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Sample records for acid soluble fraction

  1. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  2. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production. PMID:23365284

  3. Evaluation of soluble fraction and enzymatic residual fraction of dilute dry acid, ethylenediamine, and steam explosion pretreated corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed to examine the inhibition of soluble fraction (SF) and enzymatic residual fraction (ERF) in dry dilute acid (DDA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and steam explosion (SE) pretreated corn stover (CS) on the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. SF of DDA, EDA and SE pretreated CS has high xylose, soluble lignin and xylo-oligomer content, respectively. SF of EDA pretreated CS leads to the highest inhibition, followed by SE and DDA pretreated CS. Inhibition of ERF of DDA and SE pretreated CS is higher than that of EDA pretreated CS. The inhibition degree (A0/A) of SF is 1.76 and 1.21 times to that of ERF for EDA and SE pretreated CS, respectively. The inhibition degree of ERF is 1.05 times to that of SF in DDA pretreated CS. The quantitative analysis shows that SF of EDA pretreated CS, SF and ERF of SE pretreated CS cause significant inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26970919

  4. Comparative study of emulsifying properties in acidic condition of soluble polysaccharides fractions obtained from soy hull and defatted soy flour.

    PubMed

    Porfiri, María Cecilia; Cabezas, Darío Marcelino; Wagner, Jorge Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    The present study compares the emulsifying properties in acidic conditions of hull soluble polysaccharides (HSPS), soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) and its mixtures. These fractions were obtained from byproducts of soybean processing industry (soy hull and residual fiber after isolation of soy cotyledon protein, respectively). Although SSPS is already characterized, HSPS is a novel fraction which has not been studied in deep and it is still unexplored as emulsifier. Dispersions of both fraction and a mixture 50:50 of them at pH 3.0 were used as aqueous phase (1.0-3.0 % w/w) in coarse and fine oil-in-water emulsions (oil mass fraction = 0.3). Its stability was evaluated through the evolution of backscattering profiles (%BS), particle size distribution and mean particle diameters. The rheology of the emulsions was also analyzed. Both fractions provided stability to creaming when increasing the polysaccharide concentration and energy of homogenization. While coarse emulsions were unstable systems, fine emulsions were stable enough and allowed a deeper analysis of the destabilizing processes. A bridging flocculation phenomenon in the presence of HSPS and HSPS/SSPS mixtures is suggested, which influences the creaming and rheological behavior. Also, coalescence index increases according HSPS and HSPS/SSPS concentrations, but particle sizes reached were smaller than in SSPS emulsions. Fine emulsions with 3 % of HSPS/SSPS mixtures yielded the best results on the overall stability at 28 days. So, functional properties of the fractions may improve by the formulation of emulsions consisting in mixtures of them. These results are of interest to the manufacturing of acidic foods, taking advantage of obtaining byproducts from residual materials. PMID:27162375

  5. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively. PMID:25461009

  6. Amino acid sequences of peptides from a tryptic digest of a urea-soluble protein fraction (U.S.3) from oxidized wool

    PubMed Central

    Corfield, M. C.; Fletcher, J. C.; Robson, A.

    1967-01-01

    1. A tryptic digest of the protein fraction U.S.3 from oxidized wool has been separated into 32 peptide fractions by cation-exchange resin chromatography. 2. Most of these fractions have been resolved into their component peptides by a combination of the techniques of cation-exchange resin chromatography, paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis. 3. The amino acid compositions of 58 of the peptides in the digest present in the largest amounts have been determined. 4. The amino acid sequences of 38 of these have been completely elucidated and those of six others partially derived. 5. These findings indicate that the parent protein in wool from which the protein fraction U.S.3 is derived has a minimum molecular weight of 74000. 6. The structures of wool proteins are discussed in the light of the peptide sequences determined, and, in particular, of those sequences in fraction U.S.3 that could not be elucidated. PMID:16742497

  7. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  8. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  9. Exposure of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) to a combination of resin acids and a water soluble fraction of diesel fuel oil: A model to investigate the chemical causes of pigmented salmon syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, B. |; Stagg, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    Pigmented salmon syndrome is a pollutant-induced hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. As part of an investigation of this condition, S2 Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) were exposed to a diesel fuel oil, water soluble fraction (WSF) in combination with a mixture of three resin acids (isopimaric, dehydroabietic, and abietic acids) in a continuous-flow freshwater system. The total nominal concentrations of resin acids in the exposure tanks were 10, 50, and 100 {micro}g/L; the diesel WSF was generated in situ and provided a mean hydrocarbon concentration of 2.0 {+-} 0.1 mg/L (n = 12) during the 9-d exposure period. Exposure to the diesel WSF alone depressed liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and induced phenol UDPGT activity. Exposure to the diesel WSF in the absence or presence of resin acids induced liver cytochrome P4501A and increased the concentrations in the plasma of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. The combined exposure to diesel WSF with either 50 or 100 {micro}g/L total resin acid caused significant elevations in the concentrations of bilirubin in the plasma and many of these fish had yellow pigmentation on the ventral surface and around the gill arches. The results demonstrate that exposure to combinations of two groups of contaminants can result in the manifestation of toxic effects not apparent from exposure to either of these chemicals in isolation.

  10. Copolyamino acid fractionation and protobiochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation of the origins of living things by the uniquely appropriate method of successive approximation in attempted retracement of steps in molecular evolution has yielded: a comprehensive theoretical flowsheet from archaic inanimate matter to an infrastructured, microscopic, protoreproductive, protometabolic protocell; a laboratory model of the same; and an explanatory assessment of the natural variation component of Darwinian evolution. For each of these, the significance is dependent upon awareness of the intrinsic tendency of amino acids, in mixed sets, to order themselves. Without such awareness, it is believed these vistas would have been delayed for decades. Selfordering would have in turn been difficult to recognize and support were it not for the chromatographic developments in fractionation of copolyamino acids.

  11. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  12. Compositional characteristics of a chloroform/methanol soluble protein fraction from spinach chloroplast membranes.

    PubMed

    Henriques, F; Park, R B

    1976-05-14

    Extraction of an aqueous suspension of spinach chloroplast lamellae with a chloroform/methanol mixture leads to solubilization of about 1/3 of the total membrane protein. Amino acid analysis of the chloroform/methanol-soluble protein shows that this fraction is largely enriched in the hydrophobic residues proline, leucine, alanine and phenylalanine and considerably depleted in polar amino acids, namely lysine and arginine. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the solubilized material reveals the presence of a variety of low molecular weight polypeptides (molecular weight less than or equal to 25 000), with more than 50% of the total fraction being contributed by a 25 000 dalton band. This band, which accounts for about 25% of the total chloroplast lamellar protein, has recently been identified as the main component of the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex. The physiological role of most of the chloroform/methanol-soluble protein fraction is not known at present. From its chemical properties and apparent biological inertness, we propose that it plays mainly a structural role in situ, interacting with the lipid moiety of the chloroplast membrane. The material insoluble in the aqueous chloroform/methanol mixture is largely enriched in manganese, iron, cytochrome and water-soluble proteins, such as chloroplast coupling factor and ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. PMID:179588

  13. Characterization of pH-fractionated humic acids with respect to their dissociation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Klučáková, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Humic acids were divided into several fractions using buffer solutions as extraction agents with different pH values. Two methods of fractionation were used. The first one was subsequent dissolution of bulk humic acids in buffers adjusted to different pH. The second one was sequential dissolution in buffers with increasing pH values. Experimental data were compared with hypothesis of partial solubility of humic acids in aqueous solutions. Behaviour of humic fractions obtained by sequential dissolution, original bulk sample and residual fractions obtained by subsequent dissolution at pH 10 and 12 agrees with the hypothesis. Results demonstrated that regardless the common mechanism, solubility and dissociation degree of various humic fractions may be very different and can be estimated using parameters of the model based on the proposed mechanism. Presented results suggest that dissolving of solid humic acids in water environment is more complex than conventional solubility behaviour of sparingly soluble solids. PMID:26746402

  14. Solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Mahir; Oktay, Münir; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Copur, Mehmet

    2005-03-17

    The solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. The effects of HCl concentration and temperature on the solubility were evaluated, and the thermodynamic parameters of the dissolution were calculated. It was found that the solubility isotherms had a minimum at about 0.5M HCl concentration at all the temperatures studied and that solubility decreased with the increase of temperature at all the HCl concentration range investigated. PMID:15752843

  15. Fractionation and structural characterization of LiCl-DMSO soluble hemicelluloses from tomato.

    PubMed

    Assor, Carole; Quemener, Bernard; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc

    2013-04-15

    To prepare and explore the structure of native hemicellulose from tomato, extraction of the natively acetylated polysaccharides was achieved from partially depectinated cell walls by DMSO doped with LiCl. DEAE anion exchange chromatography of the LiCl-DMSO extract allowed the removal of residual acidic pectin and the isolation of acetylated glucuronoxylan. The hemicellulose neutral fraction from the anion exchanger was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography into xyloglucan (XyG) and galactoglucomannan (GgM) either as single major constituents or as mixtures of both. Residual hemicellulose in the cell wall was extracted by 4.0 M and not 1.0 M KOH. The fine structure of all LiCl-DMSO fractions and alkali extracts was assessed by coupling β-glucanase, β-mannanase and β-xylanase enzymatic degradations to the analysis of the resulting fragments by HPAEC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This approach revealed substitutions in part of the GgM fractions by pentose residues, presumably arabinose and/or xylose occurring in highly substituted block domains. It also demonstrated a different glucanase hydrolysis profile from 4.0 M KOH compared to LiCl-DMSO soluble fractions. The present extraction and purification scheme allow the recovery of several populations of acetylated hemicellulose families which emphasize the structural diversity and complexity of these polysaccharides. PMID:23544508

  16. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds. PMID:25222929

  17. Acid soluble platelet aggregating material isolated from human umbilical cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-12-27

    An acid soluble, pepsin sensitive platelet aggregating material is isolated from human umbilical cord tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation is disclosed and its use to control bleeding is described. 2 figs.

  18. Solubility series of methanofullerenes in concentrated sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglova, Yu. N.; Kolesov, S. V.; Biglova, R. Z.; Kraikin, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    A spectroscopic study of the dissolution of C60 and its monosubstituted derivatives methanofullerenes in 98% sulfuric acid revealed that methanofullerenes dissolved in sulfuric acid much better than the starting C60. A solubility series of functionalized fullerenes was obtained, which did not change during the extraction of methanofullerenes with sulfuric acid from benzene solutions. An effective methods was developed for separating methanofullerenes, which is based on the difference between the solubilities of the starting and functionalized fullerenes in concentrated sulfuric acid.

  19. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  20. The water-soluble fraction of carbon, sulfur, and crustal elements in Asian aerosols and Asian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, R. M.; Majestic, B. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Schauer, J. J.

    We quantified the water-soluble species in 24 h average TSP (Dunhuang and Gosan) and PM1.0 (Gosan only) samples associated with the Spring 2001 Asian Dust season. Samples were analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble sulfur, and water-soluble crustal elements, as well as their bulk chemical composition. Water-soluble organic carbon in Gosan accounted for 28-83% (average=63%) of the particle-phase TSP total organic carbon, and 1-69% (average=23%) of the particle-phase PM1.0 organic carbon. Water-soluble sulfur, primarily in the form of sulfate, accounted for 2-22% of the TSP mass in Gosan, and 0.9-11% of the TSP mass in Dunhuang. The absolute concentrations and the soluble fraction of crustal elements in TSP samples collected at Gosan were found to correlate with the air mass source region as determined by back-trajectory analysis. For example, elevated levels of water-soluble sodium, potassium, and calcium were observed during dust events. These observations are likely the result of differences in anthropogenic sources, mineralogical composition of resuspended crustal materials, and atmospheric processing of the aerosols. Experiments were conducted using Asian soil samples to study the impact of acidification by nitric acid vapor on the solubility of crustal elements present in Asian desert and non-desert dusts. These experiments demonstrated that gaseous nitric acid attack leads to significant increases (>100% increase) in water-soluble calcium, magnesium, aluminum, manganese, and iron, while little or no increases in water-soluble sodium and potassium were observed in the soils.

  1. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water. PMID:25362971

  2. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  3. Biorelevant solubility of poorly soluble drugs: rivaroxaban, furosemide, papaverine and niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Szőke, Vera; Völgyi, Gergely; Horváth, Péter; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2013-09-01

    In this work the biorelevant solubility of four drugs representing different acid-base property, wide range of lipohilicity and low aqueous solubility was studied. The equilibrium solubility of rivaroxaban (non-ionizable), furosemide (acid), papaverine (base) and niflumic acid (ampholyte) was determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF pH 1.2), in simulated intestinal fluid fasted state (FaSSIF pH 6.5) and fed state (FeSSIF pH 5.0) and their corresponding blank buffers at a temperature of 37 °C using saturation shake-flask method. The concentration was measured by optimized HPLC analysis. The solubilizing effect of bile acid/lipid micelles as additive components of biorelevent media (BRM) is expressed with the solubility ratio (SR: SBRM/Sblank buffer) and the food effect was estimated from SFeSSIF/SFaSSIF coefficient. It was revealed that ionization plays primarily role in solubility of compounds which undergo ionization in BRM. The solubilizing effect in FaSSIF was marginal for the neutral compound (rivaroxaban) and for molecules are anionic at pH 6.5 (furosemide and niflumic acid). The higher concentration of solubilizing agents in FeSSIF improved the solubility of papaverine carrying positive charge and niflumic acid being partially zwitterionic at pH 5.0. PMID:23770783

  4. Fractionation and solubility of cadmium in paddy soils amended with porous hydrated calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Masaihiko, Saigusa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that porous hydrated calcium silicate (PS) is very effective in decreasing cadmium (Cd) content in brown rice. However, it is unclear whether the PS influences cadmium transformation in soil. The present study examined the effect of PS on pH, cadmium transformation and cadmium solubility in Andosol and Alluvial soil, and also compared its effects with CaCO3, acidic porous hydrated calcium silicate (APS) and silica gel. Soil cadmium was operationally fractionationed into exchangeable (Exch), bound to carbonates (Carb), bound to iron and manganese oxides (FeMnO(x)), bound to organic matters (OM) and residual (Res) fraction. Application of PS and CaCO3 at hig rates enhanced soil pH, while APS and silica gel did not obviously change soil pH. PS and CaCO3 also increased the FeMnO(x)-Cd in Andosol and Carb-Cd in Alluvial soil, thus reducing the Exch-Cd in the tested soils. However, PS was less effective than CaCO3 at the same application rate. Cadmium fractions in the two soils were not changed by the treatments of APS and silica gel. There were no obvious differences in the solubility of cadmium in soils treated with PS, APS, silica gel and CaCO3 except Andosol treated 2.0% CaCO3 at the same pH of soil-CaCl2 suspensions. These findings suggested that the decrease of cadmium availability in soil was mainly attributed to the increase of soil pH caused by PS. PMID:17918598

  5. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes < C20) were extracted through desorption of complex colloids stabilized as micelles in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water repellency was completely eliminated by hot water under high pressure. The molecular composition of HWSC can play a critical role in stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  6. Isolation and prebiotic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides fractions from the bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hanju; Wang, Junhui; Cao, Xiaodong; Ye, Yongkang

    2016-10-20

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox) (WBP) were isolated, and the characterizations as well as prebiotic activities were investigated. The yield of WBP was 7.58±0.31% under optimal hot-water extraction conditions. Two fractions, i.e., WBP-1 and WBP-2 with molecular weight of 83.50kDa and 80.08kDa, respectively, were purified by chromatography. Both the polysaccharides fractions were identified as heteropolysaccharides-protein complexes composed of 15 kinds of common amino acids in protein part and rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios in polysaccharide part. The existence of α- and β-glycosidic linkages between the sugar units was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectra. Compared with the blank control and the reference of FOS, WBP-1 and WBP-2 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum (P<0.05), which contributed to the production of organic acids, suggesting that the polysaccharides have potential prebiotic properties. PMID:27474570

  7. Solubility, inhibition of crystallization and microscopic analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in the presence of fractions from Humulus lupulus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąckowiak, Anna; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Skibiński, PrzemysŁaw; GaweŁ, WiesŁaw; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-11-01

    Procedures for obtaining noncytotoxic and nonmutagenic extracts from Humulus lupulus L. of high potency for inhibition and dissolving of model (calcium oxalate crystals) and real kidney stones, obtained from patients after surgery, are presented. Multistep extraction procedures were performed in order to obtain the preparations with the highest calcium complexing properties. The composition of obtained active fractions was analyzed by GC/MS and NMR methods. The influence of preparations on inhibition of formation and dissolution of model and real kidney stones were evaluated based on conductrometric titration, flame photometry and microscopic analysis. The "fraction soluble in methanol" obtained from water-alkaline extracts contains sugar alcohols and organic acids, and is effective in dissolving the kidney stones. The "fraction insoluble in methanol" contains only sugar derivatives and it changes the morphology of the crystals, making them "jelly-like". Both fractions are potentially effective in kidney stone therapy.

  8. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

    2011-09-22

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  9. Specific Binding of the Syringolide Elicitors to a Soluble Protein Fraction from Soybean Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Ji, C.; Okinaka, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tsurushima, T.; Buzzell, R. I.; Sims, J. J.; Midland, S. L.; Slaymaker, D.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yamaoka, N.; Keen, N. T.

    1997-01-01

    Syringolides are glycolipid elicitors produced by Gram-negative bacteria expressing Pseudomonas syringae avirulence gene D. The syringolides mediate gene-for-gene complementarity, inducing the hypersensitive response only in soybean plants carrying the Rpg4 disease resistance gene. A site(s) for 125I-syringolide 1 was detected in the soluble protein fraction from soybean leaves, but no evidence for ligand-specific binding to the microsomal fraction was obtained. The Kd value for syringolide 1 binding with the soluble fraction was 8.7 nM, and binding was greatly reduced by prior protease treatment or heating. A native gel assay was also used to demonstrate ligand-specific binding of labeled syringolide 1 with a soluble protein(s). Competition studies with 125I-syringolide 1 and several structural derivatives demonstrated a direct correlation between binding affinity to the soluble fraction and elicitor activity. However, differential competition binding studies disclosed no differences in syringolide binding to soluble fractions from Rpg4/Rpg4 or rpg4/rpg4 soybean leaves. Thus, the observed binding site fulfills several criteria expected of an intracellular receptor for the syringolides, but it is most likely not encoded by the Rpg4 gene. Instead, the Rpg4 gene product may function subsequent to elicitor binding, possibly in intracellular signal transduction. PMID:12237390

  10. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  11. On the fractional solubility of copper in marine aerosols: Toxicity of aeolian copper revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.

    2010-10-01

    Paytan et al. (2009) argue that the atmospheric deposition of aerosols lead to copper concentrations that are potentially toxic to marine phytoplankton in a large area of tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. A key assumption in their model is that all marine aerosols (mineral dust and anthropogenic particles) have a high (40%) fractional solubility of copper. Our data show that the fractional solubility of copper for Saharan dust over the Sargasso Sea and Bermuda is significantly lower (1-7%). In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols with non-Saharan sources have significantly higher values (10-100%). Hence, the potential Cu toxicity in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic should be re-estimated, given the low fractional solubility of Cu in the Saharan dust that dominates aerosol deposition to this region.

  12. Solubility of acid gases in a mixed solvent

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, R.J.; Mather, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide and their mixtures has been measured at 40/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C in a mixed solvent consisting of 20.9 wt% (2.0 M) MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), 30.5 wt% sulfolane, and 48.6 wt% water. The results have been compared with those for aqueous 2.0 M MDEA and an analogous mixed solvent, containing AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol), which are available in the literature. At solution loadings less than 1 mol acid gas/mol MDEA, the solubility of the acid gas was lower in the mixed solvent that in the corresponding aqueous MDEA solvent; at solution loadings greater than 1 mol acid gas/mol MDEA, the reverse was true. At all loadings and at both temperatures studied, the mixed MDEA solvent absorbed equal or lesser quantities of acid gas than the comparable mixed AMP solvent. However, the shapes of the solubility curves show that the mixed MDEA solvent would be a better choice for certain industrial applications. These data were used to modify the solubility model of Deshmukh and Mather to account for the mixed solvent effects on the system thermodynamics. Results show that the model is useful as a first approximation in predicting acid gas solubilities; agreement with experiment was generally found to be within +-15%.

  13. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  14. The removal of kaolinite suspensions by acid-soluble and water-soluble chitosans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Wu, Li-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This research compared the coagulant performance of acid-soluble chitosan with water-soluble chitosan and with coagulant mixtures of chitosan and aluminium sulfate (alum). We also assessed the coagulant performance of chitosan and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) to remove kaolinite from turbid water. In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies under different coagulant concentrations, degrees of turbidity (NTU) and pH levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants in order to illustrate major factors affecting kaolinite coagulation. The optimal concentrations of acid- versus water- soluble chitosan required to remove kaolinite from a 300 NTU suspension were 4.0 and 10.0 mg/l, respectively-with individual efficiencies of 79.3 and 92.4%, in that order. Optimum concentrations ofwater-soluble chitosan demonstrated a broader range than that of acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it is of note that chitosan/alum and chitosan/PAC water-soluble coagulant mixtures demonstrated much wider ranges of optimal concentrations for turbidity reduction than either alum or PAC alone. Moreover, our water-soluble chitosan coagulant mixtures produced denser floc with elevated settling velocities that favour cost savings relevant to both installation and operational expenses. Based on our observations of these noteworthy performances, we confidently propose that a coagulant mixture with a 1:1 mass ratio of chitosan and alum presents a remarkably more cost-effective alternative to the use of chitosan alone in water treatment systems. PMID:23530342

  15. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products. PMID:26807704

  16. Transformation of acidic poorly water soluble drugs into ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Balk, Anja; Wiest, Johannes; Widmer, Toni; Galli, Bruno; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    Poor water solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is a major challenge in drug development impairing bioavailability and therapeutic benefit. This study is addressing the possibility to tailor pharmaceutical and physical properties of APIs by transforming these into tetrabutylphosphonium (TBP) salts, including the generation of ionic liquids (IL). Therefore, poorly water soluble acidic APIs (Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Sulfadiazine, Sulfamethoxazole, and Tolbutamide) were converted into TBP ILs or low melting salts and compared to the corresponding sodium salts. Free acids and TBP salts were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, DSC and XRPD, DVS and dissolution rate measurements, release profiles, and saturation concentration measurements. TBP salts had lower melting points and glass transition temperatures and dissolution rates were improved up to a factor of 1000 as compared to the corresponding free acid. An increase in dissolution rates was at the expense of increased hygroscopicity. In conclusion, the creation of TBP ionic liquids or solid salts from APIs is a valuable concept addressing dissolution and solubility challenges of poorly water soluble acidic compounds. The data suggested that tailor-made counterions may substantially expand the formulation scientist's armamentarium to meet challenges of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:25976317

  17. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by sieving and winnowing.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2009-12-01

    Four commercial samples of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were sieved. All sieved fractions except for the pan fraction, constituting about 90% of original mass, were then winnowed with an air blast seed cleaner. Sieving was effective in producing fractions with varying composition. As the particle size decreased, protein and ash contents increased, and total carbohydrate (CHO) decreased. Winnowing sieved fractions was also effective in shifting composition, particularly for larger particle classes. Heavy sub-fractions were enriched in protein, oil and ash, while light sub-fractions were enriched for CHO. For protein, the combination of the two procedures resulted in a maximum 56.4% reduction in a fraction and maximum 60.2% increase in another fraction. As airflow velocity increased, light sub-fraction mass increased, while the compositional difference between the heavy and light sub-fractions decreased. Winnowing three times at a lower velocity was as effective as winnowing one time at a medium velocity. Winnowing the whole DDGS was much less effective than winnowing sieved fractions in changing composition, but sieving winnowed fractions was more effective than sieving whole DDGS. The two combination sequences gave comparable overall effects but sieving followed by winnowing is recommended because it requires less time. Regardless of combinational sequence, the second procedure was more effective in shifting composition than the first procedure. PMID:19692227

  18. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, B. E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A. C.; Wall, A. J.; Runkel, R. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2009-03-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The δ 65Cu values (based on 65Cu/ 63Cu) of enargite (δ 65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2 σ) and chalcopyrite (δ 65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ 65Cu < 1‰). These mineral samples show lower δ 65Cu values than stream waters (1.38‰ ⩽ δ 65Cu ⩽ 1.69‰). The average isotopic fractionation (Δ aq-min = δ 65Cu aq - δ 65Cu min, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ± 0.14‰ and 1.60 ± 0.14‰ for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ± 0.14‰) and enargite (0.98 ± 0.14‰) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite ( Δ=-0.57±0.14‰, where min o refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite ( Δ=0.14±0.14‰). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu + at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cu aq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of δ 65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures

  19. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? < ??65Cu < 1???). These mineral samples show lower ??65Cu values than stream waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures

  20. Solubility of HOBr in Acidic Solution and Implications for Liberation of Halogens Via Aerosol Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Rammer, T. A.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Halogen species are known to catalytically destroy ozone in several regions of the atmosphere. In addition to direct catalytic losses, bromine compounds can indirectly enhance ozone loss through coupling to other radical families. Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species in the linkage of BrOx to ClOx and HOx. The aqueous- phase coupling reaction HOBr + HCI (right arrow) BrCl + H2O may provide a pathway for chlorine activation on sulfate aerosols at temperatures warmer than those required for polar stratospheric cloud formation. We have measured t h e solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol dm(exp -3) atm(exp -1). The expected inverse dependence of H* on temperature was observed, but only a weak dependence on acidity was found. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that equilibrium concentrations of HOBr could equal or exceed those of HBr in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols. Despite the high solubility of HOBr, aerosol volumes are not large enough to sequester a significant fraction of inorganic bromine from the gas phase. Our measurements of HOBr uptake in aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases show the evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2.

  1. Solubility calculations of branched and linear amino acids using lattice cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischlschweiger, Michael; Enders, Sabine; Zeiner, Tim

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the activity coefficients and the solubility of amino acids in water were calculated using the lattice cluster theory (LCT) combined with the extended chemical association lattice model allowing self-association as well as cross-association. This permits the study of the influence of the amino acids structure on the thermodynamic properties for the first time. By the used model, the activity coefficient and solubilities of the investigated fourteen amino acids (glycine, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, dl-valine, dl-threonine, dl-methionine, l-leucine, l-glutamic acid, l-proline, hydroxyproline, histidine, l-arginine, α-amino valeric acid) could be described in good accordance with experimental data. In the case of different α-amino acids, but different hydrocarbon chains, the same interaction energy parameter can be used within the LCT. All studied amino acids could be modelled using the same parameter for the description of the amino acid association properties. The formed cross-associates contain more amino acids than expressed by the overall mole fraction of the solution. Moreover, the composition of the cross-associates depends on temperature, where the amount of amino acids increases with increasing temperature.

  2. Solubility calculations for acid gases in amine blends

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, T.

    1985-01-01

    Treating with alkanolamines is often used to sweeten gases containing only a few parts per million of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. Primary amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA) have great affinity for acid gases and are able to produce high purity sweet gas; on the other hand, tertiary amines like methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have large capacity and are easy to regenerate but, because they do not bind chemically with CO/sub 2/, they are unable to produce a sweetened gas low in this component. Recently, the use of amine blends has become a subject of potentially great commercial importance. Since, the range of possible amines and blend formulations is large, a method for predicting equilibrium solubility is needed. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed which uses the extended Debye-Huckel expression, is very similar to one developed for single-amine solutions, and involves the fitting of binary interaction parameters to experimental data. In this work the interaction parameters found to be important in the activity coefficient expression were fitted to each single-acid-gas single-amine subsystem using all published solubility data. The resulting model was then validated by comparing mixed-acid-gas single-amine solubility predictions with published VLE data. MEA-MDEA and DEA-MDEA blends have been studied in detail in this work. It is found that each amine contributes to the overall acid gas solubility in a nonlinear way and that the solubility curves can exhibit maxima and minima as a function of the relative concentrations of the amines.

  3. The relationship between dissolved humic acids and soluble iron in estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Dissolved humic acid and soluble iron appear to be chemically unassociated in estuaries despite their coincident removal. This conclusion is supported by differences in the aggregation kinetics of soluble iron and dissolved humic acid, the inability of extracted humic acid to stabilize laboratory preparations of ferric hydroxide, and decreasing ratios of humic acid carbon to soluble iron along the axes of some estuaries.

  4. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10

  5. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues.

    PubMed

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall; Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe; Villa, Mara; Willemoës, Martin; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Teilum, Kaare; Winther, Jakob R

    2016-07-19

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find that the protein shows a surprising resilience toward extremes of pH, demonstrating stability and function (cellulose binding) in the pH range from 2 to 11. To ask whether the four charged residues present were required for these properties of this protein, we altered them to nontitratable ones. Remarkably, this chargeless protein is produced reasonably well in Escherichia coli, retains its stable three-dimensional structure, and is still capable of strong cellulose binding. To further deprive this protein of charges, we removed the N-terminal charge by acetylation and studied the protein at pH 2, where the C-terminus is effectively protonated. Under these conditions, the protein retains its function and proved to be both soluble and have a reversible folding-unfolding transition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a soluble, functional protein with no titratable side chains has been produced. PMID:27307139

  6. Carbon Isotope Fractionations Associated with Methanotrophic Growth with the Soluble and Particulate Methane Monooxygenases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Growth experiments with the RuMP-type methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), have demonstrated that biomass and lipid biomarkers are significantly depleted in C-13 compared to the substrate methane and that the extent of fractionation is dependent on whether cells express the soluble (s) or particulate (p) methane monooxygenase (MMO). The presence or absence of the characteristic sMMO subunits was monitored using SDS-polyacrylamide gels. In M. capsulatus grown with no Cu supplementation, the characteristic sMMO subunits were observed in the soluble fraction throughout the entire growth period and biomass was depleted in C-13 by approximately 14,700 relative to substrate methane. In cells grown with 5uM Cu, no sMMO bands were observed and a greater fractionation of approximately 27,700 in resultant biomass was obtained. Methanol growth experiments with M. capsulatus and with a RuMP methylotroph, Methylophilus methylotrophus, in which biomass measurements yielded depletions in C-13 of 9 and 5%(sub o), respectively, suggest that oxidation of methane is the major fractionation step. Growth of M. capsulatus at a low level of oxygen, approximately 0.5%, had no significant effect on carbon isotope fractionation by either sMMO or pMMO. These observations are significant for identification of molecular biomarkers; and methanotrophic contributions to carbon isotope composition in natural environments.

  7. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  8. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, Bryn E; Mathur, Ryan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Wall, A J; Runkel, R L; Brantley, Susan L

    2009-03-01

    We surveyed the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed located in southwestern Colorado, USA. The δ65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of local enargite (δ65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2σ) and chalcopyrite (δ65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the general range of previously reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ65Cu < 1). These mineral samples show lower δ65Cu values than stream waters (δ65Cu = 1.36 - 1.74 ± 0.10‰), with an average isotopic fractionation (quantified as Δaq-mino = δ65Cuaq – δ65Cu min, where Cuaq is leached Cu and Cu mino is the original mineral) of 1.60 ± 0.14‰ and 1.43 ± 0.14‰ for enargite and chalcopyrite, respectively.

  9. An immunoreactive, water-soluble conidial wall fraction of Coccidioides immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, G T; Kirkland, T N; Sun, S H

    1987-01-01

    Arthroconidia stripped of their outer, hydrophobic wall layer release an immunoreactive, water-soluble fraction (SCWF), the composition of which is examined in this paper. The immunogenicity of SCWF was determined by its reactivity with anti-Coccidioides immitis complement-fixing antibody and tube precipitin antibody in a standardized immunodiffusion assay as well as reactivity in a lymphocyte proliferation assay. SCWF was shown to be more immunoreactive for immune lymphocytes than selected cytosol and culture supernatant fractions of C. immitis. Rabbit antisera raised against SCWF were used in immunoelectron-microscopic and immunofluorescence studies to confirm that the immunoreactive components of SCWF are primarily associated with the inner conidial wall. The antigenic composition of the conidial wall fraction was characterized by advancing-line immunoelectrophoresis with the previously established coccidioidin reference system. Protein composition was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chromatographic fractionation of SCWF was performed on a Sephacryl S-300 preparative column. Selected fractions which showed significantly higher immunoreactivity and less complex antigenic composition than whole SCWF were characterized. Two heat-sensitive antigens of Sephacryl fraction 3a were identified. One or both of these antigens may correspond to the complement-fixing antigen, which is potentially important as an immunodiagnostic antigen. Fraction 4 contained a previously described wall-associated antigen (AgCS) which may also be of immunodiagnostic value. We conclude that the conidial envelope is a reservoir of immunoreactive macromolecules which may play significant roles in early stages of infection. Images PMID:3102379

  10. Role of Acid Mobilization in Iron Solubility of Smaller Mineral Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.

    2011-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for phytoplankton. The majority of iron is transported from arid regions to the open ocean, but is mainly in an insoluble form. Since most aquatic organisms can take up iron only in the dissolved form, the amount of soluble iron is of key importance. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Compared to dust, combustion aerosols often contain iron with higher solubility. This paper discusses the factors that affect the iron solubility in mineral aerosols on a global scale using an aerosol chemistry transport model. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources such as biomass and fossil fuels burning. The iron solubility from onboard cruise measurements over the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans in 2001 is used to evaluate the model performance in simulating soluble iron. Sensitivity simulations from dust sources with no atmospheric processing by acidic species systematically underestimate the soluble iron concentration in fine particles. Improvement of the agreement between the model results and observations is achieved by the use of a faster iron dissolution rate in fine particles associated with anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., sulphate). Accurate simulation of the abundance of soluble iron in fine aerosols has important implications with regards to ocean fertilization because of the longer residence time of smaller particles, which supply nutrients to more remote ocean biomes. The model reveals a larger deposition of soluble iron for the fine mode than that for the coarse mode in northern oceans due to acid mobilization. The ratio of deposition rate of soluble iron in the fine mode to the total aerosols in the South Atlantic Ocean (40-60%) is less than that in northern oceans (70-100%). These results suggest that Patagonian dust

  11. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  12. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nazif, W; Marzouk, E R; Perveen, S; Crout, N M J; Young, S D

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with (70)Zn(2+); comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO3 and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na2-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1+F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO3 was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO3. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 (PCO2 controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent 'adsorption' model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO3. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn(2+)) data, although the apparent value of log10 Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO3). PMID:25770943

  13. Microemulsion formulation of clonixic acid: solubility enhancement and pain reduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Mi; Park, Kyung-Mi; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Chong-Kook

    2002-01-01

    Clonixic acid is currently marketed as a salt form because of its poor water-solubility. However, the commercial dosage form causes severe pain after intramuscular or intravenous injection. To improve the solubility of clonixic acid and to reduce pain on injection, clonixic acid was incorporated into oil-in-water microemulsions prepared from pre-microemulsion concentrate composed of varying ratios of oil and surfactant mixture. As an oil phase for drug incorporation, up to 14% castor oil could be included in the pre-microemulsion concentrate without a significant increase in droplet size. Both drug contents and droplet size increased as the weight ratio of Tween 20 to Tween 85 decreased. Taken together, when microemulsions were prepared from pre-microemulsion concentrate composed of 5:12:18 weight ratio of castor oil:Tween 20:Tween 85, clonixic acid could be incorporated at 3.2 mg mL(-1) in the microemulsion with a droplet size of less than 120 nm. The osmotic pressure of this microemulsion was remarkably lower than the commercial formulation, irrespective of the dilution ratios. The rat paw-lick test was used to compare pain responses among formulations. The microemulsion formulation significantly reduced the number of rats licking their paws as well as the total licking time, suggesting less pain induction by the microemulsion formulation. The pharmacokinetic parameters of clonixic acid after intravenous administration of the clonixic acid microemulsion to rats were not significantly different from those of the commercial formulation, lysine clonixinate. The present study suggests that microemulsion is an alternative formulation for clonixic acid with improved characteristics. PMID:11829128

  14. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  15. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ogali, Regina E; Osuji, Leo C; Ayodele, Olufemi

    2007-12-01

    Static tests were employed to assess the acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of spent automotive lubricating oil (of mixed SAE grades) on Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater fish commonly cultured in Nigeria. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the WSF were found to decrease as a function of exposure time from 690+/-21 (after 24 h) to 513+/-58 mg/l (after 96 h). The characteristics of the WSF such as mean acidity (pH 6.6), turbidity (40 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS; 40 mg/l) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) dissolved-oxygen (DO) values (1.44 mg/l) were not compliant with existing standards set for discharged effluents. The solubility of the detected straight-chain aliphatics ranked as C14>C16>C32>C18>C28; that of the simple aromatics was ortho-xylene>para-xylene; and that of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was acenaphthylene>9H-fluorene>naphthalene>anthracene>phenanthrene>chrysene>benzo[k]fluoranthene>benzo[a]pyrene>benzo[b]fluoranthene, most of which being serious carcinogens. These oil constituents and the overall physico-chemical properties of the WSF are expected to act synergistically on the test organism (C. gariepinus), eliciting the quantal responses observed. The toxicity of the WSF points to the base constituent, oxidative degradation, and mechano-chemical reactions associated with aged crankcase oils. These oils, therefore, should definitely no longer be disposed into water streams or landscape, not even at sub-lethal concentrations, because of the inherent toxicity of their soluble fractions and the associated danger of bioaccumulation. PMID:18081085

  16. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish. PMID:21404046

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 99. Solubility of Benzoic Acid and Substituted Benzoic Acids in Both Neat Organic Solvents and Organic Solvent Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acree, William E.

    2013-09-01

    Solubility data are compiled and reviewed for benzoic acid and 63 substituted benzoic acids dissolved in neat organic solvents and well-defined binary and ternary organic solvent mixtures. The compiled solubility data were retrieved from the published chemical and pharmaceutical literature covering the period from 1900 to the beginning of 2013.

  18. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  19. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Torres, M F; Ward, J M; Lye, G J

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  20. Chemical composition of water-soluble fraction in soils on glaciolacustrine deposits of the Russian Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, E. G.; Oleinikova, G. A.; Matinyan, N. N.; Bakhmatova, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of some chemical elements was studied in soils and their liquid phase. Two reference soil profiles on glaciolacustrine clays (soddy-eluvial-metamorphic soil) and sands (soddy podzol) were investigated on the Russian Plain. A colloidal fraction (particles <1 μm) was isolated with deionized hot water from a soil sample of 30 g at the soil: water ratio of 1: 10. The suspension was mixed for 6 h, settled for 24 h, and filtrated using a membrane filter (<1 μm). The soil sample and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) were analyzed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The chemical characteristics of the extracted liquid phase of the soil reflect its water-soluble component properties. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of the analysis for the whole soil allows assessment of a share of easily mobile and difficultly mobile forms of chemical compounds. This is the necessary basis for the development of a model describing the transport of metals in soil.

  1. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. PMID:26070145

  2. Fractionation, characterization and C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation of soluble microbial products in MBR processes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Meng, Yingjie; Xia, Chufan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Soluble microbial products are heterogeneous organic materials generated during microbial growth and decay, which are the major soluble organic matters in MBR effluents and are the primary precursors forming disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, biomass associated products (BAP) and utilization associated products (UAP) were separately produced to investigate their physical chemical characteristics and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation during chlorination in the presence of ammonia. BAP had higher formation reactivity of halogenated carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs including trihalomethanes, haloketones, haloacetonitriles and trichloronitromethane due to their higher percentage of large molecular weight (MW) materials and humic substances compared with UAP. However, the nonhalogenated species N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) yield of UAP was twice higher than that of BAP because UAP contained more nitrogenous organic matters with MW<500Da including aromatic polypeptide/amino acid-like materials and secondary amines, which have been proved to have high NDMA formation potential. PMID:26409108

  3. Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Shulaev, V.; Yalpani, N.

    1995-10-24

    Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) catalyzes the biosynthesis of salicylic acid from benzoic acid. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized as a soluble protein of 160 kDa. High-efficiency in vivo labeling of salicyclic acid with {sup 18}O{sub 2} suggested that BA2H is an oxygenase that specifically hydroxylates the ortho position of benzoic acid. The enzyme was strongly induced by either tobacco mosaic virus inoculation of benzoic acid infiltration of tobacco leaves and it was inhibited by CO and other inhibitors of cytochrome P450 hydroxylases. The BA2H activity was immunodepleted by antibodies raised against SU2, a soluble cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseolus. The anti-SU2 antibodies immunoprecipitated a radiolabeled polypeptide of around 160 kDa from the soluble protein extracts of L-[{sup 35}S]-methionine-fed tobacco leaves. Purified BA2H showed CO-difference spectra with a maximum at 457 nm. These data suggest that BA2H belongs to a novel class of soluble, high molecular weight cytochrome P450 enzymes. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Age-related lung cell response to urban Buenos Aires air particle soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín; Evelson, Pablo; Martin, Susana; Dawidowski, Laura; Sebastián Yakisich, J; Tasat, Deborah R

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) may alter lung homeostasis inducing changes in fluid balance and host defense. Bioavailability of soluble PM compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury. We have previously characterized the size, shape, and chemical components of urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and their biological impact on lungs. Herein, we evaluate the possible toxic effect of UAP-BA-soluble fraction (UAP-BAsf) on pulmonary cells obtained from young (1-2 months old) and aged (9-12 months old) Wistar rats using phagocytosis, oxidant-antioxidant generation, and apoptosis as endpoints. UAP-BA were collected in downtown BA and residual oil fly ash (ROFA), employed as a positive control, was collected from Boston Edison Co., Mystic Power Plant, Mystic, CT, USA. Both particle-soluble fractions (sf) were employed at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 microg/mL. UAP-BAsf and ROFAsf even at the lowest dose assayed (10 microg/mL) showed in both lung cell populations the ability to stimulate phagocytosis and increase superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation. Both types of air particles caused a marked intracellular oxidant stress in aged pulmonary cells that may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, leading to cell dysfunction. These data suggest that the impact of UAP-BAsf on phagocytosis, oxidant radical generation, and apoptosis is clearly dependent on the maturational state of the animal and might have different mechanisms of action. PMID:18313661

  5. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Water soluble fraction of Tinospora cordifolia leaves enhanced the non-specific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Catherine P; Kirubakaran, C John Wesly; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2010-11-01

    The present paper describes the effect of water-soluble fraction of the leaves of the Indian medicinal plant, Tinospora cordifolia (Miers) on the non-specific immunity and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Fish were intraperitoneally injected with 0, 6, 60 or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight, of the water soluble fraction. The non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were tested. All the doses of water-soluble fraction tested, significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme, antiprotease and natural haemolytic complement activities on most of the days tested. Similarly, all the doses of water-soluble fraction used, enhanced the cellular myeloperoxidase activity on all the days tested. The enhancement in the ROS and RNI production by peripheral blood leucocytes was observed on almost all the days tested, in most of the treated groups. All the doses of water-soluble fraction when administered as a single or double dose gave protection in terms of reduced percent mortality which is reflected in the increased Relative Percent Survival (RPS) values. The results clearly indicate the immunostimulatory and disease resistance properties of T. cordifolia leaf fraction and so its potential to be used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish aquaculture. PMID:20624469

  7. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  8. Fractional iron solubility of aerosol particles enhanced by biomass burning and ship emission in Shanghai, East China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H B; Shang, G F; Lin, J; Hu, Y J; Hu, Q Q; Guo, L; Zhang, Y C; Chen, J M

    2014-05-15

    In terms of understanding Fe mobilization from aerosol particles in East China, the PM2.5 particles were collected in spring at Shanghai. Combined with the backtrajectory analysis, the PM2.5/PM10 and Ca/Al ratios, a serious dust-storm episode (DSE) during the sampling was identified. The single-particle analysis showed that the major iron-bearing class is the aluminosilicate dust during DSE, while the Fe-bearing aerosols are dominated by coal fly ash, followed by a minority of iron oxides during the non-dust storm days (NDS). Chemical analyses of samples showed that the fractional Fe solubility (%FeS) is much higher during NDS than that during DSE, and a strong inverse relationship of R(2)=0.967 between %FeS and total atmospheric iron loading were found, suggested that total Fe (FeT) is not controlling soluble Fe (FeS) during the sampling. Furthermore, no relationship between FeS and any of acidic species was established, suggesting that acidic process on aerosol surfaces are not involved in the trend of iron solubility. It was thus proposed that the source-dependent composition of aerosol particles is a primary determinant for %FeS. Specially, the Al/Fe ratio is poorly correlated (R(2)=0.113) with %FeS, while the apparent relationship between %FeS and the calculated KBB(+)/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.888) and the V/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.736) were observed, reflecting that %FeS could be controlled by both biomass burning and oil ash from ship emission, rather than mineral particles and coal fly ash, although the latter two are the main contributors to the atmospheric Fe loading during the sampling. Such information can be useful improving our understanding on iron solubility on East China, which may further correlate with iron bioavailability to the ocean, as well as human health effects associated with exposure to fine Fe-rich particles in densely populated metropolis in China. PMID:24607631

  9. Effects of CO2 enrichment on the metabolism of soluble amino acids and organic acids in barley primary leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of soluble amino acids and organic acids to CO2 enrichment were determined with barley primary leaves (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant) grown in controlled environment chambers. Total soluble amino acids were enhanced 33% by CO2 enrichment when determined 9 days after sowing (DAS). However,...

  10. The solubility of aluminum in acidic forest soils: Long-term changes due to acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Jan; Stein, Alfred

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ecological and pedogenic importance of Al, its solubility control in acidic forest soils is poorly understood. Here we discuss the solubility of Al and its development with time in three acid brown forest soils in The Netherlands, which are under extreme acidification from atmospheric deposition. All soil solutions (to a 60 cm depth) were undersaturated with respect to synthetic gibbsite (Al(OH) 3; log K = 9.12 at 8°C), with the highest degree of undersaturation occurring in the surface soil. In about one third of the individual soil layers a significant positive correlation existed between the activity of Al 3+ and H +, but this relationship was far less than cubic. Kinetically constrained dissolution of Al is unlikely to explain the disequilibrium with respect to gibbsite, because undersaturation was highest through summer when water residence times were longest and temperatures greatest. Time series analysis of six year data sets for several soil layers revealed a significant annual decline in soil solution pH and Al solubility (defined as log Al + 3 pH) despite a constant concentration of strong acid anions. The annual decline of both pH and Al solubility was greatest in the surface soil and was positively correlated with the relative depletion of reactive organically bound soil Al. The results support our earlier hypothesis that in strongly acidified forest soils complexation by solid phase organics controls the solubility of Al even in mineral soil layers, relatively low in organic C. The data lend no support to the current widespread and often uncritical use of gibbsite as a model for the Al solubility in highly acidic forest soils (pH < 4.5) of the temperate zone.

  11. Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

  12. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary and Ternary Systems. Part II. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Nonaqueous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Salomon, Mark; Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi; Scharlin, Pirketta

    2011-06-01

    The solid-liquid solubility data for well defined nonaqueous binary and ternary systems are reviewed. One component includes hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxybenzoate, and hydroxybenzoic acid salt, and another component includes a variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, et al.) and carbon dioxide. The ternary systems include mixtures of organic substances of various classes and carbon dioxide. The total number of compilation sheets is 270 for six types of system. Almost all data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration. Critical evaluation was carried out for the binary nonaqueous systems of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben) in alcohols, 1-heptane, and benzene.

  13. Sources and their contribution to two water-soluble organic carbon fractions at a roadway site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Shik; Schauer, James J.; Cho, Sung-Yong

    2013-10-01

    24-h PM2.5 samples were collected at a roadway site every 6th day for one year (September 2010 through August 2011) and analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of WSOC (WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO), and ionic species, to provide important seasonal quantitative information on the primary and secondary sources of two WSOC fractions. Five minute black carbon (BC) concentrations were also measured using a seven-channel wavelength aethalometer to investigate the relationship of biomass burning (BB)-derived BC data from a BC@880 nm tracer method and WSOC. There has been increased interest in the light adsorption of WSOC and water-insoluble OC but most of the tools that have been used to understand these relationships have limited to extracts of filter-based samples. The impact of BB emissions on WSOC fractions was examined using the relationship between ΔBC (=BC@370 nm - BC@880 nm) and WSOC (or K+), and between BB tracers (WSOC and K+) and BB-derived BC (BCBB) estimated. The moderate correlation (R2 = 0.41) of WSOC and ΔBC during the cold months of November through April may support the contribution of BB emissions to the observed WSOC. Predicted BCBB correlated well with K+, WSOCHPI, and WSOCHPO concentrations (R2 of 0.65, 0.43, and 0.61, respectively), suggesting BB emissions may have an influence on the WSOC fractions observed. Contributions of non-BB, BB, and secondary OC (SOC) to both WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO were estimated using a multiple linear regression analysis. The monthly average contribution of non-BB emissions ranged from 12.6% to 29.4% of the WSOCHPI and from 21.5% to 44.1% of the WSOCHPO, with high contributions occurring during the cold months and low contributions occurred during the warm months. BB emissions contributed more to WSOCHPI (2.7%-13.1%) than WSOCHPO (0.2%-1.1%), and the SOC contribution to both WSOC fractions was significant. SOC accounted for 57.2%-79.7% of

  14. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  16. The effects of acid treatment and calcium ions on the solubility of concanavalin A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment (which removes Mn and Ca ions) and Ca(2+) ions on the solubility of jack-bean-meal concanavalin A were investigated using two techniques: the sitting drop technique and the microcolumn technique. It was found that the solubility of concanavalin A varied with the protein preparation procedures and with measurement techniques. Addition of Ca(2+) resulted in greatly lowered solubilities compared with the acid treated protein. The sitting drop solubilities for the recalcified protein agreed better with those reported by Mikol and Giege (1989) than with solubilities determined from column data.

