Science.gov

Sample records for acid soluble fraction

  1. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  2. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production.

  3. Effects of soluble and insoluble fractions from bilberries, black currants, and raspberries on short-chain fatty acid formation, anthocyanin excretion, and cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nilsson, Ulf; Blanco, Narda; Sterner, Olov; Nyman, Margareta

    2014-05-14

    Dietary fiber and flavonoids, important components in berries, are suggested to improve metabolic health. This study investigates whether soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from bilberry, black currant, and raspberry affect the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), uptake and excretion of flavonoids, and levels of cholesterol differently. Cecal SCFA pools were higher in rats fed the soluble than the insoluble fractions (525 vs 166 μmol, P < 0.001), whereas higher concentrations of butyric acid were found in the distal colon and serum of rats fed the insoluble fractions (5 vs 3 μmol/g and 58 vs 29 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.001). The soluble bilberry fraction gave lower amounts of liver cholesterol (56 mg) than the other berry fractions (87 ± 5 mg), formed the highest amount of SCFAs (746 vs 266 ± 21 μmol), and contributed the highest intake of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-glucoside monoglucuronide was detected in the urine of all groups, whereas anthocyanins were found only in groups fed soluble black currant and raspberry.

  4. Composition of the water-soluble fraction of different cheeses.

    PubMed

    Taborda, Gonzalo; Molina, Elena; Martínez-Castro, Isabel; Ramos, Mercedes; Amigo, Lourdes

    2003-01-01

    Volatile and nonvolatile compounds present in the water-soluble fraction (WSF) and water-soluble fraction with molecular weight lower than 1000 Da (WSF < 1000 Da) of six Spanish cheeses, Cabrales, Idiazábal, Mahón, Manchego, Roncal, and a goat's milk cheese, were analyzed. Different nitrogen fractions (determined by Kjeldahl method), caseins (by capillary electrophoresis), peptides and amino acids (by HPLC), and volatile components (by dynamic headspace coupled to GC-MS) as well as mineral content in the cheese fractions were analyzed and compared. The different nitrogen and volatile compounds identified in the WSF were characteristic of each cheese variety. Cabrales cheese displayed the highest content of free amino acids and the highest quantity and variety of volatile compounds. The WSF < 1000 Da fraction was less representative, especially for volatile compounds, as some of the components were lost in the ultrafiltration. Alcohols were better recovered than ketones and esters. PMID:12502420

  5. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively.

  6. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively. PMID:25461009

  7. Protein Solubility, Digestibility and Fractionation after Germination of Sorghum Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim M. R.; El-Beltagi, Hossam S.; Abd El-Salam, Samiha M.; Omran, Azza A.

    2012-01-01

    The changes in crude protein, free amino acids, amino acid composition, protein solubility, protein fractionation and protein digestibility after germination of sorghum were investigated. Sorghum varieties (Dorado, Shandaweel-6, Giza-15) were soaked for 20 h followed by germination for 72 h; the results revealed that crude protein and free amino acids in raw sorghum varieties ranged from 10.62 to 12.46% and 0.66 to 1.03 mg/g, respectively. Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in crude protein and free amino acids content. After germination, crude protein was decreased and free amino acids were increased. There was an increase in content of valine and phenylalanine amino acids after germination. On the other hand, there was a decrease in most of amino acids after germination. After germination protein solubility was significantly increased. Regarding protein fractions, there was an increase in albumin, globulin and kafirin proteins and a decrease in cross linked kafirin and cross linked glutelin after germination. PMID:22319611

  8. Lymphocyte stimulation by soluble subcellular fractions.

    PubMed

    Pegrum, G D; Thompson, E A; Lewis, C M; Grant, V A

    1976-04-01

    Nuclear material can produce inhibition or stimulation of healty leucocytes under different experimental conditions, Reactivity could not be produced in cultures using intact nuclei and allogeneic lymphocytes. The effect of nuclear and cytoplasm fractions was compared with that of whole cells on intact healthy lymphocytes. The HLA activity in the individual fractions was assessed. Stimulation was produced by certain nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions and these were closely related to the peaks of HLA activity. The response to these fractions showed less activity than that achieved in conventional one way MLC tests.

  9. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  10. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  11. Acid-Soluble Material of Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, P. A.; Jaume, F.; Flamencourt, P.; Biserte, G.

    1970-01-01

    Two methods are described for adenovirus capsid disruption and extraction of acid-soluble proteins from the viral core. The acid-soluble material of adenovirus consisted of three major proteins, one of them being selectively extracted after mild disruption of the virus particle. Some chemical properties of these proteins are reported. Images PMID:4986288

  12. Exposure of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) to a combination of resin acids and a water soluble fraction of diesel fuel oil: A model to investigate the chemical causes of pigmented salmon syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, B. |; Stagg, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    Pigmented salmon syndrome is a pollutant-induced hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. As part of an investigation of this condition, S2 Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) were exposed to a diesel fuel oil, water soluble fraction (WSF) in combination with a mixture of three resin acids (isopimaric, dehydroabietic, and abietic acids) in a continuous-flow freshwater system. The total nominal concentrations of resin acids in the exposure tanks were 10, 50, and 100 {micro}g/L; the diesel WSF was generated in situ and provided a mean hydrocarbon concentration of 2.0 {+-} 0.1 mg/L (n = 12) during the 9-d exposure period. Exposure to the diesel WSF alone depressed liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and induced phenol UDPGT activity. Exposure to the diesel WSF in the absence or presence of resin acids induced liver cytochrome P4501A and increased the concentrations in the plasma of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. The combined exposure to diesel WSF with either 50 or 100 {micro}g/L total resin acid caused significant elevations in the concentrations of bilirubin in the plasma and many of these fish had yellow pigmentation on the ventral surface and around the gill arches. The results demonstrate that exposure to combinations of two groups of contaminants can result in the manifestation of toxic effects not apparent from exposure to either of these chemicals in isolation.

  13. Tunable fractionation of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Salimullah, Md; Kato, Sachiko; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Kawazu, Chika; Plessy, Charles; Carninci, Piero

    2009-12-01

    We developed a method for selective purification of DNA using the cationic detergent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), accompanied with urea and controlled high-salt (NaCl) concentration. This method is effective for rapid separation of DNA fragments from artifacts such as PCR primer dimers or ligation adapters. The CTAB-associated purification completely removed the short PCR artifacts and primers, as well as enzymes and buffer, while recovering a sufficient quantity of amplicons for subsequent experiments such as preparation of libraries. This method could also be applied to the fractionation of nucleic acids generated by other types of reactions.

  14. Copolyamino acid fractionation and protobiochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation of the origins of living things by the uniquely appropriate method of successive approximation in attempted retracement of steps in molecular evolution has yielded: a comprehensive theoretical flowsheet from archaic inanimate matter to an infrastructured, microscopic, protoreproductive, protometabolic protocell; a laboratory model of the same; and an explanatory assessment of the natural variation component of Darwinian evolution. For each of these, the significance is dependent upon awareness of the intrinsic tendency of amino acids, in mixed sets, to order themselves. Without such awareness, it is believed these vistas would have been delayed for decades. Selfordering would have in turn been difficult to recognize and support were it not for the chromatographic developments in fractionation of copolyamino acids.

  15. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  16. Characterization of pH-fractionated humic acids with respect to their dissociation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Klučáková, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Humic acids were divided into several fractions using buffer solutions as extraction agents with different pH values. Two methods of fractionation were used. The first one was subsequent dissolution of bulk humic acids in buffers adjusted to different pH. The second one was sequential dissolution in buffers with increasing pH values. Experimental data were compared with hypothesis of partial solubility of humic acids in aqueous solutions. Behaviour of humic fractions obtained by sequential dissolution, original bulk sample and residual fractions obtained by subsequent dissolution at pH 10 and 12 agrees with the hypothesis. Results demonstrated that regardless the common mechanism, solubility and dissociation degree of various humic fractions may be very different and can be estimated using parameters of the model based on the proposed mechanism. Presented results suggest that dissolving of solid humic acids in water environment is more complex than conventional solubility behaviour of sparingly soluble solids.

  17. [Fractional and amino acid composition of krill proteins and the potential for obtaining protein preparations].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T A; Churina, E E; Kuranova, L K

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the fractional composition of krill proteins demonstrated that the content of protein fractions changes depending on the time of krill catch. The highest amount of water-soluble proteins is contained by krill caught in December (64%), of salt-soluble by krill caught in June (12%), base-soluble by krill caught in May, September and February (34%). Krill protein contains from 50 to 60% of water- and salt-soluble fractions. Analysis of the amino acid composition of krill proteins showed that it does not differ essentially from that of adequate food proteins.

  18. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds. PMID:25222929

  19. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds.

  20. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  1. Solubility of xenon in amino-acid solutions. II. Nine less-soluble amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennan, Richard P.; Himm, Jeffrey F.; Pollack, Gerald L.

    1988-05-01

    Ostwald solubility (L) of xenon gas, as the radioisotope 133Xe, has been measured as a function of solute concentration, at 25.0 °C, in aqueous solutions of nine amino acids. The amino-acid concentrations investigated covered much of their solubility ranges in water, viz., asparagine monohydrate (0-0.19 M), cysteine (0-1.16 M), glutamine (0-0.22 M), histidine (0-0.26 M), isoleucine (0-0.19 M), methionine (0-0.22 M), serine (0-0.38 M), threonine (0-1.4 M), and valine (0-0.34 M). We have previously reported solubility results for aqueous solutions of six other, generally more soluble, amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, hydroxyproline, lysine, and proline), of sucrose and sodium chloride. In general, L decreases approximately linearly with increasing solute concentration in these solutions. If we postulate that the observed decreases in gas solubility are due to hydration, the results under some assumptions can be used to calculate hydration numbers (H), i.e., the number of H2O molecules associated with each amino-acid solute molecule. The average values of hydration number (H¯) obtained at 25.0 °C are 15.3±1.5 for asparagine, 6.8±0.3 for cysteine, 11.5±1.1 for glutamine, 7.3±0.7 for histidine, 5.9±0.4 for isoleucine, 10.6±0.8 for methionine, 11.2±1.3 for serine, 7.7± 1.0 for threonine, and 6.6±0.6 for valine. We have also measured the temperature dependence of solubility L(T) from 5-40 °C for arginine, glycine, and proline, and obtained hydration numbers H¯(T) in this range. Between 25-40 °C, arginine has an H¯ near zero. This may be evidence for an attractive interaction between xenon and arginine molecules in aqueous solution.

  2. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water. PMID:25362971

  3. Fractionation and solubility of cadmium in paddy soils amended with porous hydrated calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Masaihiko, Saigusa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that porous hydrated calcium silicate (PS) is very effective in decreasing cadmium (Cd) content in brown rice. However, it is unclear whether the PS influences cadmium transformation in soil. The present study examined the effect of PS on pH, cadmium transformation and cadmium solubility in Andosol and Alluvial soil, and also compared its effects with CaCO3, acidic porous hydrated calcium silicate (APS) and silica gel. Soil cadmium was operationally fractionationed into exchangeable (Exch), bound to carbonates (Carb), bound to iron and manganese oxides (FeMnO(x)), bound to organic matters (OM) and residual (Res) fraction. Application of PS and CaCO3 at hig rates enhanced soil pH, while APS and silica gel did not obviously change soil pH. PS and CaCO3 also increased the FeMnO(x)-Cd in Andosol and Carb-Cd in Alluvial soil, thus reducing the Exch-Cd in the tested soils. However, PS was less effective than CaCO3 at the same application rate. Cadmium fractions in the two soils were not changed by the treatments of APS and silica gel. There were no obvious differences in the solubility of cadmium in soils treated with PS, APS, silica gel and CaCO3 except Andosol treated 2.0% CaCO3 at the same pH of soil-CaCl2 suspensions. These findings suggested that the decrease of cadmium availability in soil was mainly attributed to the increase of soil pH caused by PS. PMID:17918598

  4. Isolation and prebiotic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides fractions from the bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hanju; Wang, Junhui; Cao, Xiaodong; Ye, Yongkang

    2016-10-20

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox) (WBP) were isolated, and the characterizations as well as prebiotic activities were investigated. The yield of WBP was 7.58±0.31% under optimal hot-water extraction conditions. Two fractions, i.e., WBP-1 and WBP-2 with molecular weight of 83.50kDa and 80.08kDa, respectively, were purified by chromatography. Both the polysaccharides fractions were identified as heteropolysaccharides-protein complexes composed of 15 kinds of common amino acids in protein part and rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios in polysaccharide part. The existence of α- and β-glycosidic linkages between the sugar units was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectra. Compared with the blank control and the reference of FOS, WBP-1 and WBP-2 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum (P<0.05), which contributed to the production of organic acids, suggesting that the polysaccharides have potential prebiotic properties. PMID:27474570

  5. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes < C20) were extracted through desorption of complex colloids stabilized as micelles in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water repellency was completely eliminated by hot water under high pressure. The molecular composition of HWSC can play a critical role in stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  6. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  7. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  8. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  9. Comparison of hemolytic activities of coal fly ash and its soluble and insoluble fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Wong, M.H.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    1986-08-01

    Coal fly ash of a particle diameter smaller than 10 ..mu..m was collected from the precipitator of a power plant in Hong Kong. Comparison of hemolytic activities between fly ash and free silica showed that fly ash had a lower biological effect than free silica. The hemolytic activities of the soluble and insoluble fractions of fly ash were further compared by two methods: total hemoglobin method and cyanmethemoglobin method. An analysis of results showed significant differences for fly ash and its soluble fraction between methods. Fly ash, which contained a silicate level similar to its insoluble fraction, had a hemolytic activity higher than the summation of both its soluble and insoluble fractions. This indicates that the hemolytic activity was independent of the silicate content in the fly ash samples.

  10. Fraction of a dose absorbed estimation for structurally diverse low solubility compounds.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2011-02-28

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of the fully mechanistic gastrointestinal unified theoretical (GUT) framework for in vivo oral absorption of low solubility drugs. Solubility in biorelevant media, molecular weight, logP(oct), pK(a), Caco-2 permeability, dose and particle size were used as the input parameters. To neglect the effect of the low stomach pH on dissolution of a drug, the fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa%) of undissociable and free acids were used. In addition, Fa% of free base drugs with the high pH stomach was also included to increase the number of model drugs. In total twenty nine structurally diverse compounds were used as the model drugs. Fa% data at several doses and particle sizes in humans and dogs were collated from the literature (total 110 Fa% data). In approximately 80% cases, the prediction error was within 2 fold, suggesting that the GUT framework has practical predictability for drug discovery, but not for drug development. The GUT framework appropriately captured the dose and particle size dependency of Fa% as the particle drifting effect was taken into account. It should be noted that the present validation results cannot be applied for salt form cases and other special formulations such as solid dispersions and emulsion formulations.

