  8. Switchgrass and pecan biochar amendments to a sandy coastal soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandy soils of the wet, warm SE Coastal Plain have poor physical characteristics and low carbon contents. To improve soil properties, we added switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and non-activated pecan (Carya illinoinensis) biochar. Switchgrass was ground to a fine powder and added to soil at rates of 0...

  9. Stabilization of lead and copper by biochar amendments in arms range soils: Influence of biochar characteristics, soil property, and equilibrium conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendment of char products (biochar) from thermochemical processing (slow/fast pyrolysis and gasification) of biomass for biofuel production has received considerable interests for contaminant sorption, soil fertilization, and carbon sequestration. Of potential sites for biochar application, h...

  10. Interactions of triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide with biosolid-amended soils: Effects of the level and nature of soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Usyskin, Alla; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide, representing acidic and non-ionized hydrophobic organic compounds, are biologically active and can be accumulated during wastewater treatment in sewage sludge. The interactions of these substances with the soils amended by sewage sludge-originating biosolids may control their environmental fate. Therefore, the sorption of three organic compounds was studied in dune sand, loess soil, clay soil and mixtures of these media with three different sewage sludge-originating biosolids that were incubated under aerobic conditions for 6 months. For each compound, 15 sorption isotherms were produced at pH 7.8-8.0. The sorption of triclosan and gemfibrozil on sand-containing sorbents was examined also under acidic conditions. In some soil series, the compound's Freundlich constants (KF) are linearly related to the soil organic carbon (OC) content. Notably, for a given OC content, the sand-containing sorbents tend to demonstrate enhanced interactions with triclosan and galaxolide. This may be related with more hydrophobic and/or less rigid soil organic matter (SOM) as compared with the clay-containing soils, implying indirect effects of minerals. Generally the OC-normalized KF vary among different soil-biosolid combinations which is explained by the differences in the composition and properties of SOM, and is also contributed by the non-zero intercepts of the linear KF upon soil OC dependencies. The negative intercepts suggest that below a certain OC level no considerable organic compound-soil interactions would occur. Interactions of molecular and anionic forms of triclosan with a sand-containing sorbent may be comparable, but interactions involving gemfibrozil molecules could be stronger than interactions involving its anion. PMID:26091868

  11. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and MCPA in a soil amended with biochar and other sorbents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is the solid residual remaining after the thermo-chemical transformation of biomass and, because of its numerous properties; it has been proposed to be used as soil amendment. In this work, the effect of soil amendment with six biochars from different feedstocks, production, and post-product...

  12. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  13. Potential risk of biochar-amended soil to aquatic systems: an evaluation based on aquatic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Bastos, A C; Prodana, M; Abrantes, N; Keizer, J J; Soares, A M V M; Loureiro, S

    2014-11-01

    It is vital to address potential risks to aquatic ecosystems exposed to runoff and leachates from biochar-amended soils, before large scale applications can be considered. So far, there are no established approaches for such an assessment. This study used a battery of bioassays and representative aquatic organisms for assessing the acute toxicity of water-extractable fractions of biochar-amended soil, at reported application rates (80 t ha(-1)). Biochar-amended aqueous soil extracts contained cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) (Σmetals 96.3 µg l(-1)) as well as the 16 priority PAHs defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Σ16PAHs 106 ng l(-1)) at contents in the range of current EU regulations for surface waters. Nevertheless, acute exposure to soil-biochar (SB) extracts resulted in species-specific effects and dose-response patterns. While the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was the most sensitive organism to aqueous SB extracts, there were no effects on the growth of the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In contrast, up to 20 and 25% mobility impairment was obtained for the invertebrate Daphnia magna upon exposure to 50 and 100% SB extract concentrations (respectively). Results suggest that a battery of rapid and cost-effective aquatic bioassays that account for ecological representation can complement analytical characterization of biochar-amended soils and risk assessment approaches for surface and groundwater protection. PMID:25213286

  14. Immobilization of Cd in a paddy soil using moisture management and amendment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2015-03-01

    To offer basis for remediation of Cd-polluted paddy soil under reasonable water condition, pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of moisture management and amendment on the immobilization of Cd in paddy soil. Application of sepiolite in combination with phosphate fertilizer reduced exchangeable Cd by 18.2%, 13.7% and 12.5%, brown rice Cd by 52.3%, 46.0% and 46.8%, under continuous flooding, conventional irrigation and wetting irrigation, respectively, compared to the control groups. Under no amendments, the content of Fe(II) in root coating in the continuous flooding treatment was 2.3 and 3.6 times of that in the conventional and wetting irrigation treatments, but Cd content in root coating in the continuous flooding treatment was only 82.6% and 73.8% of that in the conventional and wetting irrigation treatments. Amendments application increased Fe(II) in root coating by 40.1%, 70.2% and 78.0%, but reduced the Cd content in root coating by 35.3%, 42.4% and 38.6% under continuous flooding, conventional irrigation and wetting irrigation, respectively. The lower availability of Cd in soil and the competition for adsorption sites in root coating of rice plant between Cd(2+) and Fe(2+) etc. reduced form bivalent ions in paddy soil resulted in lower Cd concentrations in brown rice in amended soil treatments. PMID:25497757

  15. Modeling fungicides mobility in undisturbed vineyard soil cores unamended and amended with spent mushroom substrates.

    PubMed

    Marín-Benito, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Cruz, María Sonia; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Mamy, Laure

    2015-09-01

    The performance of the pesticide fate model PRZM to predict the fate of two fungicides, penconazole and metalaxyl, and the major metabolite of metalaxyl (CGA-62826), in amended and unamended vineyard soils was tested from undisturbed soils columns experiments. Three different treatments were tested in two soils: control soil (unamended), and soil amended with fresh or composted spent mushroom substrates, which correspond to common agricultural practices in Spain. Leaching experiments were performed under non-saturated flow conditions. The model was parameterized with laboratory and literature data, and using pedotransfer functions. It was first calibrated for water flow against chloride breakthrough curves. The key parameter was the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (DISP). No leaching of penconazole, the most hydrophobic fungicide, was observed. It remained in the top 0-8 cm of the column. In any case, simulations were highly correlated to the experimental results. On the contrary, metalaxyl and its metabolite were consistently found in the leachates. A calibration step of the Kd of metalaxyl and CGA-62826 and of DISP for CGA-62826 was necessary to obtain good prediction of the leaching of both compounds. PRZM generally simulated acceptable metalaxyl vertical distribution in the soil profiles although results were overestimated for its metabolite. Nevertheless, PRZM can be reasonably used to assess the leaching (through breakthrough curves) and vertical distribution of fungicides in amended soils, knowing their DISP values. PMID:25985099

  16. Biologic availability of selenium in corn grain produced on soil amended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Barrows, S.A.; Swader, F.N.

    1980-03-01

    The selenium content of corn grain produced in central New York was increased 670% by application of fly ash containing 6.5 ppM Se to soil at the rate of 500 tons/acre. Fat-extracted corn produced from untreated soil contained 0.038 ppM Se; corn produced from fly ash amended soil contained 0.296 ppM Se. The Se content of corn grain produced 1 year after soil amendment was comparable (0.306 ppM Se) to that of the first season crop, indicating the persistent effect of the soil treatment. Vitamin E deficient and Se-deficient chicks were fed vitamin-D free, Se-deficient semipurified diets cntaining incremental amounts of Na/sub 2/Se0/sub 3/ or fat-free ground corn produced from fly ash amended or control soil plots. Results showed that approximately 50% of the Se in fly-ash-soil corn was available to the chick for promoting growth and plasma Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and for preventing the vitamin E-Se deficiency disease exudative diathesis.

  17. Using anion chromatography-pulsed amperometry to meaasure amino compounds in dairy manure-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids and amino sugars comprise the bulk of soil N, so information on their chemical forms and cycling patterns should enable better understanding of soil N issues. In this study we evaluated a recently developed analysis for soil amino compounds (19 amino acids, two amino sugars) that consist...