  17. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. PMID:27351340

  18. [Determination of soluble organic fraction in diesel exhaust particulates by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guihua; Wang, Junxiao; Huang, Xuezheng; Lu, Jiaxiang; Liu, Na

    2004-07-01

    The soluble organic fractions (SOF) in diesel exhaust particulates have been extracted with ultrasonic separator and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). The GC/MS conditions were as follows: an HP SE-50 capillary column (30 m x 0.2 mm i. d. x 0.2 microm); temperature programming started at 100 degrees C, holding for 2.0 min, then increased to 160 degrees C at a rate of 4.0 degrees C /min, then to 250 degrees C at 8 degrees C/min, finally, kept at 250 degrees C for 31.75 min; boiling chamber temperature 260 degrees C; helium gas as carrier; chapiter pressure 45 kPa; sample size 1 microL; electron impact energy of mass spectrometer 70 eV; multiplier voltage 1 800 V; mass range 300 - 500 u. The results showed that under exhaust temperature, about 80% of SOF in particulates were normal or isomeric alkanes with carbon numbers from 9 to 28. The rest of the fractions of SOF were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (homologs of indene, fluorene, phenanthrene, naphthalene etc.) and other organic substances. It is demonstrated that most of SOF were from unburned diesel and engine oils. The testing conclusion should be useful in designing and evaluating particulate filters. PMID:15709431

  19. Partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural fractions of adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural framework fractions of human cells infected or transformed by subgroup C adenoviruses was investigated by using gentle cell fractionation conditions. A polyclonal antibody raised against a trpE-E1A fusion protein (K.R. Spindler, D.S.E. Rosser, and A. J. Berk, J. Virol. 132-141, 1984) synthesized in Escherichia coli was used to measure the steady-state levels of E1A proteins recovered in the various fractions by immunoblotting. The relative concentration of E1A proteins recovered in the soluble fraction of adenovirus type 2-infected cells was at least fivefold greater than the relative concentration in the corresponding fraction of transformed 293 cells. The observed distribution of E1A proteins was not altered by the sulfhydryl-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide. E1A proteins were recovered in nuclear matrix, chromatin, and cytoskeleton fractions after further fractionation of the structural framework fraction. However, the E1A protein species that could be identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis were not uniformly distributed among the subcellular fractions examined. The results obtained when fractionation was performed in the presence of the oxidation catalysts Cu2+ or (ortho-phenanthroline)2 Cu2+ indicate that E1A proteins can be efficiently cross-linked, via disulfide bonds, to the structural framework of both adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. Images PMID:3023654

  20. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  1. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO4 2 - and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO4 2 - , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  2. The Solubility of Xenon in Simple Organic Solvents and in Aqueous Amino Acid Solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himm, Jeffrey Frank

    We have measured the Ostwald solubility (L) of ('133)Xe in a variety of liquids, including normal alkanes, normal alkanols, and aqueous solutions of amino acids, NaCl, and sucrose. For the alkanes and alkanols, measurements were made in the temperature range from 10-50(DEGREES)C. Values of L were found to decrease with increasing temperature, and also with increasing chain length, for both series of solvents. Thermodynamic properties of solution (enthalpy and entropy of solution) are calculated using both mole fraction and number density scales. Results are interpreted using Uhlig's model of the solvation process. Measurements of L in aqueous amino acid solutions were made at 25(DEGREES)C. Concentrations of amino acids in solution varied from near saturation for each of the amino acids studied to pure water. In all solutions, except those with NaCl, L decreases linearly with increasing solution molarity. Hydration numbers (H), the mean number of water molecules associated with each solute molecule, were determined for each amino acid, for NaCl, and for sucrose. Values of H obtained ranged from near zero (arginine, H = 0.2 (+OR-) 0.5) to about 16 (NaCl, H = 16.25 (+OR-) 0.3).

  3. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  4. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  5. Digestion of FMRFamide and nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (nematode FLPs) by the soluble fraction from Panagrellus redivivus homogenate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases in the soluble fraction of homogenates prepared from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus hydrolyzed the amidated invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFa and FLRFa, and nematode FMRFa-like peptides (FLPs) KPNFLRFa (FLP-1), APKPKFIRFa (FLP-5), KNEFIRFa (FLP-8), KPSFVRFa (FLP-9), RNKFEFIR...

  6. Impact of fresh and composted solid olive husk and their water-soluble fractions on soil heavy metal fractionation; microbial biomass and plant uptake.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Carlos; Clemente, Rafael; Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Tortosa, Germán; Bernal, M Pilar

    2011-02-28

    The use of waste materials as organic amendments in soil remediation can affect metal solubility; this interaction will vary with the characteristics of the organic matter that is added to the soil. A pot experiment was carried out in a calcareous, metal-polluted soil, using Beta maritima L. as an indicator species for the treatment effects on metal solubility. The treatments were: fresh solid olive husk, a mature compost, their respective water extracts (as the most reactive and biodegradable fraction) and an unamended, control soil. The compost reduced metal availability and plant uptake, while fresh olive husk favoured Mn bioavailability and produced phytotoxicity. The water-soluble extract from fresh solid olive husk also provoked elevated Mn solubility in soil, but did not increase Mn uptake by plants. The application of water-soluble organic matter obtained from compost did not affect heavy metal solubility significantly. Therefore, composted olive husk seems to be the most-appropriate material for the development of bioremediation strategies. PMID:21216095

  7. The effects of water-soluble fractions of oil on reproduction in the female Atlantic croaker

    SciTech Connect

    Budiantara, L.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Female Atlantic croaker were exposed to 2.5% and 5% water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of diesel fuel during gonadal recrudescence. Dosing with freshly prepared WSFs was repeated every two days. Exposure was terminated after 5 or 1 0 weeks when control fish were either at early or late gonadal recrudescence. Chronic oil exposure did not affect the condition factor; however, reproductive function was clearly impaired. Puberty was delayed or prevented with oil exposure. ovarian growth as indicated by gonadosomatic index was also decreased. Incubation of endocrine tissue in vitro revealed decreases in the secretion of gonadotropin and ovarian steroids, which were associated with decreases in plasma steroid and vitellogenin levels. In addition, there was a decrease in the ability of the fully grown oocytes from exposed fish to undergo final oocyte maturation (FOM). Exposure to a WSF with low concentration of aromatics impaired reproduction to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that oil exposure causes impairment of reproduction in croaker at various stages of the reproductive life history cycle which is at least partially mediated by effects on the endocrine system.

  8. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.

  9. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0more » MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.« less

  10. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  11. The activity of milk leukocytes in response to a water-soluble fraction of Mycobacterium phlei in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, R; Ram, G C; Dash, P K; Goswami, T

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a non-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium phlei was studied in bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) by measuring the myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase enzyme levels in the milk leukocytes. Forty-five cows were divided into three equal groups. Group I, consisting of 15 healthy cows, served as the control, whereas groups II and III each contained 15 cows with subclinical mastitis on the basis of a positive reaction in the California mastitis test (CMT). The cows in group II received 100 microg of WSF in 5 ml sterile phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4 (PBS) once only, while those in group III received 5 ml sterile PBS daily for 7 days, both treatments being given by the intramammary route. Observations were made up to 30 days after treatment (AT). The CMT of the healthy milk was negative (0), whereas it ranged between 1 and 2 points in SCM. The somatic cell count (SCC) increased significantly (p < 0.05) on day 3, then fell steeply from day 7 up to day 30 AT in the cows in group II. A steady decrease in the total bacterial count (TBC) was observed in the group treated with WSF but the bacterial counts remained high in the groups treated with PBS. The mean acid phosphatase level was enhanced by 119% on day 3 AT in group II but only by 18.7% in the cows in group III. The mean myeloperoxidase level was enhanced by 100% in the cows in group II but only by 18% in those in group III on day 3 AT. This significant reduction in the bacterial load in infected cows caused by intramammary infusion of WSF may be due to activation of the microbicidal activity of the neutrophils, but this requires confirmation. PMID:14989362

  12. Lipase-catalyzed fractionation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Haas, M J; Kramer, J K; McNeill, G; Scott, K; Foglia, T A; Sehat, N; Fritsche, J; Mossoba, M M; Yurawecz, M P

    1999-09-01

    The abilities of lipases produced by the fungus Geotrichum candidum to selectively fractionate mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers during esterification of mixed CLA free fatty acids and during hydrolysis of mixed CLA methyl esters were examined. The enzymes were highly selective for cis-9,trans-11-18:2. A commercial CLA methyl ester preparation, containing at least 12 species representing four positional CLA isomers, was incubated in aqueous solution with either a commercial G. candidum lipase preparation (Amano GC-4) or lipase produced from a cloned high-selectivity G. candidum lipase B gene. In both instances selective hydrolysis of the cis-9,trans-11-18:2 methyl ester occurred, with negligible hydrolysis of other CLA isomers. The content of cis-9, trans-11-18:2 in the resulting free fatty acid fraction was between 94 (lipase B reaction) and 77% (GC-4 reaction). The commercial CLA mixture contained only trace amounts of trans-9,cis-11-18:2, and there was no evidence that this isomer was hydrolyzed by the enzyme. Analogous results were obtained with these enzymes in the esterification in organic solvent of a commercial preparation of CLA free fatty acids containing at least 12 CLA isomers. In this case, G. candidum lipase B generated a methyl ester fraction that contained >98% cis-9,trans-11-18:2. Geotrichum candidum lipases B and GC-4 also demonstrated high selectivity in the esterification of CLA with ethanol, generating ethyl ester fractions containing 96 and 80%, respectively, of the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. In a second set of experiments, CLA synthesized from pure linoleic acid, composed essentially of two isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, was utilized. This was subjected to esterification with octanol in an aqueous reaction system using Amano GC-4 lipase as catalyst. The resulting ester fraction contained up to 97% of the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. After adjustment of the reaction conditions, a concentration of 85% trans-10,cis-12

  13. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination. PMID:26495832

  14. Biomarker responses in the bivalve Chlamys farreri to the water-soluble fraction of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fenghua; Zhang, Li; Yang, Baijuan; Zheng, Li; Sun, Chengjun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on marine bivalves, the scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to three WSF concentrations (0.18 mg/L, 0.32 mg/L, and 0.51 mg/L, respectively) in seawater. Petroleum hydrocarbon contents in scallops and a suite of enzymes [7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in gills and digestive glands were monitored over 10 days. The results revealed that WSF affected the activity of the four enzymes in the gills and digestive glands. EROD activity in the gills was significantly induced in most individuals of the three test groups, while in the digestive gland it was significantly induced in the low-concentration group within 4 days but was inhibited in the middle- and high-concentration groups on days 1, 4, and 10. AHH activity in the gills of all treatment groups was significantly induced on day 1. In the digestive gland, AHH activity was induced in most individuals from the treatment groups. In all treatment groups, GST activity was significantly inhibited from days 2 to 10 in the gills and was induced after day 4 in the digestive gland. GPx activity in the gills was significantly inhibited throughout the exposure period in all treatment groups. There was no overall significant difference in GPx activity in the digestive gland between the control and treatment groups. Our results also revealed that petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues increased linearly with exposure time. EROD activity in the digestive gland and GST and GPx activity in the gill tissue were negatively correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon body burden. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification and can act as potential biomarkers for monitoring petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment.

  15. Purification and characterization of the acid soluble 26-kDa polypeptide from soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Momma, M; Haraguchi, K; Saito, M; Chikuni, K; Harada, K

    1997-08-01

    Whey proteins from soybean seeds of Japanese varieties were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Among 11 varieties of soybean, three green and one black soybeans lacked a 26-kDa band that was found in all yellow soybeans. In this paper, the 26-kDa protein was named AS26k (acid soluble 26-kDa protein) temporarily. The AS26k protein was purified from Glycine max cv. Nattosyoryu, which is yellow soybean, through four purification steps: 30-35% saturated ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on S Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. Purified AS26k was cleaved with V8 proteinase from Staphylococcus aureus or CNBr. The cleaved polypeptide contained two typical dehydrin motif sequences: DEYGNPV and (M)DKIKEKLPG, and a 19 amino acids sequence similar to a pea dehydrin. Native AS26k had a molecular mass of 32 kDa on gel filtration and a pl of 7.2 on two-dimensional PAGE. Similarly to other dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, AS26k was rich in hydrophilic amino acids, and highly heat stable. These results showed that AS26k was a dehydrin, a group II LEA protein in soybean seeds. PMID:9301109

  16. Manganese ore tailing: optimization of acid leaching conditions and recovery of soluble manganese.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olívia de Souza Heleno; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Silva, Gilmare Antônia da; Santos, Cláudio Gouvêa Dos

    2015-01-01

    Manganese recovery from industrial ore processing waste by means of leaching with sulfuric acid was the objective of this study. Experimental conditions were optimized by multivariate experimental design approaches. In order to study the factors affecting leaching, a screening step was used involving a full factorial design with central point for three variables in two levels (2(3)). The three variables studied were leaching time, concentration of sulfuric acid and sample amount. The three factors screened were shown to be relevant and therefore a Doehlert design was applied to determine the best working conditions for leaching and to build the response surface. By applying the best leaching conditions, the concentrations of 12.80 and 13.64 %w/w of manganese for the global sample and for the fraction -44 + 37 μm, respectively, were found. Microbeads of chitosan were tested for removal of leachate acidity and recovering of soluble manganese. Manganese recovery from the leachate was 95.4%. Upon drying the leachate, a solid containing mostly manganese sulfate was obtained, showing that the proposed optimized method is efficient for manganese recovery from ore tailings. PMID:25284800

  17. Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Lavarías, S; Pollero, R J; Heras, H

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using radioactive tracers, mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), triacylglycerol lipase (TAG-lipase) and fatty acid beta-oxidation system activities were assayed. Before studying the effect of WSF, the kinetic parameters of ACS were determined in purified mitochondria. Its optimal temperature and pH were 32 degrees C and 8.0, respectively, the apparent K(m) 2.48 micromol l(-1), and its V(max) of 1.93 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1). These kinetic parameters differed significantly from this shrimp's microsomal isoform. After 7 days exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF (0.6 mg/l), changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of all enzymes or enzymatic system assayed in adult midgut gland as well as in stage 5 eggs, a period of active organogenesis. An increase in the mobilization of energy stores was detected as early as stage 4, where TAG-lipase activity increased by 27% in exposed eggs. The increase was even more marked in exposed eggs at stage 5 where a three-fold rise (154%) was determined. Exposed adult shrimp also showed an augmented lipase activity by 38%. Fatty acid beta-oxidation increased by 51.0 and 35.5% in midgut gland and eggs at stage 5, respectively, but no changes were observed at less-developed stages. Mitochondrial fatty acid activation by ACS also increased in adults and stage 5 eggs by 7.4 and 52.0%, respectively. A similar response of the lipid catabolic pathways to WSF contamination in both adult and eggs, suggests that the exposure to this pollutant causes an increase in the energy needs of this shrimp. When validated by field studies, these catabolic

  18. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  1. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  2. Sources of polycyclic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soluble fraction of deposition samples in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Binici, Burcu; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil; Bilsel, Mine; Durmaz-Hilmioğlu, Nilüfer

    2014-02-01

    A wet-dry deposition sampler was located at The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK-UME) station, and a bulk deposition sampler was placed at the Kadıllı village to determine the atmospheric deposition flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphorus) in soluble fraction of samples in Kocaeli, Turkey. The 28 samples for each wet, dry, and total deposition were collected weekly from March 2006 to March 2007. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the samples which were prepared by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. The sum of volume weighted mean of deposition fluxes was obtained as 7.43 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 0.28 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition and 0.54 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for PAHs and 9.88 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 4.49 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition, and 3.29 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for pesticides. While benzo(a)anthracene had the highest fluxes among PAH compounds for all types of depositions, guthion and phosphamidon had the highest deposition flux compared with the other pesticides. Benzo(ghi)perylene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and acenaphthene were not detected in any of the samples. Beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endrin aldehyde were the only compounds among 18 organochlorine pesticides to be detected in all deposition samples. The main sources of pesticides were the high number of greenhouses around the sampling stations. However, all of the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all deposition samples. The pollution sources were identified as coal and natural gas combustion, petrogenic sources, and traffic for TUBITAK-UME station whereas coal and natural gas combustion and traffic were the main sources for Kadıllı station by considering the results of factor analysis, ratios, and wind

  3. Structure-property relationships in halogenbenzoic acids: Thermodynamics of sublimation, fusion, vaporization and solubility.

    PubMed

    Zherikova, Kseniya V; Svetlov, Aleksey A; Kuratieva, Natalia V; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2016-10-01

    Temperature dependences of vapor pressures for 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobenzoic acid, as well as for five isomeric bromo-methylbenzoic acids were studied by the transpiration method. Melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion for all isomeric bromo-methylbenzoic acids and 4-bromobenzoic acid were measured with a DSC. The molar enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. These data together with results available in the literature were collected and checked for internal consistency using a group-additivity procedure and results from X-ray structural diffraction studies. Specific (hydrogen bonding) interactions in the liquid and in the crystal phase of halogenbenzoic acids were quantified based on experimental values of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies. Structure-property correlations of solubilities of halogenobenzoic acids with sublimation pressures and sublimation enthalpies were developed and solubilities of bromo-benzoic acids were estimated. These new results resolve much of the ambiguity in the available thermochemical and solubility data on bromobenzoic acids. The approach based on structure property correlations can be applied for the assessment of water solubility of sparingly soluble drugs. PMID:27424058

  4. Understanding Particle Formation: Solubility of Free Fatty Acids as Polysorbate 20 Degradation Byproducts in Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Formulations.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Nidhi; Demeule, Barthélemy; Yadav, Sandeep

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the aqueous solubilities at 2-8 °C of the major free fatty acids (FFAs) formed by polysorbate 20 (PS20) degradation and identify possible ways to predict, delay, or mitigate subsequent particle formation in monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations. The FFA solubility limits at 2-8 °C were determined by titrating known amounts of FFA in monoclonal antibody formulations and identifying the FFA concentration leading to visible and subvisible particle formation. The solubility limits of lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids at 2-8 °C were 17 ± 1 μg/mL, 3 ± 1 μg/mL, and 1.5 ± 0.5 μg/mL in a formulation containing 0.04% (w/v) PS20 at pH 5.4 and >22 μg/mL, 3 ± 1 μg/mL, and 0.75 ± 0.25 μg/mL in a formulation containing 0.02% (w/v) PS20 at pH 6.0. For the first time, a 3D correlation between FFA solubility, PS20 concentration, and pH has been reported providing a rational approach for the formulator to balance these with regard to potential particle formation. The results suggest that the lower solubilities of the longer chain FFAs, generated from degradation of the stearate, palmitate, and myristate fraction of PS20, is the primary cause of seeding and subsequent FFA precipitation rather than the most abundant lauric acid. PMID:26419285

  5. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

  6. The mutagenic and SOS-inducing potential of the soluble organic fraction collected from diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dukovich, M.; Yasbin, R.E.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.H.; Zweidinger, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies involving the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test and the Bacillus subtilis comptest have demonstrated that the soluble organic fraction of diesel particulate is potentially mutagenic and DNA damaging. The soluble organic fraction was extracted from exhaust particulate samples collected from four different diesel engines operated at specified conditions. For each fraction collected, an increase in the concentration of the organic material resulted in a subsequent increase in the number of histidine prototrophs obtained when this material was added to the histidine auxotrophic strains that comprise the Ames Salmonella test. Specifically, the number of induced revertants, for strains TA98 and TA100, ranged from less than one revertant per microgram of sample to 29 revertants per microgram of sample. The ability of these organic fractions to induce bacterial SOS functions also was determined by exposing competent cultures of Bacillus subtilis strain RUB827 to increasing concentrations of these extracts. With varying efficiencies, these samples were positive in their ability to induce the SOS system of B subtilis. Significantly, the toxicity of these mutagenic and DNA damaging samples never resulted in more than 95% killing, even for the highest concentrations tested in the Salmonella and B subtilis assay.

  7. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided. PMID:27258903

  8. Determining the Δ47 acid fractionation in dolomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Sean T.; Arienzo, Monica M.; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the fractionation of Δ47 during the digestion of dolomite in phosphoric acid between 25 °C and 90 °C using five different samples, including three of Pliocene age from the Bahamas, one from the Jurassic in the Middle East, and one obtained from the National Institute of Standards (NIST 88b). The composition of the dolomites analyzed varied from Ca0.56Mg0.44CO3 to Ca0.50Mg0.50CO3. Fractionation values were also compared between the common acid bath and sealed vessel techniques at various temperatures. No statistically significant differences were observed either between these two methods or as a function of the dolomite's stoichiometry. These data produce a difference in fractionation of 0.153 ± 0.011‰ for dolomite samples digested at 90 °C compared to those reacted at 25 °C, a value higher and statistically different to previously published values. Utilization of this value in a study of dolomites from a core drilled on the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas yielded temperatures and δ18Ofluid values which agree with previous interpretations on the formation of these dolomites. Application of this value to other published studies produces lower estimates of temperature and δ18Ofluid values for the dolomitization process that are more consistent with the geologic models suggested for these studies.

  9. Upgrading of residues of bracts, stems and hearts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus to functional fractions enriched in soluble fiber.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-03-01

    Since only the central portion of the immature flowers of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is consumed (<20%) it is interesting to upgrade its residues to render value added products. In this research, bracts (B), hearts (H) or stems (S) were used to isolate fractions enriched in soluble fiber. Extraction was performed in citrate buffer with or without hemicellulase. Additionally, the effect of preheating (70 °C - 5 min) prior to extraction was also tested. Polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol and the fractions obtained were freeze-dried. The presence of the enzyme increased fiber yields and preheating produced an additional increment, especially from stems (≈21%). Isolated fibers were constituted by 70-84% of carbohydrates and 2-25% of proteins, and contained phenolics (2.1-8.2 g/100 g). Carbohydrates included uronic acids (12-25%) and neutral sugars (NS, 4-55%) of pectins, and inulin (13-55%). The lowest protein and NS contents and the highest inulin content were obtained with the enzyme and preheating. The behavior of fractions isolated with higher yields was characterized, observing a pseudoplastic behavior in water and gelation with Ca(2+). They also showed antioxidant activity and an inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 without cytotoxicity. The isolated fractions retaining bioactive compounds can be useful as functional food ingredients. PMID:24481481

  10. [Acid-soluble collagen in the skin of rats who received a tryptophan load and were kept on a protein-free diet].

    PubMed

    Pechenova, T N; Gulyĭ, M F; Volodina, T T; Solodova, E V; Popova, N N

    1983-01-01

    Crystalline preparations of acid-soluble collagen of rat skin in norm and with tryptophan load against a background of the protein-free diet were fractionated by differential salting out using NaCl in concentrations corresponding to precipitation zones of collagen 1,3 and 4. Amino acid composition, electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gel, profiles of elution from CM-cellulose, content of the carbohydrate component and--S--S-bonds were studied in proteins of the mentioned fractions and in the precipitate insoluble after the pepsin action. Essential differences as compared to the normal level in the amino acid composition and elution profiles were detected in the fraction corresponding to collagen I. Quantitative changes in the carbohydrate component and--S--S-bonds occur due to the fraction inaccessible to the persin action. PMID:6829075

  11. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. PMID:27378357

  12. Solubility determination of TNT and wax and their fractionation from an explosive material using a supercritical fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M.; Taylor, L.T.

    1999-12-01

    The solubilities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and wax have been measured in supercritical carbon dioxide (Co{sub 2}) at three pressures and temperatures under static conditions. The concentrations of each component were determined off-line via ultraviolet (TNT) and evaporative light scattering (wax) detection. The solubility of TNT was an order of magnitude higher than that of wax. Gas chromatographic assay of the wax extract revealed that only the lower molecular weight components dissolved. Fractionation of the TNT and wax from an explosive material referred to as Composition B was attempted by making incremental increases in CO{sub 2} density. Composition B contains 59.5% cyclotrimethylene triamine (RDX), 39.5% TNT, and 1% wax. While TNT and Wax could be easily isolated from nitramine TDX, attempts to separate TNT from wax were not totally successful. More specifically, the initial fractions contained the lower molecular weight wax components in addition to major amounts of TNT. Since the percentage of TNT was approximately 50 times the amount of wax, later fractions were 100% TNT although most of the TNT was removed at the lower densities.

  13. Effects of the water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the cytokinesis of the quahog clam

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of petroleum and petroleum products on the embryonic and larval stages of marine zooplankton have been studied extensively over the past decade. Research has concluded that these stages are among the most sensitive to petroleum pollution in the marine environment. However, one of the areas of toxicological study which has received little attention has been that of the distortions of cellular components within the developing stages of the marine zooplankton in response to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of this report is to examine the cytokinetic effects of exposure of the water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the embryonic development of the quahog clam Mercenaria mercenaria.

  14. Insights Into Water-Soluble Organic Aerosol Sources From Carbon-13 Ratios of Size Exclusion Chromatography Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, C. R.; Chuang, P. Y.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Many sources of organic aerosols have been identified and quantified, and much of this work has used individual (mosty water-insoluble) compounds as tracers of primary sources. However, most organic aerosol cannot be molecularly characterized, and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in many aerosols is thought to originate from gaseous precursors (i.e., it is secondary in nature). It can therefore be difficult to infer aerosol sources, particularly of background (i.e., aged) aerosols, and of the relatively high-MW component of aerosols. The stable isotope ratios (δ13C) of organic aerosols have been used to distinguish between sources, with lighter values (-30‰ to -25‰) interpreted as having originated from fossil fuel combustion and C4 biogenic emission, and heavier values (-25‰ to - 20‰) indicating a marine or C3 biogenic source. Most published measurements were of either total suspended particulates or PM2.5, however, and it is unknown to what extent these fractions differ from submicron WSOC. We report δ13C for submicron WSOC collected at a variety of sites, ranging from marine to polluted to background continental. Bulk marine organic δ13C ranged from -30.4 to - 27.6‰, slightly lighter than previously published results. This could be due to the elimination of supermicron cellular material or other biogenic primary emissions from the sample. Continental WSOC δ13C ranged from -19.1 to -29.8‰, with heavier values (-19.8 ± 1.0‰) in Oklahoma and lighter values at Great Smoky Mountain National Park in Tennessee (-25.8 ± 2.6‰) and Illinois (-24.5 ± 1.0‰). This likely results from the greater proportional of C3 plant material in the Oklahoma samples. In addition to bulk samples, we used size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to report δ13C of organic aerosols as a function of hydrodynamic diameter. Variability and magnitude of hydrodynamic diameter was greatest at low SEC pH, indicative of the acidic character of submicron WSOC. Tennessee

  15. Optimization of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR methods for structural characterization of acetone and pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of a coal tar pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor J. Morgan; Anthe George; David B. Davis; Alan A. Herod; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2008-05-15

    {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C high-resolution liquid-state NMR methods were used for the quantitative characterization of different molecular weight fractions of a coal tar pitch (CTP). Three fractions were studied: pitch acetone solubles (PAS), pitch pyridine soluble-acetone insolubles (PPS), and pitch pyridine insolubles (PPI). Standard liquid-state NMR methods were modified and calibrated for use with undeuterated quinoline or undeuterated 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the solvent. This made it possible to calculate the average structural parameters for the higher molecular weight (MW) fractions of the coal tar pitch. Quantitative comparisons of structural differences between the solubility-separated fractions of the pitch are reported. The aromaticity and the average number of aromatic rings per polynuclear aromatic structure were both found to decrease with increasing solubility. Similarly, pericondensed and all other quaternary carbon species were found to decrease with increasing solubility. This suggests that 'continental' type structures become more dominant as the solvent solubility of these coal derived fractions diminishes. The estimated average number of aromatic rings ranged from 1 to 2 rings in the PAS fraction, 4 to 21 rings in the PPS fraction, and 11 to 210 rings in the PPI fraction. These ring-numbers were directly related to the number average molecular mass (M{sub n}) assigned to the particular fraction in the average structural parameter (ASP) calculations. The lower-limit of the M{sub n} values was derived from the ASP calculations as 200, 450, and 6200 u for the PAS, PPS, and PPI fractions, respectively. 66 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Assessment of the antidiarrhoeal properties of the aqueous extract and its soluble fractions of Chebulae Fructus (Terminalia chebula fruits).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zunlai; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Ruili; Ni, Huilin; Cui, Yuanxu; Ge, Junwei; Shan, Anshan

    2016-09-01

    Context Chebulae Fructus is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhoea in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no scientific evidence to support its antidiarrhoeal activity. Objective This study evaluates the antidiarrhoeal properties of Chebulae Fructus aqueous extract (CFAE) and determines the active fraction. Materials and methods The antidiarrhoeal effect of CFAE (200-800 mg/kg) was investigated by determining the wet dropping, intestinal transit in BALB/c mice and enteropooling in Wister rats. The protective effects of the CFAE on the intestinal and liver were tested by histopathological analyses. The antidiarrhoeal fraction was determined by castor oil-induced diarrhoea and its main constituents were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS. Results The extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg reduced the diarrhoea by 9.1, 40.0 and 58.2% and inhibited intestinal transit by 18.3, 24.1 and 35.7%, respectively. Additionally, the CFAE (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the volume of enteropooling by 47.1, 58.8 and 64.7%, respectively. Mice treated with castor oil presented morphological alterations in the small intestine and the liver. However, the lesions of mice treated with CFAE were alleviated. Moreover, the ethyl acetate fraction was the active fraction of CFAE, the fraction (41.7, 83.4 and 166.8 mg/kg) reduced the diarrhoea by 9.1, 38.2 and 54.5%, respectively. The major components of the ethyl acetate fraction were tannins, including gallic acid, 3, 4, 6-tri-O-galloyl-β-d-Glc, corilagin and ellagic acid according to the HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Conclusion The CFAE possessed antidiarrhoeal property and the ethyl acetate fraction was its main active fraction. PMID:26916441

  17. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ω-oxocarboxylic acids in size-segregated aerosols over northern Japan during spring: sources and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Gowda, Divyavani

    2016-04-01

    Seven sets (AF01-AF07) of size-segregated aerosol (12-sizes) samples were collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Sapporo, Japan during the spring of 2001 to understand the sources and atmospheric processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the outflow region of Asian dusts. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ω-oxocarboxylic acids as well as inorganic ions. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas ω-oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in size-segregated aerosols. SO42- and NH4+ are enriched in submicron mode whereas NO3- and Ca2+ are in supermicron mode. Most of diacids and ω-oxoacids are enriched in supermicron mode in the samples (AF01-AF03) influenced by the long-range transport of mineral dusts whereas enhanced presence in submicron mode was observed in other sample sets. The strong correlations of C2 with Ca2+ (r = 0.95-0.99) and NO3- (r = 0.96-0.98) in supermicron mode in the samples AF01-AF03 suggest the adsorption or production of C2 diacid via heterogeneous reaction on the surface of mineral dust during long-range atmospheric transport. The preferential enrichment of diacids and ω-oxoacids in mineral dust has important implications for the solubility and cloud nucleation properties of the dominant fraction of water-soluble organic aerosols. This study demonstrates that biofuel and biomass burning and mineral dust originated in East Asia are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds over northern Japan.

  18. Synthesis of water soluble glycosides of pentacyclic dihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acids as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiancong; Nie, Xuliang; Hong, Yanping; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Guoqiang; Yin, Xiaoli; Wang, Chunrong; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized by glycosylation of maslinic acid (MA) and corosolic acid (CA) with monosaccharides and disaccharides, and the structures of the derivatives were elucidated by standard spectroscopic methods including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all the novel compounds were evaluated in vitro. The solubility and inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase assays showed that the bis-disaccharide glycosides of triterpene acids possessed higher water solubility and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the bis-monosaccharide glycosides. Among these compounds, maslinic acid bis-lactoside (8e, IC50 = 684 µM) and corosolic acid bis-lactoside (9e, IC50 = 428 µM) had the best water solubility, and 9e exhibited a better inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 478 µM). However, most of glycosylated derivatives possessed lower inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, although their water solubility was enhanced obviously. Moreover, the kinetic inhibition studies indicated that 9e was a non-competitive inhibitor, and structure-activity relationships of the derivatives are also discussed. PMID:26974355

  19. Effect of alcohols and neutral salt on the thermal stability of soluble and precipitated acid-soluble collagen

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Allan E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of mono- and poly-hydric alcohols in the presence of KCl on the intrinsic stability of collagen molecules in dilute acid solution were compared with corresponding solvent and salt effects on the increased stability of the aggregated molecules in salt-precipitated fibrils. Salt addition decreased solubility and increased the thermal stability of fibrils, but progressively decreased the stability of collagen molecules in solution. In contrast, the alcohols enhanced solubility and decreased fibril stability, the effects increasing with solvent hydrocarbon chain length and with decreasing hydroxyl/methylene-group ratio. Molar destabilization of dissolved collagen by alcohols was lower than for fibrils, and at low salt concentration, both ethylene glycol and glycerol were structural stabilizers. Electron-micrograph studies indicated that salt-precipitated fibrils tended to adopt the native aggregation mode, and qualitatively similar solvent effects were observed in insoluble collagens. Implications of the experimental findings are discussed in terms of a model in which electrostatic and apolar interactions mainly govern the excess of stability in collagen fibrils whereas intrinsic stability of single molecules is a function of polar interactions and polypeptide-chain rigidity. PMID:4737319

  20. Influence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon fractions on light extinction at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Kyung Won; Schauer, James J.

    2013-11-01

    Until now, quantitative contributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions to aerosol light extinction have not been studied. In this study, concentrations of chemical species in PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 µm), including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total WSOC, two fractionated WSOCs, water-soluble inorganic species, and metal species, were measured twice a day between December 27, 2010 and January 20, 2011, at an urban site in Seoul, Korea. A macro-porous XAD7HP resin column was used to separate the liquid extracts into hydrophilic and hydrophobic WSOC (WSOC HPI and WSOC HPO ) fractions. Water-insoluble OC (WIOC), WSOC HPI and WSOC HPO were used to estimate the aerosol light extinction from the original IMPROVE algorithm. Organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios of 1.6, 2.0, and 1.8 were applied to the WIOC, WSOC HPI , and WSOC HPO , respectively. Light extinctions for ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, POM (particulate organic matter = WIOM + WSOM HPI + WSOM HPO ), and EC (which is light absorbing) were determined as 38.9 ± 34.0, 64.7 ± 70.6, 69.5 ± 27.7, and 27.1 ± 11.0 Mm-1, respectively, and contributed 15.0% (range: 5.4-25.6), 22.2% (7.1-50.8), 30.8% (13.0-42.3) and 12.0% (5.1-21.3), respectively, to the total light extinction budgets. Light scattering due to the WIOM, WSOM HPI and WSOM HPO were 27.3 ± 13.1, 17.1 ± 8.7, and 24.1 ± 9.9 Mm-1, respectively, and accounted for 12.5, 7.5, and 10.7% of the total light extinction budget. The results indicate WSOC HPO has a greater impact on visibility reduction in wintertime than WSOC HPI at this site. Light scattering by total OC concentration (POM=1.6 × OC) was 62.2 ± 25.1 Mm-1, which was approximately 9.7% lower than the sum of light scattering due to each of the three OC components with different OM/OC ratios. As the relative humidity (RH) increased, light extinction was higher in the water-soluble inorganic

  1. Possible sources of two size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon fractions at a roadway site during fall season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Shik; Kim, Ja-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    To examine the formation pathways of two size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions, a total of 16 sets of size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a roadway site in Korea from September 29 to October 29, 2010. A XAD7HP (non-ionic aliphatic acrylic polymer) resin column was used to separate the filtered extracts into hydrophilic (WSOCHPI) and hydrophobic (WSOCHPO) WSOC fractions. Also the size distributions of water-soluble inorganic species and oxalate were examined to determine the formation pathways of size-resolved WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO fractions. The size distribution of WSOCHPI showed a dominant mode at 0.55 μm, while the WSOCHPO had dominant modes at both 0.17-0.32 μm and 0.55 μm. On the basis of the size distribution characteristics, it was found that the formation pathways of both WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO were dependent on the particle size; in the condensation mode (0.17-0.32 μm), both the WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO could be produced through atmospheric processes similar to those of SO42- and oxalate, which were derived from the gas-phase oxidations of organic compounds. In the droplet mode (0.55-1.8 μm), the cloud processing of both the organic compounds and biomass burning emissions could be a major pathway for the WSOCHPI formation. However, the droplet mode WSOCHPO was likely produced through cloud processing and heterogeneous reactions or aerosol-phase reactions. In the coarse mode (>3.1 μm), the WSOCHPI formation was more likely associated with soil-related particles (Ca(NO3)2 and CaSO4) than with sea-salt particles (NaNO3 and Na2SO4).

  2. Effects of CO2 enrichment on soluble amino acids and organic acids in barley primary leaves as a function of age, photoperiod, and chlorosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of soluble amino acids and organic acids to CO2 enrichment were determined using barley primary leaves (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant). Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers using either ambient (36 Pa) or elevated (100 Pa) CO2 treatments. Total soluble amino acids were inc...

  3. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  4. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  5. Relationship of soluble solids, acidity and aroma volatiles to flavor in late-season navel oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel orange flavor development during early fruit maturation is strongly dependent on changes in soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), while later in the season other factors, such as aroma volatiles, also become important. The flavor of individual oranges can differ gre...

  6. ALUMINUM SOLUBILITY, CALCIUM-ALUMINUM EXCHANGE, AND PH IN ACID FOREST SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Important components in several models designed to describe the effects of acid deposition on soils and surface waters are the pH-A1 and Ca-A1 exchange relationships. f A1 solubility is controlled by A1 trihydroxide minerals, the theoretical pH-A1 relationship can be described by...

  7. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its temperature-resolved carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Ci, Zhijia

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) can improve our understanding of the chemical properties, formation processes and sources of WSOC in aerosols. We developed a method that can examine different temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC and used this method to characterize aerosol samples (n = 102) collected from an urban site in Beijing in 2010-2011. The aerosol composition data including inorganic ions, elements and temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC were used as input of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to investigate the sources of WSOC. The results showed that the mean concentrations of WSOC were 10.2 μg m- 3 with increased values in winter and decreased values in summer, while WSOC/OC ratios (mean: 51.7%) were higher in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The sampling artifacts of WSOC (18.2%) were higher than those of OC (13.4%). Though WSOC was significantly influenced by biomass burning in spring and winter, the strong correlations between WSOC and other secondary components suggested that WSOC was secondary in nature. Results of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of OC and WSOC showed that WSOC/OC ratios for different carbon fractions had the highest value of 0.92 and lowest value of 0.30. PMF analysis identified four factors, three of which were associated with three organic polar compounds groups (low, medium, and high molecular weight compounds) based on their thermal evolution features, and one of which was attributed to inorganic secondary formation processes. Annually, the contributions of four factors were 20.5%, 46.2%, 12.4% and 20.9%, respectively.

  8. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  9. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  10. Evaluation of the performance of the determination of anions in the water soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Arias, Alejandro; Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J N; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Oliveira, Cristina M R R

    2013-01-30

    The knowledge of the mass of particulate matter in air, its chemical composition and emission sources is of relevance for taking decisions concerning air quality management in urban areas. The interpretation of these data is a function of the quality of the measurement results expressed by their uncertainties. This study aimed at developing models of the performance of the determination of anions in the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols, capable of determining, separately, the contribution of aerosols sampling, extraction of water-soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols and quantification, by ion chromatography, of anions in the extract. The sampling procedure was assessed from the dispersion of results of duplicate parallel sampling after subtracting the analytical component of this dispersion. These models are used to evaluate the adequacy of the measurement procedure for the determination of urban aerosol composition and to support strategies for reducing measurement uncertainty or cost of analysis. The method performance was studied for the following ranges considering extract dilution up to five times: 0.23-8 μg m(-3) for chloride and nitrate, and 0.093-3.25 μg m(-3) for sulphate. Measurements are fit for the analysis of urban aerosols since the relative expanded measurement uncertainty is smaller than a maximum value of 40%. The percentage contribution of the uncertainty components varies with the analyte and its mass concentration, the major components being 24-93% for the extraction, 43-59% for sampling, 0.2-28% for the interpolation of the sample signal in the calibration curve and 4-8% for air volume measurement. The typical composition of analysed air is: (1.12±0.26) μg m(-3), (1.02±0.30) μg m(-3) and (0.76±0.22) μg m(-3) of chloride, nitrate and sulphate in the water soluble fraction of aerosol, respectively, for a confidence level of approximately 95% considering a coverage factor of 2. PMID:23597881

  11. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  12. A fine fraction of soil used as an aerosol analogue during the DUNE experiment: sequential solubility in water, decreasing pH step-by-step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghnatios, C.; Losno, R.; Dulac, F.

    2014-09-01

    A soil sample collected in a desert aerosol source area near Douz (southern Tunisia) was dry-sieved at 20 μm in order to extract the fraction similar to a wind-generated aerosol, and was used to seed mesocosms during the DUNE experiment (a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem). In this work, said "aerosol-like" fine dust was sequentially leached by short contacts with water at initial pHs, decreasing from seven to one, representing various wet environmental conditions. For each step, the solubility of a given element is calculated as the amount of its dissolved fraction, relative to its total amount. The evolution of this fractional solubility from the highest to lowest pHs provides information on the chemical strength needed to solubilise a given element and its lability. The behaviour of the elemental solubility was sorted into two groups: (1) Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, and P, with a solubility between 23% and 70%, and a maximum sequential solubility at pH 3; (2) Al and Fe, with a solubility of less than 2% and the highest release at pH 1. Similar solubility patterns in group 1 for Ca, P, and Mn suggest a possible association of the elements in the same minerals, most probably carbonates.

  13. Haematococcus pluvialis soluble proteins: Extraction, characterization, concentration/fractionation and emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Ba, Fatou; Ursu, Alina Violeta; Laroche, Céline; Djelveh, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    A water-soluble matrix was extracted from green vegetative Haematococcus pluvialis through high-pressure cell disruption either at native pH (5.7) or with pH shifting to neutral (7). The resulting supernatant is mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins, with the highest yield of proteins obtained at neutral pH (73±2% of total biomass proteins). The key emulsification properties of the proteins isolated in neutral supernatant (emulsification capacity (EC): 534±41mLoilg(-1) protein, emulsification stability (ES): 94±3% and emulsification activity index (EAI): 80±1m(2)g(-1)) were comparable to the native supernatant values (EC: 589±21mLoilg(-1) protein, ES: 84±3% and EAI: 75±1m(2)g(-1)). Confronted to sodium caseinate (EC: 664±30mLoilg(-1) protein, ES: 63±4%, and EAI: 56±4m(2)g(-1)) these results highlighted the strong potential of proteins isolated from H. pluvialis as emulsifier agent. Moreover, experiments have shown that the stability of emulsions obtained from supernatants is due to the proteins rather than the carbohydrates. PMID:26476616

  14. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  15. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  16. Interaction between Tea Polyphenols and Bile Acid Inhibits Micellar Cholesterol Solubility.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Hirose, Sayumi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Yanase, Emiko

    2016-01-13

    The molecular mechanism by which tea polyphenols decrease the micellar solubility of cholesterol is not completely clear. To clarify this mechanism, this study investigated the interaction between tea polyphenols (catechins and oolongtheanins) and cholesterol micelles. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed on a micellar solution containing taurocholic acid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out on the precipitate and the supernatant that formed when EGCg was added to a cholesterol-micelle solution. The data indicated a regiospecific interaction of EGCg with taurocholic acid. Therefore, the ability of EGCg to lower the solubility of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol in micellar solutions can be attributed to their elimination from the micelles due to interaction between taurocholic acids and EGCg. PMID:26651358

  17. Solubility of methanol in low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid and implications for atmospheric particle composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using traditional Knudsen cell techniques, we find well-behaved Henry's law uptake of methanol in aqueous 45 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 197 and 231 K. Solubility of methanol increases with decreasing temperature and increasing acidity, with an effective Henry's law coefficient ranging from 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 8) M/atm. Equilibrium uptake of methanol into sulfuric acid aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will not appreciably alter gas-phase concentrations of methanol. The observed room temperature reaction between methanol and sulfuric acid is too slow to provide a sink for gaseous methanol at the temperatures of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is also too slow to produce sufficient quantities of soluble reaction products to explain the large amount of unidentified organic material seen in particles of the upper troposphere.

  18. The effect of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on crystallinity and solubility of kenaf cellulose membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Saidi, Anis Syuhada Mohd; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad

    2015-09-25

    Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core pulp (KCP) by series of bleaching steps in the sequence (DEED) where D and E are referred as acid and alkali treatment. The bleached kenaf pulp (BKCP) is then pretreated with acid hydrolysis at room temperature for 1 and 3 h respectively. The pretreated cellulose is dissolved in lithium hydroxide/urea (LiOH/urea) and cellulose solution produced was immersed in distilled water bath. BKCP without treatment was also conducted for comparison purpose. The effects of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on solubility and crystallinity are investigated. Higher solubility of cellulose solution is achieved for treated samples. Cellulose II formation and crystallinity index of the cellulose membrane were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  19. The effect of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on crystallinity and solubility of kenaf cellulose membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Anis Syuhada Mohd; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core pulp (KCP) by series of bleaching steps in the sequence (DEED) where D and E are referred as acid and alkali treatment. The bleached kenaf pulp (BKCP) is then pretreated with acid hydrolysis at room temperature for 1 and 3 h respectively. The pretreated cellulose is dissolved in lithium hydroxide/urea (LiOH/urea) and cellulose solution produced was immersed in distilled water bath. BKCP without treatment was also conducted for comparison purpose. The effects of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on solubility and crystallinity are investigated. Higher solubility of cellulose solution is achieved for treated samples. Cellulose II formation and crystallinity index of the cellulose membrane were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  20. Investigation of organic aerosol sources using fractionated water-soluble organic carbon measured at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung Shik; Cho, Sung Yong; Kim, Kyung-Won; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Jung, Kweon

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5, including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), bulk water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), fractionated WSOCs, and water-soluble inorganic species were measured between December 27, 2010 and January 20, 2011, at an urban site of Seoul, Korea. PM2.5 samples were collected twice a day, e.g., for the daytime (10:00-16:00) and nighttime (16:00-10:00), respectively. A macro-porous XAD7HP resin was used to separately group the liquid extracts into hydrophilic and hydrophobic WSOC (WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO). To better understand the contributions of primary and secondary OC (SOC) to WSOC, estimates of SOC were derived using the EC-tracer method and compared with the WSOC fractions. Good correlations among the WSOC, SO42-, and oxalate suggest that some of the observed WSOC originated from similar formation processes as those of SO42- and oxalate, i.e., formed by an in-cloud or aerosol droplet process. Primary OC was more highly correlated with the WSOCHPO (R2 = 0.56) than the WSOCHPI (R2 = 0.33), while a better correlation between predicted SOC and WSOCHPI (R2 = 0.63) was found than between the predicted SOC and WSOCHPO (R2 = 0.47). These results suggest that WSOCHPI at the site during the winter could be formed by a similar production pathway such as the secondary organic carbon, while primary combustion emissions were a dominant source for the WSOCHPO during the study period. Sources of WSOC, WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO inferred based on the correlations were also clearly demonstrated by source categories identified by principle component analysis. Measurement results suggest that group separation of bulk WSOC extracts could provide important clues for better understanding the sources of OC (or WSOC).

  1. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  2. Silicon Isotope Fractionation During Acid Water-Igneous Rock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boorn, S. H.; van Bergen, M. J.; Vroon, P. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Silica enrichment by metasomatic/hydrothermal alteration is a widespread phenomenon in crustal environments where acid fluids interact with silicate rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal ore deposits and acid-leached residues at hot-spring settings are among the best known examples. Acid alteration acting on basalts has also been invoked to explain the relatively high silica contents of the surface of Mars. We have analyzed basaltic-andesitic lavas from the Kawah Ijen volcanic complex (East Java, Indonesia) that were altered by interaction with highly acid (pH~1) sulfate-chloride water of its crater lake and seepage stream. Quantitative removal of major elements during this interaction has led to relative increase in SiO2 contents. Our silicon isotope data, obtained by HR-MC-ICPMS and reported relative to the NIST RM8546 (=NBS28) standard, show a systematic increase in &δ&&30Si from -0.2‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for unaltered andesites and basalts to +1.5‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for the most altered/silicified rocks. These results demonstrate that silicification induced by pervasive acid alteration is accompanied by significant Si isotope fractionation, so that alterered products become isotopically heavier than the precursor rocks. Despite the observed enrichment in SiO2, the rocks have experienced an overall net loss of silicon upon alteration, if Nb is considered as perfectly immobile. The observed &δ&&30Si values of the alteration products appeared to correlate well with the inferred amounts of silicon loss. These findings would suggest that &28Si is preferentially leached during water-rock interaction, implying that dissolved silica in the ambient lake and stream water is isotopically light. However, layered opaline lake sediments, that are believed to represent precipitates from the silica-saturated water show a conspicuous &30Si-enrichment (+1.2 ± 0.2‰). Because anorganic precipitation is known to discriminate against the heavy isotope (e.g. Basile- Doelsch et al., 2006

  3. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  4. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary, Ternary, and Multicomponent Systems. Part I. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Water and Aqueous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi

    2011-03-01

    The solubility data for well-defined binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems of solid-liquid type are reviewed. One component, which is 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, 4-hydroxybenzoate alkyl esters (parabens), or hydroxybenzoic acid salts, is in the solid state at room temperature and another component is liquid water, meaning that all of the systems are aqueous solutions. The ternary or multicomponent systems include organic substances of various classes (hydrocarbons of several structural types, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, ethers, esters, amides, and surfactants) or inorganic substances. Systems reported in the primary literature from 1898 through 2000 are compiled. For seven systems, sufficient binary data for hydroxybenzoic acids or parabens in water are available to allow critical evaluation. Almost all data are expressed as mass and mole fractions as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration.