  11. Solubility, inhibition of crystallization and microscopic analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in the presence of fractions from Humulus lupulus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąckowiak, Anna; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Skibiński, PrzemysŁaw; GaweŁ, WiesŁaw; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-11-01

    Procedures for obtaining noncytotoxic and nonmutagenic extracts from Humulus lupulus L. of high potency for inhibition and dissolving of model (calcium oxalate crystals) and real kidney stones, obtained from patients after surgery, are presented. Multistep extraction procedures were performed in order to obtain the preparations with the highest calcium complexing properties. The composition of obtained active fractions was analyzed by GC/MS and NMR methods. The influence of preparations on inhibition of formation and dissolution of model and real kidney stones were evaluated based on conductrometric titration, flame photometry and microscopic analysis. The "fraction soluble in methanol" obtained from water-alkaline extracts contains sugar alcohols and organic acids, and is effective in dissolving the kidney stones. The "fraction insoluble in methanol" contains only sugar derivatives and it changes the morphology of the crystals, making them "jelly-like". Both fractions are potentially effective in kidney stone therapy.

  12. The expanded Hansen approach to solubility parameters. Paracetamol and citric acid in individual solvents.

    PubMed

    Barra, J; Lescure, F; Doelker, E; Bustamante, P

    1997-07-01

    In this study two solubility-parameter models have been compared using as dependent variables the logarithm of the mole fraction solubility, lnX2e, and ln(alpha)/U (originally used in the extended Hansen method), where alpha is the activity coefficient and U is a function of the molar volume of the solute and the volume fraction of the solvent. The results show for the first time the proton-donor and -acceptor hydrogen-bonding capacities of paracetamol, as measured by the acidic and basic partial-solubility parameters. The influence of solvents on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) pattern of the solid phases was also studied in relation to the solubility models tested. Citric acid was chosen as a test substance because of its high acidity and its proton donor capacity to form hydrogen bonds with basic solvents. The partial acidic and basic solubility parameters obtained from multiple regression were consistent with this property, validating the model chosen. The results show that the more direct lnX2e variable was more suitable for fitting both models, and the four-parameter model seemed better for describing the interactions between solvent and solute. PMID:9255705

  13. On the fractional solubility of copper in marine aerosols: Toxicity of aeolian copper revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.

    2010-10-01

    Paytan et al. (2009) argue that the atmospheric deposition of aerosols lead to copper concentrations that are potentially toxic to marine phytoplankton in a large area of tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. A key assumption in their model is that all marine aerosols (mineral dust and anthropogenic particles) have a high (40%) fractional solubility of copper. Our data show that the fractional solubility of copper for Saharan dust over the Sargasso Sea and Bermuda is significantly lower (1-7%). In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols with non-Saharan sources have significantly higher values (10-100%). Hence, the potential Cu toxicity in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic should be re-estimated, given the low fractional solubility of Cu in the Saharan dust that dominates aerosol deposition to this region.

  14. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  15. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

    2011-09-22

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  16. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  17. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products. PMID:26807704

  18. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products.

  19. Speciation and water soluble fraction of iron in aerosols from various sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient and has been identified as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. In the North Pacific, three sources of iron (Fe) transported via. atmosphere can be suggested: (i) mineral dust from East Asia, (ii) anthropogenic Fe, and (iii) aerosols from volcanic origin. Considering these different sources, Fe can be found and transported in a variety of chemical forms, both water-soluble and -insoluble. It is generally believed that only the soluble fraction of Fe can be considered as bioavailable for phytoplankton. To assess the biogeochemical impact of the atmospheric input, attempt was made to determine Fe species by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its water solubility, in particular to compare the three sources. Iron species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentration in aerosol collected at Tsukuba (Japan) through a year were investigated to compare the contributions of mineral dust and anthropogenic components. It was found that the concentration of soluble Fe in aerosol is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate which originate from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. XAS analysis showed that main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba were illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III) sulfate. Moreover, soluble Fe fraction is closely correlated with that of Fe(III) sulfate. In spite of supply of high concentrations of Fe in mineral dust from East Asia, it was found that anthropogenic fraction is important due to its high water solubility by the presence of Fe(III) sulfate. Marine aerosol samples originated from volcanic ash were collected in the western North Pacific during KH-08-2 cruise (August, 2008). XAS analysis suggested that Fe species of volcanic ashes changed during the long-range transport, while dissolution experiment showed that Fe solubility of the marine aerosol is larger than

  20. The removal of kaolinite suspensions by acid-soluble and water-soluble chitosans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Wu, Li-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This research compared the coagulant performance of acid-soluble chitosan with water-soluble chitosan and with coagulant mixtures of chitosan and aluminium sulfate (alum). We also assessed the coagulant performance of chitosan and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) to remove kaolinite from turbid water. In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies under different coagulant concentrations, degrees of turbidity (NTU) and pH levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants in order to illustrate major factors affecting kaolinite coagulation. The optimal concentrations of acid- versus water- soluble chitosan required to remove kaolinite from a 300 NTU suspension were 4.0 and 10.0 mg/l, respectively-with individual efficiencies of 79.3 and 92.4%, in that order. Optimum concentrations ofwater-soluble chitosan demonstrated a broader range than that of acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it is of note that chitosan/alum and chitosan/PAC water-soluble coagulant mixtures demonstrated much wider ranges of optimal concentrations for turbidity reduction than either alum or PAC alone. Moreover, our water-soluble chitosan coagulant mixtures produced denser floc with elevated settling velocities that favour cost savings relevant to both installation and operational expenses. Based on our observations of these noteworthy performances, we confidently propose that a coagulant mixture with a 1:1 mass ratio of chitosan and alum presents a remarkably more cost-effective alternative to the use of chitosan alone in water treatment systems. PMID:23530342

  1. Transformation of acidic poorly water soluble drugs into ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Balk, Anja; Wiest, Johannes; Widmer, Toni; Galli, Bruno; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    Poor water solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is a major challenge in drug development impairing bioavailability and therapeutic benefit. This study is addressing the possibility to tailor pharmaceutical and physical properties of APIs by transforming these into tetrabutylphosphonium (TBP) salts, including the generation of ionic liquids (IL). Therefore, poorly water soluble acidic APIs (Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Sulfadiazine, Sulfamethoxazole, and Tolbutamide) were converted into TBP ILs or low melting salts and compared to the corresponding sodium salts. Free acids and TBP salts were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, DSC and XRPD, DVS and dissolution rate measurements, release profiles, and saturation concentration measurements. TBP salts had lower melting points and glass transition temperatures and dissolution rates were improved up to a factor of 1000 as compared to the corresponding free acid. An increase in dissolution rates was at the expense of increased hygroscopicity. In conclusion, the creation of TBP ionic liquids or solid salts from APIs is a valuable concept addressing dissolution and solubility challenges of poorly water soluble acidic compounds. The data suggested that tailor-made counterions may substantially expand the formulation scientist's armamentarium to meet challenges of poorly water soluble drugs.

  2. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? < ??65Cu < 1???). These mineral samples show lower ??65Cu values than stream waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures

  3. Solubility of HOBr in Acidic Solution and Implications for Liberation of Halogens Via Aerosol Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Rammer, T. A.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Halogen species are known to catalytically destroy ozone in several regions of the atmosphere. In addition to direct catalytic losses, bromine compounds can indirectly enhance ozone loss through coupling to other radical families. Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species in the linkage of BrOx to ClOx and HOx. The aqueous- phase coupling reaction HOBr + HCI (right arrow) BrCl + H2O may provide a pathway for chlorine activation on sulfate aerosols at temperatures warmer than those required for polar stratospheric cloud formation. We have measured t h e solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol dm(exp -3) atm(exp -1). The expected inverse dependence of H* on temperature was observed, but only a weak dependence on acidity was found. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that equilibrium concentrations of HOBr could equal or exceed those of HBr in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols. Despite the high solubility of HOBr, aerosol volumes are not large enough to sequester a significant fraction of inorganic bromine from the gas phase. Our measurements of HOBr uptake in aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases show the evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2.

  4. Solubility calculations of branched and linear amino acids using lattice cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischlschweiger, Michael; Enders, Sabine; Zeiner, Tim

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the activity coefficients and the solubility of amino acids in water were calculated using the lattice cluster theory (LCT) combined with the extended chemical association lattice model allowing self-association as well as cross-association. This permits the study of the influence of the amino acids structure on the thermodynamic properties for the first time. By the used model, the activity coefficient and solubilities of the investigated fourteen amino acids (glycine, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, dl-valine, dl-threonine, dl-methionine, l-leucine, l-glutamic acid, l-proline, hydroxyproline, histidine, l-arginine, α-amino valeric acid) could be described in good accordance with experimental data. In the case of different α-amino acids, but different hydrocarbon chains, the same interaction energy parameter can be used within the LCT. All studied amino acids could be modelled using the same parameter for the description of the amino acid association properties. The formed cross-associates contain more amino acids than expressed by the overall mole fraction of the solution. Moreover, the composition of the cross-associates depends on temperature, where the amount of amino acids increases with increasing temperature.

  5. Carbon Isotope Fractionations Associated with Methanotrophic Growth with the Soluble and Particulate Methane Monooxygenases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Growth experiments with the RuMP-type methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), have demonstrated that biomass and lipid biomarkers are significantly depleted in C-13 compared to the substrate methane and that the extent of fractionation is dependent on whether cells express the soluble (s) or particulate (p) methane monooxygenase (MMO). The presence or absence of the characteristic sMMO subunits was monitored using SDS-polyacrylamide gels. In M. capsulatus grown with no Cu supplementation, the characteristic sMMO subunits were observed in the soluble fraction throughout the entire growth period and biomass was depleted in C-13 by approximately 14,700 relative to substrate methane. In cells grown with 5uM Cu, no sMMO bands were observed and a greater fractionation of approximately 27,700 in resultant biomass was obtained. Methanol growth experiments with M. capsulatus and with a RuMP methylotroph, Methylophilus methylotrophus, in which biomass measurements yielded depletions in C-13 of 9 and 5%(sub o), respectively, suggest that oxidation of methane is the major fractionation step. Growth of M. capsulatus at a low level of oxygen, approximately 0.5%, had no significant effect on carbon isotope fractionation by either sMMO or pMMO. These observations are significant for identification of molecular biomarkers; and methanotrophic contributions to carbon isotope composition in natural environments.

  6. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  7. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10

  8. The relationship between dissolved humic acids and soluble iron in estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Dissolved humic acid and soluble iron appear to be chemically unassociated in estuaries despite their coincident removal. This conclusion is supported by differences in the aggregation kinetics of soluble iron and dissolved humic acid, the inability of extracted humic acid to stabilize laboratory preparations of ferric hydroxide, and decreasing ratios of humic acid carbon to soluble iron along the axes of some estuaries.

  9. Precipitation diagrams and solubility of uric acid dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Ivančić, V.; Füredi-Milhofer, H.; Brown, W. E.; Gregory, T. M.

    1987-07-01

    The solubility of uric acid dihydrate (UA·2H 2O) and the precipitation of UA·2H 2O and anhydrous uric acid (UA) from solutions containing sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid have been investigated. For the solubility studies, crystals of pure UA·2H 2O were prepared and equilibrated with water and with solutions of HCl or NaOH for 60 min or 20 h, respectively. The equilibrium pH (pH = 2-6.25) and uric acid concentration were determined. For the precipitation experiments, commercial UA was dissolved in NaOH in a 1:1.1 molar ratio and UA·2H 2O and/or UA were precipitated with hydrochloric acid. The precipitates and/or supernatants were examined 24 h after sample preparation. The results are represented in the form of tables, precipitation diagrams and "chemical potential" diagrams. Solubility measurements with 60 min equilibration times yielded the solubility products of UA·2H 2O, K sp(298 K) = (0.926 ± 0.025) × 10 -9mol2dm-6 and K sp(310 K) = (2.25 ± 0.05) × 10 -9mol2dm-6 and the first dissociation constants of uric acid, K 1(298 K) = (2.45 ± 0.07) × 10 -6moldm-3 and K 1(310 K) = (3.63 ± 0.08) × 10 -6moldm-3. Precipitation diagrams show that under the given experimental conditions, at 298 K, UA·2H 2O is stable for 24 h while at 310 K this was true only for precipitates formed from solutions of high supersaturations. At lower supersaturations, mixtures of UA·2H 2O and UA formed. Consequently, while the Ksp value determined from precipitation data obtained at 298 K (K sp = 1.04 × 10 -9mol2dm-6) was consistent with the respective solubility product, the 310 K precipitation boundary yielded an ion activity product, AP, the value of which fulfills the conditions Ksp(UA) < AP < Ksp (UA·2H 2O). Similar ion activity products were obtained from solubility measurements in pure water at 20 h equilibration time.

  10. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HPβCD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one.

  11. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  12. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, Bryn E; Mathur, Ryan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Wall, A J; Runkel, R L; Brantley, Susan L

    2009-03-01

    We surveyed the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed located in southwestern Colorado, USA. The δ65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of local enargite (δ65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2σ) and chalcopyrite (δ65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the general range of previously reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ65Cu < 1). These mineral samples show lower δ65Cu values than stream waters (δ65Cu = 1.36 - 1.74 ± 0.10‰), with an average isotopic fractionation (quantified as Δaq-mino = δ65Cuaq – δ65Cu min, where Cuaq is leached Cu and Cu mino is the original mineral) of 1.60 ± 0.14‰ and 1.43 ± 0.14‰ for enargite and chalcopyrite, respectively.

  13. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  14. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ogali, Regina E; Osuji, Leo C; Ayodele, Olufemi

    2007-12-01

    Static tests were employed to assess the acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of spent automotive lubricating oil (of mixed SAE grades) on Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater fish commonly cultured in Nigeria. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the WSF were found to decrease as a function of exposure time from 690+/-21 (after 24 h) to 513+/-58 mg/l (after 96 h). The characteristics of the WSF such as mean acidity (pH 6.6), turbidity (40 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS; 40 mg/l) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) dissolved-oxygen (DO) values (1.44 mg/l) were not compliant with existing standards set for discharged effluents. The solubility of the detected straight-chain aliphatics ranked as C14>C16>C32>C18>C28; that of the simple aromatics was ortho-xylene>para-xylene; and that of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was acenaphthylene>9H-fluorene>naphthalene>anthracene>phenanthrene>chrysene>benzo[k]fluoranthene>benzo[a]pyrene>benzo[b]fluoranthene, most of which being serious carcinogens. These oil constituents and the overall physico-chemical properties of the WSF are expected to act synergistically on the test organism (C. gariepinus), eliciting the quantal responses observed. The toxicity of the WSF points to the base constituent, oxidative degradation, and mechano-chemical reactions associated with aged crankcase oils. These oils, therefore, should definitely no longer be disposed into water streams or landscape, not even at sub-lethal concentrations, because of the inherent toxicity of their soluble fractions and the associated danger of bioaccumulation. PMID:18081085

  15. Effect of maturity on digestion kinetics of water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions of alfalfa and brome hay.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, B; Pell, A N; Schofield, P

    1996-05-01

    Alfalfa and bromegrass, each harvested at five different stages of maturity, were separated into water-insoluble and -soluble fractions. The NDF concentrations ranged from 19 to 43% for alfalfa and from 42 to 58% for brome. The rates of digestion, by mixed ruminal microflora, of the unfractionated forage and of the water-insoluble and -soluble fractions were measured in vitro using pressure sensors to monitor gas production. Both forages showed the expected decline in fiber digestibility with increasing maturity. A dual-pool logistic model gave pool sizes, specific rates, and a single lag time for both the faster- and slower-digesting fractions. The main difference between alfalfa and brome was in the soluble pool. This pool produced approximately 40% of the total gas in alfalfa, 25% in brome. The specific digestion rates of the brome soluble pool were approximately 50% higher than those for alfalfa. Net VFA production showed a somewhat higher acetate: propionate ratio for brome (3.2) compared with alfalfa (2.2), but there was little change with increasing maturity within a given forage. Gas production curves for the unfractionated forage showed a 0 to 10% positive deviation from curves created by adding data from separate digestion of the insoluble and soluble forage fractions. Gas measurements offer a promising approach to the study of the water-soluble extracts of forages and the interaction of the soluble- and insoluble-fractions during fermentation.