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage slude

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-07-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agicultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P<0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P<0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P<0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  20. Reduction of the efficacy of biochar as soil amendment by soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is primarily used as soil amendment to improve soil quality and to sequester more carbon (C) to increase both medium- and long-term soil C stocks. These positive effects are obviously diminished if biochar is eroded and transported out of the field. Due to its low bulk density, the preferential mobilization and redistribution of biochar in the landscape seems probable. Therefore, the question has been raised in recent years of how vulnerable biochar actually is to soil erosion. This is especially relevant on soils which are regularly cultivated and are vulnerable to soil erosion themselves. However, so far few studies about the erodibility of biochar exist and the answer to this question is still unknown. It is therefore important to further our knowledge about mobilization and transport behaviour of biochar. Moreover, such knowledge could have profound economic implications for farmers committed to its use, as a high net annual loss of biochar by erosion could exceed any net annual economic gain. The overall objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the erodibility of biochar, when erosion events occur directly or soon after its application. The estimation of the financial value of the eroded biochar and its cost-effectiveness were scaled up from plot to field scale. In this investigation, the biochar was applied to the soil surface of three plots on a recently cultivated sandy field near Viborg in northern Jutland, Denmark at concentrations equivalent to 1.5-2.0 kg m-2. After application, the biochar was manually incorporated into the till-zone (20cm). With the Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator erosion events of a duration of 30 minutes and with a rainfall intensity of approx. 90 mm h-1 were conducted on both biochar and reference plots. The erodibility of biochar by wind erosion was due to very rainy wet soil surface conditions, tested with dried soil in the laboratory, in order to be able to at least reflect the worst case scenario. The

  1. Assessment of chemical, biochemical and ecotoxicological aspects in a mine soil amended with sludge of either urban or industrial origin.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, P; Palma, P; Gonçalves, A P; Baião, N; Fernandes, R M; de Varennes, A; Vallini, G; Duarte, E; Cunha-Queda, A C

    2008-08-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge (SS), of sugar beet sludge (SBS), or of a combination of both, in the remediation of a highly acidic (pH 3.6) metal-contaminated soil, affected by mining activities. The SS was applied at 100 and 200 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight basis), and the SBS at 7 Mg ha(-1). All pots were sown with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). After 60 d of growth, shoot biomass was quantified and analysed for Cu, Pb and Zn. The pseudo-total and bioavailable contents of Cu, Pb and Zn and the enzymatic activities of beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, cellulase, protease and urease were determined in the soil mixtures. Two indirect acute bioassays with leachates from the soil (luminescent inhibition of Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna immobilization) were also used. The SS, in particular when in combination with SBS, corrected soil acidity, while increasing the total organic matter content and the cation exchange capacity. The application of SS led to a decrease in the level of effective bioavailable metals (extracted by 0.01 M CaCl(2), pH 5.7, without buffer), but caused an increase in their potential bioavailability (extracted by a solution of 0.5M NH(4)CH(3)COO, 0.5 M CH(3)COOH and 0.01 M EDTA, pH 4.7). Plant biomass increased more than 10 times in the presence of 100 Mg SS ha(-1), and more than five times with the combined use of 100 Mg SS ha(-1) and SBS, but a considerable phytotoxic effect was observed for the application rate of 200 Mg SS ha(-1). Copper, Pb and Zn concentrations in the shoots of L. multiflorum decreased significantly when using 100 Mg SS ha(-1) or SBS. The activities of beta-glucosidase, urease and protease increased with increasing SS applications rates, but cellulase had a reduced activity when using 200 Mg ha(-1)SS. Both amendments were able to suppress soil toxicity to levels that did not affect D. magna, but increased the soil leachate toxicity towards V. fischeri, especially

  2. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  3. Geochemistry of Hydrofluoric Acid in Kaolinitic Soils

    SciTech Connect

    DENHAM, MILES

    2004-05-11

    This document explores the geochemical reactions likely to occur when hydrofluoric acid is spilled on Savannah River Site (SRS) soil. In particular, we evaluate the potential of environmental damage from a one-time release of concentrated hydrofluoric acid into a trench. According to interviews with personnel involved, sometime between 1955 and 1960 drums of 50-60 per cent hydrofluoric acid were disposed in a trench in the Central Shops area. The method of disposal suggests that most of the acid would have been released at the time of burial. No evidence of drum disposal or acidic pH values was found. Therefore, the Soil and Groundwater Closure Projects group requested that we evaluate potential risk by examining the major geochemical interactions expected between hydrofluoric acid and soil. The geochemical calculations in this report were done with The Geochemist's Workbench (Registered). This program uses an extended Debye-Huckel method for calculating activity coefficients. The conclusions of this report are accurate, but some of the intermediate steps may have higher uncertainty. Hydrofluoric acid disposed in a trench in the area would have reacted with soil kaolinite to neutralize the pH to a value of about 4.2. Based on conservative assumptions, this would have occurred within the top 500 cm of soil. This analysis considers only the reaction of the acid with kaolinite. Other processes such as dilution, dispersion, and clogging of permeability would contribute to neutralization of the acid within a shorter distance. When the acid solution reached the water table, dilution would have driven the solution to saturation with gibbsite. A resulting layer enriched in aluminum may be the only remnant of the acid disposal identifiable today. However, any such layer would be difficult to identify because of the normally high aluminum concentrations in the soil. Subtle textural evidence of shallow soil dissolution may be present, but 40 years of rainfall infiltration may

  4. Heat flux in soil amended with biochar: modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Temperature of soil has important influences on many soil processes and plant growth. It depends on the energy balance on the active surface, where the process of energy exchange between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere occurs. Heat flux is one of the components of the energy balance and can be influenced by biochar application to the soil, along with inherent texture and variables: moisture, density, and temperature of soil, as well as external conditions like climate, topography and surface properties related to the land use and vegetation cover. In this work we present the statistical-physical modelling approach for predicting the thermal conductivity and soil heat flux dynamics, based on temperature and soil moisture measurements, obtained from bare and grass fields with different rates of biochar. Adding biochar caused significant reduction of the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and heat capacity of the soil in the dry state and their significant increase in the wet state. The soil heat fluxes in bare and grassed soil were similar or different, depending on weather conditions, insolation, plant growth stage and changed with the soil depth, moisture as well as the rate of biochar applied.

  5. Bioaccumulation of nutrient elements from fly ash-amended soil in Jatropha curcas L.: a biofuel crop.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Ghosh, Arup

    2013-08-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal-burning industries may be a potential inorganic soil amendment; the insight of its nutrient release and supply to soil may enhance their agricultural use. The study was conducted to assess the ability of fly ash (a coal fired thermal plant waste) to reduce soil fertility depletion and to study bioaccumulation of mineral nutrients in Jatropha curcas grown on soils amended with fly ash. Fly ash was amended to field soil at six rates (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 70 % w/w) on which J. curcas was grown. After 8 months of growth, the height of jatropha plants was significantly increased at 5 and 10 % FA-amended soil, whereas, biomass significantly increased at 5, 10, and 20 % FA-amended soil compared to control soil (0 % FA). Leaf nutrients uptake, followed by stems and roots uptake were highly affected by fly ash amendment to soil. Most of nutrients accumulation were increased up to 20 % fly ash and decreased thereafter. The results of available nutrient analysis of soil revealed that availability of nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, copper, iron, mangnese, and zinc declined significantly at higher levels of fly ash amendments, whereas, availability of phosphorus increased at these levels. However, pH, organic carbon, and available boron were not influenced significantly by fly ash amendment to soil. Microbial biomass C, N, and ratio of microbial-C to organic C were significantly reduced at 20 % fly ash and higher amounts. This study revealed that J. curcas plants could gainfully utilize the nutrients available in fly ash by subsequently amending soil. PMID:23318887

  6. Organic Amendment Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Long-Term Stockpiled Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvomuya, F.; Laskosky, J.

    2014-12-01

    In oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada, salvaged soils are often placed in large stockpiles where they are stored for the duration of the project, typically 20-30 years. Alberta regulations require that topsoil and subsoil are salvaged in two distinct operations - a process known as two-lifting. Reclamation using long-term stockpiled soils often gives poor results, characterized by lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations compared with equivalent natural, undisturbed soils. It is thought that the change from an aerobic to an anaerobic environment during soil stockpiling and back again to aerobic during placement are largely responsible for the low carbon and nitrogen due to microbial activity transforming C and N in the soil into CO2, CH4 and N2O and releasing them to the atmosphere. Evidence from recent studies indicates that biochar improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and hence could mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. We postulate that documented improvements in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in soils treated with amendments such as biochar may help mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. This laboratory incubation experiment tested the effects of differential rates (0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar carbon equivalents kg-1 dry soil) of biochar, peat, and humalite on greenhouse gas emissions from a 25-year old two-lift stockpiled soil. The soils were fertilized according to standard practice, placed in 120-mL plastic containers, and incubated at 25°C for 45 days. Gas samples were taken at 1- to 7-day intervals and analyzed for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Data on treatment differences in emissions will be presented. Results from this experiment will provide an insight into the potential for organic amendments to mitigate greenhouse gas emission during reclamation using degraded soils.

  7. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038

  8. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Utility of process residues as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.; Kay, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tuna processing wastes (sludges high in fat, oil, and grease [FOG]) and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal challenge. The biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products, including methane and fertilizer-grade residue, through anaerobic high-solids digestion is currently in scale-up development. The suitability of the anaerobic digestion residues as a soil amendment was evaluated through extensive chemical analysis and greenhouse studies using corn as an indicator crop. Additionally, native Samoan soil was used to evaluate the specific application rates for the compost. Experiments established that anaerobic residues increase crop yields in direct proportion to increases in the application rate. Additionally, nutrient saturation was not demonstrated within the range of application rates evaluated for the Samoan soil. Beyond nutrient supplementation, organic residue amendment to Samoan soil imparts enhanced water and nutrient-binding capacities.