  5. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants. PMID:25203006

  6. Characterization of a Soluble Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatase in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C.; Ullah, Abul H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and Pi. PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg2+-dependent soluble PAP and Mg2+-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg2+-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53–60°C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The Km and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na3VO4, Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg2+-independent enzyme in plants. PMID:25203006

  7. Placement in an acidic environment increase the solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamid Reza; Borna, Zahra; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Valizadeh, Hadi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) in an acidic environment. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four metal rings were prepared, filled with WMTA and randomly divided into two groups. The samples in groups 1 and 2 were set in synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.4 and 4.4, respectively and then were transferred to beakers containing synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.7 and 4.4. Solubility of WMTA samples were calculated at the 9 experimental intervals. Data was analyzed with two-factor ANOVA and Bonferroni test (P < 0.03). Results: The total solubility of WMTA in groups 1 and 2 were −9.1796 ± 1.9158% and −1.1192 ± 2.6236%, (P = 0.028) with weight changes of 9.1574 ± 2.1432% and 7.3276 ± 1.5823%, respectively (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: It was concluded that solubility of WMTA increases in acidic environments and additional therapeutic precautions should be taken to decrease inflammation in endodontic treatment. PMID:23833462

  8. Effect of magnesium carbonate on the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of fenofibric acid powder as an alkalising solubilizer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the possibility of developing a novel oral pharmaceutical product using fenofibric acid instead of choline fenofibrate, the powder properties, solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats of fenofibrate, choline fenofibrate and fenofibric acid were compared. Furthermore, the effect of magnesium carbonate, an alkalising agent on the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of fenofibric acid was assessed, a mixture of fenofibric acid and magnesium carbonate being prepared by simple blending at a weight ratio of 2/1. The three fenofibrate derivatives showed different particle sizes and melting points with similar crystalline shape. Fenofibric acid had a significantly higher aqueous solubility and dissolution than fenofibrate, but significantly lower solubility and dissolution than choline fenofibrate. However, the fenofibric acid/magnesium carbonate mixture greatly improved the solubility and dissolution of fenofibric acid with an enhancement to levels similar with those for choline fenofibrate. Fenofibric acid gave lower plasma concentrations, AUC and Cmax values compared to choline fenofibrate in rats. However, the mixture resulted in plasma concentrations, AUC and Cmax values levels not significantly different from those for choline fenofibrate. Specifically, magnesium carbonate increased the aqueous solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of fenofibric acid by about 7.5-, 4- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Thus, the mixture of fenofibric acid and magnesium carbonate at the weight ratio of 2/1 might be a candidate for an oral pharmaceutical product with improved oral bioavailability. PMID:26992922

  9. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Fat-soluble Vitamins A and D*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Daniel R.; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Bookout, Angie L.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acids are required for proper absorption of dietary lipids, including fat-soluble vitamins. Here, we show that the dietary vitamins A and D inhibit bile acid synthesis by repressing hepatic expression of the rate-limiting enzyme CYP7A1. Receptors for vitamin A and D induced expression of Fgf15, an intestine-derived hormone that acts on liver to inhibit Cyp7a1. These effects were mediated through distinct cis-acting response elements in the promoter and intron of Fgf15. Interestingly, transactivation of both response elements appears to be required to maintain basal Fgf15 expression levels in vivo. Furthermore, whereas induction of Fgf15 by vitamin D is mediated through its receptor, the induction of Fgf15 by vitamin A is mediated through the retinoid X receptor/farnesoid X receptor heterodimer and is independent of bile acids, suggesting that this heterodimer functions as a distinct dietary vitamin A sensor. Notably, vitamin A treatment reversed the effects of the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine on Fgf15, Shp, and Cyp7a1 expression, suggesting a potential therapeutic benefit of vitamin A under conditions of bile acid malabsorption. These results reveal an unexpected link between the intake of fat-soluble vitamins A and D and bile acid metabolism, which may have evolved as a means for these dietary vitamins to regulate their own absorption. PMID:20233723

  10. Organic acids as cloud condensation nuclei: Laboratory studies of highly soluble and insoluble species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep Kumar, P.; Broekhuizen, K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2003-05-01

    The ability of sub-micron-sized organic acid particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been examined at room temperature using a newly constructed continuous-flow, thermal-gradient diffusion chamber (TGDC). The organic acids studied were: oxalic, malonic, glutaric, oleic and stearic. The CCN properties of the highly soluble acids - oxalic, malonic and glutaric - match very closely Köhler theory predictions which assume full dissolution of the dry particle and a surface tension of the growing droplet equal to that of water. In particular, for supersaturations between 0.3 and 0.6, agreement between the dry particle diameter which gives 50% activation and that calculated from Köhler theory is to within 3nm on average. In the course of the experiments, considerable instability of glutaric acid particles was observed as a function of time and there is evidence that they fragment to some degree to smaller particles. Stearic acid and oleic acid, which are both highly insoluble in water, did not activate at supersaturations of 0.6% with dry diameters up to 140nm. Finally, to validate the performance of the TGDC, we present results for the activation of ammonium sulfate particles that demonstrate good agreement with Köhler theory if solution non-ideality is considered. Our findings support earlier studies in the literature that showed highly soluble organics to be CCN active but insoluble species to be largely inactive.

  11. Fractionation of humic acids upon adsorption on montmorillonite and palygorskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, T. V.; Zolotareva, B. N.

    2013-06-01

    The adsorption of three humic acid (HA) preparations by clays—montmorillonite (Wyoming, USA) and palygorskite (Kolomenskoe district, Moscow oblast)—has been studied. The HA preparations were isolated from samples of the humus-accumulative horizons of a leached chernozem (Voronezh) and a chestnut soil (Volgograd), and a commercial preparation of sodium humate (Aldrich) was also used. The solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy revealed the selective adsorption of structural HA fragments (alkyls, O-alkyls (carbohydrates), and acetal groups) on these minerals. As a result, the aromaticity of the organic matter (OM) in the organic-mineral complexes (OMCs) and the degree of its humification have been found to be lower compared to the original HA preparations. The fractionation of HAs is controlled by the properties of the mineral surfaces. The predominant enrichment of OMCs with alkyls has been observed for montmorillonite, as well as an enrichment with O-alkyls (carbohydrates) for palygorskite. A decrease in the C : N ratio has been noted in the elemental composition of the OM in complexes, which reflected its more aromatic nature and (or) predominant sorption of N-containing structural components of HA molecules. The adsorption of HA preparations by montmorillonite predominantly occurs on the external surface of mineral particles, and the interaction of nonpolar alkyl groups of HAs with this mineral belongs to weak (van der Waals, hydrophobic) interactions. The adsorption of HA preparations by palygorskite is at least partly of chemical nature: Si-OH groups of minerals are involved in the adsorption process. The formation of strong bonds between the OM and palygorskite explains the long-term (over 300 million years) retention of fossil fulvate-type OM in its complex with palygorskite, which we revealed previously.

  12. Sialic Acid Is Required for Neuronal Inhibition by Soluble MAG but not for Membrane Bound MAG.

    PubMed

    Al-Bashir, Najat; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4) is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins), MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5. We developed a neurite outgrowth (NOG) assay, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118) are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc). Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit NOG, but not mutated MAG (Arg118)-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118)- expressing cells still inhibit NOG. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG's inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits NOG in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage. PMID:27065798

  13. Sialic Acid Is Required for Neuronal Inhibition by Soluble MAG but not for Membrane Bound MAG

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bashir, Najat; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4) is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins), MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5. We developed a neurite outgrowth (NOG) assay, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118) are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc). Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit NOG, but not mutated MAG (Arg118)-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118)- expressing cells still inhibit NOG. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG’s inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits NOG in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage. PMID:27065798

  14. The Interplay between Inorganic Phosphate and Amino Acids determines Zinc Solubility in Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Rumschik, Sean M.; Nydegger, Irma; Zhao, Jinfu; Kay, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an important polyanion needed for ATP synthesis and bone formation. Since it is found at millimolar levels in plasma it is usually incorporated as a constituent of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) formulations for maintaining brain slices. In this paper we show that Pi limits the extracellular zinc concentration by inducing metal precipitation. We present data suggesting that amino acids like histidine may counteract the Pi-induced zinc precipitation by the formation of soluble zinc complexes. We propose that the interplay between Pi and amino acids in the extracellular space may influence the availability of metals for cellular uptake. PMID:19183267

  15. Forms and Lability of Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions of Hord Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) has long been known to be present in soil humic fractions, but little is known about specific P forms in humic fractions, or their lability. We extracted the mobile humic acid (MHA) and recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) fractions from a Nebraska Hord silt loam soil under continuous c...

  16. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Trisha L; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2010-04-28

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions obtained from HPLC separation of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) were studied. Thermolysin hydrolysis of pea protein isolate and ultrafiltration (3 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane) yielded a PPH that was separated into five fractions (F1-F5) on a C(18) reverse phase HPLC column. The fractions that eluted later from the column (F3-F5) contained higher contents hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids when compared to fractions that eluted early or the original PPH. Fractions F3-F5 also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities; however, hydrophobic character did not seem to contribute to reducing power of the peptides. In comparison to glutathione, the peptide fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation and chelate metals. In contrast, glutathione had significantly higher (p < 0.05) free radical scavenging properties than the peptide fractions. PMID:20359226

  17. Reactivity of Water Soluble Organic Acids with Chloride and Nitrate Particles Investigated by Micro-spectroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Kelly, S. T.; Shilling, J. E.; Tivanski, A.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric particles often consist of a complex organic and inorganic mixture. Interactions between organic and inorganic species may affect particles' chemical and physical properties thus atmospheric chemistry and climate. Water soluble organic acids (WSOA) can contribute a significant fraction of organic materials in condense phase. Inorganic particles, such as sea salt and mineral dust, are main components in the atmosphere and can undergo complex heterogeneous reactions. For example, depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with WSOA resulting in the release gaseous HCl and formation of organic salts. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where acid displacement reactions are mainly driven by the high volatility and evaporation of HNO3 as particles go through dehydration process. Furthermore, secondary organic material (SOM), which contains a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits a similar reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present field and laboratory studies on the reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA/SOM and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis such as computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show various potentials of chloride and nitrate depletion by WSOA and SOM. Formation of corresponding organic salts is confirmed and quantified.

  18. A~fine fraction of soil used as an aerosol analogue during the DUNE experiment: sequential solubility in water with step-by-step decreasing pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghnatios, C.; Losno, R.; Dulac, F.

    2014-02-01

    A soil sample collected in a desert aerosol source area near Douz (South Tunisia) was sieved at 20 μm in order to extract the fraction similar to an aerosol generated by wind and used to seed mesocosms during the DUNE experiment. In the present work, this "aerosol-like" fine dust was sequentially leached by short contacts with water at pHs decreasing from 7 to 1. These pHs are representative of various environmental wet conditions, the lowest of which could be reached during cloud conditions. The evolution of the solubility from the highest to the lowest pHs provides information on the necessary strength for the solubilisation of a given element and its lability. The behaviour of the elemental fractional solubility is sorted into two groups: (i) Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, P constitute group 1, with a solubility between 23% and 70% and with a maximum solubility at pH 3; (ii) whereas in group 2 (Al, Fe), the solubility is less than 2% with the highest release at pH 1. Similar solubility patterns in group 1 for Ca, P and Mn suggest a~possible association of the elements in the same minerals, most probably carbonates, which gives phosphorus an unexpected high lability.

  19. Isolation and fractionation of soil humin using alkaline urea and dimethylsulphoxide plus sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Song, Guixue; Hayes, Michael H B; Novotny, Etelvino H; Simpson, Andre J

    2011-01-01

    Humin, the most recalcitrant and abundant organic fraction of soils and of sediments, is a significant contributor to the stable carbon pool in soils and is important for the global carbon budget. It has significant resistance to transformations by microorganisms. Based on the classical operational definition, humin can include any humic-type substance that is not soluble in water at any pH. We demonstrate in this study how sequential exhaustive extractions with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) + 6 M urea, followed by dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) + 6% (v/v) sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) solvent systems, can extract 70-80% of the residual materials remaining after prior exhaustive extractions in neutral and aqueous basic media. Solid-state (13)C NMR spectra have shown that the components isolated in the base + urea system were compositionally similar to the humic and fulvic acid fractions isolated at pH 12.6 in the aqueous media. The NMR spectra indicated that the major components isolated in the DMSO + H(2)SO(4) medium had aliphatic hydrocarbon associated with carboxyl functionalities and with lesser amounts of carbohydrate and peptide and minor amounts of lignin-derived components. The major components will have significant contributions from long-chain fatty acids, waxes, to cuticular materials. The isolates in the DMSO + H(2)SO(4) medium were compositionally similar to the organic components that resisted solvation and remained associated with the soil clays. It is concluded that the base + urea system released humic and fulvic acids held by hydrogen bonding or by entrapment within the humin matrix. The recalcitrant humin materials extracted in DMSO + H(2)SO(4) are largely biological molecules (from plants and the soil microbial population) that are likely to be protected from degradation by their hydrophobic moieties and by sorption on the soil clays. Thus, the major components of humin do not satisfy the classical definitions for humic

  20. Isolation and fractionation of soil humin using alkaline urea and dimethylsulphoxide plus sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guixue; Hayes, Michael H. B.; Novotny, Etelvino H.; Simpson, Andre J.

    2011-01-01

    Humin, the most recalcitrant and abundant organic fraction of soils and of sediments, is a significant contributor to the stable carbon pool in soils and is important for the global carbon budget. It has significant resistance to transformations by microorganisms. Based on the classical operational definition, humin can include any humic-type substance that is not soluble in water at any pH. We demonstrate in this study how sequential exhaustive extractions with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) + 6 M urea, followed by dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) + 6% ( v/ v) sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solvent systems, can extract 70-80% of the residual materials remaining after prior exhaustive extractions in neutral and aqueous basic media. Solid-state 13C NMR spectra have shown that the components isolated in the base + urea system were compositionally similar to the humic and fulvic acid fractions isolated at pH 12.6 in the aqueous media. The NMR spectra indicated that the major components isolated in the DMSO + H2SO4 medium had aliphatic hydrocarbon associated with carboxyl functionalities and with lesser amounts of carbohydrate and peptide and minor amounts of lignin-derived components. The major components will have significant contributions from long-chain fatty acids, waxes, to cuticular materials. The isolates in the DMSO + H2SO4 medium were compositionally similar to the organic components that resisted solvation and remained associated with the soil clays. It is concluded that the base + urea system released humic and fulvic acids held by hydrogen bonding or by entrapment within the humin matrix. The recalcitrant humin materials extracted in DMSO + H2SO4 are largely biological molecules (from plants and the soil microbial population) that are likely to be protected from degradation by their hydrophobic moieties and by sorption on the soil clays. Thus, the major components of humin do not satisfy the classical definitions for humic substances which emphasise that these arise from

  1. Genetic and Hematologic Endpoints in Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae) After Exposure and Recovery to Water-Soluble Fraction of Gasoline (WSFG).

    PubMed

    Galvan, Gabrieli L; Lirola, Juliana R; Felisbino, Karoline; Vicari, Taynah; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Cestari, Marta M

    2016-07-01

    The sublethal effects of water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG, 1.5 % v/v) were evaluated in the freshwater fish, Astynax altiparanae, after acute exposure (96 h) under a semi-static system. In addition, the recovery process was assessed in the fish following contaminant depuration. Recovery treatments were carried out with gradual depuration (GD), consisting of 7 days in the WSFG, followed by 8 days in clean water; and treatments with total depuration in clean water for 15 (DEP 15) and 30 days (DEP 30). The effects were evaluated through the piscine micronucleus test and by differential counting of organic defense cells. Acute exposure increased the frequency of neutrophils. In the GD treatment, the thrombocyte count and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) increased. In the DEP 15 treatment, there was a reduction of ENA; and following 30 days of depuration (i.e., DEP 30), the number of lymphocytes increased and the thrombocyte count remained high. These results indicate a long-term response to a condition of stress from WSFG. PMID:27189358

  2. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  3. Effects of the water soluble fraction of gasoline on ZFL cell line: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Debora; Oliveira, Luciana F; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2015-12-25

    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different dilutions of gasoline water-soluble fraction (GSF) on Danio rerio hepatocyte cell line (ZFL). Two tests were used to assess cell viability, MTT reduction assay (MTT) and the Trypan blue (TB) exclusion test. Oxidative stress was evaluated through the quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the assessment of the total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and the comet assay was employed to assess DNA damage. ZFL cells were exposed to 5, 10, 25 and 50% GSF or only to saline for 1, 3 and 6h. The GSF exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, and longer exposure times resulted in lower cell viability as indicated by both MTT and TB assays. The establishment of oxidative stress in cells exposed to GSF was not observed at any exposure period and the lower ROS levels could be related to the increased antioxidant capacity after 6-hour exposure. DNA damage was significantly increased after exposure to GSF at the three experimental times. Taking together these results show that GSF has a genotoxic potential at the lower concentrations and becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations and that ZFL can be considered a good biological model for in vitro toxicological studies. PMID:26578467

  4. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. PMID:21184529

  5. Genetic damage in the bivalve mollusk Corbicula fluminea induced by the water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Fedato, R P; Simonato, J D; Martinez, C B R; Sofia, S H

    2010-07-19

    Although gasoline is an important contaminant of aquatic ecosystems, information concerning the potential effects of this petroleum derivative on the DNA of aquatic biota is lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of acute exposures (6, 24, and 96h) to gasoline water-soluble fraction (GWSF), diluted to 5%, on the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. The comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test were performed on hemocytes and gill cells of C. fluminea. For the three different times tested, the comet assay indicated DNA damage in hemocytes and gill cells of C. fluminea exposed to GWSF. The MN test detected significant damage in the genetic material of the hemocytes only after 96h of exposure to GWSF. The recovery capacity of organisms previously exposed for 6h to GWSF was also evaluated with the comet assay. The results revealed a great capacity of this species to repair DNA damage; following 6h of recovery, the comet score returned to that of the control groups. Overall, our findings indicate that GWSF has genotoxic and mutagenic effects on C. fluminea. In addition, the present results confirm the sensitivity of C. fluminea to damage caused by exposure to environmental contaminants, and, therefore, its suitability for use in environmental monitoring studies. PMID:20510386

  6. The Prestige oil spill: a laboratory study about the toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of the fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Navas, José M; Babín, Mar; Casado, Susana; Fernández, Carlos; Tarazona, José V

    2006-07-01

    The Prestige oil spill caused severe effects on the coastal fauna and flora due to direct contact of organisms with the fuel oil. However, the water soluble fraction (WSF) of the fuel oil can also provoke deleterious effects in the long term and even in regions not directly affected by the spill. Our objective was to determine the toxicity of the WSF using a battery of laboratory toxicity tests. To obtain a WSF in the laboratory, a sample of the spilled fuel was mixed with adequate medium, sonicated, agitated and filtered. No cytotoxic effects were detected in RTG-2 cells exposed to the WSF. In an algae growth inhibition test (OECD test guideline 201) the WSF did not affect the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Furthermore, acute and reproductive toxicity tests (OECD test guideline 202) carried out using Daphnia magna did not indicate any deleterious effect of the WSF. In a bioassay designed in our laboratory, D. magna were fed with algae previously exposed to the fuel, but no toxic effects were detected. However, the WSF was able to induce a dose-dependent increase of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in RTG-2 cells, indicating the presence of chemicals that could cause sub-lethal effects to organisms. After chemical analyses it was established that the final total quantity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in medium was approximately 70 ng/ml. These low concentrations explain the observed lack of toxicity. PMID:16709428

  7. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  8. Bioreduction of uranium(VI) complexed with citric acid by Clostridia affects its structure and solubility.

    PubMed

    Francis, A J; Dodge, C J

    2008-11-15

    Uranium contamination of the environment from mining and milling operations, nuclear-waste disposal, and ammunition use is a widespread global problem. Natural attenuation processes such as bacterial reductive precipitation and immobilization of soluble uranium is gaining much attention. However, the presence of naturally occurring organic ligands can affect the precipitation of uranium. Here, we report that the anaerobic spore-forming bacteria Clostridia, ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and wastes, capable of reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), Mn(IV) to Mn(II), U(VI) to U(IV), Pu(IV) to Pu(III), and Tc(VI) to Tc(IV); reduced U(VI) associated with citric acid in a dinuclear 2:2 U(VI): citric acid complex to a biligand mononuclear 1:2 U(IV):citric acid complex,which remained in solution, in contrast to reduction and precipitation of uranium. Our findings show that U(VI) complexed with citric acid is readily accessible as an electron acceptor despite the inability of the bacterium to metabolize the complexed organic ligand. Furthermore, it suggests that the presence of organic ligands at uranium-contaminated sites can affect the mobility of the actinide under both oxic and anoxic conditions by forming such soluble complexes. PMID:19068806

  9. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields. PMID:25169839

  10. A Collaborative Evaluation of LC-MS/MS Based Methods for BMAA Analysis: Soluble Bound BMAA Found to Be an Important Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Antoniou, Maria G.; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L.; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D3BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%–32%), implying that D3BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis. PMID:26938542

  11. A Collaborative Evaluation of LC-MS/MS Based Methods for BMAA Analysis: Soluble Bound BMAA Found to Be an Important Fraction.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Elisabeth J; Antoniou, Maria G; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D₃BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%-32%), implying that D₃BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis. PMID:26938542

  12. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3–7 μM; Vmax, 150–193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism. PMID:22217705

  13. Nanometer-Scale Water-Soluble Macrocycles from Nanometer-Sized Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, Chris M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the unnatural amino acids m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K as nanometersized building blocks for the creation of water-soluble macrocycles with well-defined shapes. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are homologues of the nanometer-sized amino acid Abc2K, which we recently introduced for the synthesis of water-soluble molecular rods of precise length. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7272]. Abc2K is linear (180°), m-Abc2K creates a 120° angle, and o-Abc2K creates a 60° angle. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are derivatives of 3’-amino-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid and 2’-amino-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid, with two propyloxyammonium side chains for water solubility. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are prepared as Fmoc-protected derivatives Fmoc-m-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1a) and Fmoc-o-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1b). These derivatives can be used alone or in conjunction with Fmoc-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1c) as ordinary amino acids in Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis. Building blocks 1a–c were used to synthesize macrocyclic “triangles” 9a–c, “parallelograms” 10a,b, and hexagonal “rings” 11a–d. The macrocycles range from a trimer to a dodecamer, with ring sizes from 24 to 114 atoms, and are 1–4 nm in size. Molecular modeling studies suggest that all the macrocycles except 10b should have well-defined triangle, parallelogram, and ring shapes if all of the amide linkages are trans and the ortho-alkoxy substituents are intramolecularly hydrogen bonded to the amide NH groups. The macrocycles have good water solubility and are readily characterized by standard analytical techniques, such as RP-HPLC, ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR studies suggest that the macrocycles adopt conformations with all trans-amide linkages in CD3OD, that the “triangles” and “parallelograms” maintain these conformations in D2O, and that the “rings” collapse to form conformations with cis-amide linkages in D2O. PMID:20020731

  14. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  15. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - Acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions.

  16. Kinetic fractionation of stable nitrogen isotopes during amino acid transamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, Stephen A.; Estep, Marilyn L. Fogel; Engel, Michael H.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-10-01

    This study evaluates a kinetic isotope effect involving 15N, during the transamination reactions catalyzed by glutamic oxalacetic transaminase. During the transfer of amino nitrogen from glutamic acid to oxaloacetate to form aspartic acid, 14NH 2 reacted 1.0083 times faster than 14NH 2. In the reverse reaction transferring NH 2 from aspartic acid to α-ketoglutarate, 14NH 2 was incorporated 1.0017 times faster than 15NH 2. Knowledge of the magnitude and sign of these isotope effects will be useful in the interpretation of the distribution of 15N in biological and geochemical systems.

  17. Chlorin p6-Based Water-Soluble Amino Acid Derivatives as Potent Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhi; Yu, Bin; Han, Guiyan; Liu, Minghui; Shan, Bin; Dong, Guoqiang; Miao, Zhenyuan; Jia, Ningyang; Tan, Zou; Li, Buhong; Zhang, Wannian; Zhu, Haiying; Sheng, Chunquan; Yao, Jianzhong

    2016-05-26

    The development of novel photosensitizer with high phototoxicity, low dark toxicity, and good water solubility is a challenging task for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A series of chlorin p6-based water-soluble amino acid conjugates were synthesized and investigated for antitumor activity. Among them, aspartylchlorin p6 dimethylester (7b) showed highest phototoxicity against melanoma cells with weakest dark toxicity, which was more phototoxic than verteporfin while with less dark toxicity. It also exhibited better in vivo PDT antitumor efficacy on mice bearing B16-F10 tumor than verteporfin. The biological assays revealed that 7b was localized in multiple subcellular organelles and could cause both cell necrosis and apoptosis after PDT in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in more effective cell destruction. As a result, 7b represents a promising photosensitizer for PDT applications because of its strong absorption in the phototherapeutic window, relatively high singlet oxygen quantum yield, highest dark toxicity/phototoxicity ratio, good water solubility, and excellent in vivo PDT antitumor efficacy. PMID:27136389

  18. Interaction of water-soluble amino acid Schiff base complexes with bovine serum albumin: fluorescence and circular dichroism studies.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Boghaei, Davar M

    2008-12-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were used to investigate the interaction of water-soluble amino acid Schiff base complexes, [Zn(L1,2)(phen)] where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline and H2L1,2 is amino acid Schiff base ligands, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the physiological conditions in phosphate buffer solution adjusted to pH 7.0. The quenching mechanism of fluorescence was suggested as static quenching according to the Stern-Volmer equation. Quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation to provide a measure of the binding affinity between amino acid Schiff base complexes and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS at different temperatures (298, 310 and 318K) were calculated. The results indicate that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions play a major role in [Zn(L1)(phen)]-BSA association, whereas hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions participate a main role in [Zn(L2)(phen)]-BSA binding process. Binding studies concerning the number of binding sites and apparent binding constant Kb were performed by fluorescence quenching method. The distance R between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (amino acid Schiff base complexes) has been obtained utilizing fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET). Furthermore, CD spectra were used to investigate the structural changes of the BSA molecule with the addition of amino acid Schiff base complexes. The results indicate that the interaction of amino acid Schiff base complexes with BSA leads to changes in the secondary structure of the protein. Fractional contents of the secondary structure of BSA (f(alpha), f(beta), f(turn) and f(random)) were calculated with and without amino acid Schiff base complexes utilizing circular dichroism spectroscopy. Our results clarified that amino acid Schiff base complexes could bind to BSA and be effectively transported and eliminated in the body, which could be a useful guideline for

  19. Fractionation of Fe isotopes by soil microbes and organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, Susan L.; Liermann, Laura; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Small natural variations in Fe isotopes have been attributed to biological cycling. However, without understanding the mechanism of fractionation, it is impossible to interpret such variations. Here we show that the δ56Fe of Fe dissolved from a silicate soil mineral by siderophore-producing bacteria is as much as 0.8% lighter than bulk Fe in the mineral. A smaller isotopic shift is observed for Fe released abiotically by two chelates, and the magnitude of the shift increases with affinity of the ligand for Fe, consistent with a kinetic isotope effect during hydrolysis of Fe at the mineral surface. Fe dissolved abiotically without chelates shows no isotopic shift. The δ56Fe of the exchange fraction on soil grains is also lighter by ~0.6%-1% than Fe from both hornblende and iron oxyhydroxides. The kinetic isotope effect is therefore preserved in open systems such as soils. when recorded in the rock record, Fe isotopic fractionation could document Fe transport by organic molecules or by microbes where such entities were present in the geologic past.

  20. Evaluating Healthful Properties of Cereals and Cereal Fractions by Their Bile-Acid-Binding Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The healthful, cholesterol-lowering (atherosclerosis amelioration) or detoxification of harmful metabolites (cancer prevention) potential of cereals and cereal fractions could be predicted by evaluating their in vitro bile acid binding under physiological conditions. Using equal dry matter per incu...

  1. Influence of neutral salts on the hydrothermal stability of acid-soluble collagen.

    PubMed

    Brown, E M; Farrell, H M; Wildermuth, R J

    2000-02-01

    The thermal stability of acid-soluble collagens was studied by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Adult bovine dermal collagen (BDC), rat-tail tendon collagen (RTC), and calf skin collagen (CSC) were compared. Despite some variability in amino acid composition and apparent molecular weight, the CD spectra for helical and unordered collagen structures were essentially the same for all the sources. The melting of these collagens occurs as a two-stage process characterized by a pretransition (Tp) followed by complete denaturation (Td). The characteristic temperatures vary with the source of the collagen; for mature collagens (BDC, RTC) Tp = 30 degrees C and Td = 36 degrees C, and for CSC Tp = 34 degrees C and Td = 40 degrees C. Neutral salts, NaCl or KCl, at low concentrations (0.02-0.2 M) appear to bind to the collagens and shift the thermal transitions of these collagens to lower temperatures. PMID:10945432

  2. Effects of excess pantothenic acid administration on the other water-soluble vitamin metabolisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Takahashi, Chisato; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo

    2005-12-01

    To acquire the data concerning the tolerable upper intake level which prevents health problems from an excessive intake of pantothenic acid, an animal experiment was done. Rats of the Wistar strain (male, 3 wk old) were fed on a diet which contains 0%, 0.0016% (control group), 1%, or 3% calcium pantothenate for 29 d. The amount of weight increase, the food intake, and the organ weights were measured, as well as the pantothenic acid contents in urine, the liver and blood. Moreover, to learn the influence of excessive pantothenic acid on other water-soluble vitamin metabolism, thiamin, riboflavin, a vitamin B6 catabolite, the niacin catabolites, and ascorbic acid in urine were measured. As for the 3% addition group, enlargement of the testis, diarrhea, and hair damage were observed, and the amount of weight increase and the food intake were less than those of the control group. However, abnormality was not seen in the 1% addition group. The amount of pantothenic acid in urine, the liver, and blood showed a high correlation with intake level of pantothenic acid. It was only for 4-pyridoxic acid, a vitamin B6 catabolite, in urine that a remarkable difference was observed against the control group. Moreover, the (2-Py+4-Py)/MNA excretion ratio for these metabolites of the nicotinamide also indicated a low value in the 3% pantothenic acid group. As for the calcium pantothenate, it was found that the 3% level in the diet was the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and the 1% level was the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). PMID:16521696

  3. Isolation of the stable fraction (the core) of the humic acid.

    PubMed

    Adani, Fabrizio; Ricca, Giuliana; Tambone, Fulvia; Genevini, Pierluigi

    2006-11-01

    Humic acid consists of a recalcitrant (unhydrolysed fraction) (the core) and labile (hydrolysable fraction) fraction. Core-humic acid (core-HA) isolation was performed by treating source material with apolar and polar solvents (organic solvents+acid hydrolysis) before alkaline extraction. Leonardite, soil Ah horizont and dry blood were chosen for this study because of their different origin and degree of humification. Chemical analysis (elemental analysis, total acidity, E(4):E(6)), spectroscopic analysis (DRIFT and (1)H NMR), and complete mass balance were used to investigate the effect of purifying humic acids. The results obtained showed that purification produced a slight modification of Leonardite humic acids as was expected for these highly humified organic matrices. On the other hand, about 500 g kg(-1) of soil humic acids were lost by purification. The fractions lost mainly consisted of carbohydrates. Dry blood showed the presence of humic acids that contrasted with its origin, thus indicating the limitations of the common analytical methods used for HA extraction. Nevertheless, in practice, purification caused the complete disappearance (914 g kg(-1) of HA was lost) of these HAs. The results obtained in this work suggest that the HA fraction isolated (named core-HA) effectively represents the HA structure proposed by the existing literature, since the purification proposed was able to eliminate the adsorbed organic molecules (interference materials) coating the HA structure. PMID:16735055

  4. Kinetics during the redox biotransformation of pollutants mediated by immobilized and soluble humic acids.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Francisco J; Martínez, Claudia M; Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Márquez, Arturo; Arriaga, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the kinetic constraints during the redox biotransformation of the azo dye, Reactive Red 2 (RR2), and carbon tetrachloride (CT) mediated by soluble humic acids (HAs) and immobilized humic acids (HAi), as well as by the quinoid model compounds, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS). The microbial reduction of both HAs and HAi by anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was the rate-limiting step during decolorization of RR2 since the reduction of RR2 by reduced HAi proceeded at more than three orders of magnitute faster than the electron-transferring rate observed during the microbial reduction of HAi by AGS. Similarly, the reduction of RR2 by reduced AQDS proceeded 1.6- and 1.9-fold faster than the microbial reduction of AQDS by AGS when this redox mediator (RM) was supplied in soluble and immobilized form, respectively. In contrast, the reduction of NQS by AGS occurred 1.6- and 19.2-fold faster than the chemical reduction of RR2 by reduced NQS when this RM was supplied in soluble and immobilized form, respectively. The microbial reduction of HAs and HAi by a humus-reducing consortium proceeded 1,400- and 790-fold faster than the transfer of electrons from reduced HAs and HAi, respectively, to achieve the reductive dechlorination of CT to chloroform. Overall, the present study provides elucidation on the rate-limiting steps involved in the redox biotransformation of priority pollutants mediated by both HAs and HAi and offers technical suggestions to overcome the kinetic restrictions identified in the redox reactions evaluated. PMID:22565330

  5. Simplified sample treatment for the determination of total concentrations and chemical fractionation forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2014-11-15

    A simpler, and faster than wet digestion, sample treatment was proposed prior to determination of total concentrations for selected macro- (Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn) in soluble coffees by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were dissolved in water and acidified with HNO3. Precision was in the range 1-4% and accuracy was better than 2.5%. The method was used in analysis of 18 soluble coffees available on the Polish market. Chemical fractionation patterns for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees, as consumed, using a two-column solid-phase extraction method, determined Ca, Mg and Mn were present predominantly as cations (80-93% of total content). This suggests these elements are likely to be highly bioaccessible. PMID:24912692

  6. Cryogenic process for fractionally removing acidic gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gazzi, L.; Cotone, G.; Ginnasi, A.; Rescalli, C.; Soldati, G.; Vetere, A.

    1985-07-16

    A process is described for stripping acidic gases, mainly hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, from natural gas or synthesis gas, especially when the percentages of such acidic gases are high and the conventional processes become economically objectionable. The process is based on the use of a number of selective solvents, generally belonging to the class of esters, ethers, mixed ester-ethers and lactones, in combination with sequential absorbing cycles which start from the stripping of hydrogen sulphide, and comprise the regeneration of the solvents used by several expansion cycles: H2S and CO2 are recovered and the regenerated solvents recycled.

  7. In vivo effects of LCO soluble fraction on immune-related functions and gene transcription in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg).

    PubMed

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Renault, Tristan; Faury, Nicole; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The effects of a soluble fraction of light cycle oil (LCO) on haemocyte parameters, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and mRNA expression of immune-related genes, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were tested after seven days of exposure and two weeks of recovery period. Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) out of ten detected in tank water had bioaccumulated at the end of the contamination period. The concentration of PAHs in oyster tissues decreased during the recovery period and 14 days after the exposure, 69% of bioaccumulated PAHs were detected in contaminated oysters. The exposure induced severe oyster mortality (21%), external and internal green colouration of the shell and a significant decrease of PO activity. The mRNA expression of several genes was altered. As a conclusion, a modulation of immune-related parameters was demonstrated using three different approaches, namely cellular (flow cytometry), biochemical (spectrophotometry) and genomics (gene transcription) in oysters after contact with soluble fraction of LCO. PMID:19800699

  8. Redox activity and in vitro bioactivity of the water-soluble fraction of urban particulate matter in relation to particle size and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Velali, Ekaterini; Papachristou, Eleni; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Planou, Styliani; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Besis, Athanasios; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini

    2016-01-01

    Chemical and toxicological characterization of the water-soluble fraction of size-segregated urban particulate matter (PM) (<0.49, 0.49-0.97, 0.97-1.5, 1.5-3.0, 3.0-7.2 and >7.2 μm) was carried out at two urban sites, traffic and urban background, during the cold and the warm period. Chemical analysis of the water-soluble PM fraction included ionic species (NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Ca, and Mg). The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was employed for the abiotic assessment of the oxidative PM activity. Cytotoxic responses were investigated in vitro by applying the mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT) and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) bioassays on human lung cells (MRC-5), while DNA damage was estimated by the single cell gel electrophoresis assay, known as Comet assay. The correlations between the observed bioactivity responses and the concentrations of water-soluble chemical PM constituents in the various size ranges were investigated. The results of the current study corroborate that short-term bioassays using lung human cells and abiotic assays, such as the DTT assay, could be relevant to complete the routine chemical analysis and to obtain a preliminary screening of the potential effects of PM-associated airborne pollutants on human health. PMID:26586634

  9. Quantification of Total Particulate Matter and Benzene-Soluble Fraction Inhalation Exposures in Roofing Workers Performing Tear-off Activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ronald H; Ferraro, John R; Dodson, James L; Hockman, Edwin L; McGovern, Amy E; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt shingle removal (tear-off) from roofs is a major job task for an estimated 174,000 roofers in the United States. However, a literature search showed that there are no published studies that characterize worker inhalation exposures to asphalt particulates during shingle tear-off. To begin to fill this gap, the present study of inhalation exposures of roofers performing asphalt shingle tear-off was undertaken. The airborne agents of interest were total particulate matter (TP) and organic particulates measured as the benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) of total particulate. The study's objectives were to measure the personal breathing zone (PBZ) exposures of roofing tear-off workers to BSF and TP; and to assess whether these PBZ exposures are different from ambient levels. Task-based PBZ samples (typical duration 1-5 hours) were collected during asphalt shingle tear-off from roofs near Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado. Samples were analyzed for TP and BSF using National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5042. As controls, area samples (typical duration 3-6 hours) were collected on the ground near the perimeter of the tear-off project Because of the presence of significant sources of inorganic particulates in the work environment, emphasis was placed on the BSF data. No BSF exposure higher than 0.25 mg/m3 was observed, and 69% of the PBZ samples were below the limit of detection (LOD). Due to unforeseen confounding, however, statistical comparisons of on-the-roof PBZ samples with on-the-ground area samples posed some special challenges. This confounding grew out of the interaction of three factors: statistical censoring from the left; the strong inverse correlation between LOD concentration and sampling duration; and variation in sampling durations between on-the-ground area samples and on-the-roof PBZ samples. A general linear model analysis of variance (GLM-ANOVA) was applied to help address the confounding. The results of this analysis

  10. Characterization of humic acid fractions by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Thorn, K.A.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soil humic acids from different environments were fractionated by adsorption chromatography on Sephadex and characterized by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C-13 NMR spectra of the fractions consist of some sharp, well-resolved lines and some broad bands in contrast to the spectra of the unfractionated humic acids, where the bands are broader and less well-resolved. The marked increase in resolution is apparently due to increased homogeneity of the fractions. These spectra are compared to the spectra of model compounds.

  11. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is an acid-base sensor in epithelial base-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Roa, Jinae N; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Blood acid-base regulation by specialized epithelia, such as gills and kidney, requires the ability to sense blood acid-base status. Here, we developed primary cultures of ray (Urolophus halleri) gill cells to study mechanisms for acid-base sensing without the interference of whole animal hormonal regulation. Ray gills have abundant base-secreting cells, identified by their noticeable expression of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA), and also express the evolutionarily conserved acid-base sensor soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Exposure of cultured cells to extracellular alkalosis (pH 8.0, 40 mM HCO3 (-)) triggered VHA translocation to the cell membrane, similar to previous reports in live animals experiencing blood alkalosis. VHA translocation was dependent on sAC, as it was blocked by the sAC-specific inhibitor KH7. Ray gill base-secreting cells also express transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); however, tmAC inhibition by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine did not prevent alkalosis-dependent VHA translocation, and tmAC activation by forskolin reduced the abundance of VHA at the cell membrane. This study demonstrates that sAC is a necessary and sufficient sensor of extracellular alkalosis in ray gill base-secreting cells. In addition, this study indicates that different sources of cAMP differentially modulate cell biology. PMID:27335168

  12. Interlaboratory evaluation of cellulosic acid-soluble internal air sampling capsules for multi-element analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ronnee N; Feng, H Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was carried out to evaluate the use of acid-soluble cellulosic air sampling capsules for their suitability in the measurement of trace elements in workplace atmospheric samples. These capsules are used as inserts to perform closed-face cassette sample collection for occupational exposure monitoring. The interlaboratory study was performed in accordance with NIOSH guidelines that describe statistical procedures for evaluating measurement accuracy of air monitoring methods. The performance evaluation materials used consisted of cellulose acetate capsules melded to mixed-cellulose ester filters that were dosed with multiple elements from commercial standard aqueous solutions. The cellulosic capsules were spiked with the following 33 elements of interest in workplace air monitoring: Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, Tl, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr. The elemental loading levels were certified by an accredited provider of certified reference materials. Triplicates of media blanks and multielement-spiked capsules at three different elemental loadings were sent to each participating laboratory; the elemental loading levels were not revealed to the laboratories. The volunteer participating laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in accordance with NIOSH methods. It was requested that the study participants report their analytical results in units of μg of each target element per internal capsule sample. For the majority of the elements investigated (30 out of 33), the study accuracy estimates obtained satisfied the NIOSH accuracy criterion (A < 25%). This investigation demonstrates the utility of acid-soluble internal sampling capsules for multielement analysis by atomic spectrometry. PMID:26308974

  13. Enzymatically- and Ultraviolet-labile Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions From Rice Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid is an important soil component which can improve nutrient availability and impact other important chemical, biological, and physical properties of soils. We investigated the lability of phosphorus (P) in the mobile humic acid (MHA) and calcium humate (CaHA) fractions of four rice soils as...

  14. Organic amendment effects on the transformation and fractionation of aluminum in acidic sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was attempted to evaluate the transformation of aluminum (Al) in an acidic sandy soil amended with composts (yard waste, yard + municipal waste, GreenEdge®, and synthetic humic acid), based on soil Al fractionation by single and sequential extraction. The compost amendment significantly i...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC ACID SIZE FRACTIONS BY SEC AND MALS (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Latahco silt-loam humic acid was separated on a preparatory scale by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a gravity-fed Sepharose column. Four fractions from this separation were collected and further analyzed, along with whole humic acid, by high-performance SEC coupled with a...

  16. Analysis of Phosphorus in Soil Humic Acid Fractions by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid is an important soil component which influences chemical, biological, and physical soil properties. In this study, we investigated lability of phosphorus (P) in the mobile humic acid (MHA) and calcium humate (CaHA) fractions of four soils by orthophosphate-releasing enzymatic hydrolysis a...

  17. Fractionation and Biological Activities of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Sclerotium of Tiger Milk Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Keong, Choong Yew; B, Vimala; Daker, Maelinda; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mohamad, Shaiful Azuar; Lan, Jin; Chen, Xiangdong; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the direct cytotoxic effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis fractions, especially the polysaccharide fraction, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. L. rhinocerotis crude extract was obtained through hot water extraction. The precipitate saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate was purified with ion-exchanged chromatography. Gel permeation chromatography multiangle laser light scattering analysis equipped with light scattering and UV signals revealed two district groups of polymers. A total of four peaks were observed in the total carbohydrate test. Fraction C, which was the second region of the second peak eluted with 0.3 M NaOH, showed the highest integrated molecular weight, whereas fraction E had the lowest integrated molecular weight of 19,790 Da. Fraction A contained the highest β-D-glucan content. Enzymatic analysis showed that most of the polysaccharide fractions contained β-1-3 and β-1-6 skeletal backbones. The peak eluted with 0.6 M NaOH was separated in fraction D (flask 89-92) and fraction E (93-96). The results showed that fraction E expressed higher antioxidant activities than fraction D whereas fraction D expressed higher chelating activity than fraction E. The extract saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate exhibited higher reducing power than the extract saturated with 100% ammonium sulfate. Fractions D and E significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. There was no apparent difference in the viability of cells exposed or unexposed to L. rhinocerotis fractions. PMID:27279536

  18. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different α chains, α1 and α2, as well as a β component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (p<0.01). Maximal solubility of individual collagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. PMID:24295705

  19. Pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid following administration of aspirin tablets and three different forms of soluble aspirin in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Attardo Parrinello, G; Vitiello, B; Perucca, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of an innovative formulation of soluble aspirin (l-ornithine acetylsalicylate, ldB 1003) was compared with that of conventional tablets and two other soluble dosage forms (d, l-lysine acetylsalicylate and a buffered effervescent formulation of acetylsalicylic acid) after administration of single oral doses in six normal volunteers. All soluble forms showed a rapid absorption profile, peak plasma salicylic acid levels being attained after about 30 min on average and without statistically significant differences among the solutions tested. As compared to the soluble formulations, acetylsalicylic acid given as tablets resulted in slower absorption, with peak plasma salicylic acid levels being reached more than 1 h after dosing. Despite these differences in time course of plasma level profiles, the extent of absorption was similar for all formulations. Apart from the potential advantages in terms of improved gastric tolerability, the increased rate of absorption of aspirin solutions is therapeutically useful whenever a rapid onset of action is required. In this respect, the kinetic pattern of the innovative formulation compares favourably with that of other available soluble dosage forms. PMID:2517497

  20. The entry of HCl through soluble surfactants on sulfuric acid: effects of chain branching.

    PubMed

    Burden, Daniel K; Johnson, Alexis M; Krier, James M; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2014-07-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to determine how a soluble, branched surfactant (2-ethylbutanol) controls the entry of gaseous HCl molecules into 60 and 68 wt % D2SO4 at 213 K. Short-chain alcohols spontaneously segregate to the surfaces of these sulfuric acid solutions, which are representative of aerosol droplets in the lower stratosphere. We find that 2-ethylbutanol enhances HCl entry at low surface coverages, most likely because it provides extra interfacial OH groups that aid HCl dissociation. This enhancement disappears at higher coverages as the alkyl chains crowd each other and block access to the acid. The branched alcohol impedes HCl entry more effectively than its unbranched isomer 1-hexanol, implying that the larger 2-ethybutanol footprint on the surface blocks more HCl molecules from reaching the alcohol-acid interface. This behavior contrasts sharply with gas transport through long-chain monolayers, where branching introduces gaps that allow more facile passage. The experiments suggest that short-chain surfactants with extended footprints may impede transport more effectively than their unbranched isomers. PMID:24620717

  1. Acid-Soluble Nucleotides in an Asporogenous Mutant of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, C. T.; Takahashi, I.

    1972-01-01

    An asporogenous mutant of Bacillus subtilis Sp−H12-3, which is considered to have a block at stage 0, showed general growth characteristics similar to those of sporulating cultures. However, a sudden increase in the total amount of acid-soluble nucleotides observed at t2 in sporulating bacteria was completely absent in this mutant. In sporulating cells, a marked increase in two nucleotides which were identified to be uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine was noted, whereas UDP-glucose appeared to be accumulated in the mutant cells at t2. No unusual nucleotides were found in the strains of B. subtilis examined. The possible role of these UDP derivatives in early stages of sporulation in B. subtilis is discussed. PMID:4622128

  2. Membranotropic properties of the water soluble amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene C60.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, R A; Kotelnikov, A I; Bogdanov, G N; Romanova, V S; Kuleshova, E F; Parnes, Z N; Vol'pin, M E

    1996-07-01

    The modifying effects of the products of the equimolar addition Of DL-alanine and DL-alanyl-DL-alanine to fullerene C60 on the structure and permeability of the lipid bilayer of phosphatidylcholine liposomes has been studied using the luminescence probe technique. It is shown that these water soluble amino acid and dipeptide derivatives of fullerene (C60-AD) are quenchers of pyrene fluorescence and erythrosine phosphorescence of in both a water solution and liposomes. To study the permeability of the lipid bilayer a procedure based on the triplet probe technique has been developed. It has been found that the C60-AD derivatives under study are able to localize inside the artificial membrane, to penetrate into the liposomes through the lipid bilayer and to perform activated transmembrane transport of bivalent metal ions. PMID:8766810

  3. Effects of motor patterns on water-soluble and membrane proteins and cholinesterase activity in subcellular fractions of rat brain tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevzner, L. Z.; Venkov, L.; Cheresharov, L.

    1980-01-01

    Albino rats were kept for a year under conditions of daily motor load or constant hypokinesia. An increase in motor activity results in a rise in the acetylcholinesterase activity determined in the synaptosomal and purified mitochondrial fractions while hypokinesia induces a pronounced decrease in this enzyme activity. The butyrylcholinesterase activity somewhat decreases in the synaptosomal fraction after hypokinesia but does not change under the motor load pattern. Motor load causes an increase in the amount of synaptosomal water-soluble proteins possessing an intermediate electrophoretic mobility and seem to correspond to the brain-specific protein 14-3-2. In the synaptosomal fraction the amount of membrane proteins with a low electrophoretic mobility and with the cholinesterase activity rises. Hypokinesia, on the contrary, decreases the amount of these membrane proteins.