  16. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  17. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages.

  18. Chemical composition of water-soluble fraction in soils on glaciolacustrine deposits of the Russian Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, E. G.; Oleinikova, G. A.; Matinyan, N. N.; Bakhmatova, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of some chemical elements was studied in soils and their liquid phase. Two reference soil profiles on glaciolacustrine clays (soddy-eluvial-metamorphic soil) and sands (soddy podzol) were investigated on the Russian Plain. A colloidal fraction (particles <1 μm) was isolated with deionized hot water from a soil sample of 30 g at the soil: water ratio of 1: 10. The suspension was mixed for 6 h, settled for 24 h, and filtrated using a membrane filter (<1 μm). The soil sample and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) were analyzed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The chemical characteristics of the extracted liquid phase of the soil reflect its water-soluble component properties. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of the analysis for the whole soil allows assessment of a share of easily mobile and difficultly mobile forms of chemical compounds. This is the necessary basis for the development of a model describing the transport of metals in soil.

  19. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. PMID:26070145

  20. Design of biodegradable nanoparticles: a novel approach to encapsulating poorly soluble phytochemical ellagic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, I.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hariharan, S.; Sitterberg, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

    2005-12-01

    Nanosizing of poorly water soluble drugs or incorporating them into nanoparticles to increase their solubility and thereby the bioavailability has become a favoured approach today. This work describes a novel method for encapsulating poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid that is also sparingly soluble/insoluble in routine solvents used to prepare nanoparticles.

  1. Comparison of a miniaturized shake-flask solubility method with automated potentiometric acid/base titrations and calculated solubilities.

    PubMed

    Glomme, A; März, J; Dressman, J B

    2005-01-01

    Solubility is one of the most important parameters for lead selection and optimization during drug discovery. Its determination should therefore take place as early as possible in the process. Because of the large numbers of compounds involved and the very low amounts of each compound available in the early development stage, it is highly desirable to measure the solubility with as little compound as possible and to be able to improve the throughput of the methods used. In this work, a miniaturized shake-flask method was developed and the solubility results were compared with those measured by semiautomated potentiometric acid/base titrations and computational methods for 21 poorly soluble compounds with solubilities mostly in the range 0.03-30 microg/mL. The potentiometric method is very economical (approximately 100 microg of a poorly soluble compound is needed) and is able to create a pH/solubility profile with one single determination, but is limited to ionizable compounds. The miniaturized shake-flask method can be used for all compounds and a wide variety of media. Its precision and throughput proved superior to the potentiometric method for very poorly soluble compounds. Up to 20 compounds a week can be studied with one set-up. Calculated solubility data seem to be sufficient for a first estimate of the solubility, but they cannot currently be used as a substitute for experimental measurements at key decision points in the development process.

  2. Fractional iron solubility of aerosol particles enhanced by biomass burning and ship emission in Shanghai, East China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H B; Shang, G F; Lin, J; Hu, Y J; Hu, Q Q; Guo, L; Zhang, Y C; Chen, J M

    2014-05-15

    In terms of understanding Fe mobilization from aerosol particles in East China, the PM2.5 particles were collected in spring at Shanghai. Combined with the backtrajectory analysis, the PM2.5/PM10 and Ca/Al ratios, a serious dust-storm episode (DSE) during the sampling was identified. The single-particle analysis showed that the major iron-bearing class is the aluminosilicate dust during DSE, while the Fe-bearing aerosols are dominated by coal fly ash, followed by a minority of iron oxides during the non-dust storm days (NDS). Chemical analyses of samples showed that the fractional Fe solubility (%FeS) is much higher during NDS than that during DSE, and a strong inverse relationship of R(2)=0.967 between %FeS and total atmospheric iron loading were found, suggested that total Fe (FeT) is not controlling soluble Fe (FeS) during the sampling. Furthermore, no relationship between FeS and any of acidic species was established, suggesting that acidic process on aerosol surfaces are not involved in the trend of iron solubility. It was thus proposed that the source-dependent composition of aerosol particles is a primary determinant for %FeS. Specially, the Al/Fe ratio is poorly correlated (R(2)=0.113) with %FeS, while the apparent relationship between %FeS and the calculated KBB(+)/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.888) and the V/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.736) were observed, reflecting that %FeS could be controlled by both biomass burning and oil ash from ship emission, rather than mineral particles and coal fly ash, although the latter two are the main contributors to the atmospheric Fe loading during the sampling. Such information can be useful improving our understanding on iron solubility on East China, which may further correlate with iron bioavailability to the ocean, as well as human health effects associated with exposure to fine Fe-rich particles in densely populated metropolis in China. PMID:24607631

  3. Fractional iron solubility of aerosol particles enhanced by biomass burning and ship emission in Shanghai, East China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H B; Shang, G F; Lin, J; Hu, Y J; Hu, Q Q; Guo, L; Zhang, Y C; Chen, J M

    2014-05-15

    In terms of understanding Fe mobilization from aerosol particles in East China, the PM2.5 particles were collected in spring at Shanghai. Combined with the backtrajectory analysis, the PM2.5/PM10 and Ca/Al ratios, a serious dust-storm episode (DSE) during the sampling was identified. The single-particle analysis showed that the major iron-bearing class is the aluminosilicate dust during DSE, while the Fe-bearing aerosols are dominated by coal fly ash, followed by a minority of iron oxides during the non-dust storm days (NDS). Chemical analyses of samples showed that the fractional Fe solubility (%FeS) is much higher during NDS than that during DSE, and a strong inverse relationship of R(2)=0.967 between %FeS and total atmospheric iron loading were found, suggested that total Fe (FeT) is not controlling soluble Fe (FeS) during the sampling. Furthermore, no relationship between FeS and any of acidic species was established, suggesting that acidic process on aerosol surfaces are not involved in the trend of iron solubility. It was thus proposed that the source-dependent composition of aerosol particles is a primary determinant for %FeS. Specially, the Al/Fe ratio is poorly correlated (R(2)=0.113) with %FeS, while the apparent relationship between %FeS and the calculated KBB(+)/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.888) and the V/Fe ratio (R(2)=0.736) were observed, reflecting that %FeS could be controlled by both biomass burning and oil ash from ship emission, rather than mineral particles and coal fly ash, although the latter two are the main contributors to the atmospheric Fe loading during the sampling. Such information can be useful improving our understanding on iron solubility on East China, which may further correlate with iron bioavailability to the ocean, as well as human health effects associated with exposure to fine Fe-rich particles in densely populated metropolis in China.

  4. Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Shulaev, V.; Yalpani, N.

    1995-10-24

    Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) catalyzes the biosynthesis of salicylic acid from benzoic acid. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized as a soluble protein of 160 kDa. High-efficiency in vivo labeling of salicyclic acid with {sup 18}O{sub 2} suggested that BA2H is an oxygenase that specifically hydroxylates the ortho position of benzoic acid. The enzyme was strongly induced by either tobacco mosaic virus inoculation of benzoic acid infiltration of tobacco leaves and it was inhibited by CO and other inhibitors of cytochrome P450 hydroxylases. The BA2H activity was immunodepleted by antibodies raised against SU2, a soluble cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseolus. The anti-SU2 antibodies immunoprecipitated a radiolabeled polypeptide of around 160 kDa from the soluble protein extracts of L-[{sup 35}S]-methionine-fed tobacco leaves. Purified BA2H showed CO-difference spectra with a maximum at 457 nm. These data suggest that BA2H belongs to a novel class of soluble, high molecular weight cytochrome P450 enzymes. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays.

  6. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  7. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  8. Spreadsheet Techniques for Evaluating the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts of Weak Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinón, José L.; García-Antón, José; Pérez-Herranz, Valentín

    1999-08-01

    A spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel for determining the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is described. The chart and worksheet are shown simultaneously on the screen. The worksheet can be used for any salt by merely changing the data for the solubility product constant and ionization constants. Practical examples of calculations are given and discussed.

  9. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  10. Improvement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble salicylic acid by a spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Y; Saito, M; Takenaka, H

    1975-01-01

    Spray drying techniques have been applied to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble salicylic acid. Spray drying of the acid dispersed in acacia solutions resulted in as much as a 50% improvement in the solubility of the product. Solubility improvement was closely related not only to the concentration of acacia but also the amount of amorphous material in the spray-dried products. The heat of solution was inversely related to these parameters. The dissolution rate of spray-dried product was almost instantaneous being about 60 times faster than that of the original powder. A great improvement in the wettability of the spray-dried material seemed to be mainly responsible for the increase of dissolution rate.

  11. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. PMID:27351340

  12. Partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural fractions of adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural framework fractions of human cells infected or transformed by subgroup C adenoviruses was investigated by using gentle cell fractionation conditions. A polyclonal antibody raised against a trpE-E1A fusion protein (K.R. Spindler, D.S.E. Rosser, and A. J. Berk, J. Virol. 132-141, 1984) synthesized in Escherichia coli was used to measure the steady-state levels of E1A proteins recovered in the various fractions by immunoblotting. The relative concentration of E1A proteins recovered in the soluble fraction of adenovirus type 2-infected cells was at least fivefold greater than the relative concentration in the corresponding fraction of transformed 293 cells. The observed distribution of E1A proteins was not altered by the sulfhydryl-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide. E1A proteins were recovered in nuclear matrix, chromatin, and cytoskeleton fractions after further fractionation of the structural framework fraction. However, the E1A protein species that could be identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis were not uniformly distributed among the subcellular fractions examined. The results obtained when fractionation was performed in the presence of the oxidation catalysts Cu2+ or (ortho-phenanthroline)2 Cu2+ indicate that E1A proteins can be efficiently cross-linked, via disulfide bonds, to the structural framework of both adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. Images PMID:3023654

  13. Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

  14. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  15. Proteomic analysis of the soluble and the lysosomal+mitochondrial fractions from rat pancreas: Implications for cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Violeta; Sánchez-Bernal, Carmen; Sarmiento, Nancy; Viana, Raúl A; Ferreira, Laura; Pérez, Nieves; Calvo, José J; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús

    2012-09-01

    Alterations in protein expression within the initiation phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) might play an important role in the development of this disease, lysosomes being involved in its pathophysiology. The use of pancreatic subcellular fractions in proteomic analysis, simplifies protein maps and helps in the identification of new protein changes and biomarkers characterizing tissue damage. The present study aims to determine the differentially expressed acidic proteins in the pancreatic soluble and lysosomal+mitochondrial (L+M) fractions from rats during the early phase of the experimental model of cerulein (Cer)-induced AP. Subcellular pancreatic extracts from diseased and control rats were analyzed by 2-DE (3-5.6 pH range) and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Comparative analysis afforded the conclusive identification of 13 (soluble fraction) and 7 (L+M fraction) proteins or protein fragments occuring in different amounts between diseased and control pancreas, some of them being newly described in AP. In the soluble fraction, we detected changes related to inflammation and apoptosis (α1-inhibitor-3, α-1 antitrypsin, α-1 macroglobulin, haptoglobin, STRAP), oxidative stress and stress response (peroxiredoxin-2, thioredoxin-like 1, GRP94/TRA1, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein), digestive proteases (elastase 3B), serine protease inhibition (serpins B6 and A3L) and translation processes (EF 1-δ). In the L+M fraction, we detected changes mainly related to energy generation or cellular metabolism (ATP synthase β subunit, chymotrypsinogen B, triacylglycerol lipase), cell redox homeostasis (iodothyronine 5´monodeiodinase) and digestive proteases (carboxypeptidase B1). The data should provide valuable information for unraveling the early pathophysiologic mechanisms of Cer-induced AP. PMID:22713802

  16. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  18. The effects of acid treatment and calcium ions on the solubility of concanavalin A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment (which removes Mn and Ca ions) and Ca(2+) ions on the solubility of jack-bean-meal concanavalin A were investigated using two techniques: the sitting drop technique and the microcolumn technique. It was found that the solubility of concanavalin A varied with the protein preparation procedures and with measurement techniques. Addition of Ca(2+) resulted in greatly lowered solubilities compared with the acid treated protein. The sitting drop solubilities for the recalcified protein agreed better with those reported by Mikol and Giege (1989) than with solubilities determined from column data.

  19. Digestion of FMRFamide and nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (nematode FLPs) by the soluble fraction from Panagrellus redivivus homogenate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases in the soluble fraction of homogenates prepared from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus hydrolyzed the amidated invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFa and FLRFa, and nematode FMRFa-like peptides (FLPs) KPNFLRFa (FLP-1), APKPKFIRFa (FLP-5), KNEFIRFa (FLP-8), KPSFVRFa (FLP-9), RNKFEFIR...

  20. The effects of water-soluble fractions of oil on reproduction in the female Atlantic croaker

    SciTech Connect

    Budiantara, L.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Female Atlantic croaker were exposed to 2.5% and 5% water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of diesel fuel during gonadal recrudescence. Dosing with freshly prepared WSFs was repeated every two days. Exposure was terminated after 5 or 1 0 weeks when control fish were either at early or late gonadal recrudescence. Chronic oil exposure did not affect the condition factor; however, reproductive function was clearly impaired. Puberty was delayed or prevented with oil exposure. ovarian growth as indicated by gonadosomatic index was also decreased. Incubation of endocrine tissue in vitro revealed decreases in the secretion of gonadotropin and ovarian steroids, which were associated with decreases in plasma steroid and vitellogenin levels. In addition, there was a decrease in the ability of the fully grown oocytes from exposed fish to undergo final oocyte maturation (FOM). Exposure to a WSF with low concentration of aromatics impaired reproduction to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that oil exposure causes impairment of reproduction in croaker at various stages of the reproductive life history cycle which is at least partially mediated by effects on the endocrine system.

  1. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays. PMID:24898412

  2. The Solubility of Xenon in Simple Organic Solvents and in Aqueous Amino Acid Solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himm, Jeffrey Frank

    We have measured the Ostwald solubility (L) of ('133)Xe in a variety of liquids, including normal alkanes, normal alkanols, and aqueous solutions of amino acids, NaCl, and sucrose. For the alkanes and alkanols, measurements were made in the temperature range from 10-50(DEGREES)C. Values of L were found to decrease with increasing temperature, and also with increasing chain length, for both series of solvents. Thermodynamic properties of solution (enthalpy and entropy of solution) are calculated using both mole fraction and number density scales. Results are interpreted using Uhlig's model of the solvation process. Measurements of L in aqueous amino acid solutions were made at 25(DEGREES)C. Concentrations of amino acids in solution varied from near saturation for each of the amino acids studied to pure water. In all solutions, except those with NaCl, L decreases linearly with increasing solution molarity. Hydration numbers (H), the mean number of water molecules associated with each solute molecule, were determined for each amino acid, for NaCl, and for sucrose. Values of H obtained ranged from near zero (arginine, H = 0.2 (+OR-) 0.5) to about 16 (NaCl, H = 16.25 (+OR-) 0.3).