  9. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  10. Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments--a review.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays

  11. Low occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agricultural soils with and without organic amendment

    PubMed Central

    Deredjian, Amélie; Colinon, Céline; Hien, Edmond; Brothier, Elisabeth; Youenou, Benjamin; Cournoyer, Benoit; Dequiedt, Samuel; Hartmann, Alain; Jolivet, Claudy; Houot, Sabine; Ranjard, Lionel; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Nazaret, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored at a broad spatial scale in French agricultural soils, from various soil types and under various land uses to evaluate the ability of soil to be a natural habitat for that species. To appreciate the impact of agricultural practices on the potential dispersion of P. aeruginosa, we further investigated the impact of organic amendment at experimental sites in France and Burkina Faso. A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach was used to analyze a set of 380 samples selected within the French RMQS (“Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols”) soil library. In parallel, a culture-dependent approach was tested on a subset of samples. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was very rarely detected suggesting a sporadic presence of this bacterium in soils from France and Burkina Faso, whatever the structural and physico-chemical characteristics or climate. When we analyzed the impact of organic amendment on the prevalence of P. aeruginosa, we found that even if it was detectable in various manures (at levels from 103 to 105 CFU or DNA targets (g drywt)−1 of sample), it was hardly ever detected in the corresponding soils, which raises questions about its survival. The only case reports were from a vineyard soil amended with a compost of mushroom manure in Burgundy, and a few samples from two fields amended with raw urban wastes in the sub-urban area of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In these soils the levels of culturable cells were below 10 CFU (g drywt)−1. PMID:24809025

  12. Field versus laboratory experiments to evaluate the fate of azoxystrobin in an amended vineyard soil.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Hernández, E; Marín-Benito, J M; Andrades, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the effect that adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) to a representative vineyard soil from La Rioja region (Spain) has on the behaviour of azoxystrobin in two different environmental scenarios. Field dissipation experiments were conducted on experimental plots amended at rates of 50 and 150 t ha(-1), and similar dissipation experiments were simultaneously conducted in the laboratory to identify differences under controlled conditions. Azoxystrobin dissipation followed biphasic kinetics in both scenarios, although the initial dissipation phase was much faster in the field than in the laboratory experiments, and the half-life (DT50) values obtained in the two experiments were 0.34-46.3 days and 89.2-148 days, respectively. Fungicide residues in the soil profile increased in the SMS amended soil and they were much higher in the top two layers (0-20 cm) than in deeper layers. The persistence of fungicide in the soil profile is consistent with changes in azoxystrobin adsorption by unamended and amended soils over time. Changes in the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soils under different treatments assayed in the field and in the laboratory indicated that SMS and the fungicide had a stimulatory effect on soil DHA. The results reveal that the laboratory studies usually reported in the literature to explain the fate of pesticides in amended soils are insufficient to explain azoxystrobin behaviour under real conditions. Field studies are necessary to set up efficient applications of SMS and fungicide, with a view to preventing the possible risk of water contamination. PMID:26311083

  13. Mechanisms for 1,3-Dichloropropene Dissipation in Biochar-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuxia; Gao, Suduan; Wang, Dong; Spokas, Kurt; Cao, Aocheng; Yan, Dongdong

    2016-03-30

    Biochar, which is organic material heated under a limited supply of oxygen, has the potential to reduce fumigant emissions when incorporated in the soil, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of biochar properties, amendment rate, soil microbe, moisture, temperature, and soil type on the fate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) isomers in laboratory incubation experiments by assessing the 1,3-D degradation rate and adsorption capacity. 1,3-D dissipation rates were significantly reduced due to strong adsorption by biochar, which was also strongly affected by biochar type. Following a 1% biochar amendment, the half-lives of 1,3-D in soil were increased 2.5-35 times. The half-lives of 1,3-D in soil were strongly affected by soil moisture, temperature, and amendment rate. The effects of sterilization on 1,3-D degradation were much smaller in biochar-amended soils than in nonsterilized soils, which suggests the importance of abiotic pathways with biochar's presence. Dissipation of 1,3-D in biochar was divided into adsorption (49-93%) and chemical degradation pathways. Biochar properties, such as specific surface area (SSA), pH, water content, carbon content, and feedstock, all appeared to affect 1,3-D dissipation with potentially complex interactions. The biochar (air-dry) water content was highly correlated with 1,3-D adsorption capacity and thus can serve as an important predictor for fumigant mitigation use. The fate of the adsorbed fumigant onto biochar requires further examination on potential long-term environmental impacts before guidelines for biochar as a field practice to control fumigant emissions can be formulated. PMID:26954066

  14. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  15. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-04-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability.

  16. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability. PMID:27079657

  17. Growth and cadmium uptake of Swiss chard, Thlaspi caerulescens and corn in pH adjusted biosolids amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before regulations were established, some biosolids applications added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction from such soils would alleviate constraints on land use. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm soil and mine soil were obtained from Fulton County, Il...

  18. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

    2014-09-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  19. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Grabau, Zane J.; Chen, Senyu

    2014-01-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  20. Transformation of diphenylarsinic acid in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yuji; Arao, Tomohito; Baba, Koji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the transformation and fate of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) during incubation in two types of soils (Entisol and Andisol) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions only, DPAA was transformed into methyldiphenylarsine oxide by methylation. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, DPAA was degraded to phenylarsonic acid by dephenylation, and phenylarsonic acid was subsequently methylated to form methylphenylarsinic acid and dimethylphenylarsine oxide. The degradation of DPAA in the Andisol was less extensive than in the Entisol. In autoclaved soil under anaerobic conditions, DPAA underwent little degradation during the 24-wk incubation. In unautoclaved soils, the concentration of DPAA in soil clearly decreased after 24 wk of incubation, indicating that DPAA degradation was driven by microbial activity. PMID:21488495

  1. Effects of rice straw ash amendment on Cu solubility and distribution in flooded rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jang-Hung; Hsu, Shen-Huei; Wang, Shan-Li

    2011-02-28

    Rice straw burning is a common post-harvest practice on rice paddy land, and it leads to the accumulation of rice straw ash (RSA) in paddy soil. To understand the role of RSA in determining the mobility and bioavailability of metal contaminants, this study investigated the effects of RSA amendment on the solubility and distribution of Cu in contaminated rice paddy soils with flooding incubation. The addition of RSA to the soils suppressed the release of Cu into the soil solutions, which was primarily attributed to the metal-binding capacity of the RSA. Additionally, after the soils were flooded, the increase in soil pH and decrease in redox potential resulted in the transformation of Cu into less soluble forms. The RSA amendment appeared to enhance the changes in pH and redox potential of the flooded soils and, consequently, the immobilization of Cu in the soils. The results suggest that the RSA can retard the bioavailability and movement of the metal in contaminated soils and, thus, lower the potential environmental risk of Cu toxicity. PMID:21232857

  2. Revegetation of extremely acid mine soils based on aided phytostabilization: A case study from southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Chai, Li-Yuan; Li, Jin-Tian

    2016-08-15

    Acidification is a major constraint for revegetation of sulphidic metal-contaminated soils, as exemplified by the limited literature reporting the successful phytostabilization of mine soils associated with pH<3 and high acidification potential. In this study, a combination of ameliorants (lime and chicken manure) and five acid-tolerant plant species has been employed in order to establish a self-sustaining vegetation cover on an extremely acid (pH<3) polymetallic pyritic mine waste heap in southern China exhibiting high acidification potential. The results from the first two-year data showed that the addition of the amendments and the establishment of a plant cover were effective in preventing soil acidification. Net acid-generating potential of the mine soil decreased steadily, whilst pH and acid neutralization capacity increased over time. All the five acid-tolerant plants colonized successfully in the acidic metal-contaminated soil and developed a good vegetation cover within six months, and subsequent vegetation development enhanced organic matter accumulation and nutrient element status in the mine soil. The two-year remediation program performed on this extremely acid metalliferous soil indicated that aided phytostabilization can be a practical and effective restoration strategy for such extremely acid mine soils. PMID:27100018

  3. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost. PMID:23947069

  4. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  5. Immobilization of Cd in paddy soil using moisture management and amendment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2015-04-01

    To offer scientific data support for remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soils under reasonable water condition, pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of moisture management and amendments on Cd immobilization in a paddy soil. Application of biochar combined with organic fertilizer reduced the exchangeable Cd by 20.4, 15.7, and 13.0% and brown rice Cd by 43.8, 35.5, and 42.1% under continuous flooding, conventional irrigation, and wetting irrigation, respectively, compared to the controls. Under no amendments, the content of Fe(II) in root coating in the continuous flooding treatment was 2.3 and 3.6 times of that in the conventional and wetting irrigation treatments, but Cd in root coating in the continuous flooding treatment was only 82.6 and 73.8% of that in the conventional and wetting irrigation treatments. Applying amendments increased the Fe(II) in root coating by 27.3, 59.1, and 65.0% but reduced the Cd in root coating by 33.6, 26.5, and 25.1% under continuous flooding, conventional irrigation, and wetting irrigation, respectively. The lower bioavailability of Cd in paddy soil and the competition for adsorption sites in root coating of rice plant between Cd(2+) and Fe(2+) reduced from bivalent ions jointly caused the lower brown rice Cd in amended soils. PMID:25388557

  6. Significance of various soil amendments to borrow pit reclamation with loblolly pine and fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.; Marx, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Loblolly pine seedlings with ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally occurring Thelephora terrestris (Tt) were planted on a borrow pit in South Carolina in plots with no amendment; with fertilizer plus dolomitic limestone alone and with pine bark or bottom ash or bark and ash together; or with dried sewage sludge alone and with bark or ash or bark and ash together. All plots were subsoiled, disked, and seeded to fescue grass before planting pine seedlings. Naturally occurring Pt formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on all Tt seedlings by the end of the first season, precluding any specific ectomycorrhizal fungus effect for the duration of the study. Sewage sludge alone or with bark or ash amendments dramatically improved pine seedling growth and grass biomass in comparison with other soil treatments. Mean seedling volume (D/sup 2/H) was 28 times greater and grass biomass was five times greater in the sludge plots than on nonsludge plots. Generally, soil amended with sludge contained more N, P, organic matter, and had a higher cation exchange capacity than soil of other treatments. Foliage of pine seedlings in sludge-amended soil also contained more N and less Ca than other seedlings. The significance of these results to reclamation of borrow pits is discussed.