  4. Effects of Soluble Lignin on the Formic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of Furfural: A Case Study for the Upgrading of Hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Dussan, Karla; Girisuta, Buana; Lopes, Marystela; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study is presented on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors obtained from the fractionation of Miscanthus, spruce bark, sawdust, and hemp by using formic acid. Experimental tests with varying temperature (130-170 °C), formic acid concentration (10-80 wt%), carbohydrate concentrations, and lignin separation were carried out, and experimental data were compared with predictions obtained by reaction kinetics developed in a previous study. The conversions of xylose and arabinose into furfural were inherently affected by the presence of polymeric soluble lignin, decreasing the maximum furfural yields observed experimentally by up to 24%. These results were also confirmed in synthetic mixtures of pentoses with Miscanthus and commercial alkali lignin. This observation was attributed to side reactions involving intermediate stable sugar species reacting with solubilized lignin during the conversion of xylose into furfural. PMID:26805656

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages. PMID:18565937

  6. A novel solid-state fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Shah, Jaimin R; Bailey, Jon; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2015-10-01

    Various sorbent materials were evaluated for the fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs) from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). The solid phase materials include activated carbon (AC), cellulose, iron oxides (magnetite and goethite), polyaniline (PANI) and three types of biochar derived from biomass (BC-1; rice husks, BC-2; acacia low temperature and BC-3; acacia high temperature). NAFCs were semi-quantified using electrospray ionization high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and the metals were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average removal efficacy of NAFCs by AC was 95%. The removal efficacy decreased in the following order: AC, BC-1>BC-2, BC-3, goethite>PANI>cellulose, magnetite. The removal of metals did not follow a clear trend; however, there was notable leaching of potassium by AC and biochar samples. The bound NAFCs by AC were desorbed efficiently with methanol. Methanol regeneration and recycling of AC revealed 88% removal on the fourth cycle; a 4.4% decrease from the first cycle. This fractionation method represents a rapid, cost-effective, efficient, and green strategy for NAFCs from OSPW, as compared with conventional solvent extraction. PMID:26042363

  7. Differentiation of roasted and soluble coffees through physical fractionation of selected essential and nonessential metals in their brews and exploratory data analysis.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Stelmach, Ewelina; Welna, Maja

    2016-11-01

    An analytical scheme for physical fractionation of Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn in ground roasted and soluble coffees brews was proposed. It was based on ultrafiltration through five ultrafiltration membranes having molecular weight cut-offs of 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100kDa. The highest ">100kDa" and the lowest "<5kDa" molecular weight fractions were established to differentiate the studied coffees brews the most. Al, Cu, Fe and Ni were mostly associated with the ">100kDa" fraction, while Co, K, Mg and Na - with the "<5kDa" fraction. For Ba, Ca, Mn, Sr and Zn, ">100kDa" and "<5kDa" fractions contributions were equally accounted. The physical fractionation pattern of selected metals was convenient for discovering important features of brews of both coffee types and differences between them by principal component analysis and then classifying them by linear discriminant analysis. PMID:27591664

  8. Potential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction of dust and particulate matters and relation to metal(loid)s based on three human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjuan; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Chan, Chuen Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2), human skin derived keratinocyte (KERTr,) and lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) were employed in MTT assay to evaluate the cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction of road dust, air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM2.5 via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation. Their effects on cell growth were dependent on exposure time and concentration. The LC20s of PM2.5 for A549 cell were approximately one order of magnitude lower than those of road dust and AC filter dust for KERTr cell and HepG2 cell. The LC20s of aqueous extracts were negatively correlated to the water-soluble metal(loid)s contained in dust coarse particles (KERTr: p=0.004; HepG2: p<0.001). However, no significant correlation between soluble metal(loid)s and LC20s of PM2.5 was observed for A549 cell (p>0.05). Other water-soluble components in dust and PM might cause the cell hazards synergistically or additively with metal(loid)s. PMID:25911218

  9. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  10. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals. PMID:22921654

  11. An organelle-free assay for pea chloroplast Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Mg-chelatase, which catalyzes the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin, lies at the branchpoint of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Since magnesium chelation is the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis, one would expect this step to be highly regulated. However, to date little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase due mostly to an inability to assay it's activity outside of the intact plastid. Here the authors report the first truly in vitro i.e. organelle-free, assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts which is 3 to 4 fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts, survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated, by centrifugation, into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity and both were inactivated by boiling; indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane bound protein(s). The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol Mg-Deuteroporphyrin/h/mg protein and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity. The soluble component could be fractionated with ammonium sulfate. The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. Crude separation of chloroplast membranes into thylakoids and envelopes, suggested that the membrane-bound component of Mg-chelatase is probably located in the envelope.

  12. Authentication of dried distilled grain with solubles (DDGS) by fatty acid and volatile profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tres, Alba; Heenan, Samuel P.; van Ruth, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Demand for ethanol substituted fuels from the utilisation of cereal based biofuel has resulted in an over production of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) that are now readily available on the animal feed market. With this rapid emerging availability comes potential variability in the nutritional value of DDGS and possible risks of feed contaminants. Subsequently, the authentication and traceability of alternative animal feed sources is of high priority. In this study and as part of the EU research project “Quality and Safety of Feeds and Food for Europe (QSAFFE FP7-KBBE-2010-4) an attempt was made to classify the geographical origin of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. DDGS material of wheat and corn origin were obtained from Europe, China, and the USA. Fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints were assessed by gas chromatography flame ionisation (GC-FID) and rapid proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) respectively. Chemometric analysis of fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints allowed for promising classifications of cereals used in DDGS material by geographical and botanical origin and enabled visual representation of the data. This objective analytical approach could be adapted for routine verification of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. PMID:25368433

  13. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in soluble calcium. L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 and L. casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment. PMID:18034738

  14. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy reveals chemical fractionation of humic acid by cation-induced coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Christl,I.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cation-induced coagulation on the chemical composition of dissolved and coagulated fractions of humic acid was investigated in batch coagulation experiments for additions of aluminum at pH 4 and 5, iron at pH 4, and calcium and lead at pH 6. The partitioning of organic carbon and metals was determined by analyzing total organic carbon and total metal contents of the dissolved phase. Both the dissolved and the coagulated humic acid fractions were characterized using synchrotron scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and C-1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Intensities of {pi}* transitions of carboxyl carbon and {sigma}* transitions of alkyl, O-alkyl, and carboxyl carbon decreased with increasing metal concentration for the dissolved humic acid fractions. This decrease was accompanied by an increase of the respective intensities in the coagulated fraction as shown for lead. Intensities of aromatic and phenolic carbon were affected to a larger extent only by aluminum and iron additions. The changes observed in the C-1s NEXAFS spectra coincided with an increasing removal of organic carbon from the dissolved phase with increasing total metal concentrations. We conclude that humic acid was chemically fractionated by cation-induced coagulation, which preferentially removed functional groups involved in metal-cation binding from solution.

  15. The effect of whey acidic protein fractions on bone loss in the ovariectomised rat.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; Plimmer, Gabrielle G; Schollum, Linda M; Haggarty, Neill; Ram, Satyendra; Palmano, Kate

    2005-08-01

    Bovine milk has been shown to contain bioactive components with bone-protective properties. Earlier studies on bovine milk whey protein showed that it suppressed bone resorption in the female ovariectomised rat. A new osteotropic component was subsequently identified in the whey basic protein fraction, but bone bioactivity may also be associated with other whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated whether acidic protein fractions isolated from bovine milk whey could prevent bone loss in mature ovariectomised female rats. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) or left intact (sham). The OVX rats were randomised into four groups. One group remained the control (OVX), whereas three groups were fed various whey acidic protein fractions from milk whey as 3 g/kg diet for 4 months. Outcomes were bone mineral density, bone biomechanics and markers of bone turnover. Bone mineral density of the femurs indicated that one of the whey AF over time caused a recovery of bone lost from OVX. Plasma C-telopeptide of type I collagen decreased significantly in all groups except OVX control over time, indicating an anti-resorptive effect of whey acidic protein. Biomechanical data showed that the AF may affect bone architecture as elasticity was increased by one of the whey AF. The femurs of AF-supplemented rats all showed an increase in organic matter. This is the first report of an acidic whey protein fraction isolated from milk whey that may support the recovery of bone loss in vivo. PMID:16115359

  16. Formation and catalytic activity of high molecular weight soluble polymers produced by heating amino acids in a modified sea medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihana, Hiroyuki

    1982-06-01

    Eighteen protein amino acids with milk casein composition were heated in a modified sea medium. Marigranules were formed in the precipitates and soluble polymers were formed in the supernatant. Time course of the reaction (ultraviolet spectra, the concentration of metal ions, and the concentration of amino acids in the supernatant) were measured. The time course of the formation of the soluble polymers was also studied by Bio-Gel P-2 column. High molecular weight soluble polymers (HMWSP) were separated from low molecular weight ones by dialysis. It was shown that these polymers catalyzed the dehydrogenation of NADH. These polymers also catalyzed the coupled reaction between dehydrogenation of NADH and reduction of resazurin. This coupled reaction was accelerated by the light.

  17. The participation of soluble factors in the omega-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver of the sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, W.R.; Wahle, K.W. )

    1991-02-01

    The removal of soluble components from an ovine hepatic microsomal preparation decreased the omega-hydroxylation of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids. The results suggest that one or more soluble components play a role in the microsomal omega-hydroxylation of fatty acids. The possible roles in the reaction of catalase (known to stimulate the microsomal desaturations of fatty acids and alkylglycerols) and superoxide dismutase were investigated. The addition of these enzymes to the complete (but not the washed) microsomal preparation stimulated both the initial omega-hydroxylation reaction and the subsequent dehydrogenation reactions of the omega-oxidation pathway. The similarity of the effects of catalase and superoxide dismutase and stimulation of two different steps of the omega-oxidation pathway suggest that these agents are acting indirectly by removing active oxygen species rather than directly on the enzymes of microsomal fatty acid omega-hydroxylation.

  18. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. PMID:23856466

  19. Effects of soluble ferri-hydroxide complexes on microbial neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, A Azra; Silverstein, JoAnn; Hernandez, Mark

    2005-10-15

    Heterotrophic respiration of ferric iron by Acidiphilium cryptum was investigated in anoxic microcosms with initial media pH values from 1.5 to 3.5. No organic carbon consumption or iron reduction was observed with an initial pH of 1.5, indicating that A. cryptum may not be capable of iron respiration at this pH. Significant iron reduction was observed at pH 2.5 and 3.5, with different effects. When the initial pH was 3.5, pH increased to 4.7-5.5 over 60 days of incubation with simultaneous production of 0.4 g L(-1) Fe2+. However, at an initial pH of 2.5, no significant change in pH was observed during iron respiration, although the accumulation of soluble ferrous iron was significantly higher, averaging 1.1 g L(-1) Fe2+. The speciation of the ferric iron electron acceptor may explain these results. At pH values of 3.5 and higher, precipitated ferric hydroxide Fe- (OH)3 would have been the primary source of ferric iron, with reduction resulting in net production of OH- ions and the significant increases in media pH observed. However at pH 2.5, soluble complexes, FeOH2+ and Fe(OH)2+, may have been the more prevalent electron acceptors, and the alkalinity generated by reduction of complexed iron was low. The existence of charged ferri-hydroxide complexes at pH 2.5 was verified by voltammetry. Results suggest that initiation of bacterial iron reduction may result in neutralization of acid mine drainage. However, this effect is extremely sensitive to iron speciation within a relatively small and critical pH range. PMID:16295843

  20. Stability and solubility enhancement of ellagic acid in cellulose ester solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Harich, Kim; Wegiel, Lindsay; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-02-15

    Structurally varied, carboxyl-containing cellulose derivatives were evaluated for their ability to form amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) with ellagic acid (EA), in order to improve the solubility of this high-melting, poorly bioavailable, but highly bioactive natural flavonoid compound. ASDs of EA with carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared, and EA dissolution from these ASDs was compared with that from pure crystalline EA and from EA/poly(vinylpyrrolidinone) (PVP) solid dispersions (SD). Polymer/drug mixtures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRPD and FT-IR results indicated that EA was amorphous in solid dispersions with EA concentration up to 25 wt%. The stability against crystallization and solution concentrations of EA from these solid dispersions were significantly higher than those observed for physical mixtures and pure crystalline EA. HPMCAS stabilized EA most effectively, among the polymers tested, against both chemical degradation and recrystallization. The relative ability to solubilize EA from ASDs at pH 6.8 was PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB. EA dissolves from ASD in PVP quickly and completely (maximum 92%) at pH 6.8, but EA is also released from PVP at pH 1.2, and then crystallizes rapidly. Therefore PVP is not a practical candidate for EA ASD. In contrast, the cellulose derivative ASDs show very slow EA release at pH 1.2 (<4%) and faster but still incomplete drug release at pH 6.8 (maximum 35% for HPMCAS SD). The pH-triggered drug release from HPMCAS ASD makes HPMCAS a practical choice for EA solubility enhancement. PMID:23399175

  1. Efficacy of reducing sugar and phenol-sulfuric acid assays for analysis of soluble carbohydrates in feedstuffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing sugar (RSA) and phenol–sulfuric acid (PSA) assays are commonly used to analyze water-soluble carbohydrates. However, questions have arisen as to their accuracy for measurement of feedstuffs with diverse carbohydrate profiles. This study evaluated the efficacy of RSA and PSA as they would co...

  2. High time-resolution chemical characterization of the water-soluble fraction of ambient aerosols with PILS-TOC-IC and AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Carbone, S.; Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Mäkelä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Hillamo, R.

    2010-08-01

    A particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) was coupled with a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC) and two ion chromatographs (IC) to enable high time-resolution measurements of water-soluble ions and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by a single sampling and analytical set-up. The new high time-resolution measurement system, the PILS-TOC-IC, was able to provide essential chemical and physical information about fast changes in composition, concentrations and likely sources of the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosol. The concentrations of major water-soluble ions and WSOC were measured by the PILS-TOC-IC system from 25 April to 28 May 2009. The data of the PILS-TOC-IC setup was compared with the data from the High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data measured from 25 April to 8 May 2009. The measured water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM) concentration varied typically from 0.10 to 8.8 μg m-3 (on average 1.5 μg m-3). The WSPOM contributed on average 51% to particulate organic matter (POM) measured with the AMS. The correlation between the data of all the online measurement devices (AMS, PILS-TOC-IC, semicontinuous EC/OC carbon analyzer and TEOM) was excellent. For sulfate, nitrate and ammonium the correlations between the PILS-TOC-IC and AMS were 0.93, 0.96 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation between WSPOM and POM was also strong (r = 0.88). The identified sources of WSPOM were long-range transported biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. WSPOM and oxalate produced in biomass burning were clearly correlated with carbon monoxide.

  3. Induction of Apoptosis and Reduction of Endogenous Glutathione Level by the Ethyl-Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Methanol Extract of the Roots of Potentilla fulgens in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Debabrata; Choudhary, Alka; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Singh, Inder Pal; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla fulgens root traditionally used as a folk remedy in Meghalaya, India. However, systematic evaluation of its anticancer efficacy was limited. We investigated the anticancer potentials of the various extracts prepared by partitioning of the methanol extract of the root with the aim to discover major contributing factors from the most effective fractions. Methanol extract of P. fulgens roots (PRE) was prepared by maceration which was subsequently fractionated into hexane, ethyl-acetate (EA) and n-butanol soluble fractions. Various assays (clonogenic assay, Flow cytometry analysis, western blot, semiquantitative RT-PCR and the level of endogenous glutathione) were used to evaluate different parameters, such as Cell survivability, PARP-1 proteolysis, expression pattern of anti-apoptotic and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase heavy subunit (GCSC) genes in both MCF-7 and U87 cancer cell lines. Since the EA-fraction showed most efficient growth inhibitory effect, it was further purified and a total of nine compounds and some monomeric and dimeric flavan-3-ols were identified and characterized. Three compounds viz., epicatechin (EC), gallic acid (GA) and ursolic acid (UA) were taken on the basis of their higher yield and 10 μg/ml of each was mixed together. The concentration used in this study for PRE, EA- and Hex-fraction was 100 μg/ml, which was higher than the IC50 value. Apoptotic cell death in the PRE, EA-fraction and EC+GA+UA treated cancer cell cultures was significantly greater than in normal cells due to suppression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 following treatment. Depletion of glutathione by downregulating GCSC was also observed. Induction of apoptosis and lowering the level of glutathione are considered to be positive activity for an anticancer agent. Therefore, modulation of GSH concentration in tumor cells by PRE and its EA-fraction opened up the possibility of a new therapeutic approach because these plant products are not harmful to normal cells

  4. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids by a Soluble Extract From Developing Soybean Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Fractionation of developing soybean cotyledons into cellular components demonstrates that most of the activity necessary to incorporate acetate-1-14C into lipid remains in the supernatant from a 198,000g spin for 1 hr. The system studied is dependent upon ATP, CoA, and CO2. Concentrations of ATP greater than 4 × 10−3m are inhibitory, while 1 × 10−4m CoA is needed for optimal activity. Avidin inhibition of acetate incorporation into lipid could be reversed by biotin. Studies indicated that NADPH is a better source of reducing power than NADH. The system studied is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and this inhibition can be reversed by an excess of GSH. The system studied shows maximum activity in tris buffer at pH 8.6 or in glycine buffer, pH 9.4. The distribution of acetate into the various fatty acids is greatly influenced by the temperature of incubation. Cooler incubation temperatures favor the distribution of acetate into the more unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:16657038

  5. Studies on the fractionation of equine antivenom IgG by combinations of ammonium sulfate and caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Eursakun, Sukanya; Simsiriwong, Pavinee; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2012-11-01

    This study involved the use of combined stepwise ammonium sulfate (AS) and caprylic acid (CA) fractionation of equine antivenom IgG without intermediate separation of precipitate. Using a microplate and checker board titration format, plasma was treated under 66 conditions with varying concentrations of AS (0-25% saturation) and CA (0-5% v/v). The filtrate of each well was assayed for protein and antibody activity. At about 1.5-4.0% CA without AS, the precipitated plasma gave high specific antibody activity. Twelve precipitation conditions selected from the microplate experiment were studied in detail in tubes. The highest turbidity was with 5% CA alone. The highest antibody recovery of 95.45% was observed at 15% AS with 3.0% CA. The highest specific activity with 3.28 folds purification was observed with 4.0% CA. Thus, AS could reduce the turbidity induced by CA and increase the yield but not the purity of antibody. Size exclusion HPLC showed the antibody to be one single peak with 1.5% of soluble protein aggregate. When all parameters were considered, the optimum fractionation condition appeared to be 3.5% CA alone which gave high specific antibody activity (3.26 folds purification), antibody recovery (93.93%) and low turbidity (0.56% solid). Furthermore, better overall results were observed with one hour than overnight precipitation. PMID:22842065

  6. Quantifying solubility enhancement due to particle size reduction and crystal habit modification: case study of acetyl salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Robert B; Pencheva, Klimentina; Roberts, Kevin J; Auffret, Tony

    2007-08-01

    The poor solubility of potential drug molecules is a significant problem in the design of pharmaceutical formulations. It is well known, however, that the solubility of crystalline materials is enhanced when the particle size is reduced to submicron levels and this factor can be expected to enhance drug product bioavailability. Direct estimation of solubility enhancement, as calculated via the Gibbs-Thompson relationship, demands reasonably accurate values for the particle/solution interfacial tension and, in particular, its anisotropy with respect to the crystal product's habit and morphology. In this article, an improved, more molecule-centered, approach is presented towards the calculation of solubility enhancement factors in which molecular modeling techniques are applied, and the effects associated with both crystal habit modification and solvent choice are examined. A case study for facetted, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) crystals in equilibrium with saturated aqueous ethanol solution reveals that their solubility will be enhanced in the range (7-58%) for a crystal size of 0.02 microm, with significantly higher enhancement for crystal morphologies in which the hydrophobic crystal faces are more predominant than the hydrophilic faces and for solvents in which the solubility is smaller. PMID:17323349

  7. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of solvation of drug molecules: a thermodynamic approach by crystal lattice energy, sublimation, and solubility exemplified by hydroxybenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Perlovich, German L; Volkova, Tatyana V; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2006-07-01

    Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure and heat capacities for the 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured and thermodynamic functions of sublimation calculated (2-hydroxybenzoic acid: DeltaG(sub) (298) = 38.5 kJ/mol; DeltaH(sub) (298) = 96.6 +/- 0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaS(sub) (298) = 191 +/- 3 J/mol . K; 3-hydroxybenzoic acid: DeltaG(sub) (298) = 50.6 kJ/mol; DeltaH(sub) (298) = 105.2 +/- 0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaS(sub) (298) = 180 +/- 2 J/mol . K; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid: DeltaG(sub) (298) = 55.0 kJ/mol; DeltaH(sub) (298) = 113.3 +/- 0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaS(sub) (298) = 193 +/- 2 J/mol . K). Analysis of crystal lattice packing energies based on geometry optimization of the molecules in the crystal using diffraction data and the program Dmol(3) was carried out. The energetic contributions of van der Waals, Coulombic, and hydrogen bond terms to the total packing energy were analyzed. The fraction of hydrogen bond energy in the packing energy increases as: 3-hydroxybenzoic (29.7%) < 2-hydroxybenzoic (34.7%) < 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (42.0%). Enthalpies of evaporation were estimated from enthalpies of sublimation and fusion. Temperature dependencies of the solubility in n-octanol and n-hexane were measured. The thermodynamic functions of solubility and solvation processes were deduced. Specific and nonspecific solvation terms were distinguished using the transfer from the "inert" n-hexane to the other solvents. The transfer of the molecules from water to n-octanol is enthalpy driven process. PMID:16729271

  8. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  9. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  10. Two-dimensional NMR studies of size fractionated Suwannee River fulvic and humic acid reference.

    PubMed

    Haiber, S; Herzog, H; Burba, P; Gosciniak, B; Lambert, J

    2001-11-01

    Two-dimensional phase sensitive 13C,1H correlation spectra were applied to the investigation of substructures in size fractions obtained by tangential flow multistage ultrafiltration (MST-UF) of humic substances (HS) Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Reference (HS SR FA) and Suwannee River Humic Acid Reference (HS SR HA), purchased from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). After size fractionation with MST-UF the HS samples give well resolved two-dimensional 13C,1H-correlated NMR spectra which offer a great potential for substructure elucidation and even quantification. It is shown that low molecular size lignin moieties undergo demethylation of the methoxy groups, accompanied by removal of the phenylpropane side chains and subsequent reaggregation of the aromatic rings. These findings provide insight into the processes of lignin degradation. Only the fraction >100 kDa contains macromolecules that have spin-spin relaxation times too short for investigations employing NMR multipulse sequences. PMID:11718344

  11. Relative effectiveness of various anions on the solubility of acidic Hypoderma lineatum collagenase at pH 7.2.

    PubMed Central

    Carbonnaux, C.; Ries-Kautt, M.; Ducruix, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of various anions on decreasing the solubility of acidic Hypoderma lineatum collagenase at pH 7.2 and 18 degrees C were qualitatively defined by replacing the crystallizing agent of known crystallization conditions by various ammonium salts. The solubility curves measured in the presence of the sulfate, phosphate, citrate, and chloride ammonium salts gave the following ranking of anions: HPO4(2-)/H2PO4- > SO4(2-) > citrate 3-/citrate2- >> Cl-. This order is in agreement with the Hofmeister series. In a previous study on the solubility at pH 4.5 of lysozyme, a basic protein, the effectiveness of anions in decreasing the solubility was found to be in the reverse order. This suggests that the effectiveness of anions in the crystallization of proteins is dependent on the net charge of the protein, i.e., depending on whether a basic protein is crystallized at acidic pH or an acidic protein at basic pH. PMID:8535249

  12. Design, synthesis, structure, and dehydrogenation reactivity of a water-soluble o-iodoxybenzoic acid derivative bearing a trimethylammonium group.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Qian; Dong, Zhi-Lei; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Chi

    2011-12-16

    5-Trimethylammonio-1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-1λ(5)-benzo[d][1,2]iodoxol-1-ol anion (AIBX 1a), an o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) derivative having the trimethylammonium moiety on its phenyl ring, possesses very good solubility in water and distinct oxidative properties from IBX, which is demonstrated in the oxidation of various β-keto esters to the corresponding dehydrogenated products using water as cosolvent. The regeneration of AIBX 1a can be easily realized from the reaction mixture due to its good water solubility. PMID:22082110

  13. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

  14. Enhancement of the water solubility of organic pollutants such as pyrene and atrazine by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, H.H.; MacDonald, B.; Fang, F.

    1995-12-31

    Many factors determine the fate and transport of an organic pollutant in the environment but water solubility is certainly one of the most important. Among the environmental factors that alter the solubility of a molecule are naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. We have hypothesized that the humic/fulvic acids from different sources within a watershed have different binding affinities for pollutants such as pyrene and atrazine. This could lead to different rates of transport or bioavailability within the watershed. Humic/fulvic acids were isolated from a stream, adjacent wetland and nearby wooded upland sites. A fluorescence quenching method was developed to quantify the binding coefficient of the pollutants with the dissolved organic carbon. From these results a model was constructed to determine the sites with the greatest potential to modify pollutant contamination in the environment.

  15. Identification of a Soluble, High-Affinity Salicylic Acid-Binding Protein in Tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H.; Klessig, D. F.

    1997-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key component in the signal transduction pathway(s), leading to the activation of certain defense responses in plants after pathogen attack. Previous studies have identified several proteins, including catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, through which the SA signal might act. Here we describe a new SA-binding protein. This soluble protein is present in low abundance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and has an apparent molecular weight of approximately 25,000. It reversibly binds SA with an apparent dissociation constant of 90 nM, an affinity that is 150-fold higher than that between SA and catalase. The ability of most analogs of SA to compete with labeled SA for binding to this protein correlated with their ability to induce defense gene expression and enhanced resistance. Strikingly, benzothiadiazole, a recently described chemical activator that induces plant defenses and disease resistance at very low rates of application, was the strongest competitor, being much more effective than unlabeled SA. The possible role of this SA-binding protein in defense signal transduction is discussed. PMID:12223676

  16. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  17. Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Rui; Huang, Lei; Song, Yujie; Regenstein, Joe M

    2014-05-01

    Annual outbreaks of the Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye) in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are regarded as a nuisance. Thus, utilizing this jellyfish species is of great significance to reduce harm to fisheries and marine environments. The yield of the acid-soluble collagens (ASCs) from the C. nozakii umbrella was 13.0% (dry weight) and that of the pepsin-solubilised collagens (PSCs) was 5.5% (dry weight). The SDS-PAGE patterns of the ASCs and PSCs differed from that of type I collagen, which indicate the presence of (α1)3. The denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagens was approximately 23.8°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASCs and PSCs retained their helical structures and the As, Pb, and Hg content of the collagens, detected by ICP-MS, were considerably lower than the national standards. The results suggest that collagens isolated from C. nozakii can potentially be used as an alternative source of collagen for use in various applications. PMID:24360414

  18. Adsorption and condensation of amino acids and nucleotides with soluble mineral salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J.; Lahav, N.

    1986-01-01

    The directed synthesis of biopolymers in an abiotic environment is presumably a cyclic sequence of steps which may be realized in a fluctuating environment such as a prebiotic pond undergoing wetting-drying cycles. Soluble mineral salts have been proposed as an essential component of this fluctuating environment. The following sequence may be considered as a most primitive mechanism of information transfer in a fluctuating environment: (1) adsorption of a biomolecule onto a soluable mineral salt surface to act as an adsorbed template; (2) specific adsorption of biomonomers onto the adsorbed template; (3) condensation of the adsorbed biomonomers; and (4) desorption of the elongated oligomer. In this investigation, the salts selected for study were CaSO4.2H2O(gypsum), SrSO4, and several other metal sulfates and chlorides. Adsorption of the monomeric species, gly, 5'AMP 5'GMP, and 5'CMP was investigated. The adsorbed template biopolymers used were Poly-A, Poly-G, Poly-C, and Poly-U. The results of studies involving these experimental participants, the first two steps of the proposed primitive information transfer mechanism, and condensation of amino acids to form oligomers in a fluctuating environment are to be reported.

  19. Plastic bags for stable storage of the water-soluble fraction of crude petroleum used in aquatic environment toxicity and tainting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heras, H.; Zhou, S.; Ackman, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    Each year, an estimated 4,000,000 t of petroleum enter the marine environment through sea and land based discharges, atmospheric fall-out and other events. Aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons are tainting components of crude petroleum, and are potentially toxic because they are relatively soluble in water. Depending on concentration, they are also carcinogenic. Many laboratory studies have been conducted with marine organisms, both vertebrates and invertebrates, to assess the effects of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons with respect to physiology, toxicity, and tainting. When such experiments are conducted in a controlled water environment, the WSF is generally used, rather than specific hydrocarbons. This fraction has traditionally been prepared immediately before carrying out the experiment, or in several batches during the study, sometimes with results confused by erratic concentrations. Any procedure to store large amounts of WSF for long periods without changes in the composition would increase the feasibility and reproducibility of long-term studies. As part of an ongoing project which needs large volumes of WSF of constant composition to study the tainting effect of WSF on adult Atlantic salmon, we compared two different storage systems for the stability of contained WSF over time. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Experimental oxygen isotope fractionation between siderite-water and phosphoric acid liberated CO2-siderite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carothers, W.W.; Adami, L.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium fractionation of O isotopes between synthetic siderite and water has been measured at temperatures ranging from 33?? to 197??C. The fractionation between siderite and water over this temperature range can be represented by the equation: 103 ln ?? = 3.13 ?? 106T-2 - 3.50. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical fractionations is favorable only at approximately 200??C; at lower temperatures, they generally differ by up to 2 permil. Siderite was prepared by the slow addition of ferrous chloride solutions to sodium bicarbonate solutions at the experimental temperatures. It was also used to determine the O isotope fractionation factors between phosphoric acid liberated CO2 and siderite. The fractionation factors for this pair at 25?? and 50??C are 1.01175 and 1.01075, respectively. Preliminary results of the measured C isotope fractionation between siderite and Co2 also indicate C isotopic equilibrium during precipitation of siderite. The measured distribution of 13C between siderite and CO2 coincides with the theoretical values only at about 120??C. Experimental and theoretical C fractionations differ up to 3 permil at higher and lower temperatures. ?? 1988.

  1. Mass spectrometry assessment of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 partitioning between soluble and particulate brain homogenate fractions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjun; Huang, Richard Y-C; Turko, Illarion V

    2013-06-18

    Partitioning of specific proteins between soluble and insoluble forms because of aggregation, membrane attachment, and (or) association with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is a major feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is an example of a neuron-specific protein which displays two different dimerization-dependent catalytic activities and can be farnesylated for membrane attachment, oxidized, and truncated. Decreased levels of soluble UCH-L1 are inversely proportional to the number of neurofibrillary tangles. Further assessment of a link between UCH-L1 function and the pathogenesis of AD requires an analytical method to separately quantify different UCH-L1 forms. In the present study, we have developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay to measure UCH-L1 in the high-speed supernatant and pellet of frontal cortex homogenate. The well-characterized (15)N-labeled quantification concatamer (QconCAT) carrying prototypic tryptic peptides of UCH-L1 was used as an internal standard. The composed protocol of frontal cortex processing includes solubilization and reduction/alkylation of proteins in the presence of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and following with desalting/delipidation of the sample by chloroform/methanol precipitation with extra water washing of the protein pellet. The measurements were performed for frontal cortex samples from control and severe AD donors. The proposed workflow can be recommended for quantification of partitioning of other proteins of interest. PMID:23682718

  2. Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid compositions and molecular weights but differ in fatty acid acylation.

    PubMed Central

    Luhrs, C A; Pitiranggon, P; da Costa, M; Rothenberg, S P; Slomiany, B L; Brink, L; Tous, G I; Stein, S

    1987-01-01

    A membrane-associated folate binding protein (FBP) and a soluble FBP, which is released into the culture medium, have been purified from human KB cells using affinity chromatography. By NaDodSO4/PAGE, both proteins have an apparent Mr of approximately 42,000. However, in the presence of Triton X-100, the soluble FBP eluted from a Sephadex G-150 column with an apparent Mr of approximately 40,000 (similar to NaDodSO4/PAGE) but the membrane-associated FBP eluted with an apparent Mr of approximately 160,000, indicating that this species contains a hydrophobic domain that interacts with the detergent micelles. The amino acid compositions of both forms of FBP were similar, especially with respect to the apolar amino acids. In addition, the 18 amino acids at the amino termini of both proteins were identical. The membrane FBP, following delipidation with chloroform/methanol, contained 7.1 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein, of which 4.7 mol was amide-linked and 2.4 mol was ester-linked. The soluble FBP contained only 0.05 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein. These studies indicate that the membrane FBP of KB cells contains covalently bound fatty acids that may serve to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. Images PMID:3476960

  3. Removal and recovery of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid from aqueous solutions using a soluble polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brian; Gilcrease, Patrick C; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    In the cellulosic ethanol process, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid are formed during the high temperature acidic pretreatment step needed to convert biomass into fermentable sugars. These compounds can inhibit cellulase enzymes and fermentation organisms at relatively low concentrations (≥ 1 g/L). Effective removal of these inhibitory compounds would allow the use of more severe pretreatment conditions to improve sugar yields and lead to more efficient fermentations; if recovered and purified, they could also be sold as valuable by-products. This study investigated the separation of aldhehydes (furfural and HMF) and organic acid (acetic acid) inhibitory compounds from simple aqueous solutions by using polyethyleneimene (PEI), a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. PEI added to simple solutions of each inhibitor at a ratio of 1 mol of functional group to 1 mol inhibitor removed up to 89.1, 58.6, and 81.5 wt% of acetic acid, HMF, and furfural, respectively. Furfural and HMF were recovered after removal by washing the polyelectrolyte/inhibitor complex with dilute sulfuric acid solution. Recoveries up to 81.0 and 97.0 wt% were achieved for furfural and HMF, respectively. The interaction between PEI and acetic acid was easily disrupted by the addition of chloride ions, sulfate ions, or hydroxide ions. The use of soluble polymers for the removal and recovery of inhibitory compounds from biomass slurries is a promising approach to enhance the efficiency and economics of an envisioned biorefinery. PMID:21455937

  4. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kathryn M; Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D; Gutterman, David D; Falck, J R; Campbell, William B

    2011-10-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H(2)O(2) causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H(2)O(2), catalase is used to inactivate H(2)O(2). However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10-50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1-10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (V(max) = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase(-1)·min(-1), respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H(2)O(2) and EETs. PMID:21753077

  5. Investigation of adsorptive fractionation of humic acid on graphene oxide using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Mi; Seo, Young-Soo; Hur, Jin

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the adsorptive fractionation of a humic acid (HA, Elliott soil humic acid) on graphene oxide (GO) was examined at pH 4 and 6 using absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM)-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The extent of the adsorption was greater at pH 4.0 than at pH 6.0. Aromatic molecules within the HA were preferentially adsorbed onto the GO surface, and the preferential adsorption was more pronounced at pH 6, which is above the zero point of charge of GO. A relative ratio of two PARAFAC humic-like components (ex/em maxima at 270/510 nm and at (250, 265)/440 nm) presented an increasing trend with larger sizes of ultrafiltered humic acid fractions, suggesting the potential for using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC for tracking the changes in molecular sizes of aromatic HA molecules. The individual adsorption behaviors of the two humic-like components revealed that larger sized aromatic components within HA had a higher adsorption affinity and more nonlinear isotherms compared to smaller sized fractions. Our results demonstrated that adsorptive fractionation of HA occurred on the GO surface with respect to their aromaticity and the sizes, but the degree was highly dependent on solution pH as well as the amount of adsorbed HS (or available surface sites). The observed adsorption behaviors were reasonably explained by a combination of different mechanisms previously suggested. PMID:25682051

  6. Interactions between water soluble porphyrin-based star polymer and amino acids: Spectroscopic evidence of molecular binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Nicola; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Mineo, Placido; Vitalini, Daniele; Scamporrino, Emilio

    2005-02-01

    Molecular interactions giving rise to stable complexes between an uncharged water soluble cobalt-porphyrin and amino acids are investigated by time-resolved fluorescence, uv-vis, and circular dichroism measurements. This metalloporphyrin seems to act, by means of the coordination site of the cobalt of the core, as a recognition host, preferentially, with amino acids possessing aromatic groups. The binding with aliphatic amino acids requires longer time scales to be efficient and likely involves a slow kinetic process. The experimental findings suggest that, besides the metal(host)-N(guest) coordination bond, which is the common requisite for all amino acids, a preferential interaction with aromatic groups exists there. The solubility in water of the molecule, guaranteed by the polyethylene glycol arms as peripheral substituents, in the absence of electric charges, allows for a more selective discrimination of the binding process with respect to other water-soluble charged porphyrins. The interest devoted to the porphyrin-based star polymer and its recognition properties is, therefore, founded on the potential use either in polymeric matrices for material science or in aqueous solution for bioscience.

  7. Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Through Complexation of Ferric Iron by Soluble Microbial Growth Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Rajaram, H.; Minchow, K.; Basta, J.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem with deleterious impacts on water quality in streams and watersheds. AMD is generated largely by the oxidation of metal sulfides (i.e. pyrite) by ferric iron. This abiotic reaction is catalyzed by conversion of ferrous to ferric iron by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Biostimulation is currently being investigated as an attempt to inhibit the oxidation of pyrite and growth of iron oxidizing bacteria through addition of organic carbon. This may stimulate growth of indigenous communities of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria to compete for oxygen. The goal of this research is to investigate a secondary mechanism associated with carbon addition: complexation of free Fe(III) by soluble microbial growth products (SMPs) produced by microorganisms growing in waste rock. Exploratory research at the laboratory scale examined the effect of soluble microbial products (SMPs) on the kinetics of oxidation of pure pyrite during shaker flask experiments. The results confirmed a decrease in the rate of pyrite oxidation that was dependent upon the concentration of SMPs in solution. We are using these data to verify results from a pyrite oxidation model that accounts for SMPs. This reactor model involves differential-algebraic equations incorporating total component mass balances and mass action laws for equilibrium reactions. Species concentrations determined in each time step are applied to abiotic pyrite oxidation rate expressions from the literature to determine the evolution of total component concentrations. The model was embedded in a parameter estimation algorithm to determine the reactive surface area of pyrite in an abiotic control experiment, yielding an optimized value of 0.0037 m2. The optimized model exhibited similar behavior to the experiment for this case; the root mean squared of residuals for Fe(III) was calculated to be 7.58 x 10-4 M, which is several orders of magnitude less than the actual

  8. Characterization of acid-and pepsin-soluble collagens from spines and skulls of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Ding, Guo-Fang; Li, Zhong-Rui

    2014-09-01

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from the spine (ASC-SP and PSC-SP) and skull (ASC-SK and PSC-SK) of the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, were successfully isolated and characterized. The yields of ASC-SP, PSC-SP, ASC-SK and PSC-SK were (2.47 ± 0.39)%, (5.62 ± 0.82)%, (3.57 ± 0.40)%, and (6.71 ± 0.81)%, respectively, on the basis of dry weight. The four collagens contained Gly (330.2-339.1 residues/1 000 residues) as the major amino acid, and their imino acid contents were between 168.8 and 178.2 residues/1 000 residues. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR investigations confirmed that ASC-SP and ASC-SK were mainly composed of type I collagen, and had higher contents of high-molecular weight cross-links than those of PSC-SK and PSC-SP. The FTIR investigation also certified all the collagens had triple helical structure. The denaturation temperatures of ASC-SK, PSC-SK, ASC-SP, and PSC-SP were 17.8, 16.6, 17.6, and 16.5 °C, respectively. All isolated collagens were soluble at acidic pH (1-5) and lost their solubilities when the NaCl concentration was above 2% (W/V). The isolated collagens from the spines and skulls of skipjack tuna could serve as an alternative source of collagens for further application in food, cosmetic, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25263986

  9. Fractionation of Suwannee River fulvic acid and aldrich humic acid on alpha-Al2O3: spectroscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Claret, Francis; Schäfer, Thorsten; Brevet, Julien; Reiller, Pascal E

    2008-12-01

    Sorptive fractionation of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) and Purified Aldrich Humic Acid (PAHA) on alpha-Al2O3 at pH 6 was probed in the supernatant using different spectroscopic techniques. Comparison of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis with UV/vis spectrophotometric measurements at 254 nm, including specific UV absorbance (SUVA) calculation, revealed a decrease in chromophoric compounds for the nonsorbed extracts after a 24 h contact time. This fractionation, only observable below a certain ratio between initial number of sites of humic substances and of alpha-Al2O3, seems to indicate a higher fractionation for PAHA. C(1s) near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) confirmed this trend and points to a decrease in phenolic moieties in the supernatant and to an eventual increase in phenolic moieties on the surface. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS) of Eu(III) as luminescent probe showed a decrease in the ratio between the (5)D0-->(7)F2 and (5)D0-->(7)F1 transitions for the fractionated organic matter (OM) that is thought to be associated with a lower energy transfer from the OM to Eu(III) due to the loss of polar aromatics. These modifications in the supernatant are a hint for the modification of sorbed humic extracts on the surface. PMID:19192802

  10. Fractionation of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid and Aldrich Humic Acid on α-Al2O3: Spectroscopic Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Claret, F.; Schäfer, T; Brevet, J; Reiller, P

    2008-01-01

    Sorptive fractionation of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) and Purified Aldrich Humic Acid (PAHA) on a-Al2O3 at pH 6 was probed in the supernatant using different spectroscopic techniques. Comparison of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis with UV/vis spectrophotometric measurements at 254 nm, including specific UV absorbance (SUVA) calculation, revealed a decrease in chromophoric compounds for the nonsorbed extracts after a 24 h contact time. This fractionation, only observable below a certain ratio between initial number of sites of humic substances and of a-Al2O3, seems to indicate a higher fractionation for PAHA. C(1s) near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) confirmed this trend and points to a decrease in phenolic moieties in the supernatant and to an eventual increase in phenolic moieties on the surface. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS) of Eu(III) as luminescent probe showed a decrease in the ratio between the 5D0?7F2 and 5D0?7F1 transitions for the fractionated organic matter (OM) that is thought to be associated with a lower energy transfer from the OM to Eu(III) due to the loss of polar aromatics. These modifications in the supernatant are a hint for the modification of sorbed humic extracts on the surface.

  11. Using the concept of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein solubility: an approach with entropies in information theory.

    PubMed

    Xiaohui, Niu; Nana, Li; Jingbo, Xia; Dingyan, Chen; Yuehua, Peng; Yang, Xiao; Weiquan, Wei; Dongming, Wang; Zengzhen, Wang

    2013-09-01

    Protein solubility plays a major role and has strong implication in the proteomics. Predicting the propensity of a protein to be soluble or to form inclusion body is a fundamental and not fairly resolved problem. In order to predict the protein solubility, almost 10,000 protein sequences were downloaded from NCBI. Then the sequences were eliminated for the high homologous similarity by CD-HIT. Thus, there were 5692 sequences remained. Based on protein sequences, amino acid and dipeptide compositions were generally extracted to predict protein solubility. In this study, the entropy in information theory was introduced as another predictive factor in the model. Experiments involving nine different feature vector combinations, including the above-mentioned three kinds of factors, were conducted with support vector machines (SVMs) as prediction engine. Each combination was evaluated by re-substitution test and 10-fold cross-validation test. According to the evaluation results, the accuracies and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) values were boosted by the introduction of the entropy. The best combination was the one with amino acid, dipeptide compositions and their entropies. Its accuracy reached 90.34% and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) value was 0.7494 in re-substitution test, while 88.12% and 0.7945 respectively for 10-fold cross-validation. In conclusion, the introduction of the entropy significantly improved the performance of the predictive method. PMID:23524162

  12. Cryomilling-induced solid dispersion of poor glass forming/poorly water-soluble mefenamic acid with polyvinylpyrrolidone K12.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naewon; Lee, Jangmi; Choi, Ji Na; Mao, Chen; Lee, Eun Hee

    2015-06-01

    The effect of mechanical impact on the polymorphic transformation of mefenamic acid (MFA) and the formation of a solid dispersion of mefenamic acid, a poor glass forming/poorly-water soluble compound, with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K12 was investigated. The implication of solid dispersion formation on solubility enhancement of MFA, prepared by cryomilling, was investigated. Solid state characterization was conducted using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with crystal structure analysis. Apparent solubility of the mixtures in pH 7.4 buffer was measured. A calculation to compare the powder patterns and FTIR spectra of solid dispersions with the corresponding physical mixtures was conducted. Solid state characterization showed that (1) MFA I transformed to MFA II when pure MFA I was cryogenically milled (CM); and (2) MFA forms a solid dispersion when MFA was cryogenically milled with PVP K12. FTIR spectral analysis showed that hydrogen bonding facilitated by mechanical impact played a major role in forming solid dispersions. The apparent solubility of MFA was significantly improved by making a solid dispersion with PVP K12 via cryomilling. This study highlights the importance of cryomilling with a good hydrogen bond forming excipient as a technique to prepare solid dispersion, especially when a compound shows a poor glass forming ability and therefore, is not easy to form amorphous forms by conventional method. PMID:24849785

  13. Simultaneous determination of molecular weights and contents of water-soluble polysaccharides and their fractions from Lycium barbarum collected in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lam, Shing-Chung; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wei, Feng; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Long, Ze-Rong; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-10

    Molecular weights and contents of water-soluble polysaccharides and their fractions in fifty batches of fruits of Lycium barbarum (wolfberry) collected from different regions of China, including Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Gansu, were simultaneously determined using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector (RID) with the refractive index increment (dn/dc). Results showed that HPSEC chromatograms and molecular weight distributions of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China were similar. Furthermore, the average contents of each polysaccharide fraction (peaks 1, 2, and 3) in crude polysaccharides of L. barbarum collected from Ningxia were similar with those of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Gansu, respectively. However, significant difference was found between polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from Ningxia and Qinghai. Moreover, the average amounts of total polysaccharide fractions (peaks 1, 2, and 3) in the raw material of L. barbarum collected from Ningxia were significantly higher than that of Qinghai. These results may contribute to the rational usage of L. barbarum produced in China, and are beneficial for the improvement of their quality control. Results suggested that HPSEC-MALLS-RID with the dn/dc method could be used as a routine method for the quality evaluation of polysaccharides from natural resources and their products. PMID:27429371

  14. Restoration of Brain Acid Soluble Protein 1 Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Run-Sheng; Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yue-Yu; Shen, Na; Qiu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1) is identified as a novel potential tumor suppressor in several cancers. However, its role in thyroid cancer has not been investigated yet. In the present study, the antitumor activities of BASP1 against the growth and migration of thyroid cancer cells were evaluated. Methods: BASP1 expression in thyroid cancer tissues and normal tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and the association between its expression and prognosis was analyzed. pcDNA-BASP1 carrying full length of BASP1 cDNA was constructed to restore the expression of BASP1 in thyroid cancer cell lines (BHT-101 and KMH-2). The cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo was evaluated by WST-1 assay and xenograft tumor models, respectively. Cell cycle distribution after transfection was analyzed using flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis after transfection was examined by annexin V/propidium iodide assay. The migration was examined using transwell assay. Results: BASP1 expression was abundant in normal tissues while it is significantly decreased in cancer tissues (P = 0.000). pcDNA-BASP1 restored the expression of BASP1 and significantly inhibited the growth of BHT-101 and KMH-2 cells as well as xenograft tumors in nude mice (P = 0.000). pcDNA-BASP1 induced G1 arrest and apoptosis in BHT-101 and KMH-2 cells. In addition, pcDNA-BASP1 significantly inhibited the cell migration. Conclusions: Downregulation of BASP1 expression may play a role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. Restoration of BASP1 expression exerted extensive antitumor activities against growth and migration of thyroid cancer cells, which suggested that BASP1 gene might act as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:27270539

  15. Thermodynamic modelling of the effect of hydroxycarboxylic acids on the solubility of plutonium at high pH

    SciTech Connect

    Moreton, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    A number of the hydroxycarboxlyic acids generated by the alkaline degradation of cellulosic wastes under reducing conditions in a cementitious repository can significantly increase the solubility of the actinides at high pH, especially plutonium. The solubility of plutonium at pH 12, in the presence of a range of hydroxycarboxylic acids containing a number of hydroxyl groups and between one and three carboxylate groups, has been modelled using the HARPHRQ code. All the plutonium-organic complexes assumed in the model are based on a stable unit in which a central plutonium ion is bound by four oxygen atoms. The oxygen atoms can be provided either by a deprotonated hydroxyl group on one of the ligands, or by hydroxide ions.

  16. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of heat treatment on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to develop regression equations that may be used to predict the concentration of SID AA in corn DDGS. A source of corn DDGS was divided into 4 batches that were either not autoclaved or autoclaved at 130°C for 10, 20, or 30 min. Four diets containing DDGS from each of the 4 batches were formulated with DDGS being the only source of AA and CP in the diets. A N-free diet also was formulated and used to determine the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Ten growing pigs (initial BW: 53.5 ± 3.9 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square design with 5 diets and 4 periods in each square. The SID of CP decreased linearly (P < 0.05) from 77.9% in non-autoclaved DDGS to 72.1, 66.1, and 68.5% in the DDGS samples that were autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The SID of lysine was quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) from 66.8% in the non-autoclaved DDGS to 54.9, 55.3, and 51.9% in the DDGS autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The concentrations of SID Arginine, Histidine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, or Threonine may be best predicted by equations that include the concentration of acid detergent insoluble N in the model (r2 = 0.76, 0.68, 0.67, 0.84, 0.76, 0.73, or 0.54, respectively). The concentrations of SID Isoleucine and Valine were predicted (r2 = 0.58 and 0.54, respectively) by the Lysine:CP ratio, whereas the concentration of SID Tryptophan was predicted (r2 = 0.70) by the analyzed concentration of Tryptophan in DDGS. In conclusion, the SID of AA is decreased as a result of heat damage and the concentration of SID AA in heat-damaged DDGS may be predicted by regression equations

  17. High time-resolution chemical characterization of the water-soluble fraction of ambient aerosols with PILS-TOC-IC and AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Carbone, S.; Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Mäkelä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hillamo, R.