  3. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  4. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Døving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior.

  5. Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water: 1. Isolation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions with a XAD-8 resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Amy P.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-03-01

    Group separation of the aqueous extract of fine particles bearing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) provides unique insights into the sources of organic carbon (OC). XAD-8 resin coupled with a Total Organic Carbon analyzer allows for direct quantification. We term the fraction of WSOC not retained by a XAD-8 resin column at pH 2 as hydrophilic WSOC (WSOCxp); this includes saccharides, amines, and carbonyls and aliphatic monocarboxylic/dicarboxylic/oxocarboxylic acids with less than 4 or 5 carbons. The fraction of WSOC retained by XAD-8, termed the hydrophobic fraction (WSOCxr), include aromatic acids, phenols, organic nitrates, cyclic acids, and carbonyls and monocarboxylic/dicarboxylic acids with greater than 3 or 4 carbons. However, only aromatic compounds (or aromatic-like compounds with similar properties) can subsequently be extracted from XAD-8 with high efficiency. By coupling a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler with this technique, online measurements of WSOC, WSOCxp, and WSOCxr are possible. Urban measurements from St. Louis and Atlanta, on a carbon mass basis, show an increase in the mean WSOC fraction from winter (51%) to summer (61%), due to increases in the WSOCxp/OC from 0.25 to 0.35. During a summer Atlanta PM event, WSOC to OC was 0.75, driven largely by increases in the WSOCxp. The results are consistent with the view that in the summer, there are increased amounts of oxygenated polar compounds, possibly from secondary organic aerosol production, and that these compounds account for an even larger fraction of OC during stagnation events. A companion paper describes a method to further group speciate these XAD-8 isolated fractions.

  6. Acid-base properties of water-soluble organic matter of forest soils, studied by the pK-spectroscopy method.

    PubMed

    Shamrikova, E V; Ryazanov, M A; Vanchikova, E V

    2006-11-01

    Using the potentiometric titration and pK spectroscopy method, acid-base properties of water-soluble organic matter of forest soils have been studied. Five acidic classes composed of different substances with pK(a) values around 3.6; 4.8; 6.7; 8.7 and 9.7 have been identified. Testing the properties of soluble soil fraction, it is to be taken into account that when it is isolated from non-soluble soil matter, some water-soluble substances remain in soil and do not pass into the solution. Most firmly adsorbed in soil are water-soluble components with pK(a) 9.6-9.8.

  7. Biomarker responses in the bivalve Chlamys farreri to the water-soluble fraction of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fenghua; Zhang, Li; Yang, Baijuan; Zheng, Li; Sun, Chengjun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on marine bivalves, the scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to three WSF concentrations (0.18 mg/L, 0.32 mg/L, and 0.51 mg/L, respectively) in seawater. Petroleum hydrocarbon contents in scallops and a suite of enzymes [7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in gills and digestive glands were monitored over 10 days. The results revealed that WSF affected the activity of the four enzymes in the gills and digestive glands. EROD activity in the gills was significantly induced in most individuals of the three test groups, while in the digestive gland it was significantly induced in the low-concentration group within 4 days but was inhibited in the middle- and high-concentration groups on days 1, 4, and 10. AHH activity in the gills of all treatment groups was significantly induced on day 1. In the digestive gland, AHH activity was induced in most individuals from the treatment groups. In all treatment groups, GST activity was significantly inhibited from days 2 to 10 in the gills and was induced after day 4 in the digestive gland. GPx activity in the gills was significantly inhibited throughout the exposure period in all treatment groups. There was no overall significant difference in GPx activity in the digestive gland between the control and treatment groups. Our results also revealed that petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues increased linearly with exposure time. EROD activity in the digestive gland and GST and GPx activity in the gill tissue were negatively correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon body burden. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification and can act as potential biomarkers for monitoring petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment.

  8. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination.

  9. Atmospheric transport of mineral dust from the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Temporal variability, acid processing, and iron solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M. M.; Rengarajan, R.

    2014-08-01

    transport of chemical constituents from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal is a conspicuous seasonal feature that occurs during the late NE-monsoon (December-March). With this perspective, aerosol composition and abundance of mineral dust have been studied during November 2009 to March 2010 from a sampling site (Kharagpur: 22.3°N, 87.3°E) in the IGP, representing the atmospheric outflow to the Bay of Bengal. The chemical composition of PM2.5 suggests the dominance of nss-SO42- (6.9-24.3 µg m-3); whereas the abundance of mineral dust varied from 3 to 18 µg m-3. The concentration of aerosol iron (FeTot) and its fractional solubility (Fews % = Fews/FeTot *100, where Fews is the water-soluble fraction of FeTot) varied from 60 to 1144 ng m-3 and from 6.7 to 26.5%, respectively. A striking similarity in the temporal variability of total inorganic acidity (TIA = NO3- + nss-SO42-) and Fews (%) provides evidence for acid processing of mineral dust (alluvium) during atmospheric transport from the IGP. The contribution of TIA to water-soluble inorganic species [(nss-SO42- + NO3-)/ΣWSIS], mass ratios of Ca/Al and Fe/Al, and abundance of dust (%) and Fews (%) in the IGP-outflow are similar to the aerosol composition over the Bay of Bengal. With the rapid increase in anthropogenic activities over south and south-east Asia, the enhanced fractional solubility of aerosol iron (attributed to acid processing of mineral dust) has implications to further increase in the air-sea deposition of Fe to the Ocean surface.

  10. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  11. Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M.; Wirth, S.; Ellerbrock, R.; Sommer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Michael Kaiser1, Stephan Wirth2, Ruth H. Ellerbrock3, Michael Sommer3,4 1University of California Merced, Natural Science, 4225 N. Hospital Rd., Atwater, CA 95301 2,3 Leibniz-Center for Agricultural Research (ZALF) e. V. 2 Institute of Landscape Matter Dynamics 3 Institute of Soil Landscape Research Eberswalder Str. 84, D-15374 Muencheberg, Germany 4University of Potsdam, Institute of Geoecology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) accounts for roughly half of CO2 evolution from vegetated soil surfaces and plays a crucial role in the ability of soil to mitigate the greenhouse effect. The separation and identification of labile (i.e., easily decomposable) organic matter (OM) fractions from bulk SOM is of particular importance for a mechanistic understanding of microbial decomposition processes and for predicting the response of SOM to changes in land use, management, and climate. This work aimed to reveal differences in the relevance of particulate as well as water-soluble organic matter (OM) fractions from topsoils to the easily biodegradable soil organic matter (SOM). We selected eight paired sites with quite different soil types (Udorthent, Paleudalf, Glossudalf, Aquept, Hapludalf, Aquert, Udert, Haplorthod) and soil properties (e.g., clay content: 28 to 564 g kg-1). For each of these sites, we took samples from adjacent arable and forest topsoils. Physically uncomplexed, macro-, and micro-aggregate-occluded organic particle, as well as water-soluble OM fractions were sequentially separated by a combination of electrostatic attraction, ultrasonic treatment, density separation, sieving, and water extraction. The easily biodegradable SOM of the topsoil samples was determined by measuring microbial respiration during a short-term incubation

  12. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-01

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  13. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0more » MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.« less

  14. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.

  15. Interconnection between the protein solubility and amino acid and dipeptide compositions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaohui; Li, Nana; Chen, Dinyan; Wang, Zengzhen

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining soluble proteins in sufficient concentrations helps increase the overall success rate in various experimental studies. Protein solubility is an individual trait ultimately determined by its primary protein sequence. Exploring the interconnection between the protein solubility and the compositions of protein sequence is instrumental for setting priorities on targets in large scale proteomics projects. In this paper, amino acid composition (20 dimensions) and the dipeptide composition (400 dimensions) were extracted to form the total candidate feature pool (420 dimensions), and each feature was selected into the feature vectors one by one, which were sorted by the absolute value of the correlation coefficient. Finally, we evaluated and recorded the 420 results of Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the prediction engine. According to the results of SVM, the first 208 features were chosen from the 420 dimensions, which were considered as the efficient ones. By analyzing the composition of the former 208 features, we found that the protein solubility was significantly influenced by the occurrence frequencies of the acidic amino acids, basic amino acids, non-polar hydrophobic amino acids and the two polar neutral amino acids(C, Q) in the protein sequences. Additionally, we detected that the dipeptides composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E) and basic amino acids (K, R and H), especially the dipeptide composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E), had strong interconnection with the protein solubility.

  16. Manganese ore tailing: optimization of acid leaching conditions and recovery of soluble manganese.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olívia de Souza Heleno; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Silva, Gilmare Antônia da; Santos, Cláudio Gouvêa Dos

    2015-01-01

    Manganese recovery from industrial ore processing waste by means of leaching with sulfuric acid was the objective of this study. Experimental conditions were optimized by multivariate experimental design approaches. In order to study the factors affecting leaching, a screening step was used involving a full factorial design with central point for three variables in two levels (2(3)). The three variables studied were leaching time, concentration of sulfuric acid and sample amount. The three factors screened were shown to be relevant and therefore a Doehlert design was applied to determine the best working conditions for leaching and to build the response surface. By applying the best leaching conditions, the concentrations of 12.80 and 13.64 %w/w of manganese for the global sample and for the fraction -44 + 37 μm, respectively, were found. Microbeads of chitosan were tested for removal of leachate acidity and recovering of soluble manganese. Manganese recovery from the leachate was 95.4%. Upon drying the leachate, a solid containing mostly manganese sulfate was obtained, showing that the proposed optimized method is efficient for manganese recovery from ore tailings.

  17. Sources of polycyclic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soluble fraction of deposition samples in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Binici, Burcu; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil; Bilsel, Mine; Durmaz-Hilmioğlu, Nilüfer

    2014-02-01

    A wet-dry deposition sampler was located at The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK-UME) station, and a bulk deposition sampler was placed at the Kadıllı village to determine the atmospheric deposition flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphorus) in soluble fraction of samples in Kocaeli, Turkey. The 28 samples for each wet, dry, and total deposition were collected weekly from March 2006 to March 2007. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the samples which were prepared by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. The sum of volume weighted mean of deposition fluxes was obtained as 7.43 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 0.28 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition and 0.54 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for PAHs and 9.88 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 4.49 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition, and 3.29 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for pesticides. While benzo(a)anthracene had the highest fluxes among PAH compounds for all types of depositions, guthion and phosphamidon had the highest deposition flux compared with the other pesticides. Benzo(ghi)perylene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and acenaphthene were not detected in any of the samples. Beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endrin aldehyde were the only compounds among 18 organochlorine pesticides to be detected in all deposition samples. The main sources of pesticides were the high number of greenhouses around the sampling stations. However, all of the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all deposition samples. The pollution sources were identified as coal and natural gas combustion, petrogenic sources, and traffic for TUBITAK-UME station whereas coal and natural gas combustion and traffic were the main sources for Kadıllı station by considering the results of factor analysis, ratios, and wind

  18. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  1. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  2. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided. PMID:27258903

  3. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided.

  4. Thermodynamic Solubility Profile of Carbamazepine-Cinnamic Acid Cocrystal at Different pH.

    PubMed

    Keramatnia, Fatemeh; Shayanfar, Ali; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-08-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystal formation is a direct way to dramatically influence physicochemical properties of drug substances, especially their solubility and dissolution rate. Because of their instability in the solution, thermodynamic solubility of cocrystals could not be determined in the common way like other compounds; therefore, the thermodynamic solubility is calculated through concentration of their components in the eutectic point. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of an ionizable coformer in cocrystal with a nonionizable drug at different pH. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a nonionizable drug with cinnamic acid (CIN), which is an acidic coformer, was selected to prepare CBZ-CIN cocrystal and its thermodynamic solubility was studied in pH range 2-7. Instead of HPLC that is a costly and time-consuming method, a chemometric-based approach, net analyte signal standard addition method, was selected for simultaneous determination of CBZ and CIN in solution. The result showed that, as pH increases, CIN ionization leads to change in CBZ-CIN cocrystal solubility and stability in solution. In addition, the results of this study indicated that there is no significant difference between intrinsic solubility of CBZ and cocrystal despite the higher ideal solubility of cocrystal. This verifies that ideal solubility is not good parameter to predict cocrystal solubility.

  5. Understanding Particle Formation: Solubility of Free Fatty Acids as Polysorbate 20 Degradation Byproducts in Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Formulations.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Nidhi; Demeule, Barthélemy; Yadav, Sandeep

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the aqueous solubilities at 2-8 °C of the major free fatty acids (FFAs) formed by polysorbate 20 (PS20) degradation and identify possible ways to predict, delay, or mitigate subsequent particle formation in monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations. The FFA solubility limits at 2-8 °C were determined by titrating known amounts of FFA in monoclonal antibody formulations and identifying the FFA concentration leading to visible and subvisible particle formation. The solubility limits of lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids at 2-8 °C were 17 ± 1 μg/mL, 3 ± 1 μg/mL, and 1.5 ± 0.5 μg/mL in a formulation containing 0.04% (w/v) PS20 at pH 5.4 and >22 μg/mL, 3 ± 1 μg/mL, and 0.75 ± 0.25 μg/mL in a formulation containing 0.02% (w/v) PS20 at pH 6.0. For the first time, a 3D correlation between FFA solubility, PS20 concentration, and pH has been reported providing a rational approach for the formulator to balance these with regard to potential particle formation. The results suggest that the lower solubilities of the longer chain FFAs, generated from degradation of the stearate, palmitate, and myristate fraction of PS20, is the primary cause of seeding and subsequent FFA precipitation rather than the most abundant lauric acid. PMID:26419285

  6. Structure-property relationships in halogenbenzoic acids: Thermodynamics of sublimation, fusion, vaporization and solubility.