  7. Integrating choice of variety, soil amendments, and cover crops to optimize organic rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed our first year of this project to determine the impact of winter cover crops, soil amendments, and rice varieties on organic rice production at Beaumont, TX. Two winter cover crops were established successfully and the amounts of dry biomass produced were 4,690 and 5,157 lb/acre f...

  8. Cover crop, soil amendments, and variety effects on organic rice production in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major challenges in organic rice production include optimization of nutrient utilization, weed management, and variety selection. In this study, we tested the effects of two soil amendment products, two fertilizer rates, and three cover cropping systems (clover, ryegrass, and fallow) on organic ...

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar and biochar amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the determination of the 16 USEPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar and soil amended with biochar was developed. Samples were Soxhlet extracted with acetone:cyclohexane 1:1, and PAHs were analysed by GC-MS after silica gel clean-up. In a comparative study based on reflu...

  10. Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

  11. Effect of Carbon Amendment and Soil Moisture on Tylenchorhynchus spp. and Hoplolaimus galeatus

    PubMed Central

    Browning, M.; Dawson, C.; Alm, S. R.; McElderry, C. F.; Amador, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of amending soil held at 3 different moisture levels with glucose, unsulfured molasses, or nutrient broth (0.3, 0.7, 3.2, 7.1 g carbon/100 g) on Tylenchorhynchus claytoni and T. dubius was investigated. When soil was held under saturated or flooded conditions in the absence of carbon amendments for 7 days, Tylenchorhynchus populations were 19% and 16%, respectively, of the controls. Carbon amendments at all levels tested precipitated a further decline in the nematode population to 1% or less of the unamended controls in 7 days. Two applications of molasses (7.4%, w/w) 3 days apart to nematode-infested soil held in Conetainers under mist for 7 days reduced Tylenchorhynchus spp. and Hoplolaimus galeatus densities to 7% and 3%, respectively, of the controls. Nematode densities in turfgrass field plots also declined following irrigation and repeated drenching with a molasses solution. Based on the observed decline in redox potential and pH in saturated soil, especially following carbon amendment, we propose that the activity of anaerobic fermentative bacteria was responsible for the reduction in nematode densities. PMID:19270917

  12. Resident biology restricts proliferation of Macrophomina phaseolina in brassicaceae seed meal meal amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    M. phaseolina is a pathogen of emerging importance in strawberry production systems. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of brassicaceae seed meal amendments for control of this pathogen and to determine the relative importance of soil biology and chemistry in any observed disease suppres...

  13. Phosphorus Dynamics in Amended Soils During the Growing Season: II. Ligand Exchange and Mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted near Bushland, TX to evaluate changes in phosphorus (P) pools in soils amended with cattle manure and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) throughout a single growing season. Unfertilized checks were included for P extractability comparisons. Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)...

  14. A proposed NRCS conservation practice standard: Amending soil properties with gypsiferous products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the proposed new NRCS conservation practice standard regarding the use of gypsiferous products in agriculture. Gypsiferous products include gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O), has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years as a soluble source of calcium and sulfur for ...

  15. Agronomic and environmental consequences for switchgrass grown on biochar amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar amended soils are thought to positively impact water holding capacity and nutrient retention leading to increased biomass production and reduced loss of reactive N though nitrous oxide emissions. However, the need for surface application and incorporation limits options for biochar applicati...

  16. THE PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM TO LETTUCE IN LONG-TERM BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to assess the phytoavailability of Cd in long-term biosolids-amended field plots managed at high and low pH. The experiment, established 13-15 yr prior to the present cropping, on a Christiana fine sandy loam soil (a clayey, kaolinitic, mesic Typic Pa...

  17. Response of weeds and ornamental plants to potting soil amended with dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol produced from corn and developing new uses for DDGS could increase the profitability of ethanol production. This research evaluated DDGS as a soil amendment to container grown ornamentals to suppress weeds. Adding DDGS to a com...

  18. Field test of in situ soil amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Compton, H; Basta, N T

    2007-01-01

    A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils, all amendments reduced bioaccessible (assessed with a physiologic-based extraction method) Pb, with reductions ranging from 35% (BS+Al, DAP 0.5%, DAP+Compost+Al) to 57% (Compost+Al). Plant Zn (Cynadon dactylon L.) and NH4 NO3-extractable Cd and Zn were also reduced by a number of amendments. For the tailings, all amendments excluding BS reduced bioaccessible Pb, with the largest reductions observed in the DAP 3% and DAP3%+BS treatments (75 and 84%). Plant growth was suppressed in all treatments that contained DAP for the first season, with the highest growth in the treatments that included compost and biosolids. In the second year, growth was vigorous for all treatments. Plant Zn and Cd and extractable metal concentration were also reduced. A number of treatments were identified that reduced bioaccessible Pb and sustained a healthy plant with reduced metal concentrations. For the yard soil, Compost+Al was the most effective treatment tested. For the tailings, BS+DAP 1% was the most effective treatment tested. These results indicate that in situ amendments offer a remedial alternative for the Tar Creek site. PMID:17940262

  19. Bacterial and fungal taxon changes in soil microbial community composition induced by short-term biochar amendment in red oxidized loam soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liao; Cao, Lixiang; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-03-01

    To take full advantage of biochar as a soil amendment, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar addition on soil bacterial and fungal diversity and community composition. Incubation experiments with a forest soil (a red oxidized loam soil) with and without biochar amendment were conducted for 96 days. The culture-independent molecular method was utilized to analyze soil bacterial and fungal species after the incubation experiments. Results showed that bacteria and fungi responded differently to the biochar addition during the short-term soil incubation. Twenty four and 18 bacterial genara were observed in the biochar amended and unamended soils, respectively, whereas 11 and 8 fungal genera were observed in the biochar amended and unamended soils, respectively. Microbial taxa analysis indicated that the biochar amendment resulted in significant shifts in both bacterial and fungal taxa during the incubation period. The shift for bacteria occurred at the genus and phylum levels, while for fungi only at the genus level. Specific taxa, such as Actinobacteria of bacteria and Trichoderma and Paecilomyces of fungi, were enriched in the biochar amended soil. The results reveal a pronounced impact of biochar on soil microbial community composition and an enrichment of key bacterial and fungal taxa in the soil during the short time period. PMID:24136343

  20. BEHAVIOR OF TOLUENE ADDED TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to soils in a variety of wastes, including some municipal sludges. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the presence and absence of municipal sludge. Sludge additions increa...

  1. Biochar amendment of soil improves resilience to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of climate change, insufficient soil moisture may become an increasing limitation to crop productivity in certain regions of the world. This may be particularly consequential for biofuel crops, many of which will have to be grown in drought-prone soils to avoid competition with food crops. ...

  2. Erodibility of a sodic soil amended with FGD gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils with high sodium concentrations are a serious management problem in the coastal plain regions of the lower Mississippi River valley due to salt toxicity and their dispersive nature. The primary method of remediation of sodic soils in arid regions is naturally occurring gypsum, however, due to ...

  3. BEHAVIOR OF TOLUENE ADDED TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to soils in a variety of wastes, including some municipal sludges. aboratory experiments were conducted to study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the presence and absence of municipal sludge. ludge additions increased ...

  4. Erodibility of a sodic soil amended with FGD gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High sodium concentrations in coastal plain soils of the lower Mississippi River valley are a serious management problem due to salt toxicity and their dispersive nature. Remediation of sodic soils with mined gypsum in the southeastern region is not often considered due to its relatively high cost. ...