    2010-04-01

    A particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) was coupled with a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC) and two ion chromatographs (IC) to enable high time-resolution measurements of water-soluble ions and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by a single sampling and analytical set-up. The new high time-resolution measurement system, the PILS-TOC-IC, was able to provide essential chemical and physical information about fast changes in composition, concentrations and likely sources of the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosol. The concentrations of major water-soluble ions and WSOC were measured by the PILS-TOC-IC system from 25 April to 28 May 2009. The data of the PILS-TOC-IC setup was completed with the data from the High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data measured from 25 April to 8 May 2009. The measured water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM) concentration varied typically from 0.10 to 8.8 µg m-3 (on average 1.5 µg m-3). The WSPOM contributed on average 51% to particulate organic matter (POM) measured with the AMS. The correlation between the data of all the online measurement devices (AMS, PILS-TOC-IC, semicontinous EC/OC carbon analyzer and TEOM) was excellent. For sulfate, nitrate and ammonium the correlations between the PILS-TOC-IC and AMS were 0.93, 0.96 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation between WSPOM and POM was also strong (r=0.88). The identified sources of WSPOM were long-range transported biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The WSPOM/POM-ratio followed the trends of the ambient daytime temperature. The temperature dependency of the WSPOM/POM-ratio suggest that in the absence of emissions from biomass burning, the SOA formation was the prevailing source for WSPOM. WSPOM produced in biomass burning was clearly correlated with carbon monoxide, confirming that biomass burning was producing primary WSPOM. In addition, elevated oxalate and potassium concentrations were measured

  18. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  19. Low acid hydrothermal fractionation of Giant Miscanthus for production of xylose-rich hydrolysate and furfural.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-10-01

    Low acid hydrothermal (LAH) fractionation was developed for the effective recovery of hemicellulosic sugar (mainly xylose) from Miscanthus sacchariflorus Goedae-Uksae 1 (M. GU-1). The xylose yield was maximized at 74.75% when the M. GU-1 was fractionated at 180°C and 0.3wt.% of sulfuric acid for 10min. At this condition, the hemicellulose (mainly xylan) degradation was 86.41%. The difference between xylan degradation and xylose recovery yield, i.e., xylan loss, was 11.66%, as indicated by the formation of decomposed products. The furfural, the value added biochemical product, was also obtained by 0.42g/L at this condition, which was 53.82% of furfural production yield based on the xylan loss. After then, the furfural production continued to increase to a maximum concentration of 1.87g/L, at which point the xylan loss corresponded to 25.87%. PMID:27380022

  20. [Fatty acid content of the lipid fraction of the liver and fatty tissues of fattened geese].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, K; Monov, G

    1986-01-01

    The content of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the liver and in the body fats of fattened gray Landen geese. Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatography Chrom 41 supplied with Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatograph Chrom 41 supplied with a flame-ionization detector. It was found that the average content of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) as expressed by percent of their total amount was 45.90% and 54.10% (liver), 36.58% and 63.42% (subcutaneous fatty tissue), 42.79% and 57.31% (inner lard), and 39.01% and 60.99% (skin fats). PMID:3727379

  1. Highly efficient organosolv fractionation of cornstalk into cellulose and lignin in organic acids.

    PubMed

    Shui, Tao; Feng, Shanghuan; Yuan, Zhongshun; Kuboki, Takashi; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of fractionation solvents, catalysts, temperatures and residence time on yields, purity and chemical composition of the products were investigated at the solid/solvent ratio of 1:5 (g/g). It was revealed that mixture of acetic acid/formic acid/water at the ratio of 3:6:1 (v/v/v) resulted in crude cellulose and lignin products of relatively high purity. The use of HCl catalyst contributed to a high crude cellulose yield, while H2SO4 showed an adverse effect on cellulose yield. However, both of these acidic catalysts contributed to much lower hemicellulose contents in the resulted crude cellulose products compared with those obtained without a catalyst. Fractionation at 90°C for 180min in mixed solvents of acetic acid/formic acid/water (3:6:1, v/v/v) with or without catalyst produced crude cellulose with very low residual lignin contents (<4%). PMID:27450125

  2. Metabolism of palmitic acid in the subcellular fractions of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Horrocks, L A

    1973-03-01

    After an intracerebral injection of [(14)C]palmitic acid to C57BL/10J mice, the radioactivity in the brains decreased rapidly with time. The incorporated radioactivity was primarily in the 16:0 acyl groups of the diacyl phosphoglycerides at 1 and 3 days after injection. At longer times, increasing proportions of the radioactivity were found in cerebrosides, alkenyl groups, and other acyl groups. The specific radioactivities of the phosphoglycerides were highest in the microsomal fraction at 1 day after injection. The exchange of the diacyl glycerophosphorylcholines and diacyl glycerophosphorylethanolamines between the microsomes and the myelin required 8-14 days. When calculated on the basis of the radioactivity in the 16:0 acyl groups, the half-lives for both of these phosphoglycerides were 6-8 days in all subcellular fractions during the period from 14 to 30 days after injection. The radioactivity in the total lipids from the purified myelin fraction did not decline until more than 14 days after injection because of the reutilization of labeled 16:0 acyl groups for lipid biosynthesis. Recycling of the acyl groups explains the long half-lives reported for myelin phosphoglycerides after injection of [(14)C]acetic acid. Lipids with a relatively high specific radioactivity were lost from the myelin fraction during the purification procedure. The most likely source of these lipids is the most recently formed myelin that is not consolidated into the myelin sheath. PMID:4698268

  3. Solubility of Fullerenes in Fatty Acids Esters: A New Way to Deliver In Vivo Fullerenes. Theoretical Calculations and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco

    The biological effects of fullerenes and, in particular, of C60 have been recognized since long time. One of the problems which hindered the application of fullerenes in medicinal chemistry regards their insolubility in water and water-based fluids. In the present chapter it is reported that C60 and C70 fullerenes are soluble in vegetable oils, in general, in esters of fatty acids and in free fatty acids. These results pave the way in the utilization of vegetable oils as vehicles in the delivery of fullerenes for both topical applications and internal use (e.g., intramuscular injection).

  4. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  5. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  6. A process-based model for the partitioning of soluble, suspended particulate and bed sediment fractions of plutonium and caesium in the eastern Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Vives I Batlle, J; Bryan, S; McDonald, P

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic model of plutonium behaviour in the marine environment has been developed, representing the oxidation state distribution and partitioning of plutonium between the soluble, colloidal, suspended particulate and seabed sediment fractions. With simple re-parameterisation, this model can also be applied to (137)Cs. The model, which is calibrated and validated against field data, has been used to predict concentrations of Pu(alpha) and (137)Cs in both water and seabed sediments from the vicinity of the Sellafield Ltd. reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. The model predicts that sediment reworking and transport are the key environmental processes as the Sellafield Pu(alpha) and (137)Cs discharge continues to decline. Inventory calculations generated by the model are consistent with previous estimations. For a hypothetical post-discharge scenario, the concentrations of these radionuclides in both seawater and surface sediments are predicted to decrease sharply, concurrent with a downward vertical migration of the activity retained in sediments. PMID:17719705

  7. Toxicity of biodiesel, diesel and biodiesel/diesel blends: comparative sub-lethal effects of water-soluble fractions to microalgae species.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Solange A; Araújo, Vinicius Queiroz; Reboucas, Marcio V; Vieira, Fernanda Seabra V; de Almeida, Marcos Vinicio A; Chinalia, Fabio A; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2012-02-01

    The water-soluble-fractions (WSF) from biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends were compared to diesel in their sub-lethal toxicity to microalgae. Chemical analyses of aromatics, non-aromatics hydrocarbons and methanol were carried out in the WSF, the former showing positive correlation with increasing diesel concentrations (B100 < B5 < B3 < B2 < D). Biodiesel interacted with the aqueous matrix, generating methanol, which showed lower toxicity than the diesel contaminants in blends. The WSF caused 50% culture growth inhibition (IC50-96 h) at concentrations varying from 2.3 to 85.6%, depending on the tested fuels and species. However, the same species sensitivity trend (S. costatum > N. oculata > T. chuii > P. subcapitata) was observed for all the tested fuels. PMID:22120696

  8. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  9. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  10. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    than 100 PM10 samples, addressing mainly their mass concentrations and the chemical composition of water soluble ions and carbon species (carbonates and organic and elemental carbon). Different PM10 samplers worked simultaneously in order to collect enough mass to make the aerosol characterization through the different methodologies and to collect aerosols in different filter matrixes, which have to be appropriated to the chemical and mineralogical analysis. The sampling site was located at Santiago Island, in the surroundings of Praia City (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level). High concentrations, up to more than 400 μg m-3, are connected to north-east and north-northeast winds, and it was identified several dust events characteristic of "bruma seca", whose duration is on average of two to four days. Backward trajectories analysis confirms that the high concentrations in Cape Verde are associated with air masses passing over the Sahara. During dust events the percentage of inorganic water soluble ions for the total PM10 mass concentration decreased significantly to values lower than 10% in comparison with remainder data that range around 45±10%. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the project PTDD/AAC-CLI/100331/2008 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008646 (CV-Dust). J. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH-BD-6105-2009 from FCT.

  11. Citric acid mediates the iron absorption from low molecular weight human milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Palika, Ravindranadh; Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Kasula, Sunanda; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2013-11-20

    Previously, we have demonstrated increased iron absorption from low molecular weight (LMW) human milk whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of heat denaturation, zinc (a competitor of iron), duodenal cytochrome b (DcytB) antibody neutralization and citrate lyase treatment on LMW human milk fraction (>5 kDa referred as 5kF) induced ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat denaturation and zinc inhibited the 5kF fraction induced ferric iron reduction. In contrast, zinc but not heat denaturation abrogated the ferric iron solubilization activity. Despite inhibition of ferric iron reduction, iron uptake in Caco-2 cells was similar from both native and heat denatured 5kF fractions. However, iron uptake was higher from native compared to heat denatured 5kF fractions in the cells preincubated with the DcytB antibody. Citrate lyase treatment inhibited the ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. These findings demonstrate that citric acid present in human milk solubilizes the ferric iron which could be reduced by other heat labile components leading to increased uptake in intestinal cells. PMID:24160751

  12. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed. PMID:26797927

  13. Cu(II) binding by a pH-fractionated fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.K.; Cabaniss, S.E.; MacCarthy, P.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between acidity, Cu(II) binding and sorption to XAD resin was examined using Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). The work was based on the hypothesis that fractions of SRFA eluted from an XAD column at various pH's from 1.0 to 12.0 would show systematic variations in acidity and possibly aromaticity which in turn would lead to different Cu(II) binding properties. We measured equilibrium Cu(II) binding to these fractions using Cu2+ ion-selective electrode (ISE) potentiometry at pH 6.0. Several model ligands were also examined, including cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (CP-TCA) and tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THF-TCA), the latter binding Cu(II) much more strongly as a consequence of the ether linkage. The SRFA Cu(II) binding properties agreed with previous work at high ionic strength, and binding was enhanced substantially at lower ionic strength, in agreement with Poisson-Boltzmann predictions for small spheres. Determining Cu binding constants (K(i)) by non-linear regression with total ligand concentrations (L(Ti)) taken from previous work, the fractions eluted at varying pH had K(i) similar to the unfractionated SRFA, with a maximum enhancement of 0.50 log units. We conclude that variable-pH elution from XAD does not isolate significantly strong (or weak) Cu(II)-binding components from the SRFA mixture. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Boronic acid-containing aminopyridine- and aminopyrimidinecarboxamide CXCR1/2 antagonists: Optimization of aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Aaron D; Engles, Courtney A; Maeda, Dean Y; Quinn, Mark T; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Wicomb, Winston N; Mason, S Nicholas; Auten, Richard L; Zebala, John A

    2015-09-15

    The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are important pharmaceutical targets due to their key roles in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression. We have previously identified 2-[5-(4-fluoro-phenylcarbamoyl)-pyridin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl]-phenylboronic acid (SX-517) and 6-(2-boronic acid-5-trifluoromethoxy-benzylsulfanyl)-N-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-nicotinamide (SX-576) as potent non-competitive boronic acid-containing CXCR1/2 antagonists. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of aminopyridine and aminopyrimidine analogs of SX-517 and SX-576, identifying (2-{(benzyl)[(5-boronic acid-2-pyridyl)methyl]amino}-5-pyrimidinyl)(4-fluorophenylamino)formaldehyde as a potent chemokine antagonist with improved aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability. PMID:26248802

  15. Optimization of acid hydrolysis from the hemicellulosic fraction of Eucalyptus grandis residue using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Canettieri, Eliana Vieira; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; de Carvalho, João Andrade; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically and with dilute or concentrate mineral acids. The present study used dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst for hydrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis residue. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the hydrolysis process in a 1.4 l pilot-scale reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature and residue/acid solution ratio on the hemicellulose removal and consequently on the production of sugars (xylose, glucose and arabinose) as well as on the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid). This study was based on a model composition corresponding to a 2(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the hydrolysis conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylose extraction from hemicellulose of residue. The considered optimum conditions were: H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.65%, temperature of 157 degrees C and residue/acid solution ratio of 1/8.6 with a reaction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, 79.6% of the total xylose was removed and the hydrolysate contained 1.65 g/l glucose, 13.65 g/l xylose, 1.55 g/l arabinose, 3.10 g/l acetic acid, 1.23 g/l furfural and 0.20 g/l 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. PMID:16473004

  16. Water-soluble organic carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in the tropical Indian aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.

    2010-06-01

    Tropical aerosol (PM10) samples (n = 49) collected from southeast coast of India were studied for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), together with analyses of total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Their distributions were characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid followed by terephthalic (t-Ph), malonic, and succinic acids. Total concentrations of diacids (227-1030 ng m-3), ketoacids (16-105 ng m-3), and dicarbonyls (4-23 ng m-3) are comparative to those from other Asian megacities such as Tokyo and Hong Kong. t-Ph acid was found as the second most abundant diacid in the Chennai aerosols. This feature has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols. t-Ph acid is most likely derived from the field burning of plastics. Water-soluble diacids were found to contribute 0.4%-3% of TC and 4%-11% of WSOC. Based on molecular distributions and backward air mass trajectories, we found that diacids and related compounds in coastal South Indian aerosols are influenced by South Asian and Indian Ocean monsoons. Organic aerosols are also suggested to be significantly transported long distances from North India and the Middle East in early winter and from Southeast Asia in late winter, but some originate from photochemical reactions over the Bay of Bengal. In contrast, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and South Indian continent are suggested as major source regions in summer. We also found daytime maxima of most diacids, except for C9 and t-Ph acids, which showed nighttime maxima in summer. Emissions from marine and terrestrial plants, combined with land/sea breezes and in situ photochemical oxidation, are suggested especially in summer as an important factor that controls the composition of water-soluble organic aerosols over the southeast coast of India. Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources are also important in megacity Chennai, but their influence is

  17. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  18. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs) in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. Methods The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH) extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2) was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3) was identified using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET)-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK), Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. Results The chloroform fraction (I.2) derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid (1:5:8:1 ratio

  19. Acid-base and copper-binding properties of three organic matter fractions isolated from a forest floor soil solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schaik, Joris W. J.; Kleja, Dan B.; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2010-02-01

    Vast amounts of knowledge about the proton- and metal-binding properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters have been obtained in studies on isolated humic and fulvic (hydrophobic) acids. Although macromolecular hydrophilic acids normally make up about one-third of DOM, their proton- and metal-binding properties are poorly known. Here, we investigated the acid-base and Cu-binding properties of the hydrophobic (fulvic) acid fraction and two hydrophilic fractions isolated from a soil solution. Proton titrations revealed a higher total charge for the hydrophilic acid fractions than for the hydrophobic acid fraction. The most hydrophilic fraction appeared to be dominated by weak acid sites, as evidenced by increased slope of the curve of surface charge versus pH at pH values above 6. The titration curves were poorly predicted by both Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and NICA-Donnan model calculations using generic parameter values, but could be modelled accurately after optimisation of the proton-binding parameters (pH ⩽ 9). Cu-binding isotherms for the three fractions were determined at pH values of 4, 6 and 9. With the optimised proton-binding parameters, the SHM model predictions for Cu binding improved, whereas the NICA-Donnan predictions deteriorated. After optimisation of Cu-binding parameters, both models described the experimental data satisfactorily. Iron(III) and aluminium competed strongly with Cu for binding sites at both pH 4 and pH 6. The SHM model predicted this competition reasonably well, but the NICA-Donnan model underestimated the effects significantly at pH 6. Overall, the Cu-binding behaviour of the two hydrophilic acid fractions was very similar to that of the hydrophobic acid fraction, despite the differences observed in proton-binding characteristics. These results show that for modelling purposes, it is essential to include the hydrophilic acid fraction in the pool of 'active' humic substances.

  20. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size-fractionated aerosol in the southern Mississippi Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; Gamboa da Costa, G.; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2014-06-01

    The chemical content of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for periods when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5% of particle mass for particles with dp > 0.96 μm and 10% of particle mass for particles with dp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H-C), unsaturated aliphatic (H-C-C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H-C-O), acetalic (O-CH-O) and aromatic (Ar-H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m-3 for particles with 1.5 < dp < 3.0 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m-3 for particles with dp < 0.49 μm. The molar H / C ratios varied from 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09, which were comparable to those observed for combustion-related organic aerosol. The R-H was the most abundant group, representing about 45% of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations, followed by H-C-O (27%) and H-C-C= (26%). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanesulfonate were identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosols and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from -26.81 ± 0.18‰ for the smallest particles to -25.93 ± 0.31‰ for the largest

  1. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size fractionated aerosol in the Southern Mississippi Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; Gamboa da Costa, G.; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2014-02-01

    The chemical content of the water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for the period when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5% of particle mass for particles with dp > 0.96 μm and 10% of particle mass for particles with dp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H-C), unsaturated aliphatic (H-C-C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H-C-O), acetalic (O-CH-O) and aromatic (Ar-H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m-3 for particles with 0.96 < dp < 1.5 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m-3 for particles with dp < 0.49 μm, resulting in molar H / C ratios of 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09 observed in combustion-related organic aerosol. The R-H was the most abundant group representing about 45% of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentration followed by H-C-O (27%) and H-C-C= (26%). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanosulfonate were tentatively identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosol and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from -26.81 ± 0.18‰ for the smallest particles to -25.93 ± 0.31‰ for the largest particles and the relative

  2. Seasonal and longitudinal distributions of atmospheric water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Imanishi, Katsuya; Boreddy, S. K. R.; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    In order to assess the seasonal variability of atmospheric abundances of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the North Pacific and Sea of Japan, aerosol samples were collected along the longitudinal transacts during six cruises between Canada and Japan. The back trajectory analyses indicate that aerosol samples collected in winter and spring are influenced by the East Asian outflow, whereas summer and fall samples are associated with the pristine maritime air masses. Molecular distributions of water-soluble organics in winter and spring samples show the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic (C4) and malonic acids (C3). In contrast, summer and fall marine aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C3 over C4. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids were higher over the Sea of Japan than the North Pacific. With a lack of continental outflow, higher concentrations during early summer are ascribed to atmospheric oxidation of organic precursors associated with high biological activity in the North Pacific. This interpretation is further supported by the high abundances of azelaic acid, which is a photochemical oxidation product of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids, over the Bering Sea in early summer when surface waters are characterized by high biological productivity. We found higher ratios of oxalic acid to pyruvic and glyoxylic acids (C2/Pyr and C2/ωC2) and glyoxal and methylglyoxal (C2/Gly and C2/MeGly) in summer and fall than in winter and spring, suggesting a production of C2 from the aqueous-phase oxidation of oceanic isoprene. In this study, dicarboxylic acids account for 0.7-38% of water-soluble organic carbon.

  3. Recent advances in alcohol and organic acid fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Fei; Yang, Sheng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Organosolv fractionation is a promising process to separate lignocellulosic biomass for the preparation of multiply products including biofuels, chemicals, and materials. This review presents the state of art of different processes applying alcohols and organic acids to treat lignocellulosic biomass for the production of ethanol, lignin, xylose, etc. The major organosolv technologies using ethanol, formic acid, and acetic acid, are intensively introduced and discussed in depth. In addition, the structural modifications of the major components of lignocelluloses, the technical processes, and the applications of the products were also summarized. The object of the review is to provide recent information in the field of organosolv process for the integrated biorefinery. The perspectives of the challenge and opportunity related to this topic are also presented. PMID:26476870

  4. The contribution of acidulant to the antibacterial activity of acid soluble α- and β-chitosan solutions and their films.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated individual contributions of dissolving acids (acetic acid, lactic acid, and hydrochloric acid) or acid solubilized chitosan to the antibacterial activity against Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli as solutions and dried films. Solutions containing chitosan showed significantly (P < 0.05) different inhibitory activity (measured as percentage of inhibition (PI), in percent) against L. innocua and E. coli, compared to equivalent acid solutions. This increase was calculated as additional inhibition (AI, in percent), which could be as high as 65% in solutions containing 300-320 kDa chitosan depending on the acid type, bacterial species, and the chitosan form (α or β). Solutions containing 4-5 kDa chitosan had lower AI and showed much greater variability among the different chitosan forms, acid types, and bacterial species. Higher molecular weight (Mw) chitosan also showed significantly higher levels of adsorption to bacterial cells than that of lower Mw samples, suggesting that the observed increase in inhibition was the result of surface phenomena. The contribution of acids to the antibacterial activity of chitosan films was assessed by comparing non-rinsed and rinsed films (rinsed in the appropriate broth to remove residual acids and active fragments formed on the dried film). Rinsing β-chitosan films has reduced PI by as much as 28% compared with non-rinsed films, indicating that part of the antibacterial activity of chitosan films is due to the presence of soluble acid compounds and/or other active fragments. Overall, both acidulant and chitosan were found to contribute to the antibacterial activity of acid solubilized α- and β-chitosan, with the exact antibacterial activity of chitosan varying based on the solution and film properties, suggesting a complex interaction. PMID:24196584

  5. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size-fractionated aerosol in the southern Mississippi Valley

    PubMed Central

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; da Costa, G. Gamboa; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical content of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for periods when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5 % of particle mass for particles with δp > 0.96 μm and 10 % of particle mass for particles with δp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H–C), unsaturated aliphatic (H–C–C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H–C–O), acetalic (O–CH–O) and aromatic (Ar–H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m−3 for particles with 1.5 < δp < 3.0 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m−3 for particles with δp < 0.49 μm. The molar H/C ratios varied from 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09, which were comparable to those observed for combustion-related organic aerosol. The R–H was the most abundant group, representing about 45 % of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations, followed by H–C–O (27 %) and H–C–C= (26 %). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanesulfonate were identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosols and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from −26.81 ± 0.18 ‰ for the smallest particles to

  6. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville; Emily K. Lesher; Daniel J. Diedrich; Diane M. McKnight; Ruth M. Sofield

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  7. The effect of dietary water soluble carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio on nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation of lactating goats offered a high-nitrogen diet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J; Nicol, A M; Pacheco, D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen (N) partitioning and isotopic fractionation in lactating goats consuming diets with a constant high concentration of N and increasing levels of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Eight lactating goats were offered four different ratios of WSC : N in the diet. A two-period incomplete cross-over design was used, with two goats assigned to each treatment in each period. N balance measurements were conducted, with measurement of feed N intake and total output of N in milk, faeces and urine. Treatment, period and infusion effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between variables were analysed by linear regression. Dietary treatment and period had significant effects on dry matter (DM) intake (g/day). DM digestibility (g/kg DM) and N digestibility (g/kg N) increased as the ratio of WSC : N increased in the diet. No treatment effect was observed on milk urea N concentration (g/l) or urinary excretion of purine derivatives (mM/day). Although dietary treatment and period had significant effects on N intake, the change of N intake was small; no effect was observed for N partitioning among faeces, milk and urine. Milk, plasma and faeces were enriched in 15N compared with feed, whilst urine was depleted in 15N relative to feed. No significant relationship was established between N partitioning and isotopic fractionation. This study failed to confirm the potential to use N isotopic fractionation as an indicator of N partitioning in dairy goats when diets provided N in excess to requirements, most likely because the range of milk N output/N intake and urinary N output/N intake were narrow. PMID:26556633

  8. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-01-26

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm{sup 2}/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  9. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble weak-acidic compound by controlling local pH.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Kazunori; Kato, Shino; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kakemi, Masawo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, the number of poorly water-soluble drug candidates has increased and has hindered the rapid improvement of new drugs with low intestinal absorption; however, the intestinal absorption of pH-dependent poorly water-soluble compounds is expected to be markedly improved by changing the pH in the vicinity of the absorption site. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of local pH change in the intestinal tract by magnesium oxide on the intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, a model poorly water-soluble weak-acid compound. The application of hydrochlorothiazide granule containing magnesium oxide to the rat intestinal loop increased the pH in the vicinity of the dosing site to more than 8.5 for 90 min without any mucosal damage. As a result, absorption of hydrochlorothiazide increased by the addition of magnesium oxide to the granule. Intraintestinal administration of a suspension prepared from hydrochlorothiazide granules with magnesium oxide increased the intestinal absorption and the AUC value was 3-fold higher than that without magnesium oxide. To further increase the intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, we prepared granules containing magnesium oxide and chitosan as a mucoadhesive and tight junction opening material. Chitosan showed a marked increase of intestinal absorption, and the AUC value after the administration of suspensions of chitosan granules was more than 5-fold higher than that of granules containing hydrochlorothiazide alone, respectively. In summary, it has been clarified that the intestinal absorption of weak-acidic poorly water-soluble compound can be enhanced by increasing local pH, mucoadhesion and opening tight junction. PMID:22443480

  10. Spectroscopic characteristics of ultrafiltration fractions of fulvic and humic acids isolated from an eucalyptus bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the chemical heterogeneity of fulvic and humic acids previously isolated from a bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent, a sequential ultrafiltration (UF) scheme through four polyethersulphone membranes was applied. The unfractionated fulvic and humic acids and their fractions were characterized by UV-VIS, synchronous fluorescence (with Deltalambda=60 nm) and FTIR spectroscopies. The FTIR spectra were compared with those of lignin isolated from Eucalyptus globulus wood and from the black liquor of a Kraft pulping process. The results highlighted that fulvic acids fractions of low molecular sizes contain more lignin derived phenolic units, while those of higher molecular size exhibit a higher content of carbohydrate structures. However, the shift observed in the UV-VIS absorbance and fluorescence intensity towards higher wavelength, suggests a higher degree of conjugation of pi-bonds in the fractions of highest molecular sizes. In what concerns the humic acids size fractions, the FTIR spectra did not exhibit major differences but, as observed for the fulvic acids' fractions, UV-VIS and synchronous fluorescence spectra also suggest a higher degree of conjugation of pi-bonds in the fractions with the highest molecular sizes. It was also observed that the fulvic and humic acids fractions of the same molecular size, operationally defined by the UF process, exhibit major differences in their spectroscopic features. PMID:12946888

  11. Optimization of the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of amino acid-based surfactants from palm oil fractions.

    PubMed

    Soo, Ee Lin; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran; Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman, Raja Noor; Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of using palm oil fractions as cheap and abundant sources of raw material for the synthesis of amino acid surfactants was investigated. Of a number of enzymes screened, the best results were obtained with the immobilized enzyme, Lipozyme. The effects of temperature, solvent, incubation period, fatty substrate/amino acid molar ratio, enzyme amount, and water removal on the reactions were analyzed and compared to those on reactions with free fatty acids and pure triglycerides as fatty substrates. All reactions were most efficient when carried out at high temperatures (70-80 degrees C) in hexane as a solvent. However, while reactions with free fatty acids proceeded better when a slight excess of the free fatty acids over the amino acids was used, reactions with triglycerides and palm oil fractions were best performed at equimolar ratios. Also, the addition of molecular sieves slightly enhanced reactions with free fatty acids but adversely affected reactions with triglycerides and palm oil fractions. Although reactions with palm oil fractions took longer (6 d) to reach equilibrium compared to reactions with free fatty acids (4 d) and pure triglycerides (4 d), better yields were obtained. Such lipase-catalyzed transacylation of palm oil fractions with amino acids is potentially useful in the production of mixed medium- to long-chain surfactants for specific applications. PMID:16233420

  12. Fractionation of SWNT/nucleic acid complexes by agarose gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetcher, Alexandre A.; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Vetcher, Ivan A.; Abramov, Semen M.; Kozlov, Mikhail; Baughman, Ray H.; Levene, Stephen D.

    2006-08-01

    We show that aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared with the aid of nucleic acids (NAs) such as RNA or DNA, can be separated into fractions using agarose gel electrophoresis. In a DC electric field, SWNT/NA complexes migrate in the gel in the direction of positive potential to form well-defined bands. Raman spectroscopy as a function of band position shows that nanotubes having different spectroscopic properties possess different electrophoretic mobilities. The migration patterns for SWNT/RNA and SWNT/DNA complexes differ. Parallel elution of the SWNT/NA complexes from the gel during electrophoresis and subsequent characterization by AFM reveals differences in nanotube diameter, length and curvature. The results suggest that fractionation of nanotubes can be achieved by this procedure. We discuss factors affecting the mobility of the nanotube complexes and propose analytical applications of this technique.

  13. Deuterium Fractionation during Amino Acid Formation by Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs Containing Deuterated Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Takano, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) atoms in interstellar deuterated methanol might be distributed into complex organic molecules through molecular evolution by photochemical reactions in interstellar grains. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system to quantitatively analyze amino acids and their deuterated isotopologues formed by the photolysis of interstellar ice analogs containing singly deuterated methanol CH2DOH at 10 K. Five amino acids (glycine, α-alanine, β-alanine, sarcosine, and serine) and their deuterated isotopologues whose D atoms are bound to carbon atoms are detected in organic residues formed by photolysis followed by warming up to room temperature. The abundances of singly deuterated amino acids are in the range of 0.3–1.1 relative to each nondeuterated counterpart, and the relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated species decrease with an increasing number of D atoms in a molecule. The abundances of amino acids increase by a factor of more than five upon the hydrolysis of the organic residues, leading to decreases in the relative abundances of deuterated species for α-alanine and β-alanine. On the other hand, the relative abundances of the deuterated isotopologues of the other three amino acids did not decrease upon hydrolysis, indicating different formation mechanisms of these two groups upon hydrolysis. The present study facilitates both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of D fractionation during molecular evolution in the interstellar medium.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, solubility and stability studies of hydrate cocrystal of antitubercular Isoniazid with antioxidant and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Isoniazid is an important component used in "triple therapy" to combat tuberculosis. It has reduced Tabletting formulations stability. Anti-oxidants are obligatory to counter oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation, and free radical burst from macrophages caused in tuberculosis and other diseases. In the present study a hydrate cocrystal of Isoniazid with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in 1:1 is reported. This Cocrystal may have improved tabletting stability and anti-oxidant properties. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the Cocrystal. Other synthons of different graph sets involving Nsbnd H···O and Osbnd H···N bonds are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformer. Solubility studies revealed that cocrystal is less soluble as compared to isoniazid in buffer at pH 7.4 at 22 °C while stability studies at 80 °C for 24 h period disclosed the fact that cocrystal has higher stability than that of isoniazid.

  15. Transcripts for genes encoding soluble acid invertase and sucrose synthase accumulate in root tip and cortical cells containing mycorrhizal arbuscules.

    PubMed

    Blee, Kristopher A; Anderson, Anne J

    2002-09-01

    Arbuscule formation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith) was limited to cortical cells immediately adjacent to the endodermis. Because these cortical cells are the first to intercept photosynthate exiting the vascular cylinder, transcript levels for sucrose metabolizing-enzymes were compared between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots. The probes corresponded to genes encoding a soluble acid invertase with potential vacuolar targeting, which we generated from Phaseolus vulgaris roots, a Rhizobium-responsive sucrose synthase of soybean and a cell wall acid invertase of carrot. Transcripts in non-mycorrhizal roots were developmentally regulated and abundant in the root tips for all three probes but in differentiated roots of P. vulgaris they were predominantly located in phloem tissues for sucrose synthase or the endodermis and phloem for soluble acid invertase. In mycorrhizal roots increased accumulations of transcripts for sucrose synthase and vacuolar invertase were both observed in the same cortical cells bearing arbuscules that fluoresce. There was no effect on the expression of the cell wall invertase gene in fluorescent carrot cells containing arbuscules. Thus, it appears that presence of the fungal hyphae in the fluorescent arbusculated cell stimulates discrete alterations in expression of sucrose metabolizing enzymes to increase the sink potential of the cell. PMID:12175013

  16. A comparison of water solubility enhancements of organic solutes by aquatic humic materials and commercial humic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chlou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Brinton, T.I.; Malcolm, R.L.; Leenheer, J.A.; MacCarthy, P.

    1987-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of 1,1-bis(p-chloro-phenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p???-DDT), 2,4,5,2???,5???-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB), and 2,4,4???-tri-chlorobiphenyl (2,4,4???-PCB) by dissolved organic matter have been studied with the following samples: (1) acidic water samples from the Suwannee River, Georgia, and the Sopchoppy River, Florida; (2) a humic extract of a nearly neutral pH water from the Calcasieu River, Louisiana; (3) commercial humic acids from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and Fluka-Tridom Chemical Corp. The calculated partition coefficients on a dissolved organic carbon basis (Kdoc) for organic solutes with water samples and aquatic humic extracts from this and earlier studies indicate that the enhancement effect varies with the molecular composition of the aquatic humic materials. The Kdoc values with water and aquatic humic samples are, however, far less than the observed Kdoc values obtained with the two commercial samples, by factors of about 4-20. In view of this finding, one should be cautious in interpreting the effects of the dissolved organic matter on solubility enhancement of organic solutes on the basis of the use of commercial humic acids.

  17. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in "Starkrimson" during the Ripening Period in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulian; Chen, Nianlai; Ma, Zonghuan; Che, Fei; Mao, Juan; Chen, Baihong

    2016-01-01

    "Starkrimson" is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of "Starkrimson" fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE) parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal), fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity. PMID:27338331

  18. Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.

  19. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  20. Acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal fractionation of empty fruit bunches for high hemicellulosic sugar recovery with low byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Um, Byung Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2015-07-01

    Xylose, mannose, and galactose (xmg) recovery from empty fruit bunches using acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal (AAH) fractionation method was investigated. Acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in xmg recovery in comparison with the liquid hot-water (LHW) fractionation. The maximum xmg recovery yield (50.7 %) from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was obtained using AAH fractionation at optimum conditions (6.9 wt.% acetic acid at 170 °C and for 18 min); whereas, only 16.2 % of xmg recovery was obtained from the LHW fractionation at the same reaction conditions (170 °C and 18 min). Releasing out the glucose from EFB was kept at low level (<1.0 %) through all tested conditions and consequently negligible 5-HMF and formic acid were analyzed in the hydrolyzate. The production of furfural was also resulted with extremely low level (1.0 g/L). PMID:25962829

  1. Antiobesity effects of the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of Smilax china L. leaf in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Kon; Kim, Dae Jung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Several medicinal properties of Smilax china L. have been studied including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the antiobesity activity and mechanism by which the water-soluble fraction of this plant mediates its effects are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the lipolytic actions of the water-soluble fraction of Smilax china L. leaf ethanol extract (wsSCLE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The wsSCLE was identified by measuring the total polyphenol and flavonoid content. The wsSCLE was evaluated for its effects on cell viability, lipid accumulation, glycerol, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) contents. In addition, western blot analysis was used to evaluate the effects on protein kinase A (PKA), PKA substrates (PKAs), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). For the lipid accumulation assay, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of wsSCLE for 9 days starting 2 days post-confluence. In other cell experiments, mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 24 h with wsSCLE. RESULTS Results showed that treatment with wsSCLE at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 mg/mL had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evidence of toxicity, wsSCLE treatment decreased lipid accumulation compared with the untreated adipocyte controls as shown by the lower absorbance of Oil Red O stain. The wsSCLE significantly induced glycerol release and cAMP production in mature 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, protein levels of phosphorylated PKA, PKAs, and HSL significantly increased following wsSCLE treatment. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that the potential antiobesity activity of wsSCLE is at least in part due to the stimulation of cAMP-PKA-HSL signaling. In addition, the wsSCLE-stimulated lipolysis induced by the signaling is mediated via activation of the β-adrenergic receptor. PMID:26634049

  2. Binding and solubility of oleic acid to laboratory materials: A possible artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Mailman, D.; Rose, C. )

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that significant amounts of fatty acids were dissolved in or bound to the surfaces of common laboratory materials was examined. The uptake or adsorption of radioisotopically labeled oleic acid and cholic acid by plastic tubing of Tygon{trademark}, Teflon{trademark}, and polyethylene, and Pyrex{trademark}, and borosilicate glass, and steel was measured. {sup 3}H-oleic acid and {sup 14}C-cholic acid were used in the presence of different concentration of unlabeled oleic acid, cholic acid, and/or bovine serum albumin. Concentrations, composition, pH, and perfusion rates were varied. Relatively large amounts of oleic acid were lost by dissolving in plastic and adsorption to glass or metal. The degree of losses decreased in the presence of compounds in the perfusion solution which could bind or dissolve oleic acid. In contrast, cholic acid was not lost to plastic, glass or metal. The magnitude of and influence of perfusion rate, composition, pH, and sequence of perfusion solutions on oleic acid losses were sufficiently large that the results of certain studies, such as those of unstirred water layers or albumin-stimulated fatty acid uptake by hepatocytes may need to be reexamined.

  3. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the stable electrophoretic fractions of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoi, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2015-02-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been used for the hydrophobicity analysis of soil humic acids and their stable electrophoretic fractions A, B, and C + D preliminarily prepared by the combination of gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In two humic acid preparations of different genesis, the electrophoretic fraction A of the larger molecular size was the most hydrophobic (60-73% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on a hydrophobic reversed-phase (RF) column C18), and the fraction C + D of the smallest molecular size was the most hydrophilic. The fraction B of medium size occupied an intermediate position (33-47% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on the column). The use of RP-HPLC allowed for the first time detecting the hydrophobic electrophoretic fraction A of the largest molecular size mainly composed of aliphatic long-chained hydrocarbon, protein, and carbohydrate fragments in soil humic acids. Data on the degree of hydrophobicity and the earlier obtained physicochemical characteristics of stable electrophoretic fractions are discussed in terms of the supramolecular and macromolecular structure of soil humic acids.

  4. Compositional and Temperature Effects of Phosphoric Acid Fractionation on Δ47 Analysis and Implications for Discrepant Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defliese, W.; Hren, M. T.; Lohmann, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    An essential procedure to increase the analytical efficiency of Δ47 measurements requires raising the temperature of phosphoric acid digestion for carbonate materials. This temperature change introduces a fractionation offset in Δ47 that must be accounted for prior to calculation of temperatures of carbonate formation and to allow interlaboratory comparison of results. We measured the phosphoric acid fractionation factor relative to reaction at 25 °C for calcite, aragonite, and dolomite across a temperature range from 25-90 °C. Significantly, all three minerals behave similarly during phosphoric acid digestion, allowing for a single temperature dependent acid fractionation relationship: 1000ln∝𝐶𝑂2(𝐴𝑐𝑖𝑑)-𝛥47=(0.022434±0.001490)∗10^6 𝑇2 -(0.2524±0.0168) where α is the phosphoric acid fractionation factor, and T is in degrees Kelvin. Mineralogical or isotopic compositional effects on the fractionation factor were not observed, suggesting that this acid fractionation factor may be valid for all carbonate minerals. We also present inorganic temperature calibrations for both calcite and aragonite at low temperatures (5-70 °C) and find them to agree with prior published data. Using the new acid fractionation factor, published Δ47-temperature calibrations are recalculated. This analysis confirms a statistically significant Δ47-temperature calibration difference between data analyzed at 25 °C versus higher temperatures. The origin of the discrepancy remains unknown, but it appears that the acid fractionation factor is not the cause.

  5. Fractionation of humic acids according to their hydrophobicity, size, and charge-dependent mobility by the salting-out method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarzina, A. G.; Vanifatova, N. G.; Stepanov, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    Humic acids (HAs) represent heterogeneous and polydisperse mixture of molecules that differ in their chemical structure, composition, and functional properties. Fractionation of HAs is of key importance for understanding their interactions with various organic and inorganic compounds, for studying their physiological activity, and for predicting their behavior in natural environments and agroecosystems. Existing fractionation methods are rather laborious and time consuming, which limits their application in fundamental science and industry. It is shown that fractionation of humic acids with ammonium sulfate ensures their preparative separation with respect to (a) hydrophobicity, (b) molecular size, and (c) charge dependent on the amount of functional groups. Salting out at the lowest and highest degrees of saturation with ammonium sulfate, upon which precipitation of the molecules occurs, makes it possible to separate humic acids into functionally different high-molecular-weight/hydrophobic and low-molecular-weight/hydrophilic fractions. The first fraction is characterized by a lower electrophoretic mobility than the second fraction. The weight percentage of the components coagulated at the lowest degree of salt saturation can be used as a quantitative parameter for comparing hydrophobic properties of humic acids. Salting out is recommended as a fast, simple, and cheap alternative to chromatographic methods for preparative separation of humic acids if large amounts of functionally different fractions need to be obtained.

  6. The relationship between surface tension and the industrial performance of water-soluble polymers prepared from acid hydrolysis lignin, a saccharification by-product from woody materials.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Imai, Masanori; Iwatsuki, Ayuko; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, water-soluble anionic and cationic polymers were prepared from sulfuric acid lignin (SAL), an acid hydrolysis lignin, and the relationship between the surface tension of these polymers and industrial performance was examined. The SAL was phenolized (P-SAL) to enhance its solubility and reactivity. Sulfonation and the Mannich reaction with aminocarboxylic acids produced water-soluble anionic polymers and high-dispersibility gypsum paste. The dispersing efficiency increased as the surface tension decreased, suggesting that the fluidity of the gypsum paste increased with the polymer adsorption on the gypsum particle surface. Water-soluble cationic polymers were prepared using the Mannich reaction with dimethylamine. The cationic polymers showed high sizing efficiency under neutral papermaking conditions; the sizing efficiency increased with the surface tension. This suggests that the polymer with high hydrophilicity spread in the water and readily adhered to the pulp surface and the rosin, showing good retention. PMID:17664066

  7. Investigation of the role of nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in ascorbic acid-mediated protection against acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Koul, Vaishali; Kaur, Anudeep; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible involvement of nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase (NO/sGC) pathway in ascorbic acid (AA)-mediated protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia by occluding renal pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The AKI was assessed in terms of measuring creatinine clearance (CrCl), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and microproteinuria. The NO level and oxidative stress in renal tissues were assessed by measuring myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. AA (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 3 days before subjecting rats to AKI. In separate groups, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and sGC inhibitor, methylene blue (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered prior to AA treatment in rats. The significant decrease in CrCl and increase in BUN, plasma uric acid, potassium, FeNa, microproteinuria, and oxidative stress in renal tissues demonstrated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI in rats. The AA treatment ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI along with the increase in renal NO level. The pretreatment with L-NAME and methylene blue abolished protective effect of AA. It is concluded that AA protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Moreover, the NO/sGC pathway finds its definite involvement in AA-mediated reno-protective effect. PMID:26142728

  8. In situ acidity and pH of size-fractionated aerosols during a recent smoke-haze episode in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sailesh N; Cheng, Jinping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of aerosol acidity has received increased attention in recent years due to its influence on atmospheric visibility, climate change and human health. Distribution of water soluble inorganic (WSI) ions in 12 different size fractions of aerosols was investigated under two different atmospheric conditions (smoke-haze and non-haze periods) in 2012 using the Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and nano-MOUDI for the first time in Singapore. To estimate the in situ acidity ([H(+)]Ins) and in situ aerosol pH (pHIS), the Aerosol Inorganic Model version-IV under deliquescent mode of airborne particles was used at prevailing ambient temperature and relative humidity. The study revealed an increase in the levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) mass and concentrations of WSI ions for all size fractions during the smoke-haze period, which was caused by the trans-boundary transport of biomass burning-impacted air masses from Indonesia. A bimodal distribution was observed for concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+), whereas concentrations of NH4(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) showed a single mode distribution. The concentration of WSI ions in PM1.8 during the smoke-haze period increased by 3.8 (for SO4(2-)) to 10.5 (for K(+)) times more than those observed during the non-haze period. The pHIS were observed to be lower during the smoke-haze period than that during the non-haze period for all size fractions of PM, indicating that atmospheric aerosols were more acidic due to the influence of biomass burning emissions. The particles in the accumulation mode were more acidic than those in the coarse mode. PMID:25432456

  9. Mefenamic acid taste-masked oral disintegrating tablets with enhanced solubility via molecular interaction produced by hot melt extrusion technology

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Sultan M.; Park, Jun-Bom; Alsulays, Bader B.; Tiwari, Roshan V.; Almutairy, Bjad; Alshetaili, Abdullah S.; Morott, Joseph; Shah, Sejal; Kulkarni, Vijay; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Martin, Scott T.; Mishra, Sanjay; Wang, Lijia; Repka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility as well as to mask the intensely bitter taste of the poorly soluble drug, Mefenamic acid (MA). The taste masking and solubility of the drug was improved by using Eudragit® E PO in different ratios via hot melt extrusion (HME), solid dispersion technology. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies demonstrated that MA and E PO were completely miscible up to 40% drug loads. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that MA was converted to its amorphous phase in all of the formulations. Additionally, FT-IR analysis indicated hydrogen bonding between the drug and the carrier up to 25% of drug loading. SEM images indicated aggregation of MA at over 30% of drug loading. Based on the FT-IR, SEM and dissolution results for the extrudates, two optimized formulations (20% and 25% drug loads) were selected to formulate the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). ODTs were successfully prepared with excellent friability and rapid disintegration time in addition to having the desired taste-masking effect. All of the extruded formulations and the ODTs were found to be physically and chemically stable over a period of 6 months at 40°C/75% RH and 12 months at 25°C/60% RH, respectively. PMID:25914727

  10. Uptake of acid pollutants by mineral dust and their effect on aerosol solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, N. A.; Chamseddine, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Due to the implications caused by mineral dust and sea-salt heterogeneous reactions with SO 2, NO x and NH 3 derivatives, this study aims to understand the interaction between gaseous and particulate phases; PM10 and PM2.5, in dust-rich and dust-poor environments. During dust outbreaks, the increase in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations by 80 and 75%, respectively, was accompanied with approximately 30% decrease in water soluble inorganic ions. However, nitrate ion concentration, which increased by 36% during dust-rich episodes, was correlated with a 96% increase in gaseous HONO concentration. This implies a significant impact of dust storms on the tropospheric NO 2 to HONO conversion and consequently the formation of nitrate in PMs. Products of the reaction between HONO and mineral dust render atmospheric aerosols more soluble and consequently higher nitrogen deposition fluxes were calculated.

  11. Fluorescent properties of low-molecular-weight fractions from chernozem humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoi, O. A.; Demin, D. V.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2013-10-01

    The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of chernozem humic acids (HAs) followed by ultraviolet detection (λ = 312 nm) has revealed a new highly fluorescent fraction that has the highest electrophoretic mobility and the lowest nominal molecular weight (NMW). The preparative isolation of the fraction has been performed using the multiple microfiltration of the same HA sample in a 7 M carbamide solution on a membrane with a nominal pore size of 5 kDa. Thirty ultrafiltrates with NMW < 5 kDa and different fluorescence maximums in the region of 475-505 nm have been prepared, as well as a nonfluorescent concentrate with NMW > 5 kDa. Fluorescence maximums at and below 490 nm have been noted only in the first four ultrafiltrates. All the ultrafiltrates have been combined into the fraction with NMW < 5 kDa, which has been successively passed through membranes of 3 and 1 kDa. Solutions of subfractions F 3-5 kDa, F 1-3 kDa, and F < 1 kDa with fluorescence maximums at 505, 488, and 465 nm, respectively, have been prepared. The F < 1 kDa subfraction with the lowest NMW had the highest fluorescence intensity. The distribution of the fluorescence maximums in the ultrafiltrates has indicated the presence of at least two groups of fluorophores and has confirmed the supramolecular organization of the extracted soil HAs.

  12. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5% Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; da Cruz, André Luís; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon Araújo; Yamashita, Sayuri Rocha; Carqueija, César Roberto Goes; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2015-11-01

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0% (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6%, 10%, 22%, 46% and 100%, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6% exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10%-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality. PMID:26358645

  13. Genotoxicity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow® kit (Litron) assay.

    PubMed

    Morais Leme, Daniela; Grummt, Tamara; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle; Sehr, Andrea; Renz, Sylvia; Reinel, Sissy; Ferraz, Elisa R A; Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa; Machado, Marcos Canto; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2012-02-01

    The designation of biodiesel as an environmental-friendly alternative to diesel oil has improved its commercialization and use. However, most biodiesel environmental safety studies refer to air pollution and so far there have been very few literature data about its impacts upon other biotic systems, e.g. water, and exposed organisms. Spill simulations in water were carried out with neat diesel and biodiesel and their blends aiming at assessing their genotoxic potentials should there be contaminations of water systems. The water soluble fractions (WSF) from the spill simulations were submitted to solid phase extraction with C-18 cartridge and the extracts obtained were evaluated carrying out genotoxic and mutagenic bioassays [the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow® kit (Litron) assay]. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects were observed, respectively, in the Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay and the in vitro MN test carried out with the biodiesel WSF. This interesting result may be related to the presence of pollutants in biodiesel derived from the raw material source used in its production chain. The data showed that care while using biodiesel should be taken to avoid harmful effects on living organisms in cases of water pollution. PMID:22071371

  14. Chronic toxicity of water-soluble fractions of fresh and water-leached solvent refined coal-II liquids to a freshwater benthic invertebrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Fallon, W.E.; Gray, R.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    A solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquid blend (2.9:1, middle to heavy distillate) obtained from a pilot plant was sequentially extracted with water to observe compositional changes in water soluble fractions (WSF). An initial WSF, designed to simulate chemicals present after contact with water, and a water-leached (artificially weathered) WSF, designed to represent conditions after exposure to the aqueous environment were chemically characterized. Toxicities of the two WSFs were compared by observing chronic effects on a freshwater benthic invertebrate, Tanytarsus dissimilis. Survival to emergence was suppressed at 3.0 ppth of the initial WSF and at 9.4 ppth of the artificially weathered WSF. However, based on equal concentrations of organic carbon and phenolics, weathered WSF solutions were three to five times more toxic. Concentrations, relative distributions, and loss over time of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons differed between aqueous extractions derived from the fresh and weathered SRC II material. Tests assessing long-term effects of complex materials must be designed and interpreted on the basis of organism exposure to compounds most likely to persist in the environment.

  15. Acute exposure of water soluble fractions of marine diesel on Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus: effects on survival and biomarker response.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Jager, Tjalling; Nordtug, Trond

    2013-04-01

    The use of marine diesels in Arctic areas is expected to increase due to increased shipping transport, oil and gas activities, and the ban of heavy bunker oils in many areas. This project aimed at gathering information regarding the sensitivity of an Arctic copepod to marine diesel. The approach undertaken was to study the effects on survival (LC50s) and gene expression of a known detoxification gene (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) in Calanus glacialis following exposure to water soluble fractions (WSFs) of marine diesel (at 2 °C). We compared the observed LC-values of C. glacialis to the identical experimental data of the boreal Calanus finmarchicus (at 10 °C), and to the predicted LC50-values using regression models. The C. glacialis appeared more tolerant to the acute effects of marine diesel WSF compared to the "average pelagic crustacean" as predicted by regression models, and compared to C. finmarchicus. Although these results may be explained by a slower equilibration of petrogenic chemicals from the WSF at lower temperatures, C. glacialis also displayed higher GST expression following exposure than C. finmarchicus. In addition, the lipid content of the test organisms appears to be an important factor for the determination of acute toxicity, as copepods with high lipid content survived longer than copepods with low lipid content. PMID:23434578

  16. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountaintop aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol (TSP) samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N, 117.10° E) located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220-6070 ng m-3) were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid (105-3920 ng m-3) followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M), isomaleic (iM) and fumaric (F) acids, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, isophthalic and terephthalic acids). ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24-610 ng m-3) were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11-360 ng m-3), followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3-140 ng m-3) and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1-230 ng m-3 and methylglyoxal, 2-120 ng m-3). We found that these levels (>6000 ng m-3 for diacids) are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June, showing a maximum on 7 June, and then significantly decreased during the period 8-11 June, when the wind direction shifted from southerly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat straw) in the North China Plain and the subsequent photochemical oxidation of

  17. In vitro oxidation of indoleacetic acid by soluble auxin-oxidases and peroxidases from maize roots. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Beffa, R.; Martin, H.V.; Pilet, P.E. )

    1990-10-01

    Soluble auxin-oxidases were extracted from Zea mays L. cv LG11 apical root segments and partially separated from peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) by size-exclusion chromatography. Auxin-oxidases were resolved into one main peak corresponding to a molecular mass of 32.5 kilodaltons and a minor peak at 54.5 kilodaltons. Peroxidases were separated into at least four peaks, with molecular masses from 32.5 to 78 kilodaltons. In vitro activity of indoleacetic acid-oxidases was dependent on the presence of MnCl{sub 2} and p-coumaric acid. Compound(s) present in the crude extract and several synthetic auxin transport inhibitors (including 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) inhibited auxin-oxidase activity, but had no effect on peroxidases. The products resulting from the in vitro enzymatic oxidation of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid were separated by HPLC and the major metabolite was found to cochromatograph with indol-3yl-methanol.