    PubMed

    Zherikova, Kseniya V; Svetlov, Aleksey A; Kuratieva, Natalia V; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2016-10-01

    Temperature dependences of vapor pressures for 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobenzoic acid, as well as for five isomeric bromo-methylbenzoic acids were studied by the transpiration method. Melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion for all isomeric bromo-methylbenzoic acids and 4-bromobenzoic acid were measured with a DSC. The molar enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. These data together with results available in the literature were collected and checked for internal consistency using a group-additivity procedure and results from X-ray structural diffraction studies. Specific (hydrogen bonding) interactions in the liquid and in the crystal phase of halogenbenzoic acids were quantified based on experimental values of vaporization and sublimation enthalpies. Structure-property correlations of solubilities of halogenobenzoic acids with sublimation pressures and sublimation enthalpies were developed and solubilities of bromo-benzoic acids were estimated. These new results resolve much of the ambiguity in the available thermochemical and solubility data on bromobenzoic acids. The approach based on structure property correlations can be applied for the assessment of water solubility of sparingly soluble drugs. PMID:27424058

  7. Upgrading of residues of bracts, stems and hearts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus to functional fractions enriched in soluble fiber.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-03-01

    Since only the central portion of the immature flowers of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is consumed (<20%) it is interesting to upgrade its residues to render value added products. In this research, bracts (B), hearts (H) or stems (S) were used to isolate fractions enriched in soluble fiber. Extraction was performed in citrate buffer with or without hemicellulase. Additionally, the effect of preheating (70 °C - 5 min) prior to extraction was also tested. Polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol and the fractions obtained were freeze-dried. The presence of the enzyme increased fiber yields and preheating produced an additional increment, especially from stems (≈21%). Isolated fibers were constituted by 70-84% of carbohydrates and 2-25% of proteins, and contained phenolics (2.1-8.2 g/100 g). Carbohydrates included uronic acids (12-25%) and neutral sugars (NS, 4-55%) of pectins, and inulin (13-55%). The lowest protein and NS contents and the highest inulin content were obtained with the enzyme and preheating. The behavior of fractions isolated with higher yields was characterized, observing a pseudoplastic behavior in water and gelation with Ca(2+). They also showed antioxidant activity and an inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 without cytotoxicity. The isolated fractions retaining bioactive compounds can be useful as functional food ingredients. PMID:24481481

  8. Upgrading of residues of bracts, stems and hearts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus to functional fractions enriched in soluble fiber.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-03-01

    Since only the central portion of the immature flowers of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is consumed (<20%) it is interesting to upgrade its residues to render value added products. In this research, bracts (B), hearts (H) or stems (S) were used to isolate fractions enriched in soluble fiber. Extraction was performed in citrate buffer with or without hemicellulase. Additionally, the effect of preheating (70 °C - 5 min) prior to extraction was also tested. Polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol and the fractions obtained were freeze-dried. The presence of the enzyme increased fiber yields and preheating produced an additional increment, especially from stems (≈21%). Isolated fibers were constituted by 70-84% of carbohydrates and 2-25% of proteins, and contained phenolics (2.1-8.2 g/100 g). Carbohydrates included uronic acids (12-25%) and neutral sugars (NS, 4-55%) of pectins, and inulin (13-55%). The lowest protein and NS contents and the highest inulin content were obtained with the enzyme and preheating. The behavior of fractions isolated with higher yields was characterized, observing a pseudoplastic behavior in water and gelation with Ca(2+). They also showed antioxidant activity and an inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 without cytotoxicity. The isolated fractions retaining bioactive compounds can be useful as functional food ingredients.

  9. Studies on the antioxidant potential of flavones of Allium vineale isolated from its water-soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Ibrahim; Erenler, Ramazan; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Goktasoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the chemical constituents and antioxidant potential of water-soluble fractions from the commonly consumed vegetable, Allium vineale. The water-soluble fraction, containing phenolic compounds, was extracted with ethyl acetate to obtain flavonoids which were separated and purified by repeated column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20, RP C18 and silica gel. The isolated compounds were identified according to their physicochemical properties and spectral data (UV, HPLC-TOF/MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and 2D NMR). Three flavonoids were isolated and identified as chrysoeriol-7-O-[2″-O-E-feruloyl]-β-d-glucoside (1), chrysoeriol (2), and isorhamnetin-3-β-d-glucoside (3). Antioxidant studies of the aqueous extract and three isolated compounds, 1, 2, 3, were undertaken and they were found to have significant antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by the ferric thiocyanate method, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) metal chelating activity, and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity. The water-soluble ethyl acetate and methanol extraction methods were also compared using HPLC-TOF/MS. PMID:23017389

  10. Determining the Δ47 acid fractionation in dolomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Sean T.; Arienzo, Monica M.; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the fractionation of Δ47 during the digestion of dolomite in phosphoric acid between 25 °C and 90 °C using five different samples, including three of Pliocene age from the Bahamas, one from the Jurassic in the Middle East, and one obtained from the National Institute of Standards (NIST 88b). The composition of the dolomites analyzed varied from Ca0.56Mg0.44CO3 to Ca0.50Mg0.50CO3. Fractionation values were also compared between the common acid bath and sealed vessel techniques at various temperatures. No statistically significant differences were observed either between these two methods or as a function of the dolomite's stoichiometry. These data produce a difference in fractionation of 0.153 ± 0.011‰ for dolomite samples digested at 90 °C compared to those reacted at 25 °C, a value higher and statistically different to previously published values. Utilization of this value in a study of dolomites from a core drilled on the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas yielded temperatures and δ18Ofluid values which agree with previous interpretations on the formation of these dolomites. Application of this value to other published studies produces lower estimates of temperature and δ18Ofluid values for the dolomitization process that are more consistent with the geologic models suggested for these studies.

  11. Efficient synthesis of readily water-soluble sulfonic Acid carbamates.

    PubMed

    Idzik, Krzysztof R; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias

    2015-04-16

    A series of various readily water-soluble carbamates were synthesized with good yields. These compounds are useful chemical tracers for assessing the cooling progress in a georeservoir during geothermal power plant operation. Acylation of primary amines was carried out as well as using a solution of sodium bicarbonate and without the presence of salt. Products were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Purity was confirmed through elemental analysis.

  12. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

  13. Solubility determination of TNT and wax and their fractionation from an explosive material using a supercritical fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M.; Taylor, L.T.

    1999-12-01

    The solubilities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and wax have been measured in supercritical carbon dioxide (Co{sub 2}) at three pressures and temperatures under static conditions. The concentrations of each component were determined off-line via ultraviolet (TNT) and evaporative light scattering (wax) detection. The solubility of TNT was an order of magnitude higher than that of wax. Gas chromatographic assay of the wax extract revealed that only the lower molecular weight components dissolved. Fractionation of the TNT and wax from an explosive material referred to as Composition B was attempted by making incremental increases in CO{sub 2} density. Composition B contains 59.5% cyclotrimethylene triamine (RDX), 39.5% TNT, and 1% wax. While TNT and Wax could be easily isolated from nitramine TDX, attempts to separate TNT from wax were not totally successful. More specifically, the initial fractions contained the lower molecular weight wax components in addition to major amounts of TNT. Since the percentage of TNT was approximately 50 times the amount of wax, later fractions were 100% TNT although most of the TNT was removed at the lower densities.

  14. Short communication: Identification of the aroma compounds responsible for the floral/rose flavor in water-soluble fractions of Manchego cheese.

    PubMed

    López Soto-Yarritu, P; Amigo, L; Taborda, G; Martínez-Castro, I; Gómez-Ruiz, J A

    2007-11-01

    Water-soluble fractions from Protected Denomination of Origin Manchego cheese, with molecular weight <1,000 Da, were fractionated using gel permeation chromatography and studied using both instrumental and sensorial analysis. In 2 of the fractions, panelists detected a floral, rose-like flavor. Analysis of these fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after simultaneous distillation extraction with dichloromethane identified 2-phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde as the compounds responsible for this flavor. PMID:17954738

  15. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability

    PubMed Central

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Background The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410263

  16. Effects of the water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the cytokinesis of the quahog clam

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of petroleum and petroleum products on the embryonic and larval stages of marine zooplankton have been studied extensively over the past decade. Research has concluded that these stages are among the most sensitive to petroleum pollution in the marine environment. However, one of the areas of toxicological study which has received little attention has been that of the distortions of cellular components within the developing stages of the marine zooplankton in response to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of this report is to examine the cytokinetic effects of exposure of the water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the embryonic development of the quahog clam Mercenaria mercenaria.

  17. Multicomponent complex formation between vinpocetine, cyclodextrins, tartaric acid and water-soluble polymers monitored by NMR and solubility studies.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Laura; Carvalho, Rui A; Ferreira, Domingos C; Veiga, Francisco J B

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with multicomponent complex formation of vinpocetine (VP) with beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD), sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBEbetaCD) and tartaric acid (TA), in the presence or absence of water-soluble polymers, in aqueous solution. Complexation was monitored by phase-solubility and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) studies. TA demonstrated a synergistic effect on VP solubility, and in the complexation efficiency of betaCD and SBEbetaCD. Additionally, water-soluble polymers increased even more the complexation efficiency of the CDs that was reflected by a 2.1-2.5 increase on K(C) values for VP-CD-TA-polymer multicomponent complexes. SBEbetaCD was more effective in VP solubilization, as K(C) values of VP-SBEbetaCD-TA multicomponent complexes were notably higher than in corresponding betaCD complexes. The large chemical shift displacements from protons located in the interior of the hydrophobic CD cavities (i.e., H-3 and H-5) coupled with significant chemical shift displacements of VP aromatic protons suggested that this moiety was included in the cavity of both betaCD and SBEbetaCD. Two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were carried out in order to obtain information about the multicomponent complex geometry in solution. Inspection of ROESY spectra allowed the establishment of spatial proximities between all aromatic protons of VP and the internal protons of the CDs, confirming that the aromatic moiety of VP is included in CD cavities being deeply inserted in SBEbetaCD multicomponent complexes, since additional interactions with the sulfobutyl side chains were evidenced.

  18. Insights Into Water-Soluble Organic Aerosol Sources From Carbon-13 Ratios of Size Exclusion Chromatography Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, C. R.; Chuang, P. Y.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Many sources of organic aerosols have been identified and quantified, and much of this work has used individual (mosty water-insoluble) compounds as tracers of primary sources. However, most organic aerosol cannot be molecularly characterized, and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in many aerosols is thought to originate from gaseous precursors (i.e., it is secondary in nature). It can therefore be difficult to infer aerosol sources, particularly of background (i.e., aged) aerosols, and of the relatively high-MW component of aerosols. The stable isotope ratios (δ13C) of organic aerosols have been used to distinguish between sources, with lighter values (-30‰ to -25‰) interpreted as having originated from fossil fuel combustion and C4 biogenic emission, and heavier values (-25‰ to - 20‰) indicating a marine or C3 biogenic source. Most published measurements were of either total suspended particulates or PM2.5, however, and it is unknown to what extent these fractions differ from submicron WSOC. We report δ13C for submicron WSOC collected at a variety of sites, ranging from marine to polluted to background continental. Bulk marine organic δ13C ranged from -30.4 to - 27.6‰, slightly lighter than previously published results. This could be due to the elimination of supermicron cellular material or other biogenic primary emissions from the sample. Continental WSOC δ13C ranged from -19.1 to -29.8‰, with heavier values (-19.8 ± 1.0‰) in Oklahoma and lighter values at Great Smoky Mountain National Park in Tennessee (-25.8 ± 2.6‰) and Illinois (-24.5 ± 1.0‰). This likely results from the greater proportional of C3 plant material in the Oklahoma samples. In addition to bulk samples, we used size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to report δ13C of organic aerosols as a function of hydrodynamic diameter. Variability and magnitude of hydrodynamic diameter was greatest at low SEC pH, indicative of the acidic character of submicron WSOC. Tennessee

  19. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes.

  20. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. PMID:27378357

  1. Water-soluble fractions from defatted sesame seeds protect human neuroblast cells against peroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kitayama, Akemi; Fujimura, Makoto; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Yabe, Tomio

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of aging-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary antioxidants that can protect neuronal cells from oxidative damage play an important role in preventing such diseases. Previously, we reported that water-soluble fractions purified from defatted sesame seed flour exhibit good antioxidant activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of white and gold sesame seed water-soluble fractions (WS-wsf and GS-wsf, respectively) against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in human neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with WS-wsf and GS-wsf did not protect cells against AAPH-induced cytotoxicity, while simultaneous co-treatment with AAPH significantly improved cell viability and inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that WS-wsf and GS-wsf protect cells from AAPH-induced extracellular oxidative damage via direct scavenging of peroxyl radicals. When oxidative stress was induced by H2O2, pretreatment WS-wsf and GS-wsf significantly enhanced cell viability. These results suggest that in addition to radical scavenging, WS-wsf and GS-wsf enhance cellular resistance to intracellular oxidative stress by activation of the Nrf-2/ARE pathway as confirmed by the increased Nrf2 protein level in the nucleus and increased heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. The roles of ferulic and vanillic acids as bioactive antioxidants in these fractions were also confirmed. In conclusion, our results indicated that WS-wsf and GS-wsf, which showed antioxidant activity in vitro, are also efficient antioxidants in a cell system protecting SH-SY5Y cells against both extracellular and intracellular oxidative stress.

  2. Microencapsulation of linoleic acid with low- and high-molecular-weight components of soluble soybean polysaccharide and its oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Adachi, Shuji; Matsumura, Yasuki; Mori, Tomohiko; Maeda, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Akihiro; Matsuno, Ryuichi

    2003-09-01

    Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was fractionated into its low- (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components to test their antioxidative and emulsifying properties. Linoleic acid was emulsified with an aqueous solution of SSPS, HMW, a mixture of LMW or HMW with maltodextrin, or maltodextrin alone. The emulsions prepared with SSPS, HWM and the mixture of HMW with maltodextrin were stable. These emulsions were spay-dried to produce microcapsules. The encapsulated linoleic acid was oxidized at 37 degrees C and at various levels of relative humidity. Linoleic acid encapsulated with the mixture of LMW with maltodextrin or HMW was stable to oxidation, and this stability increased as the weight fraction of LMW in the mixture was increased. The LMW components also had high DPPH-radical scavenging activity. These results indicate that LMW played an important role in suppressing or retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid encapsulated with SSPS. The oxidative stability of linoleic acid encapsulated with a mixture of the LMW and HMW components was high at low and high relative humidity, but not at intermediate levels of relative humidity.

  3. Optimization of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR methods for structural characterization of acetone and pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of a coal tar pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor J. Morgan; Anthe George; David B. Davis; Alan A. Herod; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2008-05-15

    {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C high-resolution liquid-state NMR methods were used for the quantitative characterization of different molecular weight fractions of a coal tar pitch (CTP). Three fractions were studied: pitch acetone solubles (PAS), pitch pyridine soluble-acetone insolubles (PPS), and pitch pyridine insolubles (PPI). Standard liquid-state NMR methods were modified and calibrated for use with undeuterated quinoline or undeuterated 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the solvent. This made it possible to calculate the average structural parameters for the higher molecular weight (MW) fractions of the coal tar pitch. Quantitative comparisons of structural differences between the solubility-separated fractions of the pitch are reported. The aromaticity and the average number of aromatic rings per polynuclear aromatic structure were both found to decrease with increasing solubility. Similarly, pericondensed and all other quaternary carbon species were found to decrease with increasing solubility. This suggests that 'continental' type structures become more dominant as the solvent solubility of these coal derived fractions diminishes. The estimated average number of aromatic rings ranged from 1 to 2 rings in the PAS fraction, 4 to 21 rings in the PPS fraction, and 11 to 210 rings in the PPI fraction. These ring-numbers were directly related to the number average molecular mass (M{sub n}) assigned to the particular fraction in the average structural parameter (ASP) calculations. The lower-limit of the M{sub n} values was derived from the ASP calculations as 200, 450, and 6200 u for the PAS, PPS, and PPI fractions, respectively. 66 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Removal of acidic or basic α-amino acids in water by poorly water soluble scandium complexes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Jin, Shigeki; Ujihara, Tomomi

    2012-11-01

    To recognize α-amino acids with highly polar side chains in water, poorly water soluble scandium complexes with both Lewis acidic and basic portions were synthesized as artificial receptors. A suspension of some of these receptor molecules in an α-amino acid solution could remove acidic and basic α-amino acids from the solution. The compound most efficient at preferentially removing basic α-amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) was the receptor with 7,7'-[1,3-phenylenebis(carbonylimino)]bis(2-naphthalenesulfonate) as the ligand. The neutral α-amino acids were barely removed by these receptors. Removal experiments using a mixed amino acid solution generally gave results similar to those obtained using solutions containing a single amino acid. The results demonstrated that the scandium complex receptors were useful for binding acidic and basic α-amino acids. PMID:23050492

  5. Removal of acidic or basic α-amino acids in water by poorly water soluble scandium complexes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Jin, Shigeki; Ujihara, Tomomi

    2012-11-01

    To recognize α-amino acids with highly polar side chains in water, poorly water soluble scandium complexes with both Lewis acidic and basic portions were synthesized as artificial receptors. A suspension of some of these receptor molecules in an α-amino acid solution could remove acidic and basic α-amino acids from the solution. The compound most efficient at preferentially removing basic α-amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) was the receptor with 7,7'-[1,3-phenylenebis(carbonylimino)]bis(2-naphthalenesulfonate) as the ligand. The neutral α-amino acids were barely removed by these receptors. Removal experiments using a mixed amino acid solution generally gave results similar to those obtained using solutions containing a single amino acid. The results demonstrated that the scandium complex receptors were useful for binding acidic and basic α-amino acids.