  5. Effect of activated carbon amendment on bacterial community structure and functions in a PAH impacted urban soil.

    PubMed

    Meynet, Paola; Hale, Sarah E; Davenport, Russell J; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Werner, David

    2012-05-01

    We collected urban soil samples impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a sorbent-based remediation field trial to address concerns about unwanted side-effects of 2% powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) activated carbon amendment on soil microbiology and pollutant biodegradation. After three years, total microbial cell counts and respiration rates were highest in the GAC amended soil. The predominant bacterial community structure derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) shifted more strongly with time than in response to AC amendment. DGGE band sequencing revealed the presence of taxa with closest affiliations either to known PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus jostii RHA-1, or taxa known to harbor PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus erythropolis, in all soils. Quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction yielded similar dioxygenases gene copy numbers in unamended, PAC-, or GAC-amended soil. PAH availability assessments in batch tests showed the greatest difference of 75% with and without biocide addition for unamended soil, while the lowest PAH availability overall was measured in PAC-amended, live soil. We conclude that AC had no detrimental effects on soil microbiology, AC-amended soils retained the potential to biodegrade PAHs, but the removal of available pollutants by biodegradation was most notable in unamended soil. PMID:22455603

  6. Effect of Activated Carbon Amendment on Bacterial Community Structure and Functions in a PAH Impacted Urban Soil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We collected urban soil samples impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a sorbent-based remediation field trial to address concerns about unwanted side-effects of 2% powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) activated carbon amendment on soil microbiology and pollutant biodegradation. After three years, total microbial cell counts and respiration rates were highest in the GAC amended soil. The predominant bacterial community structure derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) shifted more strongly with time than in response to AC amendment. DGGE band sequencing revealed the presence of taxa with closest affiliations either to known PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus jostii RHA-1, or taxa known to harbor PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus erythropolis, in all soils. Quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction yielded similar dioxygenases gene copy numbers in unamended, PAC-, or GAC-amended soil. PAH availability assessments in batch tests showed the greatest difference of 75% with and without biocide addition for unamended soil, while the lowest PAH availability overall was measured in PAC-amended, live soil. We conclude that AC had no detrimental effects on soil microbiology, AC-amended soils retained the potential to biodegrade PAHs, but the removal of available pollutants by biodegradation was most notable in unamended soil. PMID:22455603

  7. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  8. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition.

    PubMed

    van de Voorde, Tess F J; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jeffery, Simon; Mommer, Liesje

    2014-07-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a field experiment at a Dutch nature restoration area. In April 2011, we set up an experiment using biochar produced from cuttings collected from a local natural grassland. The material was pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C or at 600 degrees C. After biochar or residue (non-pyrolyzed cuttings) application (10 Mg/ha), all plots, including control (0 Mg/ ha) plots, were sown with an 18-species grassland mixture. In August 2011, we determined characteristics of the developed plant community, as well as soil nutrient status. Biochar amendment did not alter total plant productivity, but it had a strong and significant effect on plant community composition. Legumes were three times as abundant and individual legume plants increased four times in biomass in plots that received biochar as compared to the control treatment. Biomass of the most abundant forb (Plantago lanceolata) was not affected by biochar addition. Available phosphorous, potassium, and pH were significantly higher in soils that received biochar than in Control soils. The rate of biological nitrogen fixation and seed germination were not altered by biochar amendment, but the total amount of biological N fixed per Trifolium pratense (red clover) plant was more than four times greater in biochar-amended soil. This study demonstrates that biochar amendment has a strong and rapid effect on plant communities and soil nutrients. Over time these changes may cascade up to other trophic groups, including above- and belowground organisms

  9. Arsenic in Soils and Forages from Poultry Litter-Amended Pastures

    PubMed Central

    Ashjaei, Shadi; Miller, William P.; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Hassan, Sayed M.

    2011-01-01

    In regions of concentrated poultry production, poultry litter (PL) that contains significant quantities of trace elements is commonly surface-applied to pastures at high levels over multiple years. This study examined the effect of long-term applications of PL on soil concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and the uptake of these elements by bermuda grass grown on Cecil (well-drained) and Sedgefield (somewhat poorly-drained) soils. The results showed that concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn in soils that had received surface-applied PL over a 14-year period were significantly greater than untreated soil at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. However, the levels were well below the USEPA loading limits established for municipal biosolids. Arsenic fractionation showed that concentrations of all As fractions were significantly greater in PL-amended soils compared to untreated soils at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. The residual fraction was the predominant form of As in all soils. The water-soluble and NaHCO3-associated As were only 2% of the total As. Significant differences were found in concentrations of these trace elements and phosphorus (P) in forage from PL-amended soils compared to that in untreated plots. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, and P were significantly greater in forage from Sedgefield amended soil compared to Cecil soil, but were in all cases below levels of environmental concern. PMID:21655135

  10. Kinetic characteristic of phenanthrene sorption in aged soil amended with biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanyang; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Biochar has been recently highlighted as an amendment that affects yield of the crops by increasing pH, cation exchange capacity and water retention, and reduces the lability of contaminants by increasing sorption capacity in the soil system. Biochar's physico-chemical properties, high CEC, surfaces containing abundant micropores and macropores, and various types of functional groups, play important roles in enhancing sorption capacity of contaminants. Aging through a natural weathering process might change physico-chemical properties of biochar amended in soils, which can affect the sorption behavior of contaminants. Thus, in this study, the sorption characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) on biochar-amended soils were studied with various types of chars depending on aging time. To do this, 1) soil was amended with sludge waste char (SWC), wood char (WC), and municipal waste char (MWC) during 0, 6, and 12 month. Chars were applied to soil at 1% and 2.5% (w/w) ratio. 2) Several batch kinetic and equilibrium studies were conducted. One-compartment first order and two-compartment first order model apportioning the fraction of fast and slow sorbing were selected for kinetic models. Where, qt is PHE concentration in biochar-amended soils at each time t, qeis PHE concentration in biochar-amended soils at equilibrium. ff is fastly sorbing fraction and (1-ff) is slowly sorbing fraction. k is sorption rate constant from one-compartment first order model, k1 and k2 are sorption rate constant from two-compartment first order model, t is time (hr). The equilibrium sorption data were fitted with Fruendlich and Langmuir equation. 3) Change in physico-chemical properties of biochar-amended soils was investigated with aging time. Batch equilibrium sorption results suggested that sorbed amount of PHE on WC was greater than SWC and MWC. The more char contents added to soil, the greater sorption capacity of PHE. Sorption equilibrium was reached after 4 hours and equilibrium pH ranged

  11. The role of biochar, natural iron oxides, and nanomaterials as soil amendments for immobilizing metals in shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ahmad, Mahtab; Vithanage, Meththika; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Chang, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-01

    High concentration of toxic metals in military shooting range soils poses a significant environmental concern due to the potential release of metals, such as Pb, Cu, and Sb, and hence requires remediation. The current study examined the effectiveness of buffalo weed (Ambrosia trifida L.) biomass and its derived biochars at pyrolytic temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, natural iron oxides (NRE), gibbsite, and silver nanoparticles on metal immobilization together with soil quality after 1-year soil incubation. Destructive (e.g., chemical extractions) and non-destructive (e.g., molecular spectroscopy) methods were used to investigate the immobilization efficacy of each amendment on Pb, Cu, and Sb, and to explore the possible immobilization mechanisms. The highest immobilization efficacy was observed with biochar produced at 300 °C, showing the maximum decreases of bioavailability by 94 and 70% for Pb and Cu, respectively, which were attributed to the abundance of functional groups in the biochar. Biochar significantly increased the soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and P contents. Indeed, the scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic (EXAFS) studies revealed associations of Pb with P (i.e., the formation of stable chloropyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl]) in the biomass- or biochar-amended soils. However, no amendment was effective on Sb immobilization. PMID:25794596

  12. Microbial effects on two tropical soils amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Jorge; Méndez, Ana; Fun, Shenglei; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in using biochar as soil amendment due to its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from soils and to mitigate heavy metal pollution. In addition, sometimes biochar has been found to increase soil productivity due to its favourable effect on soil aggregation and water holding capacity. However, results obtained can differ greatly depending on the type of biochar utilised. On the other hand, the response of the microbial community to biochar addition is not so well understood. In our experiment we have sampled two soils, differing in their fertility status. A greenhouse pot experiment was established to see the effect of adding four different biochars, differing on their feedstock (Miscanthus, sewage sludge, paper mill waste and pinewood). Additionally, half of the samples excluded soil earthworms, while the other half had 3 individuals of the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus. Pots, containing 400 g of soil, were planted with proso millet. Assessed parameters included millet height, soil microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activity related to different biogeochemical cycles (invertase, B-glucosaminidase, B-glucosidase, urease, phosphomonoesterase, arylsulphatase) The effects of biochar on soil biological properties depended on the type of feedstock used for biochar production and pre-existent soil parameters such as soil fertility status. Earthworm presence generally had a positive effect on soil microbial properties.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  14. Maize (Zea mays L.) performance in organically amended mine site soils.