  18. Protection from hypertension in mice by the Mediterranean diet is mediated by nitro fatty acid inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Rebecca L.; Rudyk, Olena; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Kamynina, Alisa; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Eaton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is inhibited by electrophilic lipids by their adduction to Cys521 proximal to its catalytic center. This inhibition prevents hydrolysis of the enzymes’ epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) substrates, so they accumulate inducing vasodilation to lower blood pressure (BP). We generated a Cys521Ser sEH redox-dead knockin (KI) mouse model that was resistant to this mode of inhibition. The electrophilic lipid 10-nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) inhibited hydrolase activity and also lowered BP in an angiotensin II-induced hypertension model in wild-type (WT) but not KI mice. Furthermore, EET/dihydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid isomer ratios were elevated in plasma from WT but not KI mice following NO2-OA treatment, consistent with the redox-dead mutant being resistant to inhibition by lipid electrophiles. sEH was inhibited in WT mice fed linoleic acid and nitrite, key constituents of the Mediterranean diet that elevates electrophilic nitro fatty acid levels, whereas KIs were unaffected. These observations reveal that lipid electrophiles such as NO2-OA mediate antihypertensive signaling actions by inhibiting sEH and suggest a mechanism accounting for protection from hypertension afforded by the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24843165

  19. Increase on the Initial Soluble Heme Levels in Acidic Conditions Is an Important Mechanism for Spontaneous Heme Crystallization In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Timothy J.; Wright, David W.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemozoin (Hz) is a heme crystal that represents a vital pathway for heme disposal in several blood-feeding organisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that β-hematin (βH) (the synthetic counterpart of Hz) formation occurs under physiological conditions near synthetic or biological hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. This seems to require a heme dimer acting as a precursor of Hz crystals that would be formed spontaneously in the absence of the competing water molecules bound to the heme iron. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of medium polarity on spontaneous βH formation in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the effect of water content on spontaneous βH formation by using the aprotic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and a series of polyethyleneglycols (PEGs). We observed that both DMSO and PEGs (3.350, 6.000, 8.000, and 22.000) increased the levels of soluble heme under acidic conditions. These compounds were able to stimulate the production of βH crystals in the absence of any biological sample. Interestingly, the effects of DMSO and PEGs on βH formation were positively correlated with their capacity to promote previous heme solubilization in acidic conditions. Curiously, a short chain polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300) caused a significant reduction in both soluble heme levels and βH formation. Finally, both heme solubilization and βH formation strongly correlated with reduced medium water activity provided by increased DMSO concentrations. Conclusions The data presented here support the notion that reduction of the water activity is an important mechanism to support spontaneous heme crystallization, which depends on the previous increase of soluble heme levels. PMID:20856937

  20. Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid.

    PubMed

    Canellas, Luciano P; Piccolo, Alessandro; Dobbss, Leonardo B; Spaccini, Riccardo; Olivares, Fábio L; Zandonadi, Daniel B; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-01-01

    Preparative high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to humic acids (HA) extracted from vermicompost in order to separate humic matter of different molecular dimension and evaluate the relationship between chemical properties of size-fractions (SF) and their effects on plant root growth. Molecular dimensions of components in humic SF was further achieved by diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR) based on diffusion coefficients (D), while carbon distribution was evaluated by solid state (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR. Seedlings of maize and Arabidopsis were treated with different concentrations of SF to evaluate root growth. Six different SF were obtained and their carbohydrate-like content and alkyl chain length decreased with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon was also observed with decreasing molecular size of separated fractions. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra showed that SF were composed of complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrates constituents that could be separated on the basis of their diffusion. All SF promoted root growth in Arabidopsis and maize seedlings but the effects differed according to molecular size and plant species. In Arabidopsis seedlings, the bulk HA and its SF revealed a classical large auxin-like exogenous response, i.e.: shortened the principal root axis and induced lateral roots, while the effects in maize corresponded to low auxin-like levels, as suggested by enhanced principal axis length and induction of lateral roots. The reduction of humic heterogeneity obtained in HPSEC separated size-fractions suggested that their physiological influence on root growth and architecture was less an effect of their size than their content of specific bioactive molecules. However, these molecules may be dynamically released from humic superstructures and exert their bioactivity when weaker is the humic conformational stability as that obtained

  1. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  2. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  3. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountain aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol (TSP) samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N; 117.10° E) located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220-6070 ng m-3) were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid (105-3920 ng m-3) followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M), isomaleic (iM) and fumaric (F) acid, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, iso-phthalic and tere-phthalic acids). ω-Oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24-610 ng m-3) were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11-360 ng m-3), followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3-140 ng m-3) and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1-230 ng m-3 and methylglyoxal, 2-120 ng m-3). We found that these levels (> 6000 ng m-3 for diacids) are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June showing a maximum on 7 June and then significantly decreased during 8-11 June when the wind direction shifted from northeasterly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning products of agricultural wastes (wheat straw) in the North China Plain and the subsequent photochemical oxidation of volatile and semi

  4. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  5. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  6. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  7. Aircraft observations of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids in the aerosols over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Qing Fu, Ping; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Takami, Akinori; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Vertical profiles of dicarboxylic acids, related organic compounds and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracer compounds in particle phase have not yet been simultaneously explored in East Asia, although there is growing evidence that aqueous-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds may be responsible for the elevated organic aerosols (OA) in the troposphere. Here, we found consistently good correlation of oxalic acid, the most abundant individual organic compounds in aerosols globally, with its precursors as well as biogenic-derived SOA compounds in Chinese tropospheric aerosols by aircraft measurements. Anthropogenically derived dicarboxylic acids (i.e., C5 and C6 diacids) at high altitudes were 4-20 times higher than those from surface measurements and even occasionally dominant over oxalic acid at altitudes higher than 2 km, which is in contrast to the predominance of oxalic acid previously reported globally including the tropospheric and surface aerosols. This indicates an enhancement of tropospheric SOA formation from anthropogenic precursors. Furthermore, oxalic acid-to-sulfate ratio maximized at altitudes of ˜ 2 km, explaining aqueous-phase SOA production that was supported by good correlations with predicted liquid water content, organic carbon and biogenic SOA tracers. These results demonstrate that elevated oxalic acid and related SOA compounds from both the anthropogenic and biogenic sources may substantially contribute to tropospheric OA burden over polluted regions of China, implying aerosol-associated climate effects and intercontinental transport.

  8. Formation of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and a-dicarbonyls by ozone oxidation of isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hirokawa, J.

    2014-12-01

    Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic acid (C2) are the dominant organic compound class in atmospheric aerosols. They can act as cloud condensation nuclei and affect on the Earth climate. Diacids can be primary emitted from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning and secondarily produced by photochemical oxidations of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons. However, their sources and formation processes are still not well understood. Recently model and observation studies suggested the importance of isoprene as a precursor of oxalic acid. Isoprene is the most abundant BVOC emitted from terrestrial plants and can serve as important precursors of diacids. We conducted a laboratory oxidation of isoprene (2.0 ppm) with ozone (4.3 ppm) in a Teflon bag for 10 to 480 min. The formed particles were collected with quartz fiber filters and analyzed for diacids, oxoacids and a-dicarbonyls employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization and using GC and GC/MS techniques. Here, we report the analytical results to better understand the formation process of diacids and related compounds from isoprene. We detected homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C6), unsaturated diacids (maleic and methylmaleic acids), w-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. We found that oxalic acid (3000-9700 ngm-3) is the most abundant diacid followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Their concentrations increased with reaction time showing a maximum in 4 hours. Interestingly, C3/C4 ratios increased with time. The second most abundant species after oxalic acid was generally methylglyoxal (3600-9600 ngm-3), except for the 30 min. sample where methylglyoxal was more abundant than oxalic acid. Glyoxylic acid (wC2) was found as the most abundant oxoacid (1600-3800 ngm-3) followed by wC3 and wC4. Although the concentrations of diacids and related compounds are 1-2 orders magnitude higher than those reported in ambient aerosols, this study

  9. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  10. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles. PMID:24437520

  11. Solubility and equilibrium vapor pressures of HC1 dissolved in polar stratospheric cloud materials - Ice and the trihydrate of nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the pressure-solubility behavior of HC1 in water ice and in the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) crystal at 200 K are reported. It was found that HC1 is about 20 times more soluble in NAT than in ice for stratospheric conditions. A relation between HC1 pressure and substrate composition based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation is developed. This relation, along with other thermodynamic data, can be used to obtain the HC1 pressure-solubility behavior at different temperatures. Implications of these results for the south polar ozone hole are discussed.

  12. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  13. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  14. In vitro assessment of endocrine disrupting potential of naphthenic Acid fractions derived from oil sands-influenced water.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Liane A; Pohler, Lani; Wiseman, Steve B; He, Yuhe; Arens, Collin J; Giesy, John P; Scully, Stephen; Wagner, Brian D; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hogan, Natacha S

    2015-05-01

    Oil sands-influenced process waters have been observed to cause reproductive effects and to induced CYP1A activity in fishes; however, little progress has been made in determining causative agents. Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the predominant organic compounds in process-affected waters, but due to the complexity of the mixture, it has been difficult to examine causal linkages in fishes. The aim of this study was to use in vitro assays specific to reproductive and CYP1A mechanisms to determine if specific acid extractable fractions of NAs obtained from oil sands-influenced water are active toward reproductive processes or interact with the Ah receptor responsible for CYP1A activity. NAs were extracted from aged oil sands-influenced waters by use of acid precipitation, and the mixture was fractionated into three acidic and one neutral fraction. The four fractions were examined for Ah receptor-mediated potency by use of the H4IIE-luc bioassay, effects on production of steroid hormones by use of the H295R steroidogenesis assay, and sex steroid receptor binding activity using the yeast estrogen screen and yeast androgen screen. The mixtures were characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The neutral fraction elicited Ah-receptor mediated activity after 24 h but not after 48 or 72 h. None of the fractions contained measurable levels of estrogen or androgen receptor agonists nor did they cause reductions in steroidogenesis. A number of fractions showed antiestrogenic or antiandrogenicity potency, with the neutral and main acidic fractions being the most potent. Neutral aromatic compounds are likely responsible for the CYP1A activity observed. Direct estrogenic, androgenic, or steroidogenic mechanisms are unlikely for NAs based on these results, but NAs act as potent antiandrogen or antiestrogens. PMID:25835061

  15. The water-soluble matrix fraction from the nacre of Pinctada maxima produces earlier mineralization of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marthe; Pereira-Mouriès, Lucilia; Almeida, Maria José; Milet, Christian; Lopez, Evelyne

    2003-05-01

    Nacre or mother of pearl is a calcified structure that forms the lustrous inner layer of some shells. We studied the biological activity of the water-soluble matrix (WSM) extracted from powdered nacre from the shell of the pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, on the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line from mouse calvaria. This cell line has the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and to mineralize in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured as markers of osteoblast differentiation, and mineralization was analyzed. These studies revealed that WSM stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization by day 6 instead of the 21-day period required for cells grown in normal mineralizing media. We compared the activity of WSM with that of dexamethasone on this cell line. WSM can inhibit alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the activity of dexamethasone on MC3T3-E1 cells. This study shows that nacre WSM could speed up the differentiation and mineralization of this cell line more effectively than dexamethasone. PMID:12781967

  16. Release of a Poorly Soluble Drug from Hydrophobically Modified Poly (Acrylic Acid) in Simulated Intestinal Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Knöös, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    A large part of new pharmaceutical substances are characterized by a poor solubility and high hydrophobicity, which might lead to a difference in drug adsorption between fasted and fed patients. We have previously evaluated the release of hydrophobic drugs from tablets based on Pemulen TR2 and showed that the release can be manipulated by adding surfactants. Here we further evaluate the possibility to use Pemulen TR2 in controlled release tablet formulations containing a poorly soluble substance, griseofulvin. The release is evaluated in simulated intestinal media that model the fasted state (FaSSIF medium) or fed state (FeSSIF). The rheology of polymer gels is studied in separate experiments, in order to gain more information on possible interactions. The release of griseofulvin in tablets without surfactant varied greatly and the slowest release were observed in FeSSIF. Addition of SDS to the tablets eliminated the differences and all tablets showed a slow linear release, which is of obvious relevance for robust drug delivery. Comparing the data from the release studies and the rheology experiment showed that the effects on the release from the different media could to a large extent be rationalised as a consequence of the interactions between the polymer and the surfactants in the media. The study shows that Pemulen TR2 is a candidate for controlled release formulations in which addition of surfactant provides a way to eliminate food effects on the release profile. However, the formulation used needs to be designed to give a faster release rate than the tablets currently investigated. PMID:26473964

  17. Release of a Poorly Soluble Drug from Hydrophobically Modified Poly (Acrylic Acid) in Simulated Intestinal Fluids.

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Svensson, Anna V; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

    2015-01-01

    A large part of new pharmaceutical substances are characterized by a poor solubility and high hydrophobicity, which might lead to a difference in drug adsorption between fasted and fed patients. We have previously evaluated the release of hydrophobic drugs from tablets based on Pemulen TR2 and showed that the release can be manipulated by adding surfactants. Here we further evaluate the possibility to use Pemulen TR2 in controlled release tablet formulations containing a poorly soluble substance, griseofulvin. The release is evaluated in simulated intestinal media that model the fasted state (FaSSIF medium) or fed state (FeSSIF). The rheology of polymer gels is studied in separate experiments, in order to gain more information on possible interactions. The release of griseofulvin in tablets without surfactant varied greatly and the slowest release were observed in FeSSIF. Addition of SDS to the tablets eliminated the differences and all tablets showed a slow linear release, which is of obvious relevance for robust drug delivery. Comparing the data from the release studies and the rheology experiment showed that the effects on the release from the different media could to a large extent be rationalised as a consequence of the interactions between the polymer and the surfactants in the media. The study shows that Pemulen TR2 is a candidate for controlled release formulations in which addition of surfactant provides a way to eliminate food effects on the release profile. However, the formulation used needs to be designed to give a faster release rate than the tablets currently investigated. PMID:26473964

  18. Serum uric acid is associated with cardiac diastolic dysfunction among women with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Shinpei; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Okamoto, Yusuke; Kizawa, Shun; Morita, Hideaki; Ito, Takahide; Sakane, Kazushi; Sohmiya, Koichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2015-09-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with the severity and prognosis of systolic heart failure. We investigated the potential association between SUA and cardiac diastolic dysfunction among total of 744 cardiac patients (202 women and 542 men) who had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Presence of diastolic dysfunction was assessed by echocardiographic data, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Univariate analysis showed that the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction increased with increasing SUA value in women, but not in men. When sex-nonspecific SUA quartiles were used, multivariate logistic regression analysis, among female patients who were not taking uric acid lowering medication, showed that the third (SUA, 5.7-6.4 mg) and the fourth (SUA, ≥6.5 mg/dl) SUA quartiles were associated with diastolic dysfunction with an odds ratio of 3.25 (P < 0.05) and 8.06 (P < 0.001), respectively, when compared with the first SUA quartile (≤4.7 mg/dl). When sex-specific SUA quartiles were used among these population, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the fourth SUA quartile (≥5.7 mg/dl) was associated with diastolic dysfunction with an odds ratio of 5.34 (P < 0.05) when compared with the first SUA quartile (≤4.1 mg/dl). By contrast, the relationship between SUA and diastolic dysfunction was not significant in men, irrespective of which of the sex-nonspecific or sex-specific SUA quartiles were used. These data indicated that among cardiac patients with preserved ejection fraction, SUA was significantly associated with diastolic dysfunction in women but not in men. PMID:26209055

  19. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). PMID:27112879

  20. Characterization of olive mill wastes composts and their humic acids: stability assessment within different particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, Saoussan; Jarboui, Raja; El Feki, Hafedh; Gea, Teresa; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2013-01-01

    Compost stability assessment within different particle size fractions was studied. Humic acids (HAs) were extracted from two kinds of co-composts prepared using evaporated olive mill wastewater (OMSW) or solid waste from olive oil extraction (OC) and poultry manure (PM). The elemental composition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis and molecular weight distribution were investigated to assess the composted organic matter stability in different fractions. In both composts, organic matter content was higher in the > 2 mm fractions than in the < 2 mm fractions, because of fractions' richness in hardly biodegradable compounds. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that OMSW compost fraction < 2 mm and OC compost 2-4 mm fraction were rich in aromatic compounds and oxygenated groups but poor in aliphatic structure. Moreover, the HA distribution reflected a high stabilized compost < 2 mm fraction, especially from evaporated effluent known as phytotoxic. However, the 4-6 mm fraction included high aliphatic compounds besides aromatic structures and did not exhibit any phytotoxicity, confirming compost fraction maturity. However, the low C/N ratio, the high OMSW compost mineral nutritive elements and the high aromatic C rate reflected highly stabilized products. Consequently, the performance of both prepared organic fertilizers for agriculture use contested the previous negative effect ascribed to olive mill wastewater. PMID:23837330

  1. Transformation of the water soluble fraction from "alpeorujo" by Coriolopsis rigida: the role of laccase in the process and its impact on Azospirillum brasiliense survival.

    PubMed

    Saparrat, Mario C N; Jurado, Miguel; Díaz, Rosario; Romera, Inmaculada Garcia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of the white rot basidiomycete Coriolopsis rigida to detoxify the water soluble fraction from "alpeorujo" (WSFA), a solid by-product produced by the olive oil extraction industry and characterized by a high concentration of phenols which limits its use as fertilizer and/or amendment. C. rigida reduced the phenol content in the liquid media supplemented with WSFA at 10 and 20% (v/v) after 15d of incubation. The analysis of WSFA toxicity after fungal treatment showed that C. rigida was responsible for a significant increase in the survival rate of Azospirillum brasiliense, a N(2) fixing soil rhizobacterium which promotes plant growth. Supplementation of culture medium with CuSO(4) (300 microM) resulted in strong laccase induction thus facilitating higher phenol reduction and detoxification of WSFA. In vitro reactions using a crude extracellular preparation from laccase-active C. rigida showed phenol removal as well as detoxification of the WSFA at 20%. These results suggest that C. rigida reduces the phenol content of the WSFA through the effect of laccase on free phenolic compounds consequently decreasing the toxic effect on A. brasiliense, which suggests that the enzyme plays an important role in the process. These findings have implications in the management and revalorization of olive-mill residues treated with laccase-producing fungi and their potential impact on integrative agricultural systems including organic residues and the co-inoculation with microorganisms which can facilitate the growth of plants of agricultural interest. PMID:19875147

  2. The effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil on survival, physiology and behaviour of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev, 1870).

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed

    2016-01-01

    The water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons that aquatic organisms directly encounter in oil spills. WSF plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the effects of WSF on juvenile Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, at lethal and sub-lethal level was investigated. The lethality of WSF on R. caspicus was studied by conducting 96h LC50 tests with semi-static exposure methods with 6 and 24h solution renewals. The 96h LC50 of WSF was estimated at 62.5% and 35.9% WSF concentrations for 24h and 6h renewal methods, respectively. To investigate the sub-lethal effect of WSF on R. caspicus, fish were exposed to 62.5, 31.3, and 6.3% concentrations of WSF for 24h and changes in their respiration rate and swimming activity was monitored during the exposure. At the end of the exposure period, four hematologic parameters [O2 and CO2 pressures (pO2 and pCO2), hematocrit, and hemoglobin content] of the fish were measured. The result of the behavioural experiment revealed that all three studied concentrations of WSF elevated the respiration rate and reduced the swimming activity of R. caspicus. No significant changes were detected in the hematocrit and hemoglobin content of the fish blood, but the blood pO2 of the fish exposed to 62.5% WSF decreased while the blood pCO2 increased. The results of this study suggest that the egression of the volatile components in hydrocarbon mixtures during conventional semi-static toxicity tests may lead to underestimating the toxicity of the hydrocarbons. The results of the sub-lethal experiments propose that failure of the respiratory system that leads to asphyxia may be a major mechanism that results in lethal effect of WSF in high concentrations. PMID:26377481

  3. The role of small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) in protection of spores of Clostridium botulinum against nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Carolyn A; Cartman, Stephen T; McClure, Peter J; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-01-01

    Mutant strains of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 were generated using the ClosTron in four genes (CBO1789, CBO1790, CBO3048, CBO3145) identified as encoding α/β-type SASP homologues. The spores of mutant strains in which CBO1789 or CBO1790 was inactivated demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity to the damaging agent nitrous acid (P<0.01), a phenotype that was partially restored to wild-type in complementation studies. In contrast to nitrous acid, the spores of the CBO1789 and CBO1790 mutants showed no change in their resistance to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide (P>0.05), two other chemicals commonly used as components of disinfection regimes. These data indicate that the SASPs CBO1789 or CBO1790 play a significant role in resistance to nitrous acid, but not in resistance to formaldehyde or hydrogen peroxide. PMID:26386202

  4. Water-Soluble Poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s: A Sensor Array Discriminates Aromatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinsong; Wang, Benhua; Bender, Markus; Seehafer, Kai; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2016-08-10

    A chemical tongue consisting of 11 elements (four poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s (PAE) at pH 7 and pH 13, and seven electrostatic complexes formed from oppositely charged poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s at pH 7) discriminate 21 benzoic and phenylacetic acid derivatives in aqueous solution. The mechanism of discrimination is the fluorescence modulation of the PAEs, leading to quenching or fluorescence turn-on. The PAEs alone at both pH values and the tongue, consisting of the complexes only, discriminate the 21 acids with 92% (PAEs at pH 7), 95% (PAEs at pH 13), and 99% (complexes at pH 7) reliability after linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A sensor field with all 14 elements, according to LDA, discriminates all of the 21 acids with 100% accuracy. PMID:27415439

  5. Cotton wool-like poly(lactic acid)/vaterite composite scaffolds releasing soluble silica for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Obata, Akiko; Ozasa, Hiroki; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jones, Julian R

    2013-07-01

    Cotton wool-like poly(L-lactic acid) and siloxane-doped vaterite (SiV) composite scaffolds were prepared with a modified electrospinning system for bone tissue engineering applications. The effects of changing the SiV content in the materials from 10 to 30 wt% on elasticity and the ability to release calcium ions and soluble silica were evaluated. The elasticity of the cotton wool-like composites was almost the same as that of the PLLA from the results of compressibility and recovery tests. The materials released calcium ions for more than 56 days and soluble silica for 28-56 days in a tris buffer solution (pH 7.4). Mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) were cultured on/in the cotton wool-like materials or the fibremats out of the same composite materials as that used for the cotton wool-like materials. The cells penetrated into and proliferated inside the cotton wool-like materials, although they mainly adhered on the fibremat surface. PMID:23606191

  6. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25952845

  7. Hygroscopic properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the boreal forest: diurnal variation, solubility and the influence of sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Aufmhoff, H.; Aalto, P.; Hämeri, K.; Arnold, F.; Laaksonen, A.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-10-01

    Freshly formed atmospheric aerosol particles are neither large enough to efficiently scatter incoming solar radiation nor able to act as cloud condensation nuclei. As the particles grow larger, their hygroscopicity determines the limiting size after which they are important in both of the aforementioned processes. The condensing species resulting in growth alter the hygroscopicity of the particles. We have measured hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles present in a boreal forest, along with the very hygroscopic atmospheric trace gas sulfuric acid. The focus was on days with new particle formation by nucleation. The measured hygroscopic growth factors (GF) correlated positively with gaseous phase sulfuric acid concentrations. This correlation had a strong size dependency; the smaller the particle, the more condensing sulfuric acid is bound to alter the GF due to initially smaller mass. In addition, water uptake of nucleation mode particles was monitored during new particle formation events and followed during their growth to Aitken mode sizes. As the modal diameter increased, the solubility of the particles decreased. This indicated that initially more hygroscopic particles transformed into less hygroscopic or even hydrophobic particles. A similar behavior was seen also during days with no particle formation, with GF decreasing during the evenings and increasing during early morning. This can be tentatively explained by day- and nighttime differences in the hygroscopicity of condensable vapors.

  8. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens. PMID:2625499

  9. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. PMID:27507500

  10. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  11. Fractionation of the stable carbon isotope ratio of essential fatty acids in zebrafish Danio rerio and mud snails Bellamya chinensis.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Megumu; Ogino, Masahiro; Nishimura, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    Fractionation of stable carbon (C) isotopes in the essential fatty acids 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 was investigated in the zebrafish Danio rerio and the mud snail Bellamya chinensis fed the same two diets. These diets differed in essential fatty acid compositions: (1) TetraMin contained all five fatty acids, and (2) Chlorella contained only two, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. On average, the isotopic fractionation was -0.5 ± 0.9 ‰ for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 for all experiments, indicating that the fractionation of these essential fatty acids was negligible. However, the isotopic fractionation of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 varied greatly between species and between diets. The isotopic fractionation of the Chlorella diet was -0.2 and -6.9 ‰ for zebrafish and mud snail, but 4.2 and -1.3 ‰, respectively, when these consumers were fed TetraMin. This variation could be explained by the different amount of assimilation and the biosynthesis of these fatty acids from their precursors (i.e., 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3). These results indicate that the isotopic composition of C20 and C22 essential fatty acids was strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition in the diets. Thus the stable C isotope ratios of C18 essential fatty acids in consumers are more useful as dietary tracers in food web studies. PMID:26537876

  12. Single-walled carbon nanotubes in strong acids: controlling solubility and the liquid crystal phase.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, Matteo

    2006-03-01

    Single Walled Nanotubes (SWNTs have remarkable electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Neat, well-aligned SWNT fibers and sheets could be the ultimate building blocks of strong, ultra-light multifunctional materials for aerospace applications, and could yield electromechanical actuators and sensors with unprecedented performance. After the achievement of scalable production of SWNTs, the difficulty of processing pristine SWNTs by liquid-phase methods has been the single most important roadblock to manufacturing macroscopic materials composed solely of SWNTs. Here we show that SWNTs dissolve at high concentration in acids; the SWNTs are stabilized because acids protonate their sidewalls, balancing wall-wall van der Waals forces. Acid strength controls the phase behaviour. At low concentration, SWNTs in acids dissolve as individual tubes which behave as Brownian rods. At higher concentration, SWNTs form a highly unusual nematic liquid phase consisting of spaghetti-like self assembled supermolecular strands of mobile, solvated tubes in equilibrium with a dilute isotropic phase. At even higher concentration, the spaghetti strands self-assemble into a polydomain nematic liquid crystal, where the domains are entangled with each other. Under anhydrous condition, the liquid crystalline phase can be processed into continuous highly aligned fibers of pure SWNTs without the aid of surfactants or polymers. By using a new fluorescent staining technique, we measure the rotational diffusivity and persistence length of SWNTs suspended in water with the aid of surfactants, and show that SWNTs behave as Brownian rods.

  13. Uptake of HCl and HOCl onto sulfuric acid. Solubilities, diffusivities, and reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.R.; Ravishankara, A.R. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO )

    1993-11-25

    The interaction of HOCl and HCl vapors with liquid sulfuric acid surfaces was studied in a flow tube equipped with chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection. Time-dependent uptake of HCl and HOCl was measured. A methodology for deriving the value of the quantity H[radical]D[sub 1], (the product of the Henry's law coefficient and the square root of the liquid-phase diffusion coefficient) is discussed. The partial pressures of HCl over HCl-doped sulfuric acid solutions were also measured to directly determine H for HCl (H[sub HCl]*). Using the measured values of H[sub HCl]* and H[sub HCl]*[radical]D[sub 1], the value of D[sub 1] for HCl in 50 wt % sulfuric acid was extracted. Values for H[sub HOCl] and for the second-order rate coefficient for the reaction between dissolved HOCl and HCl were also obtained. The application of these results to modeling stratospheric heterogeneous processes in sulfuric acid aerosols is discussed. 31 refs., 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Multifunctional water-soluble molecular capsules based on p-phosphonic acid calix[5]arene.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam D; Boulos, Ramiz A; Hubble, Lee J; Hartlieb, Karel J; Raston, Colin L

    2011-07-14

    p-Phosphonic acid calix[5]arene forms molecular capsules in water based on two of the molecules, which can be loaded with carboplatin using intense shearing, and attached to single wall carbon nano-tubes. Spin coating of the capsules onto a substrate affords 2 nm fibres of stacked calixarenes, with the self-assembly understood using molecular modelling. PMID:21637889

  15. Determination of Mineral-Specific Clumped Isotope Acid Digestion Fractionation Factors Using Heating Experiments and Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, D.; Tang, J.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Eagle, R.; Tripati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Clumped isotope thermometry involves the determination of formation temperatures of carbonates from the fraction of isotopologues containing multiple rare isotopes (oxygen-18 and carbon-13). At high temperatures, the abundance of these isotopologues should be stochastic. At lower temperatures, there is a tendency for heavy isotopes to form bonds with each other. However, spectroscopic determination of isotope ratios with high precision is difficult in solids, and so 13C-18O bond abundance is not measured in the solid phase. Instead, analysis of carbonates is performed using gas source mass spectrometry, by reacting the carbonate samples with phosphoric acid and measuring the evolved CO2 gas. As an oxygen atom is lost during the conversion of CO32- groups to CO2, this reaction is hypothesized to result in mineral and acid digestion temperature-dependent fractionation. In order to quantify this fractionation between CO32- and CO2, this experiment seeks to determine acid fractionation factors for carbonate samples of varying composition by randomizing samples through intense heating and comparing analyte CO2 measured composition to the expected composition for a stochastically distributed sample. From this analysis, future carbonate measurements can be calibrated to account for acid digestion fractionation.

  16. Deriving Gene Networks from SNP Associated with Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Fractions from Ribeyes of Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Justin W.; Reecy, James M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Duan, Qing; Beitz, Don C.; Koltes, James E.; Saatchi, Mahdi; Koesterke, Lars; Mateescu, Raluca G.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction. Posterior means of the effects were estimated for each of the 54 k SNP and for the collective effects of all the SNP in every 1-Mb genomic window in terms of the proportion of genetic variance explained by the window. Windows that explained the largest proportions of genetic variance for individual lipids were found in the triacylglycerol fraction. There was almost no overlap in the genomic regions explaining variance between the triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions. Partial correlations were used to identify correlated regions of the genome for the set of largest 1 Mb windows that explained up to 35% genetic variation in either fatty acid fraction. SNP were allocated to windows based on the bovine UMD3.1 assembly. Gene network clusters were generated utilizing a partial correlation and information theory algorithm. Results were used in conjunction with network scoring and visualization software to analyze correlated SNP across 39 fatty acid phenotypes to identify SNP of significance. Significant pathways implicated in fatty acid metabolism through GO term enrichment analysis included homeostasis of number of cells, homeostatic process, coenzyme/cofactor activity, and immunoglobulin. These results suggest different metabolic pathways regulate the development of different types of lipids found in

  17. Salt water-acclimated pink salmon fry (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) develop stress-related visceral lesions after 10-day exposure to sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of North Slope crude oil.

    PubMed

    Brand, D G; Fink, R; Bengeyfield, W; Birtwell, I K; McAllister, C D

    2001-01-01

    Pink salmon fry. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, after a 10-day exposure to one of two sublethal concentrations (25-54 microg x L(-1) or 178-348 microg x L(-1)) of the water-soluble fractions from Alaska North Slope crude oil, possessed morphologic and stress induced lesions in their hepatic, head kidney and gill tissues. Analysis of livers from oil-exposed fry revealed a variety of hepatocellular changes, including steatosis, nuclear pleomorphism. megalocytosis and necrosis. Epithelial proliferation of the bile ducts also occurred. An increase in the head kidney's interrenal cell nuclear diameter, a biomarker for stress responses, was correlated with hydrocarbon exposure. Gill abnormalities such as eqithelial lifting. fusion, mucous cell hyperplasia and vascular constriction were found in all test groups, but were more severe in fry given the high water soluble fraction of crude oil. The study demonstrated that sublethal exposure to the water-soluble fraction of crude oil results in multiple microscopic lesions (in several viscera) that are consistent with a pronounced response to environmental stress. PMID:11695575

  18. PM chemical composition and oxidative potential of the soluble fraction of particles at two sites in the urban area of Milan, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Zhou, Jun; Malandrino, Mery; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Ferrero, Luca; Dommen, Josef; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence support the hypothesis that health effects from inhalation of air particles are governed by more than just particle mass, since specific chemical components have been identified as important contributors to mortality and hospitality admissions. We studied the chemical composition and the oxidative potential (OP) of total suspended particle (TSP) samples from Milan at two sites with different traffic loads: a site in the low emission zone (LEZ) and a traffic site (TR) outside. Two a-cellular assays; dithiothreitol (OPDTT) and 2‧,7' dichlorofluorescin (OPDCFH) were used to characterize the OP of the soluble fraction of particles. TSP samples from LEZ showed significantly lower concentrations of traffic-related chemical components compared to TR. The decrease in the concentrations from TR to LEZ was maximum for EC, with a LEZ/TR ratio of 0.64 (±0.18), and a significant reduction (p < 0.01) was also observed for PAHs (LEZ/TR = 0.73 ± 0.16), elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb: LEZ/TR ranged between 0.64 and 0.82), OC (LEZ/TR = 0.85 ± 0.12) and NH4+ (LEZ/TR = 0.92 ± 0.07). OP measures, expressed as OP/m3 or OP/mg, were comparable between sites both for OPDTT and OPDCFH, thus not showing any significant impact of local traffic on OP values at sites. OPDTT and OPDCFH showed contrasting seasonal and daily trends, indicating that the two a-cellular assays gave complementary information on the OP of particles in Milan. The two OP assays resulted to be sensitive to different chemical properties of PM samples. OPDTT correlated positively only with Global Radiation (Spearman's rs = 0.38, p < 0.05), which could be considered as a proxy for high concentrations of secondary oxidizing organics, while OPDCFH was related to various PM chemical species, mainly correlated with total mass (rs = 0.65; p < 0.01), elements (e.g. Zn, rs = 0.67; As, rs = 0.65; p < 0.01) and the sum of sulfate and nitrate (rs = 0.63; p < 0.01), a proxy for secondary aerosol.

  19. Size-fractionated water-soluble ions, situ pH and water content in aerosol on hazy days and the influences on visibility impairment in Jinan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shu-hui; Yang, Ling-xiao; Zhou, Xue-hua; Xue, Li-kun; Gao, Xiao-mei; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Wen-xing

    2011-09-01

    To study the size-fractionated characteristics of aerosol chemical compounds including major water-soluble inorganic and organic ions, situ pH and water content as well as their influences on visibility, field sample collections using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) combined with simulations by Aerosol Inorganic Model (AIM) were conducted on hazy and clear days in Jinan, China from April, 2006 to January, 2007. Average concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and PM 1.8 on hazy days were found to be 1.49-5.13, 1.54-5.48 and 1.30-5.48 times those on clear days during the sampling periods, indicating that particulate pollution was very serious on hazy days. Size distributions of mass, SO 42-, NO 3-, formate and acetate were all bimodal with fine mode predominant on hazy days, demonstrating that fine particles and secondary pollutants were more easily formed on hazy days. The average total aerosol concentration of H + ([H +] total), of which free H + concentration ([H +] ins) inside aerosol accounted for 30%, was 2.36-4.21 times that in other cities in China and US. The [H +] ins on hazy days was 2.43-13.11 times that on clear days and the estimated situ pH was mainly influenced by RH and mole ratios of [NH 4+]/[SO 42-]. Size distributions of situ pH were unimodal peaked at 0.56 μm on clear days in spring and autumn as well as on hazy days in autumn, while a trend of increasing was shown on hazy days in spring and summer. The normalized water content (NWC) was higher on hazy days in autumn and winter because of the easier uptake of water by aerosol. It was found that when NWC < 2, if [NH 4+]/[SO 42-] < 2.0, aerosol chemical components were more sensitive to water content, while if [NH 4+]/[SO 42-] > 2.0, relative humidity (RH) was more important. Size distributions of water content showed a trend of sharp increasing on hazy days in spring and autumn. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that visibility was significantly influenced by the concentrations

  20. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of genes for three small, acid-soluble proteins from Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed Central

    Connors, M J; Mason, J M; Setlow, P

    1986-01-01

    Three Bacillus subtilis genes (termed sspA, sspB, and sspD) which code for small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) have been cloned, and their complete nucleotide sequence has been determined. The amino acid sequences of the SASPs coded for by these genes are similar to each other and to those of the SASP-1 of B. subtilis (coded for by the sspC gene) and the SASP-A/C family of B. megaterium. The sspA and sspB genes are expressed only in sporulation, in parallel with each other and with the sspC gene. Two regions upstream of the postulated transcription start sites for the sspA and B genes have significant homology with the analogous regions of the sspC gene and the SASP-A/C gene family. Purification of two of the three major B, subtilis SASPs (alpha and beta) and determination of their amino-terminal sequences indicated that the sspA gene codes for SASP-alpha and that the sspB gene codes for SASP-beta. This was confirmed by the introduction of deletion mutations into the cloned sspA and sspB genes and transfer of these deletions into the B. subtilis chromosome with concomitant loss of the wild-type gene. Images PMID:3009398

  1. Synthesis and Anchoring of Antineoplastic Ferrocene and Phthalocyanine Derivatives on Water-Soluble Polymeric Drug Carriers Derived from Lysine and Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Maree, M. David; Neuse, Eberhard W.; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Swarts, Jannie C.

    2008-01-01

    The general synthetic strategy towards water-soluble biodegradable drug carriers and the properties that they must have are discussed. The syntheses of water-soluble biodegradable copolymers of lysine and aspartic acid as potential drug-delivering devices, having amine-functionalised side chains are then described. Covalent anchoring of carboxylic acid derivatives of the antineoplastic ferrocene and photodynamically active phthalocyanine moieties to the amine-containing drug carrier copolymers under mild coupling conditions has been achieved utilising the coupling reagent O-benzotriazolyl-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate to promote formation of the biodegradable amide bond. Even though the parent antineoplastic ferrocene and phthalocyanine derivatives are themselves insoluble in water at pH < 7, the new carrier-drug conjugates that were obtained are well water-soluble. PMID:18288243

  2. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  3. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Soares, J A; Stein, H H; Singh, V; Shurson, G S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-04-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has low and variable AA digestibility. The variability is often attributed to damage during the heating process, and it has been suggested that the damage happens to the soluble components of DDGS such as reducing sugars. Combining solubles and grains sometimes produces syrup balls (SB); their digestibility is unknown. The objective of this experiment was to identify potential sources of poor and variable AA digestibility in DDGS. Specifically, our objective was to determine whether the problems are associated with the solubles component or with SB. The ingredients evaluated were DDGS, intact SB, ground SB, liquid condensed solubles (LCS), and pulse dried thin stillage (PDTS) obtained from the same ethanol plant. The LCS is produced by evaporation of thin stillage. Each ingredient was used as the only source of AA in an experimental diet. In a duplicate 6 × 6 Latin square design with 7-d adaptation and collection periods, the 6 treatments consisted of an N-free diet and the 5 test ingredients. Pigs had 5 d of adaptation to each diet, and on d 6 and 7 ileal digesta were collected from an ileal cannula for 8 h each day. Both SB treatments had apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA that were similar or greater (P < 0.05) than those of DDGS. The AID and SID values of Lys and a few other AA were similar in LCS (SID Lys: 63.1%) and DDGS (SID Lys: 61.5%), but the digestibility values of most AA in LCS were less than in DDGS (P < 0.05). The low digestibility of AA in LCS was most pronounced for Met (SID: LCS, 41.9% vs. DDGS, 82.8%). The LCS had less (P < 0.05) AID and SID of CP (SID: 67.8%) than intact SB (SID: 85.2%) and ground SB (SID: 85.9%) as well as all AA. The PDTS generally had the least AID and SID and had less (P < 0.05) CP (SID: 55.3%) and several AA, including Lys, compared with LCS. In conclusion, the presence of SB does not decrease AA digestibility of DDGS, and the LCS

  4. Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass for the 1982 volcanic eruptions of El Chichon are investigated using data from balloon soundings at Laramie (41 deg N) and in southern Texas (27-29 deg N). The total stratospheric mass of these eruptions is estimated to be approximately 8 Tg about 6.5 months after the eruption with possibly as much as 20 Tg in the stratosphere about 45 days after the eruption. Observations of the aerosol in Texas revealed two primary layers, both highly volatile at 150 C. Aerosol in the upper layer at about 25 km was composed of an approximately 80 percent H2SO4 solution while the lower layer at approximately 18 km was composed of a 60-65 percent H2SO4 solution aerosol. It is calculated that an H2SO4 vapor concentration of at least 3 x 10 to the 7th molecules/cu cm is needed to sustain the large droplets in the upper layer. An early bi-modal nature in the size distribution indicates droplet nucleation from the gas phase during the first 3 months, while the similarity of the large particle profiles 2 months apart shows continued particle growth 6.5 months after the explosion.

  5. Composition, physiochemical properties, nitrogen fraction distribution, and amino acid profile of donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Pang, K; Zhang, X Y; Zhao, L; Chen, S W; Dong, M L; Ren, F Z

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, and AA profile of milk samples obtained during lactation from the Jiangyue breed of donkey in Northwest China. Results showed that donkey milk contained 9.53% total solids, 1.57% protein, 1.16% fat, 6.33% lactose, and 0.4% ash on average, which is more similar to mare and human milk than to the milk of other mammals. Throughout the lactation investigated, pH and density were constant, protein and ash content showed an apparent negative trend (an increase in lactose content during 120 d postpartum, followed by a decrease), fat content exhibited wide variability, and variations in the content and percentage of whey protein, casein, and AA were small. The casein to whey protein ratio of 52:37 was between the lower value of human milk and the higher value of cow milk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE results demonstrated that donkey milk is rich in beta-lactoglobulin and lysozyme. The percentages of 8 essential AA in protein of donkey milk were 38.2%, higher than those of mare and cow milk; donkey milk also had higher levels of serine (6.2%), glutamic acid (22.8%), arginine (4.6%), and valine (6.5%) and a lower level of cystine (0.4%). PMID:17369203

  6. Rare Earth Element - Humic Acid Interaction: Experimental Evidence for Kinetic and Equilibrium Fractionation in Aqueous Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, J. E.; Salters, V. J.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is well known for it's strong binding capacity for trace metals. In order to better predict the role of DOM in the speciation and transport of trace metals in the environment we coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE), a molecular separation technique, to a Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS). The combination of these two techniques allows for the study of non-labile metal speciation in aquatic samples. By separating Rare Earth Element (REE) complexes with EDTA and Humic Acid's (i.e. ligand competition) we have been able to determine conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc) and kinetic rate constants for all 14 REE's with Humic (HA) and Fulvic Acids (FA) as a function of pH (6-9) and ionic strength (IS, 0.01-0.1 mol/L). Assuming a 1:1 binding mechanism, logKc values for REE-FA varied from 9.0 (La) to 10.5 (Lu) at pH 6, 0.1 mol/L IS, and 11.7 (La) to 14.6 (Lu) at pH 9, 0.1 mol/L IS. LogKc values for REE-HA were 10.6 (La) to 12.2 (Lu) at pH 6, 0.1 mol/L IS and 13.2 (La) to 16.5 (Lu) at pH 9, 0.1 mol/L IS. Slightly higher values for Kc were obtained at 0.01 mol/L IS. The general observations of stronger REE-HA binding compared to REE-FA, and stronger binding with increasing pH and decreasing IS correlate with our current understanding of metal-DOM interactions (1). Both Kc's as well as kinetic rate constants increase with increasing REE mass number (decreasing ionic radius); a reflection of the well-known lanthanide contraction. This is the first comprehensive metal binding dataset between REE and DOM, and the first experimental evidence for differential equilibrium and kinetic binding behavior between REE's and DOM. The 30-1000 fold increase in binding strength of heavy REE's with DOM provides for a an equilibrium fractionation mechanism that may explain features of the global geochemical REE cycle such as fractionation related to weathering, estuarine mixing, and REE scavenging in the deep ocean

  7. Species specific identification of spore-producing microbes using the gene sequence of small acid-soluble spore coat proteins for amplification based diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    McKinney, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers for the detection of certain Bacillus species, such as Bacillus anthracis. The primers specifically amplify only DNA found in the target species and can distinguish closely related species. Species-specific PCR primers for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus globigii and Clostridium perfringens are disclosed. The primers are directed to unique sequences within sasp (small acid soluble protein) genes.

  8. A comparison of the use of BrimA versus soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio as a maturity standard for navel oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity and time of harvest for California navel oranges is primarily determined by the ratio of the soluble solids concentration (SSC) to titratable acidity (TA). This standard has been used in the industry for decades but its usefulness and relationship to flavor have often been questioned. In re...

  9. Determination of soluble solids content and titratable acidity of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin using a hand-held NIR instrument in transmittance mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin was investigated using a hand-held NIR instrument “NIR-Gun” in transmittance mode. The resulting calibration equation measured SSC of intact fruit and juice with a standard error o...

  10. Rapid purification and direct microassay of calbindin9kDa utilizing its solubility in perchloric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, M J

    1993-01-01

    The 9 kDa calcium-binding protein, calbindin9kDa, was found to be soluble in 7% (v/v) perchloric acid. Calbindin9kDa was easily purified from rat duodenum in 1 day with perchloric acid precipitation followed by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The yield was 21.4 +/- 2.3 nmol/g wet weight of tissue (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 3) from normally fed 7-8-week-old rats (approx. 70% recovery). The purification was also effective with rabbit duodenum calbindin9kDa, but not with various other EF-hand calcium-binding proteins tested in the rat. Several criteria (h.p.l.c., u.v. spectrum, denaturing two-dimensional PAGE, N-terminal sequencing) indicated that the rat calbindin9kDa was purified to homogeneity and was not affected by proteolysis. High-affinity calcium-binding properties were retained and no evidence of isoforms or charge modification was observed. Residue 59, identified as Asn (not Asp as previously reported), was fully amidated. When adopted as a microassay with isocratic h.p.l.c., the perchloric acid procedure enabled rapid (less than 6 min) and direct (peptide bond absorbance) quantification of less than 1 pmol of calbindin9kDa. This new approach to purification and assay will be of particular utility for investigations of calbindin9kDa in previously intractable low-abundance sources (e.g. cultured cells). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8392333

  11. In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis on CEMss Induced by Linoleic Acid-Rich Fraction from Typhonium flagelliforme Tuber

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Syam; Bustamam, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Siddig; Al-Zubairi, Adel S.; Aspollah, Mohammed; Abdullah, Rasedee; Elhassan, Manal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The plant Typhonium flagelliforme, commonly known as “rodent tuber” in Malaysia, is often used as a health supplement and traditional remedy for alternative cancer therapies, including leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-leukemic activity of dichloromethane extract/fraction number 7 (DCM/F7) from T. flagelliforme tuber on human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEMss) cell line. The DCM extract of tuber has been fractionated by column chromatography. The obtained fractions were evaluated for its cytotoxicity toward CEMss cells as well as human primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Assessment of apoptosis produced by the most active fraction was evaluated by various microscopic techniques and further confirmation of apoptosis was done by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Phytochemical screening was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results shows that 7 out of 12 fractions showed significant cytotoxicity against the selected cell line CEMss, in which fractions DCM/F7, DCM/F11 and DCM/F12 showed exceptional activity with 3, 5 and 6.2 μg ml−1, respectively. Further studies in the non-cancerous PBL exhibited significant selectivity of DCM/F7 compared to other fractions. Cytological observations showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, abnormalities of cristae, membrane blebbing, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies as confirmed collectively by double-staining of acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI), SEM and TEM. In addition, DCM/F7 has increased the cellular DNA breaks on treated cells. GC-MS revealed that DCM/F7 contains linoleic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9-hexadecanoic acid. The present results indicate that T. flagelliforme possess a valuable anti-leukemic effect and was able to produce distinctive morphological features of cell death that corresponds to apoptosis. PMID:21785623

  12. Near-Infrared Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence from Aqueous Soluble Lipoic Acid Au Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanyu; Wang, Dengchao; Padelford, Jonathan W; Jiang, Jie; Wang, Gangli

    2016-05-25

    Strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is detected from dithiolate Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) in aqueous solution under ambient conditions. A novel mechanism to drastically enhance the ECL is established by covalent attachment of coreactants N,N-diethylethylenediamine (DEDA) onto lipoic acid stabilized Au (Au-LA) clusters with matching redox activities. The materials design reduces the complication of mass transport between the reactants during the lifetime of radical intermediates involved in conventional ECL generation pathway. The intracluster reactions are highly advantageous for applications by eliminating additional and high excess coreactants otherwise needed. The enhanced ECL efficiency also benefits uniquely from the multiple energy states per Au cluster and multiple DEDA ligands in the monolayer. Potential step and sweeping experiments reveal an onset potential of 0.78 V for oxidative-reduction ECL generation. Multifolds higher efficiency is found for the Au clusters alone in reference to the standard Rubpy with high excess TPrA. The ECL in near-IR region (beyond 700 nm) is highly advantageous with drastically reduced interference signals over visible ones. The features of ECL intensity responsive to electrode potential and solution pH under ambient conditions make Au-LA-DEDA clusters promising ECL reagents for broad applications. The strategy to attach coreactants on Au clusters is generalizable for other nanomaterials. PMID:27172252

  13. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid.