  6. Acid-Soluble Nucleotides of Pinto Bean Leaves at Different Stages of Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, L. H.; McCune, D. C.; Mancini, Jill F.; van Leuken, P.

    1969-01-01

    Acid-soluble nucleotides of unifoliate leaves of Pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were determined at young, mature, and senescent stages of development. At least 25 components could be distinguished on the basis of inorganic phosphorus determinations and 37 or more fractions on the basis of 32P labeling, with adenosine di- and triphosphates accounting for 60% of the total moles of nucleotide. The total nucleotide P and inorganic P, on a fresh weight basis, decreased about 44% between each stage of leaf development, but decrements in the levels of individual nucleotides varied from this over-all pattern. Minor changes in the relative abundance of the individual nucleotides accompanied aging although the percentage of purine-containing nucleotides decreased with age. Total 32P activity per leaf in the nucleotide pool increased about 3-fold between the young and mature leaves and decreased slightly as leaves became senescent. In general, the specific activities of the nucleotides increased with increased age and adenosine-, guanosine-, uridine-, and cytidine triphosphates and adenosine diphosphate accounted for approximately 90% of the total activity. The changes in the relative sizes and energy status of the nucleotide pools were not so obvious as the changes in other metabolites that have been reported to accompany aging in leaf tissue. PMID:16657232

  7. Assessment of the antidiarrhoeal properties of the aqueous extract and its soluble fractions of Chebulae Fructus (Terminalia chebula fruits).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zunlai; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Ruili; Ni, Huilin; Cui, Yuanxu; Ge, Junwei; Shan, Anshan

    2016-09-01

    Context Chebulae Fructus is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhoea in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no scientific evidence to support its antidiarrhoeal activity. Objective This study evaluates the antidiarrhoeal properties of Chebulae Fructus aqueous extract (CFAE) and determines the active fraction. Materials and methods The antidiarrhoeal effect of CFAE (200-800 mg/kg) was investigated by determining the wet dropping, intestinal transit in BALB/c mice and enteropooling in Wister rats. The protective effects of the CFAE on the intestinal and liver were tested by histopathological analyses. The antidiarrhoeal fraction was determined by castor oil-induced diarrhoea and its main constituents were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS. Results The extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg reduced the diarrhoea by 9.1, 40.0 and 58.2% and inhibited intestinal transit by 18.3, 24.1 and 35.7%, respectively. Additionally, the CFAE (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the volume of enteropooling by 47.1, 58.8 and 64.7%, respectively. Mice treated with castor oil presented morphological alterations in the small intestine and the liver. However, the lesions of mice treated with CFAE were alleviated. Moreover, the ethyl acetate fraction was the active fraction of CFAE, the fraction (41.7, 83.4 and 166.8 mg/kg) reduced the diarrhoea by 9.1, 38.2 and 54.5%, respectively. The major components of the ethyl acetate fraction were tannins, including gallic acid, 3, 4, 6-tri-O-galloyl-β-d-Glc, corilagin and ellagic acid according to the HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Conclusion The CFAE possessed antidiarrhoeal property and the ethyl acetate fraction was its main active fraction.

  8. Assessment of the antidiarrhoeal properties of the aqueous extract and its soluble fractions of Chebulae Fructus (Terminalia chebula fruits).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zunlai; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Ruili; Ni, Huilin; Cui, Yuanxu; Ge, Junwei; Shan, Anshan

    2016-09-01

    Context Chebulae Fructus is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhoea in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no scientific evidence to support its antidiarrhoeal activity. Objective This study evaluates the antidiarrhoeal properties of Chebulae Fructus aqueous extract (CFAE) and determines the active fraction. Materials and methods The antidiarrhoeal effect of CFAE (200-800 mg/kg) was investigated by determining the wet dropping, intestinal transit in BALB/c mice and enteropooling in Wister rats. The protective effects of the CFAE on the intestinal and liver were tested by histopathological analyses. The antidiarrhoeal fraction was determined by castor oil-induced diarrhoea and its main constituents were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS. Results The extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg reduced the diarrhoea by 9.1, 40.0 and 58.2% and inhibited intestinal transit by 18.3, 24.1 and 35.7%, respectively. Additionally, the CFAE (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the volume of enteropooling by 47.1, 58.8 and 64.7%, respectively. Mice treated with castor oil presented morphological alterations in the small intestine and the liver. However, the lesions of mice treated with CFAE were alleviated. Moreover, the ethyl acetate fraction was the active fraction of CFAE, the fraction (41.7, 83.4 and 166.8 mg/kg) reduced the diarrhoea by 9.1, 38.2 and 54.5%, respectively. The major components of the ethyl acetate fraction were tannins, including gallic acid, 3, 4, 6-tri-O-galloyl-β-d-Glc, corilagin and ellagic acid according to the HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Conclusion The CFAE possessed antidiarrhoeal property and the ethyl acetate fraction was its main active fraction. PMID:26916441

  9. Small (13)C/(12)C fractionation contrasts with large enantiomer fractionation in aerobic biodegradation of phenoxy acids.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shiran; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Weyrauch, Philip; Lopez, Eva C Magana; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Elsner, Martin

    2014-05-20

    Phenoxy acid herbicides are important groundwater contaminants. Stable isotope analysis and enantiomer analysis are well-recognized approaches for assessing in situ biodegradation in the field. In an aerobic degradation survey with six phenoxyacetic acid and three phenoxypropionic acid-degrading bacteria we measured (a) enantiomer-specific carbon isotope fractionation of MCPP ((R,S)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid), DCPP ((R,S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid), and 4-CPP ((R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid); (b) compound-specific isotope fractionation of MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid); and (c) enantiomer fractionation of MCPP, DCPP, and 4-CPP. Insignificant or very slight (ε = -1.3‰ to -2.0‰) carbon isotope fractionation was observed. Equally small values in an RdpA enzyme assay (εea = -1.0 ± 0.1‰) and even smaller fractionation in whole cell experiments of the host organism Sphingobium herbicidovorans MH (εwc = -0.3 ± 0.1‰) suggest that (i) enzyme-associated isotope effects were already small, yet (ii) further masked by active transport through the cell membrane. In contrast, enantiomer fractionation in MCPP, DCPP, and 4-CPP was pronounced, with enantioselectivities (ES) of -0.65 to -0.98 with Sphingomonas sp. PM2, -0.63 to -0.89 with Sphingobium herbicidovorans MH, and 0.74 to 0.97 with Delftia acidovorans MC1. To detect aerobic biodegradation of phenoxypropionic acids in the field, enantiomer fractionation seems, therefore, a stronger indicator than carbon isotope fractionation.

  10. Influence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon fractions on light extinction at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Kyung Won; Schauer, James J.

    2013-11-01

    Until now, quantitative contributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions to aerosol light extinction have not been studied. In this study, concentrations of chemical species in PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 µm), including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total WSOC, two fractionated WSOCs, water-soluble inorganic species, and metal species, were measured twice a day between December 27, 2010 and January 20, 2011, at an urban site in Seoul, Korea. A macro-porous XAD7HP resin column was used to separate the liquid extracts into hydrophilic and hydrophobic WSOC (WSOC HPI and WSOC HPO ) fractions. Water-insoluble OC (WIOC), WSOC HPI and WSOC HPO were used to estimate the aerosol light extinction from the original IMPROVE algorithm. Organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios of 1.6, 2.0, and 1.8 were applied to the WIOC, WSOC HPI , and WSOC HPO , respectively. Light extinctions for ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, POM (particulate organic matter = WIOM + WSOM HPI + WSOM HPO ), and EC (which is light absorbing) were determined as 38.9 ± 34.0, 64.7 ± 70.6, 69.5 ± 27.7, and 27.1 ± 11.0 Mm-1, respectively, and contributed 15.0% (range: 5.4-25.6), 22.2% (7.1-50.8), 30.8% (13.0-42.3) and 12.0% (5.1-21.3), respectively, to the total light extinction budgets. Light scattering due to the WIOM, WSOM HPI and WSOM HPO were 27.3 ± 13.1, 17.1 ± 8.7, and 24.1 ± 9.9 Mm-1, respectively, and accounted for 12.5, 7.5, and 10.7% of the total light extinction budget. The results indicate WSOC HPO has a greater impact on visibility reduction in wintertime than WSOC HPI at this site. Light scattering by total OC concentration (POM=1.6 × OC) was 62.2 ± 25.1 Mm-1, which was approximately 9.7% lower than the sum of light scattering due to each of the three OC components with different OM/OC ratios. As the relative humidity (RH) increased, light extinction was higher in the water-soluble inorganic

  11. Accumulation of different sulfur fractions in Chinese forest soil under acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyi; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhangwei; Mulder, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Atmogenic sulfur (S) deposition loading by acid rain is one of the biggest environmental problems in China. It is important to know the accumulated S stored in soil, because eventually the size (and also the "desorption" rate) determines how rapidly the soil water pH responds to decrease in S deposition. The S fractions and the ratio of total carbon/total sulfur (C/S) of forest soil in 9 catchments were investigated by comparing soils at the rural and urban sites in China. The S fractions included water-soluble sulfate-S (SO(4)-S), adsorbed SO(4)-S, insoluble SO(4)-S and organic S. The ratio of C/S in soil at the rural site was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that at the urban site. C/S of soil in the A horizon was significantly (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the wet S-deposition rate. The ratio of C/S presents a better indicator for atmogenic S loading. Organic S was the dominant form in soils at rural sites; contributing more than 69% of the total S in the uppermost 30 cm soil. Organic S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were the main forms of S in soil at urban sites. High contents of water-soluble SO(4)-S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were found in uppermost 30 cm soils at urban sites but not at rural sites. Decades of acid rain have caused accumulation of inorganic SO(4)-S in Chinese forest soil especially at the urban sites. The soil at urban sites had been firstly acidified, and the impacts on the forest ecosystem in these areas should be noticed.

  12. Fatty acid and water-soluble polymer-based controlled release drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Desai, Divyakant; Kothari, Sanjeev; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jennifer; Huang, Ming; Sharma, Laxmikant

    2011-05-01

    Sustained release capsule formulations based on three components, drug, water-soluble polymer, and water-insoluble fatty acid, were developed. Theophylline, acetaminophen, and glipizide, representing a wide spectrum of aqueous solubility, were used as model drugs. Povidone and hydroxypropyl cellulose were selected as water-soluble polymers. Stearic acid and lauric acid were selected as water-insoluble fatty acids. Fatty acid, polymer, and drug mixture was filled into size #0 gelatin capsules and heated for 2 h at 50 °C. The drug particles were trapped into molten fatty acid and released at a controlled rate through pores created by the water-soluble polymer when capsules were exposed to an aqueous dissolution medium. Manipulation of the formulation components enabled release rates of glipizide and theophylline capsules to be similar to commercial Glucotrol XL tablets and Theo-24 capsules, respectively. The capsules also exhibited satisfactory dissolution stability after exposure to 30 °C/60% relative humidity (RH) in open Petri dishes and to 40 °C/75% RH in closed high-density polyethylene bottles. A computational fluid dynamic-based model was developed to quantitatively describe the drug transport in the capsule matrix and the drug release process. The simulation results showed a diffusion-controlled release mechanism from these capsules.

  13. Possible sources of two size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon fractions at a roadway site during fall season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Shik; Kim, Ja-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    To examine the formation pathways of two size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions, a total of 16 sets of size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a roadway site in Korea from September 29 to October 29, 2010. A XAD7HP (non-ionic aliphatic acrylic polymer) resin column was used to separate the filtered extracts into hydrophilic (WSOCHPI) and hydrophobic (WSOCHPO) WSOC fractions. Also the size distributions of water-soluble inorganic species and oxalate were examined to determine the formation pathways of size-resolved WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO fractions. The size distribution of WSOCHPI showed a dominant mode at 0.55 μm, while the WSOCHPO had dominant modes at both 0.17-0.32 μm and 0.55 μm. On the basis of the size distribution characteristics, it was found that the formation pathways of both WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO were dependent on the particle size; in the condensation mode (0.17-0.32 μm), both the WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO could be produced through atmospheric processes similar to those of SO42- and oxalate, which were derived from the gas-phase oxidations of organic compounds. In the droplet mode (0.55-1.8 μm), the cloud processing of both the organic compounds and biomass burning emissions could be a major pathway for the WSOCHPI formation. However, the droplet mode WSOCHPO was likely produced through cloud processing and heterogeneous reactions or aerosol-phase reactions. In the coarse mode (>3.1 μm), the WSOCHPI formation was more likely associated with soil-related particles (Ca(NO3)2 and CaSO4) than with sea-salt particles (NaNO3 and Na2SO4).

  14. Influence of salinity on PAH Uptake from water soluble fraction of crude oil in Tilapia mossambica.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P; Gopalani, M; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2007-12-01

    Accidents during marine transport and offshore production facilities often are responsible for oil spills in the open sea. In few cases, these oil slicks drift towards the shore and further into the estuaries, which serve as an important spawning and nursing grounds for many fish species. This study examined the role of salinity in the uptake and accumulation of toxic PAH from crude oil in select somatic and reproductive organs of Tilapia mossambica. Our results showed significantly (ANOVA, p < 0.01) lower PAH solubility in higher salinity waters and its uptake by fish. The differences were largest with the low molecular weight (LMW) two (naphthalenes) and three (phenanthrene) ring compounds as compared with higher molecular weight (HMW) compounds such as pyrene (four ringed).

  15. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its temperature-resolved carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Ci, Zhijia

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) can improve our understanding of the chemical properties, formation processes and sources of WSOC in aerosols. We developed a method that can examine different temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC and used this method to characterize aerosol samples (n = 102) collected from an urban site in Beijing in 2010-2011. The aerosol composition data including inorganic ions, elements and temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC were used as input of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to investigate the sources of WSOC. The results showed that the mean concentrations of WSOC were 10.2 μg m- 3 with increased values in winter and decreased values in summer, while WSOC/OC ratios (mean: 51.7%) were higher in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The sampling artifacts of WSOC (18.2%) were higher than those of OC (13.4%). Though WSOC was significantly influenced by biomass burning in spring and winter, the strong correlations between WSOC and other secondary components suggested that WSOC was secondary in nature. Results of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of OC and WSOC showed that WSOC/OC ratios for different carbon fractions had the highest value of 0.92 and lowest value of 0.30. PMF analysis identified four factors, three of which were associated with three organic polar compounds groups (low, medium, and high molecular weight compounds) based on their thermal evolution features, and one of which was attributed to inorganic secondary formation processes. Annually, the contributions of four factors were 20.5%, 46.2%, 12.4% and 20.9%, respectively.