    PubMed

    Oladipo, Oluwatosin Gbemisola; Olayinka, Akinyemi; Awotoye, Olusegun Olufemi

    2016-10-01

    Organic amendments play an important role in the eco-friendly remediation of degraded mine site soils. This study investigated the quality (essential nutrients and heavy metal content) of maize grown on organically amended soils from three active mines in Nigeria. Soil samples were collected randomly at 0-15 cm depth, air-dried and sieved. Five kg of soil were amended with poultry manure and sawdust (poultry manure only, sawdust only, poultry manure-sawdust mixtures in 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 ratios) at 10 g kg(-1). Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds were planted and watered for two consecutive periods of 8 weeks, with the control and treatment experiments set up in the screenhouse in quadruples. Harvested tissues were weighed, dried, ground and digested. Chemical properties were determined using standard methods while atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine total metal concentrations (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu). ANOVA was used to test for significant differences among treatment groups in the various parameters. Application of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced tissue dry matter yield, as well as N, P, K, and Na contents while Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb were immobilized to approximately 50-100%. Treatment with sawdust alone reduced tissue nutrient content resulting in depressed plant yield while poultry manure only though enhanced crop yield, contained higher heavy metal contents. Soil amendments comprised of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures can be effective remediation strategy for mine site soils, as these organic materials help replenish soil nutrients, immobilize heavy metals, and enhance food productivity. PMID:27415409

  15. The phytoavailability of cadmium to lettuce in long-term biosolids-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.L.; Chaney, R.L.; Angle, J.S.; Ryan, J.A.

    1998-09-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the phytoavailability of Cd in long-term biosolids-amended plots managed at high and low pH. The experiment, established 13 to 15 yr prior to the present cropping, on a Christiana fine sandy loam soil used a variety of biosolids. Two of the biosolids had total Cd concentrations of 13.4 and 210 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. A Cd salt treatment, with Cd added to soil at a rate equivalent to the Cd added by the higher Cd biosolids applied at 100 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}, was also included. The lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia) cultivar (Paris Island Cos) used in the initial study was also used in the current study. Lettuce Cd was compared between treatments, and in relation to the soil Cd/soil organic C (OC) ratio. There has been no significant increase in plant Cd since the initial cropping. With 16% of the biosolids added OC remaining, lettuce grown on the soil amended with the more contaminated biosolids was not different than that of the initial cropping. Further, significantly less Cd was taken up by lettuce grown on biosolids-amended soil than lettuce grown on soil amended with equivalent rates of Cd salt. The Cd concentration in lettuce grown in the low Cd biosolids treatment was not different from the control. These results indicate that the potential hazards associated with food chain transfer of biosolids-applied Cd are substantially lower than equivalent Cd salt treatments, and that the hazards do not increase over time.

  16. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of Soil Lead Depends on the Bioaccessible Method.

    PubMed

    Obrycki, John F; Basta, Nicholas T; Scheckel, Kirk; Stevens, Brooke N; Minca, Kristen K

    2016-01-01

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccessible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils (790-1300 mg Pb kg), one from a garden and one from a city lot in Cleveland, OH, were incubated in a bench scale experiment for 1 yr. Six phosphate amendments, including bone meal, fish bone, poultry litter, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, and triple superphosphate, were added to containers at two application rates. Lead IVBA was assessed using USEPA Method 1340 and three modified versions of this method. Modifications included using solutions with pH 1.5 and 2.5 as well as using solutions with and without 0.4 mol L glycine. Soil amendments were ineffective in reducing IVBA Pb in these soils as measured by pH 1.5 with glycine buffer. The greatest reductions in IVBA Pb, from 5 to 26%, were found using pH 2.5 extractions. Lead mineral results showed several soil amendments promoted Pb phosphate formation, an indicator of remediation success. A significant negative linear relationship between reduction in IVBA Pb and Pb-phosphate formation was found only for pH 2.5 without glycine extraction solution. A modified USEPA Method 1340 without glycine and using pH 2.5 has the potential to predict P soil treatment efficacy and reductions in bioavailable Pb. PMID:26828158

  17. Effect of fly ash amendment on metolachlor and atrazine degradation and microbial activity in two soils.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Neera; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-08-01

    The study reports the effect of Inderprastha (IP) and Badarpur (BP) fly ashes on degradation of metolachlor and atrazine in Inceptisol and Alfisol soils. Metolachlor dissipated at faster rate in Alfisol (t1/2 8.2-8.6 days) than in Inceptisol (t1/2 13.2-14.3 days). The fly ashes enhanced the persistence of metolachlor in both the soils; however, the extent of effect was more in Inceptisol (t1/2 16.6-33.8 days) than Alfisol (t1/2 8.4-12 days) and effect increased with fly ash dose. 2-Ethyl-6-methylacetanilide was detected as the only metabolite of metolachlor. Atrazine was more persistent in flooded soils (t1/2 10.8-20.3 days) than nonflooded soils (t1/2 3.7-12.6 days) and fly ash increased its persistence, but effect was more pronounced in the flooded Inceptisol (t1/2 23.7-31 days) and nonflooded Alfisol (t1/2 6.3-10.1 days). Increased herbicide sorption in the fly ash-amended soils might have contributed to the increased pesticide persistence. The IP fly ash inhibited microbial biomass carbon at 5 % amendment levels in both the soils, while BP fly ash slightly increased microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content. Dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by both fly ashes in both the soils with maximum inhibition observed in the IP fly ash-amended Alfisol. No significant effect of fly ash amendment was observed on the fluorescein diacetate activity. PMID:27456695

  18. Formation of Chloropyromorphite in a Lead-Contaminated Soil Amended with Hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN,JAMES A.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; HESTERBERG,DEAN; ZHOU,WEIQING; SAYERS,DALE E.

    2000-07-14

    To confirm conversion of soil Pb to pyromorphite [Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl], a Pb contaminated soil collected adjacent to a historical smelter was reacted with hydroxyapatite in slurries of soil and hydroxyapatite separated by a dialysis membrane and incubated. A crystalline precipitate formed on the dialysis membrane in the slurry systems was identified as chloropyromorphite. Soluble species measured in the soil slurry indicated that dissolution of solid-phase soil Pb was the rate-limiting step for pyromorphite formation. Additionally samples reacted with hydroxyapatite were incubated at field-capacity moisture content. The sequential chemical extraction used to identify species in the field-moist soil incubation experiment showed that hydroxyapatite treatment reduced the first four fractions of extractable Pb and correspondingly increased the recalcitrant extraction residue fraction by 35% of total Pb at 0 d incubation and by 45% after 240 d incubation. the increase in the extraction residue fraction in the 240 d incubation as compared to the 0 d incubation implies that the reaction occurs in the soil but the increase in the hydroxyapatite amended 0 d incubated soil as compared to the control soil illustrates the chemical extraction procedure caused changes in the extractability. Thus, the chemical extraction procedure cannot easily be utilized to confirm changes occurring in the soil as a result of incubation. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy indicated that the 240 d incubated hydroxyapatite treatment caused a change in the average, local molecular bonding environment of soil Pb. Low-temperature EXAFS spectra (chi data and radial structure functions - RSFs) showed a high degree of similarity between the chemical extraction residue and synthetic pyromorphite. Thus, confirming that the change of soil Pb to pyromorphite is possible by simple amendments of hydroxyapatite to soil.

  19. Dynamics of PCB removal and detoxification in historically contaminated soils amended with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Galina K; Strijakova, Elena R; Nikolaeva, Svetlana N; Lebedev, Albert T; Shea, Patrick J

    2010-03-01

    Activated carbon (AC) can help overcome toxicity of pollutants to microbes and facilitate soil bioremediation. We used this approach to treat a Histosol and an Alluvial soil historically contaminated with PCB (4190 and 1585 mg kg(-1), respectively; primarily tri-, tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners). Results confirmed PCB persistence; reductions in PCB extractable from control and AC-amended soils were mostly due to a decrease in tri- and to some extent tetrachlorinated congeners as well as formation of a bound fraction. Mechanisms of PCB binding by soil and AC were different. In addition to microbial degradation of less chlorinated congeners, we postulate AC catalyzed dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. A large decrease in bioavailable PCB in AC-amended soils was demonstrated by greater clover germination and biomass. Phytotoxicity was low in treated soils but remained high in untreated soils for the duration of a 39-month experiment. These observations indicate the utility of AC for remediation of soils historically contaminated with PCB. PMID:19897290

  20. Effect of aging process on adsorption of diethyl phthalate in soils amended with bamboo biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bolan, Nanthi S; He, Lizhi; Lin, Xiaoming; Che, Lei; Tang, Caixian; Wang, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is a carbonaceous sorbent and can be used as a potential material to reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. In the present study, the adsorption and desorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP) onto soils amended with bamboo biochar was investigated with a special focus on the effect of biochar application rates and aging conditions on the adsorption capacity of the soils. Biochar amendment significantly enhanced the soil adsorption of DEP that increased with increasing application rates of biochar. However, the adsorption capacity decreased by two aging processes (alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist). In the soil with low organic carbon (OC) content, the addition of 0.5% biochar (without aging) increased the adsorption by nearly 98 times compared to the control, and exhibited the highest adsorption capacity among all the treatments. In the soil with high OC content, the adsorption capacity in the treatment of 0.5% biochar without aging was 3.5 and 3 times greater than those of the treatments of biochar aged by alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist, respectively. Moreover, constantly moist resulted in a greater adsorption capacity than alternating wet and dry treatments regardless of biochar addition. This study revealed that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of DEP, however, the enhancement of the adsorption capacity was dependent on the soil organic carbon levels, and aging processes of biochar. PMID:26004250