    PubMed

    Conte, Pellegrino; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    A humic acid extracted from a volcanic soil was subjected to preparative high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to reduce its molecular complexity and eleven different size fractions were obtained. Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning 13C NMR (CPMAS 13C NMR) analysis performed with variable contact-time (VCT) pulse sequences showed that the largest molecular-size fractions contained aromatic, alkyl, and carbohydrate-like components. The carbohydrate-like content and the alkyl chain length seemed to decrease with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon atoms was also observed with decreasing molecular size of the separated fractions. Mathematical treatment of the results from VCT experiments enabled cross polarization (T (CH)) and proton spin-lattice relaxation (T(1rho)(H)) times to be related to structural differences among the size fractions. The conformational distribution indicated that the eleven size fractions could be allocated to two main groups. The first group, with larger nominal molecular sizes, was characterized by molecular domains with slower local molecular motion. The second group of size fractions, with smaller nominal molecular sizes, was characterized by a larger number of molecular domains with faster local molecular motion. The T (CH) and (T(1rho)(H)) values suggested that either condensed or strongly associated aromatic systems were predominant in the size fractions with the largest apparent molecular dimensions. PMID:16896626

  14. Secondary Structures in a Freeze-Dried Lignite Humic Acid Fraction Caused by Hydrogen-Bonding of Acidic Protons with Aromatic Rings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A; Mao, Jingdong

    2016-02-16

    A lignite humic acid (HA) was separated from inorganic and non-HA impurities (i.e., aluminosilicates, metals) and fractionated by a combination of dialysis and XAD-8 resin. Fractionation revealed a more homogeneous structure of lignite HA. New and more specific structural information on the main lignite HA fraction is obtained by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Quantitative (13)C multiple cross-polarization (multiCP) NMR indicated oxidized phenyl propane structures derived from lignin. MultiCP experiments, conducted on potassium HA salts titrated to pH 10 and pH 12, revealed shifts consistent with carboxylate and phenolate formation, but structural changes associated with enolate formation from aromatic beta keto acids were not detected. Two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (2D HETCOR) NMR indicated aryl-aliphatic ketones, aliphatic and aromatic carboxyl groups, phenol, and methoxy phenyl ethers. Acidic protons from carboxyl groups in both the lignite HA fraction and a synthetic HA-like polycondensate were found to be hydrogen-bonded with electron-rich aromatic rings. Our results coupled with published infrared spectra provide evidence for the preferential hydrogen bonding of acidic hydrogens with electron-rich aromatic rings rather than adjacent carbonyl groups. These hydrogen-bonding interactions likely result from stereochemical arrangements in primary structures and folding. PMID:26836017

  15. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Sohail; Shahzadi, Lubna; Mahmood, Nasir; Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar; Rauf, Abdul; Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Yar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes. PMID:27207049

  16. Enhancement of propionic acid fraction in volatile fatty acids produced from sludge fermentation by the use of food waste and Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Dongbo

    2013-02-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) can be used as the additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR), and the increase of propionic acid percentage in VFA has been reported to facilitate the performance of BNR. In this study a new method for significantly improving the propionic acid fraction in VFA derived from waste activated sludge was reported, which included (1) mixing food waste with sludge and pre-fermenting the mixture (first stage), and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the pre-fermentation liquid and fermenting it after inoculating Propionibacterium acidipropionici (second stage). By optimizing the first stage with response surface methodology, a propionic acid content of 68.4% with propionic acid concentration of 7.13 g COD/L could be reached in the second stage, which was much higher than that reported previously. Lactic acid was found to be the most abundant product of the first stage and it served as the substrate for propionic acid production in the second stage. Further investigation showed that during the first stage the addition of food waste to the pre-fermentation system of sludge significantly increased the generation of lactic acid due to the synergistic effect, which resulted in the improvement of propionic acid production in the second stage. Finally, the use of propionic acid-enriched VFA as a superior carbon source of BNR was tested, and its performance was observed to be much better than using acetic acid-enriched VFA derived from sludge by the previously documented method. PMID:23219005

  17. Directed evolution and structural analysis of N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase provide insights into recombinant protein solubility in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shimin; Li, Chunhong; Zhang, Weiwen; Cai, Yuanheng; Yang, Yunlin; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2007-03-15

    One of the greatest bottlenecks in producing recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is that over-expressed target proteins are mostly present in an insoluble form without any biological activity. N-carbamoyl-D-amino-acid amidohydrolase (DCase) is an important enzyme involved in semi-synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics in industry. In this study, in order to determine the amino acid sites responsible for solubility in DCase, error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling techniques are applied to randomly mutate its encoding sequence, followed by an efficient screening based on structural complementation. Several mutants of DCase with reduced aggregation are isolated. Solubility tests of these mutants and several other mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis indicate that three amino acid residues of DCase (A18, Y30 and K34) are related to the protein solubility in DCase. In silico structural modeling analyses further suggest that hydrophilicity and/or negative charge at these three residues may be responsible for the increased solubility of DCase proteins in E. coli. Based on the information, multiple engineering designated mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis; among them, a triple mutant A18T/Y30N/K34E (named as DCase-M3) can be over-expressed in E. coli with up to 80% of DCase-M3 protein as soluble. DCase-M3 is purified to homogeneity and a comparative analysis with WT DCase demonstrates that DCase-M3 enzyme is similar to the native DCase in terms of its kinetic and thermodynamic properties. The study provides new insights on recombinant protein solubility in E. coli.

  18. Prevention of DNA damage in spores and in vitro by small, acid-soluble proteins from Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Fairhead, H; Setlow, B; Setlow, P

    1993-01-01

    The DNA in dormant spores of Bacillus species is saturated with a group of nonspecific DNA-binding proteins, termed alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP). These proteins alter DNA structure in vivo and in vitro, providing spore resistance to UV light. In addition, heat treatments (e.g., 85 degrees C for 30 min) which give little killing of wild-type spores of B. subtilis kill > 99% of spores which lack most alpha/beta-type SASP (termed alpha - beta - spores). Similar large differences in survival of wild-type and alpha - beta - spores were found at 90, 80, 65, 22, and 10 degrees C. After heat treatment (85 degrees C for 30 min) or prolonged storage (22 degrees C for 6 months) that gave > 99% killing of alpha - beta - spores, 10 to 20% of the survivors contained auxotrophic or asporogenous mutations. However, alpha - beta - spores heated for 30 min at 85 degrees C released no more dipicolinic acid than similarly heated wild-type spores (< 20% of the total dipicolinic acid) and triggered germination normally. In contrast, after a heat treatment (93 degrees C for 30 min) that gave > or = 99% killing of wild-type spores, < 1% of the survivors had acquired new obvious mutations, > 85% of the spore's dipicolinic acid had been released, and < 1% of the surviving spores could initiate spore germination. Analysis of DNA extracted from heated (85 degrees C, 30 min) and unheated wild-type spores and unheated alpha - beta - spores revealed very few single-strand breaks (< 1 per 20 kb) in the DNA. In contrast, the DNA from heated alpha- beta- spores had more than 10 single-strand breaks per 20 kb. These data suggest that binding of alpha/beta-type SASP to spore DNA in vivo greatly reduces DNA damage caused by heating, increasing spore heat resistance and long-term survival. While the precise nature of the initial DNA damage after heating of alpha- beta- spores that results in the single-strand breaks is not clear, a likely possibility is DNA depurination. A

  19. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  20. Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong

    2011-01-30

    The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments. PMID:21030148

  1. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. PMID:25062659

  2. An investigation of the applicability of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy for measurement of solubility and supersaturation of aqueous citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwila, Dilum D.; Carroll, Leslie B.; Berglund, Kris A.

    1994-04-01

    Currently applied methods for measurement of solubility and supersaturation based on viscometry, refractometry, interferometry and density require the separation of phases prior to measurement. ATR (attenuated total reflection) infrared spectroscopy provides a unique configuration in which the infrared spectrum of a liquid phase can be obtained in a slurry without phase separation. The applicability of the technique was investigated using a micro Circle ® open boat cell equipped with a ZnSe (zinc selenide) ATR rod. Experiments conducted with aqueous citric acid proved that ATR infrared spectroscopy can be successfully employed to determine solubility and supersaturation.

  3. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene in humin and humic acid fractions from different soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huipeng; Ma, Jing; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a vital role in controlling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. In this study, both a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction test and a biodegradation test were performed to evaluate the bioavailability of phenanthrene in seven different bulk soil/sediment samples and two OM components (humin fractions and humic acid (HA) fractions) separated from these soils/sediments. Results showed that both the extent of HPCD-extractable phenanthrene and the extent of biodegradable phenanthrene in humin fraction were lower than those in the respective HA fraction and source soil/sediment, demonstrating the limited bioavailability of phenanthrene in the humin fraction. For the source soils/sediments and the humin fractions, significant inverse relationships were observed between the sorption capacities for phenanthrene and the amounts of HPCD-extractable or biodegradable phenanthrene (p < 0.05), suggesting the importance of the sorption capacity in affecting desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene. Strong linear relationships were observed between the amount of HPCD-extractable phenanthrene and the amount degraded in both the bulk soils/sediments and the humin fractions, with both slopes close to 1. On the other hand, in the case of phenanthrene contained in HA, a poor relationship was observed between the amount of phenanthrene extracted by HPCD and the amount degraded, with the former being much less than the latter. The results revealed the importance of humin fraction in affecting the bioavailability of phenanthrene in the bulk soils/sediments, which would deepen our understanding of the organic matter fractions in affecting desorption and biodegradation of organic pollutants and provide theoretical support for remediation and risk assessment of contaminated soils and sediments. PMID:24705921

  4. Acid-Soluble Internal Capsules for Closed-Face Cassette Elemental Sampling and Analysis of Workplace Air

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Ashley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles that are collected using closed-face filter cassettes (CFCs), which are used widely in the sampling of workplace aerosols, can deposit in places other than on the filter and thereby may not be included in the ensuing analysis. A technique for ensuring that internal non-filter deposits are included in the analysis is to collect airborne particles within an acid-soluble internal capsule that, following sampling, can be dissolved along with the filter for subsequent elemental analysis. An interlaboratory study (ILS) was carried out to evaluate the use of cellulosic CFC capsule inserts for their suitability in the determination of trace elements in airborne samples. The ILS was performed in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice, ASTM E691, which describes statistical procedures for investigating interlaboratory precision. Performance evaluation materials consisted of prototype cellulose acetate capsules attached to mixed-cellulose ester filters. Batches of capsules were dosed with Pb-containing materials (standard aqueous solutions, and certified reference material soil and paint). Also, aerosol samples containing nine target analyte elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, and Ni) were generated using a multiport sampler; various concentrations and sampling times were employed to yield samples fortified at desired loading levels. Triplicates of spiked capsules at three different loadings were conveyed to each volunteer laboratory; loading levels were unknown to the participants. The laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by atomic spectrometry in accordance with applicable ASTM International Standards. Participants were asked to report their results in units of μg of each target element per sample. For the elements investigated, interlaboratory precision and recovery estimates from the participating laboratories demonstrated the utility of the

  5. Water-soluble N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride as a nucleic acids vector for cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Faizuloev, Evgeny; Marova, Anna; Nikonova, Alexandra; Volkova, Irina; Gorshkova, Marina; Izumrudov, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    To endow the cationic polysaccharides with solubility in the whole pH-range without loss of functionality of the amino groups, different chitosan samples were treated with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. Each modified unit of the exhaustively alkylated quaternized chitosan (QCht) contained both quaternary and secondary amino groups. The intercalated dye displacement assay and ζ-potential measurements implied stability of QCht polyplexes at physiological conditions and protonation of the secondary amino groups in slightly acidic media which is favorable for transfection according to proton sponge mechanism. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficacy increased with the chain lengthening. Nevertheless, the longest chains of QCht, 250 kDa were less toxic than PEI for COS-1 cells and revealed comparable and even significantly higher transfection activity of siRNA and plasmid DNA, respectively. Thus, highly polymerized QCht (250 kDa) provided the highest level of the plasmid DNA transfection being 5 and 80 times more active than QCht (100 kDa) and QCht (50 kDa), respectively, and 4-fold more effective than PEI, 25 kDa. The established influence of QCht molecular weight on toxicity and transfection efficacy allows elaborating polysaccharide vectors that possess rational balance of these characteristics. PMID:24750918

  6. Fractionation of heavy metals and distribution of organic carbon in two contaminated soils amended with humic acids.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2006-08-01

    The effects of humic acids (HAs) extracted from two different organic materials on the distribution of heavy metals and on organic-C mineralisation in two contaminated soils were studied in incubation experiments. Humic acids isolated from a mature compost (HAC) and a commercial Spaghnum peat (HAP) were added to an acid soil (pH 3.4; 966 mg kg(-1) Zn and 9,229 mg kg(-1) Pb as main contaminants) and to a calcareous soil (pH 7.7; 2,602 mg kg(-1) Zn and 1,572 mg kg(-1) Pb as main contaminants) at a rate of 1.1g organic-C added per 100g soil. The mineralisation of organic-C was determined by the CO(2) released during the experiment. After 2, 8 and 28 weeks of incubation the heavy metals of the soils were fractionated by a sequential extraction procedure. After 28 weeks of incubation, the mineralisation of the organic-C added was rather low in the soils studied (<8% of TOC in the acid soil; <10% of TOC in the calcareous soil). Both humic acids caused significant Zn and Pb immobilisation (increased proportion of the residual fraction, extractable only with aqua regia) in the acid soil, while Cu and Fe were slightly mobilised (increased concentrations extractable with 0.1M CaCl(2) and/or 0.5M NaOH). In the calcareous soil there were lesser effects, and at the end of the experiment only the fraction mainly related to carbonates (EDTA-extractable) was significantly increased for Zn and decreased for Fe in the humic acids treated samples. However, HA-metal interactions provoked the flocculation of these substances, as suggested by the association of the humic acids with the sand fraction of the soil. These results indicate that humic acid-rich materials can be useful amendments for soil remediation involving stabilisation, although a concomitant slight mobilisation of Zn, Pb and Cu can be provoked in acid soils. PMID:16481023

  7. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2007-02-01

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural

  8. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation. PMID:25615406

  9. Effects of USDA beef quality grade and cooking on fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipid fractions.

    PubMed

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C

    2015-02-01

    The effects of USDA beef quality grade (QG; Prime, Low Choice, and Standard; n=8) and cooking (RC) on fatty acid (FA) concentrations (mg/g dry matter) and percentages of neutral and polar lipid fractions (NL and PL, respectively)from strip steaks were explored. An increase in QG led to an accumulation of most FA, especially in the NL fraction (P < 0.001). Common effects on FA percentages were two-way interactions of either QG or RC with LF (P ≤ 0.019). Fatty acids were affected differently by QG and RC depending on their originating LF. Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentages of the PL were dependent on QG (P ≤ 0.014). Cooking and QG had minimal impact on FA percentages of the NL, however, greatly influenced PL MUFA and PUFA percentages (P b 0.001). There was evidence indicating that dry heat cookery affected not only PUFA, as generally thought, but also the MUFA of PL fraction. PMID:25460133

  10. Fractionated PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid: effective, cost effective, and patient friendly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vijlder, Hannah C.; Middelburg, Tom A.; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Neumann, H. A. Martino; de Haas, Ellen R. M.

    2009-06-01

    PDT with ALA and MAL is established as a relatively effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer and premalignancies. PDT is often repeated, because a single treatment gives poor long term results. Preclinical studies showed that ALA-PDT applying a fractionated illumination scheme with a small first light fraction and a second larger light fraction separated by a dark interval of two hours resulted in a significant increase in efficacy. Whereas the efficacy was not enhanced by fractionating MAL-PDT, indicating that ALA-PDT mechanism is not the same as MAL-PDT mechanism. The increase in efficacy using fractionated PDT was confirmed clinically. A randomized comparative clinical study comparing fractionated ALA-PDT versus non-fractionated ALA-PDT in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma showed a significant higher response rate in the lesions treated with fractionated ALA-PDT after a follow-up of one year ( p<0.002, log-rank test). The five year follow-up is studied at moment. So far the complete response in the group treated with fractionated ALA-PDT seems to be only a few percentages lower compared to the one year follow-up. Besides the gain in response rate, fractionated ALA PDT is cost effective. ALA gel is less expensive than the commercially available MAL (Metvix) and moreover fractionated ALA-PDT takes one treatment day, instead of two treatment days using the Metvix treatment protocol (two MAL-PDT treatments separated by one week), both reducing direct and indirect costs and the burden to the patient.

  11. Pressurized water extraction of β-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract β-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly β-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), α-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a β-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  12. Carbohydrate-Binding Module–Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase Fusion Enables Efficient Synthesis of 2-O-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-Ascorbic Acid with Soluble Starch as the Glycosyl Donor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruizhi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Du, Guocheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we achieved the efficient synthesis of 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) from soluble starch by fusing a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) from Alkalimonas amylolytica α-amylase (CBMAmy) to cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans. One fusion enzyme, CGT-CBMAmy, was constructed by fusing the CBMAmy to the C-terminal region of CGTase, and the other fusion enzyme, CGTΔE-CBMAmy, was obtained by replacing the E domain of CGTase with CBMAmy. The two fusion enzymes were then used to synthesize AA-2G from soluble starch as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor. Under the optimal conditions, the AA-2G yields produced using CGTΔE-CBMAmy and CGT-CBMAmy were 2.01 g/liter and 3.03 g/liter, respectively, which were 3.94- and 5.94-fold of the yield from the wild-type CGTase (0.51 g/liter). The reaction kinetics of the two fusion enzymes were analyzed and modeled to confirm the enhanced specificity toward soluble starch. It was also found that, compared to the wild-type CGTase, the two fusion enzymes had relatively high hydrolysis and disproportionation activities, factors that favor AA-2G synthesis. Finally, it was speculated that the enhancement of soluble starch specificity may be related to the changes of substrate binding ability and the substrate binding sites between the CBM and the starch granule. PMID:23503312

  13. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  14. The amino acid sequence of protein SCMK-B2A from the high-sulphur fraction of wool keratin

    PubMed Central

    Elleman, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    1. The amino acid sequence of protein SCMK-B2A, a reduced and S-carboxymethylated protein from the high-sulphur fraction of wool, has been determined. 2. This protein of 171 amino acid residues displays both a high degree of internal homology and extensive external homology with other members of the SCMK-B2 group of proteins. 3. Evidence is presented which suggests that the SCMK-B2 group of proteins are produced by separate non-allelic genes. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4679226

  15. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Theophine Chinwuba; Akah, Peter Achunike; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya; Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Odoh, Uchenna Estella

    2012-01-01

    Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity. PMID:22675389

  16. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Theophine Chinwuba; Akah, Peter Achunike; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya; Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Odoh, Uchenna Estella

    2012-01-01

    Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity. PMID:22675389

  17. Synthesis, Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis, and Aqueous Solubility of Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Abd alla, Mosaad S. M.; Tjarks, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Various water-soluble L-valine-, L-glutamate-, and glycine ester prodrugs of two 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues (3-CTAs), designated N5 and N5-2OH, were synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors since the water solubilities of the parental compounds proved to be insufficient in preclinical studies. The amino acid ester prodrugs were prepared and stored as hydrochloride salts. The water solubilities of these amino acid ester prodrugs, evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.4, improved 48 to 6600 times compared with parental N5 and N5-2OH. The stability of the amino acid ester prodrugs was evaluated in PBS at pH 7.4, Bovine serum, and Bovine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The rate of the hydrolysis in all three incubation media depended primarily on the amino acid promoiety and, to a lesser extend, on the site of esterification at the deoxyribose portion of the 3-CTAs. In general, 3'-amino acid ester prodrugs were less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis than 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs and the stabilities of the latter decreased in the following order: 5'-valine > 5'-glutamate > 5'-glycine. The rate of the hydrolysis of the 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs in Bovine CSF was overall higher than in PBS and somewhat lower than in Bovine serum. Overall, 5'-glutamate ester prodrug of N5 and the 5'-glycine ester prodrugs of N5 and N5-2OH appeared to be the most promising candidates for preclinical BNCT studies. PMID:22889558

  18. Dicaffeoylquinic Acid-Enriched Fraction of Cichorium glandulosum Seeds Attenuates Experimental Type 1 Diabetes via Multipathway Protection.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Ma, Bingxin; Ge, Lanlan; Mo, Qigui; Zhou, Gao; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2015-12-23

    Chicory has a major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet, a genus Cichorium, is used for medicinal and food purposes in Asia. In this study, a dicaffeoylquinic acid-enriched fraction of C. glandulosum seeds n-BuOH fraction (CGSB) could ameliorate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice with continuous administration for 2 weeks. CGSB treatment showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels but lower free fatty acids in adipose tissue and liver. Moreover, CGSB improved pancreatic islet mass. In vitro, different fractions of C. glandulosum seed (CGS) induced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The mRNA level for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha increased in high glucose treatment group in HepG2 cells, while CGSB significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression. The main compound of CGSB, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, was isolated and identified, which exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated that CGSB attenuated experimental T1DM via multipathway protection. PMID:26586022

  19. Characterization and Soluble Expression of D-Hydantoinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens for the Synthesis of D-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Li, Lei; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-04-01

    An active D-hydantoinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was heterogeneously overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and designated as D-PfHYD. Sequence and consensus analysis suggests that D-PfHYD belongs to the dihydropyrimidinase/hydantoinase family and possesses catalytic residues for metal ion and hydantoin binding. D-PfHYD was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography for characterization. D-PfHYD is a homotetramer with molecular weight of 215 kDa and specific activity of 20.9 U mg(-1). D-PfHYD showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 60 °C. Metal ions such as Mn(2+), Fe(2+), and Fe(3+) could activate D-PfHYD with 20 % improvement. Substrate specificity analysis revealed that purified D-PfHYD preferred aliphatic to aromatic 5'-monosubstituted hydantoins. Among various strategies tested, chaperone GroES-GroEL was efficient in improving the soluble expression of D-PfHYD. Employing 1.0 g L(-1) recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3)-pET28-hyd/pGRO7 dry cells, 100 mM isobutyl hydantoin was converted into D-isoleucine with 98.7 % enantiomeric excess (ee), isolation yield of 78.3 %, and substrate to biocatalyst ratio of 15.6. Our results suggest that recombinant D-PfHYD could be potentially applied in the synthesis of D-amino acids. PMID:26821258

  20. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. PMID:26254518

  1. DNA-damaging activity in ethanol-soluble fractions of feces from New Zealand groups at varying risks of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Alley, P G; Gribben, B M

    1985-01-01

    Using repair-proficient and repair-deficient strains of E. coli, we investigated the application of a liquid incubation assay to measure the DNA-damaging activity of ethanol-soluble fecal extracts. This method appears to be suitable for the study of a wide range of sample types. It was used to measure the DNA-modifying activity of ethanol-soluble fecal extracts from a group of European colorectal cancer patients. Data were compared with those from Europeans of similar age and sex distribution who did not have bowel cancer. We also studied groups of Maoris, Samoans, and European Seventh-Day Adventists who followed an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet. There are significant levels of DNA-modifying materials in the feces of many Europeans on a mixed diet, regardless of whether or not they have cancer. The number of positive samples was less in the Polynesian groups, and there were no samples that could be unequivocally scored as positive in the Seventh-Day Adventist groups. We conclude that diet can significantly reduce the level of ethanol-soluble mutagens, at least in New Zealand Europeans. The data may provide an explanation for the reduced incidence of bowel cancer in Seventh-Day Adventist groups. PMID:3906579

  2. Particulate organic acids and overall water-soluble aerosol composition measurements from the 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Ng, Nga L.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-07-01

    The Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter participated in the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) mission during August-September 2006. A particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) coupled to ion chromatography was used to characterize the water-soluble ion composition of aerosol and cloud droplet residual particles (976 5-min PM1.0 samples in total). Sulfate and ammonium dominated the water-soluble mass (NH4+ + SO42- = 84 ± 14%), while organic acids contributed 3.4 ± 3.7%. The average NH4+:SO42- molar ratio was 1.77 ± 0.85. Particulate concentrations of organic acids increased with decreasing carbon number from C9 to C2. Organic acids were most abundant above cloud, presumably as a result of aqueous phase chemistry in cloud droplets, followed by subsequent droplet evaporation above cloud tops; the main product of this chemistry was oxalic acid. The evolution of organic acids with increasing altitude in cloud provides evidence for the multistep nature of oxalic acid production; predictions from a cloud parcel model are consistent with the observed oxalate:glyoxylate ratio as a function of altitude in GoMACCS cumuli. Suppressed organic acid formation was observed in clouds with relatively acidic droplets, as determined by high particulate nitrate concentrations (presumably high HNO3 levels too) and lower liquid water content, as compared to other cloud fields probed. In the Houston Ship Channel region, an area with significant volatile organic compound emissions, oxalate, acetate, formate, benzoate, and pyruvate, in decreasing order, were the most abundant organic acids. Photo-oxidation of m-xylene in laboratory chamber experiments leads to a particulate organic acid product distribution consistent with the Ship Channel area observations.

  3. Two-stage, acetic acid-aqueous ammonia, fractionation of empty fruit bunches for increased lignocellulosic biomass utilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of EFB was conducted in two consecutive steps using a batch reaction system: hemicellulose hydrolysis using acetic acid (AA; 3.0-7.0 wt.%) at 170-190°C for 10-20 min in the first stage, and lignin solubilization using ammonium hydroxide (5-20 wt.%) at 140-220°C for 5-25 min in the second stage. The two-stage process effectively fractionated empty fruit bunches (EFB) in terms of hemicellulose hydrolysis (53.6%) and lignin removal (59.5%). After the two-stage treatment, the fractionated solid contained 65.3% glucan. Among three investigated process parameters, reaction temperature and ammonia concentration had greater impact on the delignification reaction in the second stage than reaction time. The two-stage fractionation processing improved the enzymatic digestibility to 72.9% with 15 FPU of cellulase/g of glucan supplemented with 70 pNPG of β-glycosidase (Novozyme 188)/g-glucan, which was significantly enhanced from the equivalent digestibility of 28.3% for untreated EFB and 45.7% for AAH-fractionated solid. PMID:26419963

  4. Key role of the low molecular size fraction of soil humic acids for fluorescence and photoinductive activity.

    PubMed

    Richard, C; Trubetskaya, O; Trubetskoj, O; Reznikova, O; Afanas'eva, G; Aguer, J P; Guyot, G

    2004-04-01

    The IHSS soil humic acid (HA) standard and two HAs from soils of very different origin (Chernozem and Ranker) were fractionated by tandem size-exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. From each HA, three fractions with different molecular sizes (MSs) and electrophoretic mobilities were obtained and investigated for their fluorescence properties and abilityto photoinduce the transformation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and herbicide fenuron. Regardless of the source of the HA, the two high MS fractions were found to be very weakly fluorescent. They photoinduced the degradations of fenuron and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol less efficiently than the bulk HA (10-50-fold and 1.4-5.3-fold, respectively). In contrast, the low MS fraction was proved to be fluorescent and to photoinduce the transformation of probes as least as efficiently than the bulk HA. These results show that (i) most of fluorophores and a great part of photoinductive chromophores are located in the low MS fractions of soil HAs and (ii) this distribution of photochemically active constituents may be characteristic across broad soil types. PMID:15112806

  5. Production of high-oleic acid tallow fractions using lipase-catalyzed directed interesterification, using both batch and continuous processing.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie; Stevenson

    2000-08-01

    Immobilized lipases were used to catalyze batch-directed interesterification of tallow, resulting in oleins containing significantly higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids than obtained by fractionation without lipase. After 14 days, a reaction catalyzed by 2% Novozym 435 yielded 57% olein unsaturation, compared with 45% in a no-enzyme control. Free fatty acid levels increased to 2-3% during reactions. Incubation of the enzyme in multiple batches of melted fat caused a gradual loss of interesterification activity, apparently due to progressive dehydration. The activity could be restored by addition of water to the reaction medium. Immobilized lipase was also used to catalyze directed interesterification in a continuous flow reactor. Melted tallow was circulated through a packed bed enzyme reactor and a separate crystallization vessel. The temperatures of the two parts of the apparatus were controlled separately to allow crystallization to occur separately from interesterification. Operation of the reactor with conventionally dry, prefractionated tallow allowed the formation of an olein consisting of up to 60% unsaturated fatty acids. The greatest changes in olein fatty acid composition were achieved when the fractionation temperature was kept constant at a value that promoted selective crystallization of trisaturated triglycerides that were continuously produced by enzymic interesterification. The enzyme could be reused without apparent loss of activity, and its activity was apparently enhanced by preincubation in melted tallow for up to several days. Control of both the water activity of the enzyme and tallow feedstock and of the absorption of atmospheric water vapor were required to maintain enzyme activity, during multiple reuse and minimize free fatty acid formation. This method may form the basis for a process to produce highly mono-unsaturated tallow fractions for use in food applications (e.g. frying) where a "healthy" low saturated fat product is required

  6. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides. PMID:25996959

  7. Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Wang, Yan; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-07-01

    Mild-mannered manipulation: A catalytic method for the conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone in acidic aqueous media has been developed. The water-soluble iridium complexes were observed to be extremely catalytically active for providing γ-valerolactone in high yields with high TONs. The homogeneous catalysts can also be recycled and reused by applying a simple phase separation process. PMID:23757330

  8. Transcription of fractionated mammalian chromatin by mammalian ribonucleic acid polymerase. Demonstration of temperature-dependent rifampicin-resistant initiation sites in euchromatin deoxyribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chesterton, C. James; Coupar, Barbara E. H.; Butterworth, Peter H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The chromatin fractionation method of Frenster et al. (1963) as modified by Leake et al. (1972) was used to prepare fragments of euchromatin from rat liver nuclei. These remain soluble in 5mm-MgCl2, and contain DNA of maximum mol.wt. 1×106–2×106. The fragments were separated from condensable chromatin on a sucrose gradient. Euchromatin contains endogenous DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and most of the nascent RNA labelled in vivo or in vitro. Euchromatin fragments allow initiation of transcription by added purified rat liver form-B RNA polymerase and contain temperature-dependent rifampicin-resistant initiation sites for the form-B enzyme. These findings indicate that transcription of the euchromatin regions of interphase chromosomes is not initiated in condensed chromatin, but is initiated within the euchromatin stretches. Condensable chromatin also contains most of these activities, but is not associated with nascent RNA. PMID:4464858

  9. Zoledronic acid increases the circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, with a further increase in lymphocyte-derived soluble RANKL in zoledronic acid- and glucocorticoid-treated mice stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takahiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Hori, Naoko; Shimamura, Yumiko; Sato, Tomoya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent antiresorptive drug used in conjunction with standard cancer therapy to treat osteolysis or hypercalcemia due to malignancy. However, it is unclear how ZA influences the circulating levels of bone remodeling factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZA on the serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The following four groups of C57BL/6 mice were used (five mice per group): (1) the placebo+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; (2) the placebo+ZA group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with ZA for 4weeks; (3) the prednisolone (PSL)+PBS group, in which PSL-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; and (4) the PSL+ZA group, in which PSL-treated mice were injected once weekly with ZA for 4weeks. At the 3-week time point, all mice were subjected to oral inflammatory stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The sera of these mice were obtained every week and the levels of sRANKL and OPG were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the time of sacrifice, femurs were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histological, and histomorphometric analyses. Our data indicated that ZA administration remarkably reduced bone turnover and significantly increased the basal level of sRANKL. Interestingly, the PSL+ZA group showed a dramatically elevated sRANKL level after LPS stimulation. In contrast, the PSL+ZA group in nonobese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD-SCID mice), which are characterized by the absence of functional T- and B-lymphocytes, showed no increase in the sRANKL level. Our data suggest that, particularly with combination treatment of ZA and glucocorticoids, surviving lymphocytes might be the source of inflammation-induced sRANKL. Thus

  10. Fractionation of oil obtained by pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials to recover a phenolic fraction for use in making phenol-formaldehyde resins

    SciTech Connect

    Gallivan, R.M.; Matschei, P.K.

    1980-06-24

    A method is provided for fractionation of oil obtained by pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials to obtain useful chemical fractions, including a phenolic fraction which is suitable as a total or partial replacement for phenol in making phenolformaldehyde resins. The method comprises mixing the oil with a strong base such as sodium hydroxide to a ph level at which the neutral fraction of the oil is selectively soluble in a solvent such as methylene chloride or ether, and the mixture is extracted with the solvent to obtain a first extract containing the solvent and the neutral fraction, and a first raffinate containing the remaining fractions of the oil, I.E., the phenolic fraction, the organic acids fraction and an amorphous residue. The neutral fraction is recovered by distillation and the first raffinate is mixed with sulfuric acid to lower its ph to a level at which the phenolic fraction is selectively soluble in the solvent. This raffinate is extracted with the solvent to obtain a second extract containing the solvent and the phenolic fraction and a second raffinate containing the organic acids and the residues. The phenolic fraction is recovered by distillation and the second raffinate is mixed with sulfuric acid to lower its ph to a level at which the organic acids are selectively soluble in the solvent. After separation of the residues, the second raffinate is extracted with the solvent to obtain a third extract which is distilled to recover the organic acids fraction of the oil. The phenolic fraction may be used as partial or total replacement for pure phenol in making phenol-formaldehyde resins.

  11. The activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in nuclei from brain fractionated by zonal centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Stambolova, M. A.; Cox, D.; Mathias, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    1. The DNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.7) activity in purified intact brain nuclei from infant rats was investigated. The effects of pH, Mg2+, glycerol, sonication and storage of the nuclei under different conditions were examined and a suitable assay system was established. 2. The nuclei from infant brain cells were fractionated by zonal centrifugation in a discontinuous sucrose gradient into five zones: zone (I) contained neuronal nuclei (59%) and astrocytic nuclei (41%); zone (II) contained astrocytic nuclei (81%) and neuronal nuclei (19%); zone (III) contained astrocytic nuclei (82%) and oligodendrocytic nuclei (18%); zone (IV) contained oligodendrocytic nuclei (92%) and zone (V) contained oligodendrocytic nuclei (100%). 3. The content of DNA, RNA and protein for each fraction was measured. 4. The distribution of DNA polymerase activity in the fractionated infant and adult rat brain nuclei was determined. The highest activity was found in the neuronal nuclei from zone (I) and the following zones exhibited a progressive decline. In contrast with the nuclei from infant rats those from adults had a much higher activity and expressed a preference for native DNA as template. 5. The deoxyribonuclease activity in all classes of nuclei was measured with [3H]DNA as substrate. A general correspondence in the pattern of the relative activities in the nuclear fractions with the distribution of DNA polymerase was found. 6. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into nuclear DNA in infant and adult rat brain was investigated. The specific radioactivity of the DNA in the 10-day-old rats was highest in zone (V) whereas in the nuclei of adult rats, which exhibited a comparatively low incorporation, the highest specific radioactivity was associated with zones (I) and (V). PMID:4780694

  12. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  13. Long-term fatty acid stability in human serum cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid profiles of biological specimens from epidemiological/clinical studies can serve as biomarkers to assess potential relationships between diet and chronic disease risk. However, data are limited regarding fatty acid stability of archived specimens following long-term storage, a variable t...

  14. Simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd binding strengths with fulvic acid fractions by Schubert's method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.K.; MacCarthy, P.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium binding of Ca2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ with unfractionated Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA) and an enhanced metal binding subfraction of SRFA was measured using Schubert's ion-exchange method at pH 6.0 and at an ionic strength (??) of 0.1 (NaNO3). The fractionation and subfractionation were directed towards obtaining an isolate with an elevated metal binding capacity or binding strength as estimated by Cu2+ potentiometry (ISE). Fractions were obtained by stepwise eluting an XAD-8 column loaded with SRFA with water eluents of pH 1.0 to pH 12.0. Subfractions were obtained by loading the fraction eluted from XAD-8 at pH 5.0 onto a silica gel column and eluting with solvents of increasing polarity. Schuberts ion exchange method was rigorously tested by measuring simultaneously the conditional stability constants (K) of citric acid complexed with the five metals at pH 3.5 and 6.0. The logK of SRFA with Ca2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ determined simultaneously at pH 6.0 follow the sequence of Cu2+>Cd2+>Ni2+>Zn2+>Ca2+ while all logK values increased for the enhanced metal binding subfraction and followed a different sequence of Cu2+>Cd2+>Ca2+>Ni2+>Zn2+. Both fulvic acid samples and citric acid exhibited a 1:1 metal to ligand stochiometry under the relatively low metal loading conditions used here. Quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increases in aromaticity and ketone content and decreases in aliphatic carbon for the elevated metal binding fraction while the carboxyl carbon, and elemental nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur content did not change. The more polar, elevated metal binding fraction did show a significant increase in molecular weight over the unfractionated SRFA. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. EFFECTS OF SOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF USED LIGHT-WEIGHT LIGNOSULFONATE TYPE MUD AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM ON THE COMPLETE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRABS, 'RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII' AND 'CALLINECTES SAPIDUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mud aqueous fractions (MAF) and suspended particulate phase (SPP) of lignosulfonate type mud were nontoxic to the complete larval development of Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Five percent MAF and SPP were not toxic to Callinectes sapidus. Differential survival of C. sapidus larva...

  16. Inhibitory effect of a bioactivity-guided fraction from Rheum undulatum on the acid production of Streptococcus mutans biofilms at sub-MIC levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hye-Jin; Pandit, Santosh; Chang, Kee-Wan; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2011-04-01

    Rheum undulatum root has been used traditionally in Korea for the treatment of dental diseases. The purpose of this study was to separate a fraction from R. undulatum showing anti-acid production activity against Streptococcus mutans biofilms and identify the main components in that fraction. Methanol extract of R. undulatum root and its fractions were prepared. To select a fraction exhibiting anti-acid production activity, suspension glycolytic pH-drop assay was performed. Among the fractions tested, dichloromethane fraction exhibited the strongest activity in a dose-dependent manner. To examine the effect of the selected fraction on the anti-acid production of S. mutans biofilms, 74 h old S. mutans biofilms were used. The selected fraction reduced the initial rate of acid production of S. mutans biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. HPLC qualitative analysis of the selected fraction indicated that the presence of anthraquinone derivatives, such as aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion, as main components. PMID:21059383

  17. Isotope fractionation of Si in protonation/deprotonation reaction of silicic acid: A new pH proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Pringle, Emily A.; Chaussidon, Marc; Moynier, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Isotopic fractionation of Si in protonation/deprotonation reactions of monomeric silicic acids was theoretically and experimentally studied. The reduced partition function ratio for Si (as 1000 ln β) complexes was theoretically estimated by ab initio methods. Three permil of isotope fractionation was estimated to be possible for the 28Si-30Si isotope pair. This prediction was experimentally demonstrated by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer measurements of Si-bearing aqueous solutions, for which equilibrated Si(OH)4 and SiO(OH)3- were separated using an anionic exchange column. The results create a new possibility for the application of Si isotopes as proxies for paleo-pH in the 9 < pH < 12 range.

  18. Effect of Drying on Heavy Metal Fraction Distribution in Rice Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanbing; Huang, Biao; Darilek, Jeremy Landon

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples. PMID:24823670

  19. Water-soluble polymeric chemosensor for selective detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution using rhodamine-based modified poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Geng, Tong-Mou; Wu, Da-Yu

    2015-12-01

    We report the fabrication of a novel easily available turn-on fluorescent water-soluble polymeric chemosensor for Hg(2+) ions that was simply prepared by micellar free radical polymerization of a water-insoluble organic rhodamine-based Hg(2+)-recognizing monomer (GR6GH), with hydrophilic monomers acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA). The chemical structure of the polymeric sensor was characterized by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The apparent viscosity average molecular weight Mη of poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid) [poly(AM-NaAA)] and the water-soluble polymeric chemosensor poly(AM-NaAA-GR6GH) were 1.76 × 10(6) and 6.84 × 10(4) g/mol, respectively. Because of its amphiphilic property, the water-soluble polymeric chemosensor can be used as a chemosensor in aqueous media. Upon addition of Hg(2+) ions to an aqueous solution of poly(AM-NaAA-GR6GH), fluorescence enhancements were observed instantly. Moreover, other metal ions did not induce obvious changes to the fluorescence spectra. This approach may provide an easily measurable and inherently sensitive method for Hg(2+) ion detection in environmental and biological applications. PMID:25808221

  20. New Compstatin Peptides Containing N-Terminal Extensions and Non-Natural Amino Acids Exhibit Potent Complement Inhibition and Improved Solubility Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compstatin peptides are complement inhibitors that bind and inhibit cleavage of complement C3. Peptide binding is enhanced by hydrophobic interactions; however, poor solubility promotes aggregation in aqueous environments. We have designed new compstatin peptides derived from the W4A9 sequence (Ac-ICVWQDWGAHRCT-NH2, cyclized between C2 and C12), based on structural, computational, and experimental studies. Furthermore, we developed and utilized a computational framework for the design of peptides containing non-natural amino acids. These new compstatin peptides contain polar N-terminal extensions and non-natural amino acid substitutions at positions 4 and 9. Peptides with α-modified non-natural alanine analogs at position 9, as well as peptides containing only N-terminal polar extensions, exhibited similar activity compared to W4A9, as quantified via ELISA, hemolytic, and cell-based assays, and showed improved solubility, as measured by UV absorbance and reverse-phase HPLC experiments. Because of their potency and solubility, these peptides are promising candidates for therapeutic development in numerous complement-mediated diseases. PMID:25494040

  1. Discovery of a potent microtubule-targeting agent: Synthesis and biological evaluation of water-soluble amino acid prodrug of combretastatin A-4 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Li, Rong; Yang, Zhuang; Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenshuang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Nie, Chunlai; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-06-01

    Amino acid prodrugs are known to be very useful for improving the aqueous solubility of sparingly water soluble drugs (Drug Discovery Today 2013, 18, 93). Therefore, we synthesized eleven novel combretastatin A-4 amino acid derivatives and evaluated their anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Among them, compound 15 (valine attached to compound 3, which was shown to be a potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor in our previous study) exhibited high efficacy in tumor-bearing mice, and pharmacokinetic analysis in rats indicated that compound 15 was an effective prodrug as well. Besides, compound 15 significantly inhibited tubulin polymerization in vitro and in vivo by binding to the colchicine binding site. In addition, compound 15 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and triggered apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study showed that compound 15 could have significant anti-tumor activity as a novel microtubule polymerization disrupting agent with improved aqueous solubility. PMID:25933592

  2. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Polito, Michael J; Abel, Stephanie; McCarthy, Matthew D; Thorrold, Simon R

    2015-03-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AA) has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. However, applications to avian ecology have been limited because no controlled studies have examined the patterns in AA isotope fractionation in birds. We conducted a controlled CSIA feeding experiment on an avian species, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), to examine patterns in individual AA carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation between diet (D) and consumer (C) (Δ(13)CC-D and Δ(15)NC-D, respectively). We found that essential AA δ (13)C values and source AA δ (15)N values in feathers showed minimal trophic fractionation between diet and consumer, providing independent but complimentary archival proxies for primary producers and nitrogen sources respectively, at the base of food webs supporting penguins. Variations in nonessential AA Δ(13)CC-D values reflected differences in macromolecule sources used for biosynthesis (e.g., protein vs. lipids) and provided a metric to assess resource utilization. The avian-specific nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (TDFGlu-Phe = 3.5 ± 0.4‰) that we calculated from the difference in trophic fractionation (Δ(15)NC -D) of glutamic acid and phenylalanine was significantly lower than the conventional literature value of 7.6‰. Trophic positions of five species of wild penguins calculated using a multi-TDFG lu-Phe equation with the avian-specific TDFG lu-Phe value from our experiment provided estimates that were more ecologically realistic than estimates using a single TDFG lu-Phe of 7.6‰ from the previous literature. Our results provide a quantitative, mechanistic framework for the use of CSIA in nonlethal, archival feathers to study the movement and foraging ecology of avian consumers. PMID:25859333

  3. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua)

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kelton W; Polito, Michael J; Abel, Stephanie; McCarthy, Matthew D; Thorrold, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AA) has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. However, applications to avian ecology have been limited because no controlled studies have examined the patterns in AA isotope fractionation in birds. We conducted a controlled CSIA feeding experiment on an avian species, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), to examine patterns in individual AA carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation between diet (D) and consumer (C) (Δ13CC-D and Δ15NC-D, respectively). We found that essential AA δ13C values and source AA δ15N values in feathers showed minimal trophic fractionation between diet and consumer, providing independent but complimentary archival proxies for primary producers and nitrogen sources respectively, at the base of food webs supporting penguins. Variations in nonessential AA Δ13CC-D values reflected differences in macromolecule sources used for biosynthesis (e.g., protein vs. lipids) and provided a metric to assess resource utilization. The avian-specific nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (TDFGlu-Phe = 3.5 ± 0.4‰) that we calculated from the difference in trophic fractionation (Δ15NC-D) of glutamic acid and phenylalanine was significantly lower than the conventional literature value of 7.6‰. Trophic positions of five species of wild penguins calculated using a multi-TDFGlu-Phe equation with the avian-specific TDFGlu-Phe value from our experiment provided estimates that were more ecologically realistic than estimates using a single TDFGlu-Phe of 7.6‰ from the previous literature. Our results provide a quantitative, mechanistic framework for the use of CSIA in nonlethal, archival feathers to study the movement and foraging ecology of avian consumers. PMID:25859333

  4. A novel flow battery-A lead-acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead(II). Part VI. Studies of the lead dioxide positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletcher, Derek; Zhou, Hantao; Kear, Gareth; Low, C. T. John; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    The structure of thick lead dioxide deposits (approximately 1 mm) formed in conditions likely to be met at the positive electrode during the charge/discharge cycling of a soluble lead-acid flow battery is examined. Compact and well adherent layers are possible with current densities >100 mA cm -2 in electrolytes containing 0.1-1.5 M lead(II) and methanesulfonic acid concentrations in the range 0-2.4 M; the solutions also contained 5 mM hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation, C 16H 33(CH 3) 3N +. From the viewpoint of the layer properties, the limitation is stress within the deposit leading to cracking and lifting away from the substrate; the stress appears highest at high acid concentration and high current density. There are, however, other factors limiting the maximum current density for lead dioxide deposition, namely oxygen evolution and the overpotential associated with the deposition of lead dioxide. A strategy for operating the soluble lead-acid flow battery is proposed.

  5. In vitro release of arachidonic acid and in vivo responses to respirable fractions of cotton dust

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.A.; Edwards, J.H.; Al-Zubaidy, T.S.; Brown, R.C.; Poole, A.; Nicholls, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It was considered that the fall in lung function seen after exposure to cotton dust may be attributable in part to the activity of arachidonic acid metabolites, such as leucotrienes as well as to the more established release of histamine by cotton dust. However, we found that cotton and barley dusts elicited poor release of arachidonic acid from an established macrophage like cell line compared with that observed with other organic dusts. In the experimental animal, pulmonary cellular responses to both cotton and barley dust were similar to those evoked by moldy hay and pigeon dropping dusts, although after multiple doses a more severe response was seen to cotton and barley. Since both moldy hay and pigeon droppings elicit a greater arachidonic acid release than cotton or barley, a role for arachidonic acid in inducing the cellular response is less likely than other factors. There are limitations to our conclusions using this system, i.e., the arachidonic acid may be released in a nonmetabolized form, although it is noted that the two dusts with the greatest arachidonic acid release produce their clinical responses in humans largely by hypersensitivity mechanisms.

  6. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  7. In-depth proteomic analysis of a mollusc shell: acid-soluble and acid-insoluble matrix of the limpet Lottia gigantea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invertebrate biominerals are characterized by their extraordinary functionality and physical properties, such as strength, stiffness and toughness that by far exceed those of the pure mineral component of such composites. This is attributed to the organic matrix, secreted by specialized cells, which pervades and envelops the mineral crystals. Despite the obvious importance of the protein fraction of the organic matrix, only few in-depth proteomic studies have been performed due to the lack of comprehensive protein sequence databases. The recent public release of the gastropod Lottia gigantea genome sequence and the associated protein sequence database provides for the first time the opportunity to do a state-of-the-art proteomic in-depth analysis of the organic matrix of a mollusc shell. Results Using three different sodium hypochlorite washing protocols before shell demineralization, a total of 569 proteins were identified in Lottia gigantea shell matrix. Of these, 311 were assembled in a consensus proteome comprising identifications contained in all proteomes irrespective of shell cleaning procedure. Some of these proteins were similar in amino acid sequence, amino acid composition, or domain structure to proteins identified previously in different bivalve or gastropod shells, such as BMSP, dermatopontin, nacrein, perlustrin, perlucin, or Pif. In addition there were dozens of previously uncharacterized proteins, many containing repeated short linear motifs or homorepeats. Such proteins may play a role in shell matrix construction or control of mineralization processes. Conclusions The organic matrix of Lottia gigantea shells is a complex mixture of proteins comprising possible homologs of some previously characterized mollusc shell proteins, but also many novel proteins with a possible function in biomineralization as framework building blocks or as regulatory components. We hope that this data set, the most comprehensive available at present, will

  8. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake). PMID:10702992

  9. Controls on Calcite Solubility in Metamorphic and Magmatic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Eguchi, J.; Galvez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Calcite is an important hydrothermal alteration product in a wide range of environments. The role of calcite in hydrothermal alteration depends on its solubility in geologic fluids, especially H2O. At ambient T and P, calcite solubility is low and it exhibits well-known declining, or "reverse", solubility with rising T. However, experimental and theoretical studies show that increasing P yields higher solubility and restricts the region of reverse solubility behavior to higher temperature. At 0.2 GPa the reverse solubility region lies at T>600°C; at 0.5 GPa, >800°C. Thus, whereas calcite possesses relatively low solubility in pure H2O in shallow hydrothermal systems (typically <10 ppm C), it is substantially more soluble at conditions of middle and lower crustal metamorphism and magmatism, reaching concentrations ≥1000 ppm. At the higher P of subduction zones, aragonite solubility in H2O is even greater. Thus, neglecting other solubility controls, calcite precipitation is favored as crustal fluids cool and/or decompress. However, the solubility of calcite in H2O also depends strongly on other solutes, pH, and fO2. Sources of alkalinity decrease calcite solubility. In contrast, sources of acidity such as CO2 and Cl increase solubility. Crustal fluids can be enriched in alkali halides such as NaCl. Calcite solubility increases with increasing salt content at a given P and T. From approximately seawater salinity to salt saturation, the fluid behaves as a dilute molten salt and calcite solubility increases as the square of the salt mole fraction regardless of the alkali (Li, Na, K, Cs) or halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) considered. Similar behavior is seen in mixed salt solutions. At lower salinities, solubility behavior is as expected in dilute electrolyte solutions. The transition from dilute electrolyte to molten salt is fundamental to the properties of crustal fluids. Reduction of carbonate species or CO2 in the fluid to CH4, which is common during serpentinization of

  10. Carbon isotopic fractionation in the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids. Ozonolysis of unsaturated fatty acids as a means of determining the intramolecular distribution of carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, K. David; Hayes, J. M.