  16. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ω-oxocarboxylic acids in size-segregated aerosols over northern Japan during spring: sources and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Gowda, Divyavani

    2016-04-01

    Seven sets (AF01-AF07) of size-segregated aerosol (12-sizes) samples were collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Sapporo, Japan during the spring of 2001 to understand the sources and atmospheric processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the outflow region of Asian dusts. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ω-oxocarboxylic acids as well as inorganic ions. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas ω-oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in size-segregated aerosols. SO42- and NH4+ are enriched in submicron mode whereas NO3- and Ca2+ are in supermicron mode. Most of diacids and ω-oxoacids are enriched in supermicron mode in the samples (AF01-AF03) influenced by the long-range transport of mineral dusts whereas enhanced presence in submicron mode was observed in other sample sets. The strong correlations of C2 with Ca2+ (r = 0.95-0.99) and NO3- (r = 0.96-0.98) in supermicron mode in the samples AF01-AF03 suggest the adsorption or production of C2 diacid via heterogeneous reaction on the surface of mineral dust during long-range atmospheric transport. The preferential enrichment of diacids and ω-oxoacids in mineral dust has important implications for the solubility and cloud nucleation properties of the dominant fraction of water-soluble organic aerosols. This study demonstrates that biofuel and biomass burning and mineral dust originated in East Asia are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds over northern Japan.

  17. Carbonaceous and inorganic composition in long-range transported aerosols over northern Japan: Implication for aging of water-soluble organic fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Shankar Gopala; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    To better understand the influence of sources and atmospheric processing on aerosol chemical composition, we collected atmospheric particles in Sapporo, northern Japan during spring and early summer 2005 under the air mass transport conditions from Siberia, China and surrounding seas. The aerosols were analyzed for inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and the major water-soluble organic compound classes (i.e., dicarboxylic acids and sugars). SO 42- is the most abundant inorganic constituent (average 44% of the identified inorganic ion mass) followed by NH 4+ (21%) and NO 3- (13%). Concentrations of OC, EC, and WSOC ranged from 2.0-16, 0.24-2.9, and 0.80-7.9 μg m -3 with a mean of 7.4, 1.0, and 3.1 μg m -3, respectively. High OC/EC ratios (range: 3.6-19, mean: 8.7) were obtained, however WSOC/OC ratios (0.23-0.69, 0.44) do not show any significant diurnal changes. These results suggest that the Sapporo aerosols were already aged, but were not seriously affected by local photochemical processes. Identified water-soluble organic compounds (diacids + sugars) account for <10% of WSOC. Based on some marker species and air mass back trajectory analyses, and using stable carbon isotopic compositions of shorter-chain diacids (i.e., C 2-C 4) as photochemical aging factor of organic aerosols, the present study suggests that a fraction of WSOC in OC is most likely influenced by aerosol aging, although the OC loading in aerosols may be more influenced by their sources and source regions.

  18. Water-soluble complexes of star-shaped poly(acrylic acid) with quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine).

    PubMed

    Pergushov, Dmitry V; Babin, Ivan A; Plamper, Felix A; Zezin, Alexander B; Müller, Axel H E

    2008-06-01

    The interaction of star-shaped poly(acrylic acid) having various numbers of arms (5, 8, and 21) and a strong cationic polyelectrolyte, viz., poly( N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide), was examined at pH 7 by means of turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering. Mixing aqueous solutions of the oppositely charged polymeric components was found to result in phase separation only if their base-molar ratio Z = [N+]/[COO (-) + COOH] exceeds a certain critical value ZM ( ZM < 1); this threshold value is determined by the number of arms of the star-shaped polyelectrolyte and the ionic strength of the surrounding solution. At Z < ZM, the homogeneous aqueous mixtures of the oppositely charged polymeric components contain two types of complex species clearly differing in their sizes, with the fractions of these species appearing to depend distinctly on the number of arms of the star-shaped poly(acrylic acid), the base-molar ratio of the oppositely charged polymeric components in their mixtures, and the ionic strength of the surrounding solution. The small complex species (major fraction) are assumed to represent the particles of the water-soluble interpolyelectrolyte complex whereas the large complex species (minor fraction) are considered to be complex aggregates.

  19. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  20. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  1. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  2. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  3. Acid-soluble magnesia cement; New applications in completion and workover operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R.E.; Scoggins, W.C. )

    1990-11-01

    Acid-soluble magnesia cement (MC) was used in production zones to plug perforations temporarily to reduce brine losses during completion and workover operations. This has resulted in substantial savings for operators. The cement has also been used to reduce potential formation damage. This paper describes some of the characteristics of the cement, field applications, and results.

  4. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  5. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  6. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  7. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  8. Subtle effects of the water soluble fraction of oil spills on natural phytoplankton assemblages enclosed in mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Fernández, E.; Figueiras, F. G.; Varela, M.

    2013-06-01

    Four mesocosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of episodic oil spills on coastal marine phytoplankton assemblages. The experimental design was selected to simulate the Prestige oil spill, which occurred in Galician coastal waters (NW Iberia) in November 2002. The empirical results indicate that no significant direct effects of the water soluble fraction of oil (20-60 μg l-1 of chrysene equivalents) on phytoplankton biomass and production were observed immediately after oil additions. Despite this, subtle negative effects on primary production were detected using a modelling approach, being the impact lower on phytoplankton communities dominated by diatoms. Consistent with the reduced direct effect of oil additions on phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis-related variables, no indirect trophic cascading effects, previously reported in microcosm experiments, were detected. This shows that the effect of punctual inputs of the water accommodated fraction of oil on natural phytoplankton communities was very subtle, undetectable on some occasions, and of much lower magnitude than the effects recorded in microcosm experiments. This suggests that the initial composition of the phytoplankton community determines the degree of response and that the experimental approach adopted could explain the different, and sometimes contradictory, reported responses of the planktonic community to the input of oil into the marine environment.

  9. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  10. Solubility of methanol in low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid and implications for atmospheric particle composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using traditional Knudsen cell techniques, we find well-behaved Henry's law uptake of methanol in aqueous 45 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 197 and 231 K. Solubility of methanol increases with decreasing temperature and increasing acidity, with an effective Henry's law coefficient ranging from 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 8) M/atm. Equilibrium uptake of methanol into sulfuric acid aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will not appreciably alter gas-phase concentrations of methanol. The observed room temperature reaction between methanol and sulfuric acid is too slow to provide a sink for gaseous methanol at the temperatures of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is also too slow to produce sufficient quantities of soluble reaction products to explain the large amount of unidentified organic material seen in particles of the upper troposphere.

  11. Interaction between Tea Polyphenols and Bile Acid Inhibits Micellar Cholesterol Solubility.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Hirose, Sayumi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Yanase, Emiko

    2016-01-13

    The molecular mechanism by which tea polyphenols decrease the micellar solubility of cholesterol is not completely clear. To clarify this mechanism, this study investigated the interaction between tea polyphenols (catechins and oolongtheanins) and cholesterol micelles. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed on a micellar solution containing taurocholic acid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out on the precipitate and the supernatant that formed when EGCg was added to a cholesterol-micelle solution. The data indicated a regiospecific interaction of EGCg with taurocholic acid. Therefore, the ability of EGCg to lower the solubility of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol in micellar solutions can be attributed to their elimination from the micelles due to interaction between taurocholic acids and EGCg.

  12. The effect of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on crystallinity and solubility of kenaf cellulose membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Anis Syuhada Mohd; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core pulp (KCP) by series of bleaching steps in the sequence (DEED) where D and E are referred as acid and alkali treatment. The bleached kenaf pulp (BKCP) is then pretreated with acid hydrolysis at room temperature for 1 and 3 h respectively. The pretreated cellulose is dissolved in lithium hydroxide/urea (LiOH/urea) and cellulose solution produced was immersed in distilled water bath. BKCP without treatment was also conducted for comparison purpose. The effects of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on solubility and crystallinity are investigated. Higher solubility of cellulose solution is achieved for treated samples. Cellulose II formation and crystallinity index of the cellulose membrane were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  13. The effect of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on crystallinity and solubility of kenaf cellulose membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Saidi, Anis Syuhada Mohd; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad

    2015-09-25

    Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core pulp (KCP) by series of bleaching steps in the sequence (DEED) where D and E are referred as acid and alkali treatment. The bleached kenaf pulp (BKCP) is then pretreated with acid hydrolysis at room temperature for 1 and 3 h respectively. The pretreated cellulose is dissolved in lithium hydroxide/urea (LiOH/urea) and cellulose solution produced was immersed in distilled water bath. BKCP without treatment was also conducted for comparison purpose. The effects of acid hydrolysis pretreatment on solubility and crystallinity are investigated. Higher solubility of cellulose solution is achieved for treated samples. Cellulose II formation and crystallinity index of the cellulose membrane were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  14. Interaction between Tea Polyphenols and Bile Acid Inhibits Micellar Cholesterol Solubility.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Hirose, Sayumi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Yanase, Emiko

    2016-01-13

    The molecular mechanism by which tea polyphenols decrease the micellar solubility of cholesterol is not completely clear. To clarify this mechanism, this study investigated the interaction between tea polyphenols (catechins and oolongtheanins) and cholesterol micelles. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed on a micellar solution containing taurocholic acid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out on the precipitate and the supernatant that formed when EGCg was added to a cholesterol-micelle solution. The data indicated a regiospecific interaction of EGCg with taurocholic acid. Therefore, the ability of EGCg to lower the solubility of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol in micellar solutions can be attributed to their elimination from the micelles due to interaction between taurocholic acids and EGCg. PMID:26651358

  15. Silicon Isotope Fractionation During Acid Water-Igneous Rock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boorn, S. H.; van Bergen, M. J.; Vroon, P. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Silica enrichment by metasomatic/hydrothermal alteration is a widespread phenomenon in crustal environments where acid fluids interact with silicate rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal ore deposits and acid-leached residues at hot-spring settings are among the best known examples. Acid alteration acting on basalts has also been invoked to explain the relatively high silica contents of the surface of Mars. We have analyzed basaltic-andesitic lavas from the Kawah Ijen volcanic complex (East Java, Indonesia) that were altered by interaction with highly acid (pH~1) sulfate-chloride water of its crater lake and seepage stream. Quantitative removal of major elements during this interaction has led to relative increase in SiO2 contents. Our silicon isotope data, obtained by HR-MC-ICPMS and reported relative to the NIST RM8546 (=NBS28) standard, show a systematic increase in &δ&&30Si from -0.2‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for unaltered andesites and basalts to +1.5‰ (±0.3, 2sd) for the most altered/silicified rocks. These results demonstrate that silicification induced by pervasive acid alteration is accompanied by significant Si isotope fractionation, so that alterered products become isotopically heavier than the precursor rocks. Despite the observed enrichment in SiO2, the rocks have experienced an overall net loss of silicon upon alteration, if Nb is considered as perfectly immobile. The observed &δ&&30Si values of the alteration products appeared to correlate well with the inferred amounts of silicon loss. These findings would suggest that &28Si is preferentially leached during water-rock interaction, implying that dissolved silica in the ambient lake and stream water is isotopically light. However, layered opaline lake sediments, that are believed to represent precipitates from the silica-saturated water show a conspicuous &30Si-enrichment (+1.2 ± 0.2‰). Because anorganic precipitation is known to discriminate against the heavy isotope (e.g. Basile- Doelsch et al., 2006

  16. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  17. Carboxypeptidase I from triticale grains and the hydrolysis of salt-soluble fractions of storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Drzymała, Adam; Prabucka, Beata; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2012-09-01

    Carboxypeptidase I was purified from triticale grains (×Triticosecale Wittm.) by a 5-step purification procedure including gel filtration, cation-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. The enzyme was purified 595.9 fold with a 1.58% recovery. Triticale carboxypeptidase I is a homodimer with a molecular weight of 124.2 kDa and a subunit weight of 55.2 kDa. Each subunit is composed of two polypeptide chains (33.4 and 21.3 kDa). Serine was found in the active site of triticale carboxypeptidase I; DFP (diisopropylflourophosphate) and other applied inhibitors of serine proteases inhibited the enzyme activity. Triticale carboxypeptidase I hydrolyzes N-CBZ-dipeptide (N-carbobenzoxy-dipeptide) substrates at low pH. N-CBZ-Phe-Ala, N-CBZ-Phe-Leu and N-CBZ-Ala-Met were hydrolyzed with the highest rates. The lowest K(m) value and the highest k(cat)/K(m) ratio were observed for hydrolysis of N-CBZ-Phe-Ala. Studies on the amino acid sequence revealed that the purified enzyme is homologous to carboxypeptidase I from barley. Analyses of conserved regions in the sequence of triticale carboxypeptidase I revealed the presence of Ser, Asp and His that compose the catalytic triad. Intact storage proteins were poor substrates for carboxypeptidases. Carboxypeptidase I together with carboxypeptidase III effectively degraded albumins proteolytically modified by endopeptidase EP8. Modified globulins were degraded at a slower rate, and all three carboxypeptidases were required for a significantly increased activity. Studies of the expression of the carboxypeptidase I gene revealed that the synthesis of the enzyme occurs mainly in the scutellum of the grain. The enzyme is also expressed in the aleurone layer of the grains, although its function in this tissue is unknown.

  18. Interaction of water-soluble amino acid Schiff base complexes with bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Boghaei, Davar M.

    2008-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were used to investigate the interaction of water-soluble amino acid Schiff base complexes, [Zn(L 1,2)(phen)] where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline and H 2L 1,2 is amino acid Schiff base ligands, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the physiological conditions in phosphate buffer solution adjusted to pH 7.0. The quenching mechanism of fluorescence was suggested as static quenching according to the Stern-Volmer equation. Quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation to provide a measure of the binding affinity between amino acid Schiff base complexes and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters Δ G, Δ H and Δ S at different temperatures (298, 310 and 318 K) were calculated. The results indicate that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions play a major role in [Zn(L 1)(phen)]-BSA association, whereas hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions participate a main role in [Zn(L 2)(phen)]-BSA binding process. Binding studies concerning the number of binding sites and apparent binding constant Kb were performed by fluorescence quenching method. The distance R between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (amino acid Schiff base complexes) has been obtained utilizing fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET). Furthermore, CD spectra were used to investigate the structural changes of the BSA molecule with the addition of amino acid Schiff base complexes. The results indicate that the interaction of amino acid Schiff base complexes with BSA leads to changes in the secondary structure of the protein. Fractional contents of the secondary structure of BSA ( fα, fβ, fturn and frandom) were calculated with and without amino acid Schiff base complexes utilizing circular dichroism spectroscopy. Our results clarified that amino acid Schiff base complexes could bind to BSA and be effectively transported and eliminated in the body, which could be a useful guideline for further drug

  19. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  20. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  1. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary, Ternary, and Multicomponent Systems. Part I. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Water and Aqueous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi

    2011-03-01

    The solubility data for well-defined binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems of solid-liquid type are reviewed. One component, which is 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, 4-hydroxybenzoate alkyl esters (parabens), or hydroxybenzoic acid salts, is in the solid state at room temperature and another component is liquid water, meaning that all of the systems are aqueous solutions. The ternary or multicomponent systems include organic substances of various classes (hydrocarbons of several structural types, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, ethers, esters, amides, and surfactants) or inorganic substances. Systems reported in the primary literature from 1898 through 2000 are compiled. For seven systems, sufficient binary data for hydroxybenzoic acids or parabens in water are available to allow critical evaluation. Almost all data are expressed as mass and mole fractions as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration.