  1. Leaching of nitrogen and base cations from calcareous soil amended with organic residues.

    PubMed

    Zarabi, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The potential for groundwater and surface water pollution by nutrients in organic residues, primarily nitrogen (N) and base cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), is a consideration when applying such residues to land. In this study, we used a laboratory column leaching procedure to examine the leaching of N, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in soils treated with two types of raw organic residues (poultry manure and potato residues) and one municipal waste compost, which are currently recycled on agricultural land in Iran. Each organic residue was thoroughly mixed with two different soils (sandy loam and clay) at the rate of 3%. Soil columns were leached at 4-d intervals for 92 d with distilled water, and effluents were analysed for pH, EC, nitrate (NO3(-)-N), ammonium (NH4(+)-N) K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The results indicated that the amounts of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N leached from the poultry manure and potato residues could represent very important economic losses of N and pose an environmental threat under field conditions. The sandy loam soil amended with poultry manure lost the highest amount of NO3(-)-N (206.4 kg ha(-1)), and clay soil amended with poultry manure lost the highest amounts of NH4(+)-N (454.3 kg ha(-1)). The results showed that a treatment incorporating 3% of municipal waste compost could be used without negative effects to groundwater N concentration in clay soil. Significant amounts of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were leached owing to the application of poultry manure, potato and municipal waste compost to soils. There was a positive relationship between K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ with NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N leached in soils. Analysis of variance detected significant effects of amendment, soil type and time on the leaching NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. PMID:22988618

  2. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. PMID:21320738

  3. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  4. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  5. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Sulassaari, Sirkka; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2014-05-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). There are missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Soil could be such a missing source. Emissions of HONO from soils studied in laboratory incubations have been recently reported. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and a study with an ammonium oxidizing bacterium has shown that HONO could be produced in ammonium oxidation. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be important sources of HONO. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle processes. In contrast to drained peatlands, natural peatlands with high water table and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils with low nitrification capacity had low HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low nitrification rate and low availability of nitrite in these soils are the likely reasons for their low HONO production rates. We studied the origin of HONO in one drained peat soil by inhibiting nitrification with acetylene. Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus ammonium oxidation is not the direct mechanism for the HONO emission in this soil. It is still an open question if HONO originates directly from some microbial process like ammonium oxidation or chemically from nitrite produced in microbial processes.

  6. Organic Amendments to Avocado Crops Induce Suppressiveness and Influence the Composition and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Nuria; Vida, Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Landa, Blanca B.; Gaju, Nuria; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main avocado diseases in southern Spain is white root rot caused by the fungus Rosellinia necatrix Prill. The use of organic soil amendments to enhance the suppressiveness of natural soil is an inviting approach that has successfully controlled other soilborne pathogens. This study tested the suppressive capacity of different organic amendments against R. necatrix and analyzed their effects on soil microbial communities and enzymatic activities. Two-year-old avocado trees were grown in soil treated with composted organic amendments and then used for inoculation assays. All of the organic treatments reduced disease development in comparison to unamended control soil, especially yard waste (YW) and almond shells (AS). The YW had a strong effect on microbial communities in bulk soil and produced larger population levels and diversity, higher hydrolytic activity and strong changes in the bacterial community composition of bulk soil, suggesting a mechanism of general suppression. Amendment with AS induced more subtle changes in bacterial community composition and specific enzymatic activities, with the strongest effects observed in the rhizosphere. Even if the effect was not strong, the changes caused by AS in bulk soil microbiota were related to the direct inhibition of R. necatrix by this amendment, most likely being connected to specific populations able to recolonize conducive soil after pasteurization. All of the organic amendments assayed in this study were able to suppress white root rot, although their suppressiveness appears to be mediated differentially. PMID:25769825

  7. Organic amendments to avocado crops induce suppressiveness and influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Nuria; Vida, Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Landa, Blanca B; Gaju, Nuria; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-05-15

    One of the main avocado diseases in southern Spain is white root rot caused by the fungus Rosellinia necatrix Prill. The use of organic soil amendments to enhance the suppressiveness of natural soil is an inviting approach that has successfully controlled other soilborne pathogens. This study tested the suppressive capacity of different organic amendments against R. necatrix and analyzed their effects on soil microbial communities and enzymatic activities. Two-year-old avocado trees were grown in soil treated with composted organic amendments and then used for inoculation assays. All of the organic treatments reduced disease development in comparison to unamended control soil, especially yard waste (YW) and almond shells (AS). The YW had a strong effect on microbial communities in bulk soil and produced larger population levels and diversity, higher hydrolytic activity and strong changes in the bacterial community composition of bulk soil, suggesting a mechanism of general suppression. Amendment with AS induced more subtle changes in bacterial community composition and specific enzymatic activities, with the strongest effects observed in the rhizosphere. Even if the effect was not strong, the changes caused by AS in bulk soil microbiota were related to the direct inhibition of R. necatrix by this amendment, most likely being connected to specific populations able to recolonize conducive soil after pasteurization. All of the organic amendments assayed in this study were able to suppress white root rot, although their suppressiveness appears to be mediated differentially. PMID:25769825

  8. The Impact of Organic Amendments on Soil Properties Under Mediterranean Climatic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion and unsustainable land uses produce adverse effect on SOC content. Soil management techniques and corrections can be applied for soil recovery, especially, with afforestation purposes. This study presents the short term effects of the application of different treatments and amendments on soil properties for soils included in several sets of closed plots located in the experimental area of Pinarillo (Nerja, Spain). The analysed soil properties were: pH, EC, Organic Carbon, total Nitrogen and total Carbon. In order to verify possible differences, we applied the test of Mann-Whitney U in corroboration with the previous homogeneity test of variance. The result of each strategy set compared to the initial condition shows at least one significant modification in the analysed soil properties. Electrical conductivity was the most changeable soil property respect to the initial condition. Similarly, organic carbon content and total organic carbon remained quite similar. However, when all of the strategy sets are compared among them, total carbon was the most significantly changeable property. Mulching, polymers and urban residue seem to highly modify the soil initial conditions. Although soil physic-chemical parameters generally used to evaluate soil quality change very slowly. The analysed soil properties shows significant differences between dry and wet season. This fact, could be indicating the effect of certain seasonality as it is usual in Mediterranean condition.

  9. CO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah, N.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examines the effect of different amendments on selected soil physical and biological properties over a 24-month period in two cropland fields. Urban municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and alfalfa residue (AR) were used as different organic amendments at the rates of 0 (control), 10 and 30 Mg ha-1 to a clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil in a semiarid region. Results showed that the soil improvement was controlled by the application rate and decomposability of amendments and soil type. The addition of organic amendments to the soils improved aggregate stability and consequently enhanced total porosity, especially macropore fraction. The increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total porosity values as compared to the control treatment were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of MSW resulted in higher values of microbial respiration in the clay loam soil than in the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for AR. Linear and power functions were provided for the relationships between microbial respiration and SOC in the loamy sand and clay loam soils, respectively. Also, CO2 emission was stimulated significantly as power functions of the total porosity and the ratio of macroporosity to microporosity. However, the soil microbial respiration and carbon storage improved aggregate stability and pore size distribution, and as a response, soil porosity, especially the macropore fraction, controlled CO2 flux.

  10. CO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah, N.

    2015-11-01

    This investigation examines the effect of different amendments on selected soil physical and biological properties over a twenty four month period in two cropland fields. Urban municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and alfalfa residue (AR) were used as different organic amendments at the rates of 0 (control), 10 and 30 Mg ha-1 to a clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil in a semiarid region. Result showed that the soil improvement was controlled by the application rate and decomposability of amendments and soil type. The addition of organic amendments to the soils improved aggregate stability and consequently enhanced total porosity, especially macro pores fraction. The increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total porosity values as compared to the control treatment were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of MSW resulted in higher values of microbial respiration in the clay loam soil than in the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse order was found for AR. Linear and power functions were provided for the relationships between microbial respiration and SOC in the loamy sand and clay loam soils, respectively. Also, CO2 emission was stimulated significantly as power functions of the total porosity and the ratio of macro to micro pores. However, the soil microbial respiration and carbon storage improved aggregate stability and pore size distribution, as a response, soil porosity especially macro pores fraction controlled CO2 flux.