    1982-02-01

    Methods for the determination of 13C abundances at individual olefinic carbon positions have been developed, tested, and shown to perform accurately. (1) The double bond is oxidized with ozone; (2) silver oxide is used to cleave the resulting ozonide quantitatively to carboxylic-acid fragments; (3) a modified Schmidt decarboxylation is used to produce CO 2 quantitatively from the carboxyl groups of the separated cleavage products; (4) the CO 2 is utilized for mass spectrometric analysis. The results of intramolecular isotopic analyses are combined with molecular-average isotopic compositions determined by total combustion in order to show that fatty acids biosynthesized by Escherichia coli grown aerobically with glucose as the sole carbon source and harvested at late log phase are depleted by approximately 3%. in 13C relative to the glucose. This fractionation arises in the formation of acetylcoenzyme A by pyruvate dehydrogenase and is localized at the carboxyl position in the acetyl-CoA product. The isotopic order in that two-carbon subunit is carried through the biosynthesis of fatty acids so that alternate positions in the fatty-acid chains are depleted in 13C by an amount equal to twice the molecular-average depletion. The kinetic isotope effect at C-2 for pyruvate dehydrogenase in vivo is shown to be approximately 2.3%. While it appears that no other fractionation mechanism has controlled the overall depletion of 13C in these fatty acids, a separate process responsible for control of isotopic abundances in the carboxyl groups has been identified and described elsewhere [Monson K.D. and Hayes J.M. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11435-11441]. It is concluded that kinetic, rather than thermodynamic, factors have controlled isotopic distributions in these cells and that kinetic factors will be dominant in most biological reactions.

  11. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color. PMID:23743029

  12. Preparation of water-soluble hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with sulfonic acid functional groups and their micelles behavior, anticoagulant effect and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiaorong; Chen, Xiaohan; Niu, Yanlian; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Bingxiang; Mao, Chun; Chen, Libin; Shen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    Biocompatibility of nanoparticles has been attracting great interest in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, the aliphatic water-soluble hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with sulfonic acid functional groups (HBPE-SO3 NPs) were synthesized and characterized. They are amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles with hydrophobic hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) core and hydrophilic sulfonic acid terminal groups. Based on our observations, we believe there are two forms of HBPE-SO3 NPs in water under different conditions: unimolecular micelles and large multimolecular micelles. The biocompatibility and anticoagulant effect of the HBPE-SO3 NPs were investigated using coagulation tests, hemolysis assay, morphological changes of red blood cells (RBCs), complement and platelet activation detection, and cytotoxicity (MTT). The results confirmed that the sulfonic acid terminal groups can substantially enhance the anticoagulant property of HBPE, and the HBPE-SO3 NPs have the potential to be used in nanomedicine due to their good bioproperties. PMID:23718279

  13. Distribution of carbon isotopes in amino acids of protein fraction of micro-organisms as a means of studying the mechanisms of their biosynthesis in the cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, A.A.

    1986-04-10

    The intramolecular distribution of carbon isotopes in the amino acids of the protein fraction of a number of photosynthesizing microorganisms was analyzed using the previously proposed model of carbon isotope fractionation in the cell. A correlation was found between the distributions of the isotopes in the amino acids and the pathways and sequence of their synthesis in the cell cycle. The feasibility of using the isotopic distributions of metabolites for a study of the temporal organization of metabolism in the cell is illustrated.

  14. Fractionation of Cynara cardunculus (Cardoon) Biomass by Dilute-Acid Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Mercedes; Negro, M. José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Sáez, Felicia; Oliva, J. Miguel

    Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) is a Mediterranean perennial herb offering good potential as substrate for sustainable production of bioethanol. In this work the first approach to the study of dilute-acid pretreatment of cardoon biomass for biological conversion was made. The influence of temperature (160-200°C), acid concentration (0-0.2% [w/w]), and solid concentration (5-10% [w/v]) in the formation of free sugars and sugar decomposition products in the prehydrolyzate was studied using a response surface methodology. Results show a negative interaction effect between acid concentration and temperature in xylose recovery yield in prehydrolyzate, whereas dry matter concentration does not exert a significant effect. Xylose recovery yield reaches a maximum of about 80% of the content in dry untreated raw material at 180°C and 0.1 or 0.2% acid addition. At these conditions the ratio of monomers found in prehydrolyzate in relation to total sugar yield for xylose is close to 100%. Furfural concentration, the major furan determined in the prehydrolyzate, increases as pretreatment severity rises. Maximum furfural yield of 4.2 g/100 g dry untreated raw material was found at 200°C and 0.2% acid concentration. The yield of furfural at the conditions in which maximum xylose recovery is attained is substantially lower, less than 2 g/100 g dry untreated raw material. This fact supports the idea of using moderate temperatures in dilute-acid processes, which at the same time provides reasonably high sugar recovery yield and avoids high inhibitory products formation.

  15. Extraction and analysis of soluble inositol polyphosphates from yeast.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristina; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    Soluble inositol polyphosphates are implicated in the regulation of many important cellular functions. This protocol to extract and separate inositol polyphosphates from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is divided into three steps: labeling of yeast, extraction of soluble inositol polyphosphates and chromatographic separation. Yeast cells are incubated with tritiated inositol, which is taken up and metabolized into different phosphorylated forms. Soluble inositol polyphosphates are then acid-extracted and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity of each fraction is determined by scintillation counting. This highly sensitive and reproducible method allows the accurate detection of subtle changes in the inositol polyphosphate profile and takes less than 48 h. It can easily be applied to other systems and we have included two adaptations of the protocol, one optimized for mammalian cells and the other for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:17406485

  16. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  17. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. PMID:26471664

  18. Europium(III) complexed by HPSEC size-fractions of a vertisol humic acid: small differences evidenced by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reiller, Pascal E; Brevet, Julien; Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    The size fractionation of a humic acid (HA) by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used as a proxy for the filtration effect during HA transport through a porous medium with minimum specific chemical interactions. The modification of the Eu(III)-HA complexes' formation with the different size-fractions, as compared to the bulk HA, was studied in time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS). Clear modifications in Eu(III)-HA complexes' structures were shown and related to the molecular characteristics of the separated size-fractions. The properties of most of size-fractions did not induce a major alteration of the affinity towards Eu(III). Only the most hydrophilic fractions eluted in the tail of the chromatographic peak, representing about 11% of total fractions-weight, gave some significantly different parameters. Using a simplistic complexation model, it was found that the available complexation sites decreased with the size reduction of humic fractions. PMID:21242102

  19. Europium(III) complexed by HPSEC size-fractions of a vertisol humic acid: Small differences evidenced by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiller, Pascal E.; Brevet, Julien; Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    The size fractionation of a humic acid (HA) by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used as a proxy for the filtration effect during HA transport through a porous medium with minimum specific chemical interactions. The modification of the Eu(III)-HA complexes' formation with the different size-fractions, as compared to the bulk HA, was studied in time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS). Clear modifications in Eu(III)-HA complexes' structures were shown and related to the molecular characteristics of the separated size-fractions. The properties of most of size-fractions did not induce a major alteration of the affinity towards Eu(III). Only the most hydrophilic fractions eluted in the tail of the chromatographic peak, representing about 11% of total fractions-weight, gave some significantly different parameters. Using a simplistic complexation model, it was found that the available complexation sites decreased with the size reduction of humic fractions.

  20. Variability, formation and acidity of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 in Beijing based on the semi-continuous observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guoyuan; Zhang, Yangmei; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Leiming; Shen, Xiaojing; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Daily PM2.5 and hourly water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and gaseous precursors were measured during June-November 2009 at an urban site in Beijing. The average mass concentration of the total water-soluble ions was 44 μg m- 3, accounting for 38% of PM2.5. Sulfate (SO42 -), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) were dominant ions. The summer-fall difference in seasonal average mass concentrations was smaller than 30% for SO42 -, but was up to a factor of 2.0 for NO3- and NH4+. A pronounced diurnal cycle was found for most ions and gaseous precursors and could be explained by their respective sources, formation mechanisms and meteorological conditions. The average oxidation/conversion ratio for SO42 - (SOR), NO3- (NOR) and NH4+ (NHR) were estimated to be 63%, 15% and 15%, respectively. The low NHR value suggests that NH3 was mainly from local sources and that excessive NH3 existed and thus was not a limiting factor in the formation of NH4+. As a result, the diurnal pattern of NH4+ was similar to that of SO42 - to some extent, but differed significantly from that of NH3. Based on the estimated H+ concentration and acidity purity (f), 75% of data samples were strongly acidic and a few percent might be alkaline. Seasonal variations in aerosol acidity and chemical forms of major ions were also briefly discussed.

  1. Efficiency of buffered aqueous carboxylic acid solutions and organic solvents to absorb SO/sub 2/ from industrial flue gas; solubility data from gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Sanza, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Nine adsorbents were examined. These potential candidates for flue gas desulfurization included 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), both 0.5 M and 1.0 M solutions of citric acid and glycolic acid, buffered to pH's of 4.5 and 3.8, and pure water. Infinite dilution activity coefficients of SO/sub 2/ were obtained by gas-liquid chromatography in a trial solvent of Nitrobenzene, and then in systems of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and TBP, independently. The solubility data of SO/sub 2/ was derived and found to be comparable to data obtained from a classical bubble-sparger apparatus. Solubility data was then programmed into an absorber-stripper computer simulator in order to calculate the various concentration and temperature profiles that would exist, the degree of desulfurization, and the steam consumption for all nine systems. Concentrated solutions of citric acid buffered to a low pH exhibited the most favorable conditions for application in direct steam regeneration processes. 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone yielded better performance than TBP did with high-pressure indirect steam used for stripping. Comparison between the aqueous solution systems which employed direct steam, and the organic systems which used indirect steam was inconclusive.

  2. Isolation of amaranth flour proteins by fractionation procedures and sonication.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Lopez, O; Mendoza, V; Mora, R

    1993-01-01

    The use of whole and defatted amaranth flour for protein isolation of Osborne fractions is described. Extractability of prolamins, the minor fraction, increased from 2.8 to 5% by adding a reducing agent. Glutelins proved to be poorly solubilized (3.3%) in dilute acetic acid, but they reached a high solubility value (40.8%) using a borate buffer in the presence of a reducing agent and a detergent; solubility remarkably declined without the latter two chemicals. Sonication (a fast and simple technique) in the presence of a detergent proved to be more efficient, compared with stirring, for extractability of total unreduced proteins. PMID:8464843

  3. [Studies on pruritus in obstructive jaundice cases with special references to serum bile acid fractions].

    PubMed

    Mashima, H

    1991-08-01

    About, 22 cases with pruritus and 18 cases without pruritus of obstructive jaundice, serum bile acids were analysed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) before and after biliary decompression for the study on the relationship between pruritus and non-pruritus group. Analysis was also carried out on 11 cases with normal liver function as the control group. And 15 kinds of bile acids were as followed: unconjugates (ursodeoxycholic: UDCA, cholic: CA, chenodeoxycholic: CDCA, deoxycholic: DCA, lithocholic acid: LCA), glycine conjugates (Gly-UDCA, Gly-CA, Gly-CDCA, Gly-DCA, Gly-LCA) and taurine conjugates (Tau-UDCA, Tau-CA, Tau-CDCA, Tau-DCA, Tau-LCA). Data was analysed by t-test statistically. [I] Before biliary decompression (1) No significant difference was observed between the pruritus group and non-pruritus group about total bile acid level, total unconjugates level and CA/CDCA ratio. (2) On total glycine-conjugates level the pruritus group was significantly lower than the non-pruritus group, that level was about 3/5. Similarly on Gly-CA level was about 2/3, on Gly-CDCA level was about 1/2. (3) By contraries on total taurine-conjugates level the pruritus group was significantly high as compared with the non-pruritus group, that level was about two times. Similarly on Tau-CA and Tau-CDCA levels were about two times. (4) From there results on glycine/taurine ratio (G/T) of total bile acids pruritus group was significantly low as compared with the non-pruritus group, that level was about 1/3. Similarly on G/T ratio of CA level was about 2/5 and on G/T ratio of CDCA was about 1/3. (5) As for various unconjugates, UDCA level was significantly high in pruritus group as compared with non-pruritus group. [II] After biliary decompression No significant difference was shown in the composition of serum bile acids between the pruritus group and the non-pruritus group. These studies showed that the pruritus in the obstructive jaundice cases stood in a

  4. Biodegradable Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid)-Polyethylene Glycol Nanocapsules: An Efficient Carrier for Improved Solubility, Bioavailability, and Anticancer Property of Lutein.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ranganathan; Prashanth, Keelara Veerappa Harish; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2015-06-01

    Lutein bioavailability is limited because of its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, lutein-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocapsules were prepared to improve the solubility, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lutein. The scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering examination revealed that the nanocapsules are smooth and spherical with size ranging from 80 to 500 nm (mean = 200 nm). In vitro lutein release profile from nanocapsules showed controlled sustainable release (66%) up to 72 h. Aqueous solubility of lutein nanocapsules was much higher by 735-fold than the lutein. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses showed no chemical interaction among PLGA, PEG, and lutein, indicating possible weak intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction revealed lutein is distributed in a disordered amorphous state in nanocapsules. Postprandial plasma kinetics (area under the curve) of an oral dose of lutein from nanocapsules was higher by 5.4-fold compared with that of micellar lutein (control). The antiproliferative effect of lutein from nanocapsules (IC50 value, 10.9 μM) was higher (43.6%) than the lutein (IC50 value, 25 μM). Results suggest that PLGA-PEG nanocapsule is an efficient carrier for enhancing hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lipophilic molecules such as lutein. PMID:25824524

  5. Solubility and modeling acid-base properties of adrenaline in NaCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bretti, Clemente; Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Vianelli, Giuseppina

    2015-10-12

    Solubility and acid-base properties of adrenaline were studied in NaCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths (0solubility of the ligand was calculated from simple mass balance equations, by using the free hydrogen concentration and the protonation constants of the ligand determined in the same experimental conditions of the solubility measurements. The salting-In or Out parameters and the activity coefficient of the neutral species were calculated by means of the Setschenow equation. The dependence of the protonation constants on the ionic strength was modeled by means of the Debye-Hückel type equation and of the SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) approach. The specific interaction parameters of the ion pairs were also reported. For the protonation constants, the following thermodynamic values at infinite dilution were obtained: T=298.15 K, logK1(H0)=10.674±0.018 and logK2(H0)=8.954±0.022; T=310.15K, logK1(H0)=10.355±0.018 and logK2(H0)=8.749±0.030. PMID:26122929

  6. Antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Gupta, Sashi K; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Ferreira, Daneel

    2007-05-01

    The Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) by-product POMx was partitioned between water, EtOAc and n-BuOH, and the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts were purified by XAD-16 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to afford ellagic acid (1), gallagic acid (2), punicalins (3), and punicalagins (4). Compounds 1 - 4 and the mixture of tannin fractions (XAD-16 eluates) were evaluated for antioxidant, antiplasmodial, and antimicrobial activities in cell-based assays. The mixture of tannins (TPT), XAD-EtOAc, XAD-H2O, XAD-PJ and XAD-BuOH, exhibited IC50 values against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at 0.8 - 19 microg/mL. Compounds 1 - 4 showed IC50 values of 1.1, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.4 microM, respectively, against ROS generation and no toxicity up to 31.25 microg/mL against HL-60 cells. Gallagic acid (2) and punicalagins (4) exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 clones with IC50 values of 10.9, 10.6, 7.5 and 8.8 microM, respectively. Fractions XAD-EtOAc, XAD-BuOH, XAD-H2O and XAD-PJ compounds 1 - 4 revealed antimicrobial activity when assayed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus fumigatus and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compounds 2 and 4 showed activity against P. aeruginosa, C. neoformans, and MRSA. This is the first report on the antioxidant, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of POMx isolates, including structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the free radical inhibition activity of compounds 1 - 4. Our results suggest a beneficial effect from the daily intake of POMx and pomegranate juice (PJ) as dietary supplements to augment the human immune system's antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial capacities. PMID:17566148

  7. Boron isotopic fractionation related to boron sorption on humic acid and the structure of surface complexes formed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Emmanuel; Schott, Jacques; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2005-07-01

    Boron isotopic fractionation during adsorption onto Ca-flocculated Aldrich humic acid (HA) has been investigated experimentally as a function of solution pH at 25°C and I = 0.15 M. Boron aqueous concentration and isotopic composition were determined by Cs 2BO 2+ Positive Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry analysis, while the structure of B surface complexes on HA was characterized using 11B Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR). Significant B sorption on HA was observed at 6 < pH < 12 with a maximum value of Kd, the partition coefficient between adsorbed and aqueous boron, equal to 40 at pH = 9.5-10. Combined 11B MAS NMR analysis and FITEQL modeling of B sorption on HA showed that this element forms tetrahedrally coordinated five- or six-membered ring chelates, most likely 1,2-diol and 1,3-diol complexes at alkaline pH (8 < pH < 11) and dicarboxylic complexes at near neutral conditions (6 < pH < 9). Results of this study demonstrate for the first time that boron sorption on HA induces a strong pH-dependent isotope fractionation—with 11B depleted at the surface of HA—that reaches a maximum at 5 < pH < 9 (α = 0.975, Δ = -25‰) and decreases sharply at pH >9. The measured isotope fractionation cannot be modeled assuming that the isotopic composition of the sorbed borate species is identical to that of B(OH) 4- species in the parent solution. It is shown that the extent of isotopic fractionation depends not only on B aqueous speciation but also on the distribution and structure of the borate surface complexes formed. In agreement with energetic constrains, calculation of the isotope fractionation factors between aqueous boric acid and boron surface complexes suggests that the formation of the strained six-membered ring 1,3-diol complex yields a much higher fractionation (α BL P1-III = 0.954-0.960, Δ = -41/-47‰) than that of the very stable five-membered ring 1,2-diol (α BL P2-III = 0.983, Δ = -18‰). The results of this study open

  8. Anhydrite Solubility and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Vapor-Liquid Field of the NaCl-H2O System: Implications for Hydrothermal Vent Fluids at Mid-ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, P.; Syverson, D. D.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 410, 420 and 450°C between 180-450 bar to investigate anhydrite (CaSO4) solubility and Ca isotope fractionation in the liquid-vapor stability field of the NaCl-H2O system. Experiments were conducted in flexible gold reaction cells and a fixed volume Ti reactor to reach all pressures between the critical curve and three-phase boundary. During isothermal decompression at 410°C, anhydrite solubility in the liquid phase increases (1 to 9 mmol/kg Ca), whereas the solubility decreases in the vapor phase (130 to < 10 umol/kg Ca). At 410°C and 290-270 bar, the partition coefficient, log Km = log (mv / ml), for Ca decreases from -1.35 to -2.46, and that of SO4 decreases from -1.76 to -2.82. At 420°C the Ca:SO4 ratio of the starting solution was 2:1, and the pH25°C decreases in the liquid and increases in the vapor upon decompression. Ca hydrolysis in the liquid and complex interactions between undetermined aqueous species in the vapor could explain this pattern. At 410 and 450°C, the experiments started with a Ca:SO4 ratio of 1:1. Along the 410°C isotherm, pH25°C initially increases in both the liquid and vapor, potentially caused by precipitation of an H+ bearing salt, such as NaHSO4. 30-40 bar below the critical curve there is a sudden decrease in pH25°C as the putative salt phase may become unstable and dissolve. At 450°C, pH25°C decreases in the vapor and increases in the liquid, as HCl and H2SO4 partition into the vapor. Ca isotope data at 420°C between 375-300 bar indicate that the vapor is isotopically light relative to the liquid. At lower pressures both phases approach the isotopic composition of the coexisting anhydrite, suggesting that dissolved Ca speciation becomes more structurally similar to anhydrite. This study furthers our understanding of elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation in mineral-fluid systems with implications for mass transfer reactions at/near the magma-hydrothermal boundary at

  9. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China I: Water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Xing, Zhenyu; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke

    2016-06-01

    During the past decade, huge research resources have been devoted into studies of air pollution in China, which generated abundant datasets on emissions and pollution characterization. Due to the complex nature of air pollution as well as the limitations of each individual investigating approach, the published results were sometimes perplexing and even contradicting. This research adopted a multi-method approach to investigate region-specific air pollution characteristics and sources in China, results obtained using different analytical and receptor modeling methods were inter-compared for validation and interpretation. A year-round campaign was completed for comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 over four key emission regions: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Yangzi River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SB). Atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected from 10/2012 to 08/2013 at four regional sites, located on the diffusion paths of air masses from their corresponding megacities (i.e., Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu). The annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations showed distinct regional difference, with the highest observed at BTH and lowest at PRD site. Nine water-soluble ions together contributed 33-41% of PM2.5 mass, with three dominant ionic species being SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and carbonaceous particulate matter contributed 16-23% of PM2.5 mass. This implied that combustion and secondary formation were the main sources for PM2.5 in China. In addition, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and carbonaceous components (OC, EC) showed clear seasonal patterns with the highest concentration occurring in winter while the lowest in summer. Principal component analysis performed on aerosol data revealed that vehicular emissions, coal/biomass combustion, industry source, soil dust as well as secondary formation were the main potential sources for the ionic components of PM2.5. The characteristic chemical species combined with back trajectory analysis indicated

  10. Avidity of immunoglobulin G antibody response to the different antigenic fractions of soluble Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) using avidity immunoblotting assay.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Gihan M; Hameed, Dina M Abdel; el-Hoseiny, Laila M

    2004-08-01

    The detection of IgG antibodies against the different SWAP antigenic fractions plus the determination of their avidity in avidity immunoblotting assay using 6 M urea wash, presents a novel alternative for the characterization of optimal antigenic markers for acute and chronic phases of Schistosoma mansoni infection and for vaccine development. Human serum samples from 25 acute schistosomiasis patients, 20 chronic cases and 15 normal healthy controls were analysed by IgG avidity enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IgG avidity immunoblotting assay. Using avidity ELISA, a pronounced overlap of avidity index values was observed between acute and chronic infections with a range of uncertainty (0.86-1) which was encountered in both groups. Using avidity immunoblotting assay, antigenic bands at >116, 84, 48, 40 & 34 KDa were exclusive for the acute phase. From these bands, 34 KDa was recognized mostly by low-avidity antibodies and showed a high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) making it an optimal marker for the acute phase. 40 KDa band was recognized mostly by high-avidity antibodies even during acute infection. Bands of 80, 70, 42, 36, 30 & 26 KDa were exclusive for the chronic phase. Only 70 KDa band was recognized by high-avidity antibodies yet, with low sensitivity (35%), that limits its use as an optimal marker for the chronic infection. Meanwhile, 70 and 40 KDa bands, recognized by high-avidity antibodies, are considered as potential vaccine antigen candidates. PMID:15287177

  11. Complementary use of flow and sedimentation field-flow fractionation techniques for size characterizing biodegradable poly(lactic acid) nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Contado, Catia; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Leo, Eliana; Zborowski, Maciej; Williams, P. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified evaporation method, testing two different surfactants (sodium cholate and Pluronic F68) for the process. During their formulation the prodrug 5′-octanoyl-CPA (Oct-CPA) of the antiischemic N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) was encapsulated. Three different purification methods were compared with respect to the influence of surfactant on the size characteristics of the final nanoparticle product. Flow and sedimentation field-flow fractionation techniques (FlFFF and SdFFF, respectively) were used to size characterize the five poly(lactic acid) particle samples. Two different combinations of carrier solution (mobile phase) were employed in the FlFFF analyses, while a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) was used as mobile phase for the SdFFF runs. The separation performances of the two techniques were compared and the particle size distributions, derived from the fractograms, were interpreted with the support of observations by scanning electron microscopy. Some critical aspects, such as the carrier choice and the channel thickness determination for the FlFFF, have been investigated. This is the first comprehensive comparison of the two FFF techniques for characterizing non standard particulate materials. The two FFF techniques proved to be complementary and gave good, congruent and very useful information on the size distributions of the five poly(lactic acid) particle samples. PMID:17482199

  12. Degradation and enantiomeric fractionation of mecoprop in soil previously exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides - New insights for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Frková, Zuzana; Johansen, Anders; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Olsen, Preben; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Bester, Kai

    2016-11-01

    Phenoxy acid-contaminated subsoils are common as a result of irregular disposal of residues and production wastes in the past. For enhancing in situ biodegradation at reducing conditions, biostimulation may be an effective option. Some phenoxy acids were marketed in racemic mixtures, and biodegradation rates may differ between enantiomers. Therefore, enantio-preferred degradation of mecoprop (MCPP) in soil was measured to get in-depth information on whether amendment with glucose (BOD equivalents as substrate for microbial growth) and nitrate (redox equivalents for oxidation) can stimulate bioremediation. The degradation processes were studied in soil sampled at different depths (3, 4.5 and 6m) at a Danish urban site with a history of phenoxy acid contamination. We observed preferential degradation of the R-enantiomer only under aerobic conditions in the soil samples from 3- and 6-m depth at environmentally relevant (nM) MCPP concentrations: enantiomer fraction (EF)<0.5. On the other hand, we observed preferential degradation of the S-enantiomer in all samples and treatments at elevated (μM) MCPP concentrations: EF>0.5. Three different microbial communities were discriminated by enantioselective degradation of MCPP: 1) aerobic microorganisms with little enantioselectivity, 2) aerobic microorganisms with R-selectivity and 3) anaerobic denitrifying organisms with S-selectivity. Glucose-amendment did not enhance MCPP degradation, while nitrate amendment enhanced the degradation of high concentrations of the herbicide. PMID:27432728

  13. Fatty acids of lipid fractions in extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge flocs.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Arnaud; Suutari, Merja Kontro; Keinänen, Minna M; Cadoret, Aurore; Faure, Pierre; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Block, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-01

    Phospholipid (PL), glycolipid (GL), and neutral lipid (NL) FA, and the lipopolysaccharide 2- and 3-hydroxy (LPS 2-OH and 3-OH) FA of activated sludges and extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined on samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants. EPS extracted from sludges by means of sonication and cation exchange contained proteins (43.4%), humic-like substances (11.5%), nucleic acids (10.9%), carbohydrates (9.9%), and lipid-bound FA (1.8%). The lipids associated with EPS were composed of GL, PL, NL, and LPS acids in proportions of 61, 21, 16, and 2%, respectively. The profiles of lipid-bound FA in activated sludges and EPS were similar (around 85 separate FA were identified). The FA signatures observed can be attributed to the likely presence of yeasts, fungi, sulfate-reducing bacteria, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and, in lesser quantities, mycobacteria. Comparison of data from the dates of sampling (January and September) showed that there were more unsaturated PLFA in the EPS extracted from the activated sludges sampled in January. This observation could be partly related to microorganism adaptation to temperature variations. The comparison between two wastewater treatment plants showed that the FA profiles were similar, although differences in microbial community structure were also seen. Most of the FA in sludges had an even number of carbons. PMID:14669975

  14. Codon Usage Selection Can Bias Estimation of the Fraction of Adaptive Amino Acid Fixations.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; John, Anoop; Baeza-Centurion, Pablo; Li, Boyang; Akashi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of molecular evolutionary studies are estimating the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions (α) from comparisons of ratios of polymorphic and fixed DNA mutations. Here, we examine how violations of two of the model assumptions, neutral evolution of synonymous mutations and stationary base composition, affect α estimation. We simulated the evolution of coding sequences assuming weak selection on synonymous codon usage bias and neutral protein evolution, α = 0. We show that weak selection on synonymous mutations can give polymorphism/divergence ratios that yield α-hat (estimated α) considerably larger than its true value. Nonstationary evolution (changes in population size, selection, or mutation) can exacerbate such biases or, in some scenarios, give biases in the opposite direction, α-hat < α. These results demonstrate that two factors that appear to be prevalent among taxa, weak selection on synonymous mutations and non-steady-state nucleotide composition, should be considered when estimating α. Estimates of the proportion of adaptive amino acid fixations from large-scale analyses of Drosophila melanogaster polymorphism and divergence data are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Such patterns are consistent with α-hat inflation from weak selection on synonymous mutations and/or mutational changes within the examined gene trees. PMID:26873577

  15. Preparation and Absorption Spectral Property of a Multifunctional Water-Soluble Azo Compound with D-π-A Structure, 4-(4- Hydroxy-1-Naphthylazo)Benzoic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Lv, H.; Xie, C. G.; Chang, W. G.; Yan, Z. Q.

    2015-07-01

    A multifunctional water-soluble azo dye with the D-π-A conjugated structure, 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo) benzoic acid ( HNBA), was designed and synthesized using 1-naphanol as the electron donator, benzoic acid as the electron acceptor, and -N=N- as the bridging group. After its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and element analysis, the UV-Vis absorption spectral performance of the target dye was studied in detail. The results showed that the dye, combining hydroxyl group, azo group, and carboxyl group, possessed excellent absorption spectral properties (ɛ = 1.2·104 l·mol-1·cm-1) changing with pH and solvents. In particular, in polar and protonic water, it had excellent optical response to some metal ions, i.e., Fe3+ and Pb2+, which might make it a latent colorimetric sensor for detecting heavy metal ions.

  16. Specific synthesis of 5,5'-dicapsaicin by cell suspension cultures of capsicum annuum var. annuum (chili Jalapeño chigol) and their soluble and NaCl-extracted cell wall protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Juárez, Víctor M; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftali; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Villarreal-Ortega, María L; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Esparza-García, Fernando J; Calva-Calva, Graciano

    2004-02-25

    HPLC-UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and (1)H-(1)H COSY analyses revealed that exogenous capsaicin was specifically converted into 5,5'-dicapsaicin by both cell suspension cultures of Capsicum annuum var. annuum (chili Jalapeño chigol) and their soluble and NaCl-extracted cell wall protein fractions under oxidative conditions. In cell suspension cultures 5,5'-dicapsaicin was found only in biomass of capsaicin-fed cultures. This compound has not been detected before either in fresh fruits or in in vitro cultures of Capsicum. The transformation of capsaicin by different protein fractions revealed that most of the enzymatic activity was located in the NaCl-extracted, or ionic cell wall bound, protein, and that it was strictly dependent on H(2)O(2). These results might in part explain some previously described features of capsaicin production by in vitro cultures of Capsicum. The implications of the results regarding the catabolism of capsaicinoids are discussed. PMID:14969559

  17. Chemical characterization of the inorganic fraction of aerosols and mechanisms of the neutralization of atmospheric acidity in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgos, E. T.; Rapsomanikis, S.

    2007-06-01

    with inter-ionic correlations suggested that atmospheric ammonia is the major neutralizing agent of sulfate, while being insufficient to neutralize it to full extend. The formation of NH4NO3 is therefore not favored and additional contribution to the neutralization of acidity has been shown to be provided by Ca2+ and Mg2+. In the coarse particle fraction, the predominantly abundant Ca2+ has been found to correlate well with NO3- and SO42-, indicating its role as important neutralizing agent in this particle size range. The proximity of the location under study to the sea explains the important concentrations of salts with marine origin like NaCl and MgCl2 that were found in the coarse fraction, while chloride depletion in the gaseous phase was found to be limited to the fine particulate fraction. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic) was found to be ranging between approximately 25-33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35-42% of the total fine particle mass.

  18. Solid inclusion complexes of oleanolic acid with amino-appended β-cyclodextrins (ACDs): Preparation, characterization, water solubility and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yufeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhikuan; Niu, Raomei; Gao, Kai; Yang, Bo; Liao, Xiali; Zhang, Jihong

    2016-12-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid of natural abundance in plants which possesses important biological activities. However, its medicinal applications were severely impeded by the poor water solubility and resultant low bioavailability and potency. In this work, studies on solid inclusion complexes of OA with a series of amino-appended β-cyclodextrins (ACDs) were conducted in order to address this issue. These complexes were prepared by suspension method and were well characterized by NMR, SEM, XRD, TG, DSC and Zeta potential measurement. The 2:1 inclusion mode of ACDs/OA complexes was elucidated by elaborate 2D NMR (ROESY). Besides, water solubility of OA was dramatically promoted by inclusion complexation with ACDs. Moreover, in vitro anticancer activities of OA against human cancer cell lines HepG2, HT29 and HCT116 were significantly enhanced after formation of inclusion complexes, while the apoptotic response results indicated their induction of apoptosis of cancer cells. This could provide a novel approach to development of novel pharmaceutical formulations of OA. PMID:27612690

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the complex between a Bacillus subtilis α/β-type small acid-soluble spore protein and DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Bumbaca, Daniela; Kosman, Jeffrey; Setlow, Peter; Henderson, R. Keith; Jedrzejas, Mark J.

    2007-06-01

    An α/β-type small, acid-soluble spore protein (SASP) from Bacillus subtilis, a major source of DNA protection against damaging effects in spores, was crystallized in a functionally relevant complex with a double-stranded DNA. This report provides insights into initial characterization of the complex and its structure elucidation. An engineered variant of an α/β-type small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP) from Bacillus subtilis was crystallized in a complex with a ten-base-pair double-stranded DNA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitating agent. Crystals grew at 281 K using sodium cacodylate buffer pH 5.5 and these crystals diffracted X-rays to beyond 2.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystallized complex contains two or three SASP molecules bound to one DNA molecule. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87.0, c = 145.4 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°. Diffraction data were 96.6% complete to 2.4 Å resolution, with an R{sub sym} of 8.5%. Structure solution by the multiwavelength/single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method using isomorphous crystals of selenomethionine-labeled protein is in progress.

  20. Can the development and autolysis of lactic acid bacteria influence the cheese volatile fraction? The case of Grana Padano.

    PubMed

    Lazzi, Camilla; Povolo, Milena; Locci, Francesco; Bernini, Valentina; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2016-09-16

    In this study, the relationship between the dynamics of the growth and lysis of lactic acid bacteria in Grana Padano cheese and the formation of the volatile flavor compounds during cheese ripening was investigated. The microbial dynamics of Grana Padano cheeses that were produced in two different dairies were followed during ripening. The total and cultivable lactic microflora, community composition as determined by length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR), and extent of bacterial lysis using an intracellular enzymatic activity assay were compared among cheeses after 2, 6 and 13months of ripening in two dairies. The evolution of whole and lysed microbiota was different between the two dairies. In dairy 2, the number of total cells was higher than that in dairy 1 in all samples, and the number of cells that lysed during ripening was lower. In addition, at the beginning of ripening (2months), the community structure of the cheese from dairy 2 was more complex and was composed of starter lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii) and NSLAB, possibly arising from raw milk, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus/Lactobacillus casei and Pediococcus acidilactici. On the other hand, the cheese from dairy 1 that ripened for 2months was mainly composed of the SLAB L. helveticus and L. delbrueckii. An evaluation of the free-DNA fraction through LH-PCR identified those species that had a high degree of lysis. Data on the dynamics of bacterial growth and lysis were evaluated with respect to the volatile profile and the organic acid content of the two cheeses after 13months of ripening, producing very different results. Cheese from dairy 1 showed a higher content of free fatty acids, particularly those deriving from milk fat lipolysis, benzaldehyde and organic acids, such as pGlu and citric. In contrast, cheese from dairy 2 had a greater amount of ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons, acetic acid and propionic acid. Based on these results, we can conclude that

  1. Amino acid composition, antinutrients and allergens in the peanut protein fraction obtained by an aqueous enzymatic process.

    PubMed

    Latif, S; Pfannstiel, J; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAE) of peanut kernel was used to extract oil and protein. The aqueous fraction (AF) obtained by EAE had a better essential amino acid profile than the residues obtained by solvent extraction (Rs) and cold pressing (Rc). No major difference in the trypsin inhibitor activity among AF, Rs and Rc was observed; however, the trypsin inhibitor activity was drastically reduced in the residue obtained after EAE. AF was subjected to MALDI-TOF/MS, revealing it to be rich in peptides (107) with molecular masses from m/z 700 to 2369Da. AF had an extremely low phytate content and was rich in peptides, which could be used as a food supplement. ESI-MS/MS data were used for the identification of major peanut allergens, viz., Ara h1, h3, h6-8. Their allergenic potential needs to be established. PMID:23017415

  2. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    PubMed

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment. PMID:27220238

  3. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250-2000 μm) and fine sand (53-250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  4. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  5. Diurnal and temporal variations of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing: implication for photochemical aging during atmospheric transport.

    PubMed

    He, Nannan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Okuzawa, K; Pochanart, P; Liu, Y; Kanaya, Y; Wang, Z F

    2014-11-15

    Aerosol samples were collected in autumn 2007 on day- and nighttime basis in the northern receptor site of Beijing, China. The samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), glyoxal and methylglyoxal to better understand the photochemical aging of organic aerosols in the vicinity of Beijing. Concentrations of TC are 50% greater in daytime when winds come from Beijing than in nighttime when winds come from the northern forest areas. Most diacids showed higher concentrations in daytime, suggesting that the organics emitted from the urban Beijing and delivered to the northern vicinity in daytime are subjected to photo-oxidation to result in diacids. However, oxalic acid (C2), which is the most abundant diacid followed by C3 or C4, became on average 30% more abundant in nighttime together with azelaic, ω-oxooctanoic and ω-oxononanoic acids, which are specific oxidation products of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids. Methylglyoxal, an oxidation product of isoprene and a precursor of oxalic acid, also became 29% more abundant in nighttime. Based on a positive correlation between C2 and glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in nighttime when relative humidity significantly enhanced, we propose a nighttime aqueous phase production of C2 via the oxidation of ωC2. We found an increase in the contribution of diacids to TC by 3 folds during consecutive clear days. This study demonstrates that diacids and related compounds are largely produced in the northern vicinity of Beijing via photochemical processing of organic precursors emitted from urban center and forest areas. PMID:25181047

  6. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'Amari' and 'Hallawi' date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives. PMID:25765921

  7. Mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes during thermochemical reduction of native sulfur, sulfite and sulfate by amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Naraoka, H.; Ohmoto, H.

    2006-05-01

    Mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) is recognized when the Δ33S value (= δ33S-0.515xδ34S) of a sample falls outside the range of 0±0.2 permil and the 33-34θ value (= ln33α/ ln34α) lies outside the range of 0.515±.005 (Farquhar and Wing, 2003). Previous investigators have concluded that the only mechanisms to create MIF-S are photochemical reactions between sulfur-bearing gases (SO2, H2S) and UV. Based on comparisons of the geochemical characteristics of Archean sedimentary rocks between those with large MIF-S values (e.g., the 2.5 Ga McRae and 2.7 Ga Jeerinah shales) and those with no (or very small) MIF- S values (e.g., 2.76 Ga Hardey shales and 2.92 Ga Mosquito Creek shales), we have developed a hypothesis that MIF-S in sedimentary rocks may have been created by reactions among organic-rich sediments, sulfur- bearing solid compounds, and sulfur-bearing hydrothermal fluids at T = 100-200°C during the early diagenetic stage of sediments. Most abundant organic compounds in immature sediments are amino acids. For these reasons, we have conducted series of laboratory experiments to investigate sulfur isotope fractionations during reactions between a variety of amino acids (alanine, glycine, hystidine, etc.) and native sulfur, sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate at 150-200°C. Previous researchers used a variety of organic compounds (sugars, methane, xylene, etc) and/or ferrous- bearing minerals to investigate non-bacterial sulfate reduction, but they failed to demonstrate thermochemical sulfate reduction at temperatures below 230°C. However, we were able to reduce sulfate (S6+), as well as sulfite (S4+) and native sulfur (S0), to hydrogen sulfide (S2-) even at 150°C using simple and common amino acids (e.g., alanine and glycine). The reduction rates generally decreased: (a) from native sulfur, to sulfite, and to sulfate; (b) from simple amino acids to more complex amino acids (e.g., histidine); and (c) with decreasing temperatures. The

  8. PuPO4(cr, hyd.) Solubility Product and Pu3+ Complexes With Phosphate and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bolton, Harvey

    2010-06-15

    To determine the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and the complexation constants of Pu(III) with phosphate and EDTA, the solubility of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) was investigated as a function of: 1) time and pH varying from 1.0 to 12.0 and at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration; 2) NaH2PO4 concentrations varying from 0.0001 M to 1.0 M and at a fixed pH value of 2.5; 3) time and pH varying from 1.3 to 13.0 at fixed concentrations of 0.00032 M phosphate and 0.0004 M or 0.002 M Na2H2EDTA; and 4) Na2H2EDTA concentrations varying from 0.00005 M to 0.0256 M at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration and at pH values of approximately 3.5, 10.6, and 12.6. A combination of solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques confirmed that the use of hydroquinone and Na2S2O4 helped maintain Pu as Pu(III). The solubility data were interpreted using Pitzer and SIT models, and both provided similar values for the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and for the formation constant of PuEDTA-. The log10 of the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) (PuPO4(cr, hyd.) = Pu3+ + PO4 ) was determined to be –(24.42 ± 0.38). Pitzer modeling showed that phosphate interactions with Pu3+ were extremely weak and did not require any phosphate complexes (e.g., PuPO4(aq), PuH2PO42+, Pu(H2PO4)2+, Pu(H2PO4)3(aq), and Pu(H2PO4)4-), as proposed in existing literature, to explain the experimental data. SIT modeling, however, required the inclusion of PuH2PO42+ to explain the data in high NaH2PO4 concentrations; this illustrates the differences one can expect when using these two chemical models to interpret the data. As the Pu(III)-EDTA species, only PuEDTA- was needed to interpret the experimental data in a large range in pH values (1.3–12.9) and EDTA concentrations (0.00005–0.256 M). Calculations based on density functional theory support the existence of PuEDTA- (with prospective stoichiometry as Pu(OH2)3EDTA-) as the chemically and structurally stable species. The log10 of the

  9. Characterizing the acid/base behavior of oil-soluble surfactants at the interface of nonpolar solvents with a polar phase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Zhou, Zhang-Lin; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2015-06-01

    We propose a simple method of characterizing the (Lewis) acid/base behavior of oil-soluble nonionic surfactants at the interface of nonpolar solvents with a polar phase. Using interfacial tensiometry, we probe the effective acidic and basic response of nonpolar surfactant solutions to contact with a variety of polar reference liquids. The measured interfacial tensions are used as experimental coefficients in a set of equations borrowed from the thermodynamic "surface energy component model" of van Oss, Chaudhury, and Good (vOCG), but used here in a more heuristic fashion and with a revised interpretation of the parameters extracted to describe the dispersive, acidic, and basic character of the sample. We test the proposed characterization method using alkane solutions of purified polyisobutylene succinimide (PIBS) surfactants with systematic structural variations, and observe that the inferred parameter values are consistent with, and sensitive to, subtle differences in the surfactant chemistry. This suggests the possibility to compare different surfactant solutions semiquantitatively with regard to their acidic and basic character. In a further illustration of the proposed analysis, we characterize a solution of commercial PIBS surfactant in hexane, and find that the parameters obtained by the proposed method correctly predict the solution interfacial tension with a polar liquid not included among the chosen reference liquids. PMID:25978798

  10. Enhanced anti-cancer efficacy to cancer cells by doxorubicin loaded water-soluble amino acid-modified β-cyclodextrin platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhao, Meng; Zeng, Er-Zao; Li, Yang; Li, Jin-Ming; Cao, Qian; Tan, Cai-Ping; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2014-08-01

    The effective targeted delivery of insoluble anticancer drugs to increase the intracellular drug concentration has become a focus in cancer therapy. In this system, two water-soluble amino acid-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) platinum complexes were reported. They showed preferable binding ability to DNA and effective inhibition to cancer cells, and they could bind and unwind pBR322 DNA in a manner which was similar to cisplatin. Besides, our platinum complexes could effectively deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) into cells and had higher cell inhibition ratio, but less toxicity on the normal cells, compared with cancer cells. In this combination system, Dox was encapsulated into the hydrophobic cavities of β-CD at the optimum molar ratio of 1:1, which were validated by UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and MTT experiments. Moreover, the combination system had higher cell inhibition ratio than free Dox and amino acid-modified β-CD platinum complexes, and the results of high content screening (HCS) showed that Dox-loaded amino acid-modified β-CD platinum complexes could permeate the cell membrane and enter cells, suggesting the efficient transport of Dox across the membranes with the aid of the β-CD. We expect that the amino acid-modified β-CD platinum complexes will deliver the antitumor drug Dox to enhance intracellular drug accumulation and such combination system showed great potential as an antitumor drug. PMID:24803024

  11. Sense-, antisense- and RNAi-4CL1 regulate soluble phenolic acids, cell wall components and growth in transgenic Populus tomentosa Carr.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoming; Xie, Jin; Zhao, Yanling; Lu, Hai; Liu, Shichang; Qu, Long; Li, Jianmei; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning

    2013-04-01

    Regulation of lignin biosynthesis affects plant growth and wood properties. Transgenic downregulation of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL, EC 6.2.1.12) may reduce lignin content in cell walls, which could improve the qualities of pulp in papermaking and increase the efficiency of bioenergy applications. To determine the effects of Ptc4CL1 on lignin biosynthesis and plant growth, Populus tomentosa Carr. was transformed using sense-, antisense-, and RNAi-4CL1 genes. The growth properties, gene expression, enzyme activity, lignin content and composition and content of soluble phenolic acids were investigated in 1-year-old field-grown transgenic poplar trees. Transgenic up- and down-regulation of 4CL1 altered lignin content and composition in transgenic poplars, but there were no negative effects on the growth of transgenic plants. In addition, the severe changes in auxin observed in transgenic lines led to significantly enhanced growth performance. Furthermore, lignin content was tightly correlated with the alteration of 4CL1 enzymatic activity, which was correlated with 4CL1 gene expression. A significant increase in S units in lignin with a slight increase in sinapic acid was observed in 4CL1 down-regulated transgenic poplars. These results suggest that 4CL1 is a traffic control gene in monolignol biosynthesis and confirm that 4CL1 activity has been implicated with sinapoyl activation. Finally, our data demonstrate that there is cross-correlation among 4CL1 gene expression, 4CL1 enzyme activity, soluble phenolic acid, lignin monomer biosynthesis, and lignin content. PMID:23434928

  12. The amino acid sequence of protein SCMK-B2C from the high-sulphur fraction of wool keratin

    PubMed Central

    Elleman, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    1. The amino acid sequence of a protein from the reduced and carboxymethylated high-sulphur fraction of wool has been determined. 2. The sequence of this S-carboxymethylkerateine (SCMK-B2C) of 151 amino acid residues displays much internal homology and an unusual residue distribution. Thus a ten-residue sequence occurs four times near the N-terminus and five times near the C-terminus with few changes. These regions contain much of the molecule's half-cystine, whereas between them there is a region of 19 residues that are mainly small and devoid of cystine and proline. 3. Certain models of the wool fibre based on its mechanical and physical properties propose a matrix of small compact globular units linked together to form beaded chains. The unusual distribution of the component residues of protein SCMK-B2C suggests structures in the wool-fibre matrix compatible with certain features of the proposed models. PMID:4678578

  13. Effect of heat treatment of digestion-resistant fraction from soybean on retarding of bile acid transport in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Hee; Lee, Seog-Won

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the heat effect of digestion-resistant fraction (RF) from soybean on retarding bile acid transport in vitro. The RFs from soybean retarded bile acid transport. A raw, unheated RF of soybean (RRF-SOY) was significantly more effective than the heated RF of soybean (HRF-SOY). The RS1 which physically trapped in milled grains and inaccessible to digestive enzyme after 18 hrs incubation level of content in RRF-SOY was found to be as high as 24.1% and after heating the RS1 of HRF-SOY was significantly reduced to 16.8%. The X-ray diffraction pattern of RF from soybean was altered after heat treatment. The RFs from soybean were characterized by peak at diffraction angles of 12.0° and 20.0° corresponding to RS content. Cellulose contents of RRF-SOY was 5% higher than that of HRF-SOY and pentosan contents of RRF-SOY was 5% higher than that of HRF-SOY, too. Whereas the hemicellulose content of RRF-SOY was 13% lower than HRF-SOY.

  14. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe(2+)-chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O₂·(-) scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants. PMID:27110763

  15. On the gas-particle partitioning of soluble organic aerosol in two urban atmospheres with contrasting emissions: 2. Gas and particle phase formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiumeng; Zhang, Xiaolu; Parker, Eric T.; Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Ellis, Raluca A.; Huey, L. Greg; Weber, Rodney J.

    2012-10-01

    Gas and fine particle (PM2.5) phase formic acid concentrations were measured with online instrumentation during separate one-month studies in the summer of 2010 in Los Angeles (LA), CA, and Atlanta, GA. In both urban environments, median gas phase concentrations were on the order of a few ppbv (LA 1.6 ppbv, Atlanta 2.3 ppbv) and median particle phase concentrations were approximately tens of ng/m3 (LA 49 ng/m3, Atlanta 39 ng/m3). LA formic acid gas and particle concentrations had consistent temporal patterns; both peaked in the early afternoon and generally followed the trends in photochemical secondary gases. Atlanta diurnal trends were more irregular, but the mean diurnal profile had similar afternoon peaks in both gas and particle concentrations, suggesting a photochemical source in both cities. LA formic acid particle/gas (p/g) ratios ranged between 0.01 and 12%, with a median of 1.3%. No clear evidence that LA formic acid preferentially partitioned to particle water was observed, except on three overcast periods of suppressed photochemical activity. Application of Henry's Law to predict partitioning during these periods greatly under-predicted particle phas