  11. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. PMID:26590874

  12. Controlled laboratory system to study soil solarization and organic amendment effects on plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eyal; Katan, Jaacov; Austerweil, Miriam; Gamliel, Abraham

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT A controlled laboratory system for simulating soil solarization, with and without organic amendment, was developed and validated using physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The system consists of soil containers that are exposed to controlled and constant aeration, and to temperature fluctuations that resemble those occurring during solarization at various depths. This system enables a separate analysis of volatiles and other components. We recorded a sharp decrease in oxygen concentration in the soil atmosphere followed by a gradual increase to the original concentration during solarization in the field and heating in the simulation system of soil amended with wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) or thyme (Thymus vulgaris). The combined treatment of organic amendment and solarization (or heating in the controlled system) was highly effective at controlling populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Changes in soil pH, enzymatic activities, and microbial populations followed, in most cases, trends which were similar under both solarization and the heating system, when exposed to controlled aerobic conditions. The reliability and validity of the system in simulating physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place during solarization is demonstrated. PMID:18943518

  13. Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC > TCS > AHTN > HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS. PMID:25044513

  14. Increased zinc and copper availability in organic waste amended soil potentially involving distinct release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tella, Marie; Bravin, Matthieu N; Thuriès, Laurent; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Collin, Blanche; Chaurand, Perrine; Legros, Samuel; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining the fate of trace elements (TE) following soil organic waste (OW) application. We used a unique combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses, to determine TE speciation, with incubation experiments for in situ monitoring of TE availability patterns over a time course with the technique of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). We showed that copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) availability were both increased in OW-amended soil, but their release was controlled by distinct mechanisms. Zn speciation in OW was found to be dominated by an inorganic species, i.e. Zn sorbed on Fe oxides. Zn desorption from Fe oxides could explain the increase in Zn availability in OW-amended soil. Cu speciation in OW was dominated by organic species. Cu release through the mineralization of organic carbon from OW was responsible for the increase in Cu availability. PMID:26854699

  15. Toxicologic studies with male sheep grazing on municipal sludge-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Hogue, D E; Parrish, J J; Foote, R H; Stouffer, J R; Anderson, J L; Stoewsand, G S; Telford, J N; Bache, C A; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1984-01-01

    Growing sheep were grazed for 152 d on grass-legume forage growing on soil that had been amended with municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, N.Y., at 224 metric tons per hectare. Cadmium was higher, but not significantly (p greater than 0.05), in tissues of sheep fed the sludge-grown forage as compared to controls. No significant differences between the sludge or control treatments were found in weight of the complete or cauda epididymis or in percent progressive motility of cauda epididymal sperm. The sludge-treatment group had significantly larger testes (p less than 0.025) when expressed as a percentage of body weight, and higher blood uric acid values (p less than 0.05). There were no observable changes in tissue ultrastructure of liver, kidney, muscle, or testes as examined by electron microscopy in either of the treatment groups. There were no significant differences for rate of animal weight gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, or quality or yield grade of the carcases between the treatment groups. PMID:6094836

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Macronutrients in a Lime-amended Acid Paddy Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Morales, L. A.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil spatial variability is a natural occurring and or management induced feature that is important for site-specific management practices such as variable rate fertilization. Since rice paddy fields are flat and flooded, apparently they should be homogeneous and subsequently it could be thought that spatial variability in yields and soil attributes might be negligible. However, significant levels of variability in soil general properties, soil nutrients and rice yields have been observed even in small paddy fields. Describing spatial variability of within-field properties is a fundamental first step toward determining management strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of spatial variability in available macronutrients (NH4+-N, P and K) from an acid rice soil submitted to lime amendment. The experimental site was located at Corrientes province, Argentina. The climate is warm, subtropical with abundant rainfall the whole year round. The study soil was typic Plintacualf. Field trials were set up involving three treatments: control, without lime addition, plus two different dolomite doses of 625 and 1250 kg.ha-1. Before lime addition, soil pH was 3.7; organic matter content was 2.14 % and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was 21.7 Cmolc kg -1. Soil was sampled at three different stages, first before sowing in aerobic conditions and them two more times in anaerobiosis, i.e. by bunch formation and flowering. Ninety-six soil samples per treatment were taken during each of the three sampling periods. NH4+-N, P and K were routinely determined. Spatial variability was assessed through the analysis of semivariograms. Next, kriging maps were constructed and compared for successive sampling dates. The statistical variability of NH4+-N, P and K over the study period was low to medium, depending on treatment and sampling dates. Lime application produced a positive effect on the NH4+ availability at sowing time. Increased Olsen-P availability during sowing and

  17. Selected Fe and Mn (nano)oxides as perspective amendments for the stabilization of As in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Michálková, Zuzana; Komárek, Michael; Veselská, Veronika; Číhalová, Sylva

    2016-06-01

    An amorphous Mn oxide (AMO), nanomaghemite, and nanomagnetite were used as potential amendments reducing the mobility of As in three contrasting contaminated soils differing in origin of As contamination. Adsorption experiments and XPS analyses combined with incubation batch experiments and pH-static leaching tests were used. The AMO showed excellent adsorption capacity for As(V) reaching a maximum of 1.79 mmol g(-1) at pH 7 and 8. Interestingly, the adsorption capacity in this case decreases with decreasing pH, probably as a result of AMO dissolution at lower pH values. Chemical sorption of As(V) onto AMO was further confirmed with XPS. Both Fe nano-oxides proved the highest adsorption capacity at pH 4 reaching 11 mg g(-1) of adsorbed As(V). The AMO was also the most efficient amendment for decreasing As concentrations in soil solutions during 8 weeks of incubation. Additionally, pH-static leaching tests were performed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and natural pH (not adjusted) and AMO again proved the highest ability to decrease As content in leachate. On the other hand, strong dissolution of this amendment at lower pH values (especially pH 4) was observed. For that reason, AMO appears as a promising stabilizing agent for As, especially in neutral, alkaline, or slightly acidic soils, where As(V) species are expected to be more mobile. PMID:26895725

  18. Effects of biochar on organic matter dynamics in unamended soils and soils amended with municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, César; Giannetta, Beatrice; Fernández, José M.; López-de-Sá, Esther G.; Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Zaccone, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a loosely-defined C-rich solid byproduct obtained from biomass pyrolysis, which is intended for use as a soil amendment. A full understanding of the agronomic and environmental potential of biochar, especially its potential as a C sequestration strategy, requires a full understanding of its effects on native soil organic matter, as well as of its interactions with other organic amendments applied to soil. Here we determined the organic C distribution in an arable soil amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20 t ha-1 in a factorial combination with two types of organic amendment (viz. municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge) in a field experiment under Mediterranean conditions. The analysis of variance revealed that biochar and organic amendment factors increased significantly total organic C and mineral-associated organic C contents, and had little effect on intra-macroaggregate and intra-microaggregate organic C pools. Free soil organic C content was significantly affected by biochar application, but not by the organic amendments. Especially noteworthy were the interaction effects found between the biochar and organic amendment factors for mineral-associated organic C contents, which suggested a promoting action of biochar on C stabilization in organically-amended soils.

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in wheat plant grown in soil amended with industrial sludge.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sutapa; Bhattacharyya, A K

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of different forms of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Fe metals were determined for the roadside sludge collected from pickling-rolling and electroplating industrial area. In sludge the relative abundance of total heavy metals were Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and DTPA-extractable metals were in the order--Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Pot-culture experiment was conducted in soils amended with sludge (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%), pretreated with lime (0%, 0.5% and 1%). The soils were alkaline in nature (pH>8.3) with organic carbon contents were 0.34% and 0.72%. The most abundant total and bio-available metal was Fe. Two wheat seedlings were grown in each pot containing 3kg sludge-amended or control soil and the experiment was conducted till harvesting. Application of sludge increased both total and bio-available forms of metals in the soils, while lime application decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals in sludge-amended soils. The content of organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R2>0.7) with Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Cd. Though wheat plants are not accumulators, the translocation efficiency was appreciably high. The translocation factor from shoot to grain was found smaller than that of root to shoot of wheat plants. This makes an implication that the heavy metal accumulation was proportionally lesser in grain than in shoot. In, 10% sludge with 0.5% lime-amended soils; each of these toxic heavy metals was found to be within permissible range (USEPA). Hence, on the basis of present study, the best possible treatment may be recommended. PMID:17825356

  20. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  1. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  2. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    PubMed

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (<30%) in dairy manures or broiler litters resulted in lower DRP leaching from soils. Preferential flow in two soils caused greater DRP leaching; this effect was more pronounced in the superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. PMID:27380088

  3. Silica fertilization and nano-MnO₂ amendment on bacterial community composition in high arsenic paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jihai; He, Yaxian; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Anwei; Lei, Ming; Chen, Junfeng; Peng, Liang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-03-01

    Silica fertilization and nano-MnO2 amendment are reported as useful approaches in lowering the accumulation of arsenic in rice grains, but the effects of silica fertilization or nano-MnO2 amendment on microbial community in the paddy soils containing high concentration of arsenic are still unknown. In order to elucidate this question, the structures and composition of microbial community in the paddy soils, in response to silica fertilization and nano-MnO2 amendment, were investigated using pyrosequencing technique. The results indicated that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria were the main dominating phyla in these paddy soils. A decrease in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria, but an increase in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was observed after silica fertilization and nano-MnO2 amendment. The changes of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Cyanobacteria were strongly correlated with pH and the concentration of bioavailable arsenic in the paddy soils. The α-diversity of bacteria in the paddy soils increased in response to silica fertilization at low amendment level, but decreased under silica or nano-MnO2