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals.

  3. Molecular composition of the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols collected during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, B. T.; Yu, J. Z.; Xu, J. H.; Li, Q. F.; Wu, W. S.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2004-03-01

    During the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), samples of carbonaceous aerosols were collected on board the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. The samples were analyzed to determine their total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic compound (WSOC) contents as well as to identify the individual compounds comprising the WSOC fraction of the aerosol. The TC concentrations varied from 3.5 to 14.3 μg C m-3; the highest TC levels were observed for samples collected in pollution layers that originated over mainland China. WSOC concentrations ranged from 0.54 to 7.2 μg C m-3, with the WSOC fraction contributing from 10 to 50% of the carbon mass. About 50% of the carbonaceous aerosol mass in pollution layers could be attributed to WSOC. For samples collected in dust layers the WSOC fraction of TC was much lower than that observed in pollution layers. The sum of all the detected organic ions accounted for 6.9-19% of the WSOC. In the six samples collected by the Twin Otter during ACE-Asia, of the organic ions identified in the WSOC fraction, oxalate had the highest concentration. Samples collected from pollution layers exhibited a slightly higher ratio of formate to oxalate as compared to the other samples. Two samples had a relatively high ratio of lactate to oxalate, which might be a signature of some currently unidentified source of carbonaceous aerosol. The sum of the masses of sulfate and nitrate ions exceeded the sum of the masses of the identified organic ions by a factor of 9 to 17. The chemical levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass burning, comprised from 0.1 to 0.4% of TC mass. Comparing this ratio to the ratio measured directly in wood-burning studies it was determined that biomass burning may have represented from ≈2 to 10% of the carbonaceous aerosol collected during ACE-Asia.

  4. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants. PMID:25203006

  5. Solubility of ammonium acid urate nephroliths from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Argade, Sulabha; Smith, Cynthia R; Shaw, Timothy; Zupkas, Paul; Schmitt, Todd L; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Sur, Roger L

    2013-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis has been identified in managed populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus); most of these nephroliths are composed of 100% ammonium acid urate (AAU). Several therapies are being investigated to treat and prevent nephrolithiasis in dolphins including the alkalization of urine for dissolution of nephroliths. This study evaluates the solubility of AAU nephroliths in a phosphate buffer, pH range 6.0-8.0, and in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8. AAU nephroliths were obtained from six dolphins and solubility studies were conducted using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. AAU nephroliths were much more soluble in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8 compared to phosphate buffer pH range 6.0-8.0. In the pH range 6.0-8.0, the solubility was 45% lower in potassium phosphate buffer compared to sodium phosphate buffer. When citrate was used along with phosphate in the same pH range, the solubility was improved by 13%. At pH 7 and pH 8, 150 mM ionic strength buffer was optimum for dissolution. In summary, adjustment of urinary pH alone does not appear to be a useful way to treat AAU stones in bottlenose dolphins. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of AAU nephrolithiasis in dolphins is needed to optimize kidney stone prevention and treatment. PMID:24450043

  6. Mass spectrometric screening and identification of acidic metabolites in fulvic acid fractions of contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Jobelius, Carsten; Frimmel, Fritz H; Zwiener, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The anaerobic microbial degradation of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds is a prevalent process in contaminated groundwater systems. The introduction of functional groups into the contaminant molecules often results in aromatic and heterocyclic and succinic acids. These metabolites can be used as indicators for prevailing degradation processes. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing analytical methods for screening and identification of these metabolites. In this study, neutral loss scans (NLS) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with losses of CO2 (NL ∆m/z = 44) and C2H4(CO2)2 (NL ∆m/z = 116) were applied for the first time successfully to screen selectively for acidic and succinic metabolites of aromatic and heterocyclic contaminants in two fulvic acid fractions from a contaminated site and a downstream region of a tar oil-polluted groundwater. Identification of these preselected signals was performed by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument. High-resolution mass and mass fragmentation data were then compared with a list of known metabolites from a literature search or matched with chemical databases supported with in silico fragmentation. Based on authentic analytical standards, several compounds from NLS were identified (e.g., 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoic acid, benzylsuccinic acid, naphthyl-2-methylsuccinic acid, 2-carboxyindane, and 2-carboxybenzothiophene) and tentatively identified (e.g., benzofuranmethylsuccinic acid and dihydrocarboxybenzothiophene) as aromatic, phenolic, heterocyclic, and succinic acids. The acidic metabolites were found exclusively in the contaminated region of the aquifer which indicates active biodegradation processes and no relevant occurrence of acidic metabolites in the downstream region.

  7. Fractionation of humic acids upon adsorption on montmorillonite and palygorskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, T. V.; Zolotareva, B. N.

    2013-06-01

    The adsorption of three humic acid (HA) preparations by clays—montmorillonite (Wyoming, USA) and palygorskite (Kolomenskoe district, Moscow oblast)—has been studied. The HA preparations were isolated from samples of the humus-accumulative horizons of a leached chernozem (Voronezh) and a chestnut soil (Volgograd), and a commercial preparation of sodium humate (Aldrich) was also used. The solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy revealed the selective adsorption of structural HA fragments (alkyls, O-alkyls (carbohydrates), and acetal groups) on these minerals. As a result, the aromaticity of the organic matter (OM) in the organic-mineral complexes (OMCs) and the degree of its humification have been found to be lower compared to the original HA preparations. The fractionation of HAs is controlled by the properties of the mineral surfaces. The predominant enrichment of OMCs with alkyls has been observed for montmorillonite, as well as an enrichment with O-alkyls (carbohydrates) for palygorskite. A decrease in the C : N ratio has been noted in the elemental composition of the OM in complexes, which reflected its more aromatic nature and (or) predominant sorption of N-containing structural components of HA molecules. The adsorption of HA preparations by montmorillonite predominantly occurs on the external surface of mineral particles, and the interaction of nonpolar alkyl groups of HAs with this mineral belongs to weak (van der Waals, hydrophobic) interactions. The adsorption of HA preparations by palygorskite is at least partly of chemical nature: Si-OH groups of minerals are involved in the adsorption process. The formation of strong bonds between the OM and palygorskite explains the long-term (over 300 million years) retention of fossil fulvate-type OM in its complex with palygorskite, which we revealed previously.

  8. Effect of magnesium carbonate on the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of fenofibric acid powder as an alkalising solubilizer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the possibility of developing a novel oral pharmaceutical product using fenofibric acid instead of choline fenofibrate, the powder properties, solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats of fenofibrate, choline fenofibrate and fenofibric acid were compared. Furthermore, the effect of magnesium carbonate, an alkalising agent on the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of fenofibric acid was assessed, a mixture of fenofibric acid and magnesium carbonate being prepared by simple blending at a weight ratio of 2/1. The three fenofibrate derivatives showed different particle sizes and melting points with similar crystalline shape. Fenofibric acid had a significantly higher aqueous solubility and dissolution than fenofibrate, but significantly lower solubility and dissolution than choline fenofibrate. However, the fenofibric acid/magnesium carbonate mixture greatly improved the solubility and dissolution of fenofibric acid with an enhancement to levels similar with those for choline fenofibrate. Fenofibric acid gave lower plasma concentrations, AUC and Cmax values compared to choline fenofibrate in rats. However, the mixture resulted in plasma concentrations, AUC and Cmax values levels not significantly different from those for choline fenofibrate. Specifically, magnesium carbonate increased the aqueous solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of fenofibric acid by about 7.5-, 4- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Thus, the mixture of fenofibric acid and magnesium carbonate at the weight ratio of 2/1 might be a candidate for an oral pharmaceutical product with improved oral bioavailability. PMID:26992922

  9. The modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group and their sodium derivatives: benzoic acid/Na and ibuprofen/Na.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, P; Pena, M A; Barra, J

    2000-01-20

    Sodium salts are often used in drug formulation but their partial solubility parameters are not available. Sodium alters the physical properties of the drug and the knowledge of these parameters would help to predict adhesion properties that cannot be estimated using the solubility parameters of the parent acid. This work tests the applicability of the modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of sodium salts of acidic drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group (ibuprofen, sodium ibuprofen, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate). The method uses a regression analysis of the logarithm of the experimental mole fraction solubility of the drug against the partial solubility parameters of the solvents, using models with three and four parameters. The solubility of the drugs was determined in a set of solvents representative of several chemical classes, ranging from low to high solubility parameter values. The best results were obtained with the four parameter model for the acidic drugs and with the three parameter model for the sodium derivatives. The four parameter model includes both a Lewis-acid and a Lewis-base term. Since the Lewis acid properties of the sodium derivatives are blocked by sodium, the three parameter model is recommended for these kind of compounds. Comparison of the parameters obtained shows that sodium greatly changes the polar parameters whereas the dispersion parameter is not much affected. Consequently the total solubility parameters of the salts are larger than for the parent acids in good agreement with the larger hydrophilicity expected from the introduction of sodium. The results indicate that the modified extended Hansen method can be applied to determine the partial solubility parameters of acidic drugs and their sodium salts.

  10. Lethal and sublethal effects of the water-soluble fraction of Cook Inlet crude oil on Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) reproduction. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.D.; Babcock, M.M.; Brodersen, C.C.; Carls, M.G.; Gharrett, J.A.

    1987-02-01

    The objectives of the study was to determine the median concentration of Cook Inlet crude oil Water Soluble Fraction that would kill 50% of prespawning adult Pacific herring exposed (LC50); the uptake and depuration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gonads, liver, and muscle of mature herring.

  11. A soluble acid invertase is directed to the vacuole by a signal anchor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rae, Anne L; Casu, Rosanne E; Perroux, Jai M; Jackson, Mark A; Grof, Christopher P L

    2011-06-15

    Enzyme activities in the vacuole have an important impact on the net concentration of sucrose. In sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid), immunolabelling demonstrated that a soluble acid invertase (β-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) is present in the vacuole of storage parenchyma cells during sucrose accumulation. Examination of sequences from sugarcane, barley and rice showed that the N-terminus of the invertase sequence contains a signal anchor and a tyrosine motif, characteristic of single-pass membrane proteins destined for lysosomal compartments. The N-terminal peptide from the barley invertase was shown to be capable of directing the green fluorescent protein to the vacuole in sugarcane cells. The results suggest that soluble acid invertase is sorted to the vacuole in a membrane-bound form.

  12. Solubilities of stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, and arachidyl alcohol in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35[degree]C

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Yoshio; Koga, Yoshio; Maruyama, Hironori; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The solubilities of stearic acid (octadecanoic acid), stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol), and arachidyl alcohol (1-eicosanol) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by using a flow-type apparatus at 35 C up to 23.7 MPa. The solubilities of those substances and other fatty acids and higher alcohols in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35 C were correlated by a solution model based on the regular solution model coupled with the Flory-Huggins theory.

  13. Sialic Acid Is Required for Neuronal Inhibition by Soluble MAG but not for Membrane Bound MAG

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bashir, Najat; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4) is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins), MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5. We developed a neurite outgrowth (NOG) assay, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118) are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc). Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit NOG, but not mutated MAG (Arg118)-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118)- expressing cells still inhibit NOG. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG’s inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits NOG in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage. PMID:27065798

  14. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  15. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d.

  16. Exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil or to naphthalenes alters breathing rates in Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.C.; Fingerman, M.

    1984-03-01

    Alteration in breathing rate has been used to monitor the effects of pollutants on fishes. Particularly pertinent to the study described herein are the observations that the water soluble fractions (WSF) from Cook Inlet crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil and No. 2 fuel oil increased the breathing rate of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, fry. However, possible underlying neurological mechanisms for this response have not been identified. Pollutant-induced changes in a fish's breathing rate may indicate neurochemical imbalances in the brain. Exposure of the longnose killifish, Fundulus similis, to the WSF of petroleum resulted in accumulation of naphthalenes from this WSF in high levels in the brain. Various organic compounds have been found to ultimately produce reductions in the whole brain concentration of dopamine in fishes. In view of these effects of various pollutants on breathing rate and the brain dopamine level in fishes, experiments were performed to determine the effects of (a) the WSF of South Louisiana crude oil, (b) two of its most toxic components (naphthalene and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene) and (c) the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, on the breathing rate of Fundulus grandis. These experiments would not only reveal whether the WSF and naphthalenes affect the breathing rate but also whether it might be affected by the dopamine concentration in the fish.

  17. Effects of the water soluble fraction of gasoline on ZFL cell line: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Debora; Oliveira, Luciana F; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2015-12-25

    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different dilutions of gasoline water-soluble fraction (GSF) on Danio rerio hepatocyte cell line (ZFL). Two tests were used to assess cell viability, MTT reduction assay (MTT) and the Trypan blue (TB) exclusion test. Oxidative stress was evaluated through the quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the assessment of the total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and the comet assay was employed to assess DNA damage. ZFL cells were exposed to 5, 10, 25 and 50% GSF or only to saline for 1, 3 and 6h. The GSF exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, and longer exposure times resulted in lower cell viability as indicated by both MTT and TB assays. The establishment of oxidative stress in cells exposed to GSF was not observed at any exposure period and the lower ROS levels could be related to the increased antioxidant capacity after 6-hour exposure. DNA damage was significantly increased after exposure to GSF at the three experimental times. Taking together these results show that GSF has a genotoxic potential at the lower concentrations and becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations and that ZFL can be considered a good biological model for in vitro toxicological studies.

  18. Identification of a soluble diacylglycerol kinase required for lipoteichoic acid production in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Jerga, Agoston; Lu, Ying-Jie; Schujman, Gustavo E; de Mendoza, Diego; Rock, Charles O

    2007-07-27

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DagKs) are key enzymes in lipid metabolism that function to reintroduce diacylglycerol formed from the hydrolysis of phospholipids into the biosynthetic pathway. Bacillus subtilis is a prototypical Gram-positive bacterium with a lipoteichoic acid structure containing repeating units of sn-glycerol-1-P groups derived from phosphatidylglycerol head groups. The B. subtilis homolog of the prokaryotic DagK gene family (dgkA; Pfam01219) was not a DagK but rather was an undecaprenol kinase. The three members of the soluble DagK protein family (Pfam00781) in B. subtilis were tested by complementation of an E. coli dgkA mutant, and only the essential yerQ gene possessed DagK activity. This gene was dubbed dgkB, and the soluble protein product was purified, and its DagK activity was verified in vitro. Conditional inactivation of dgkB led to the accumulation of diacylglycerol and the cessation of lipoteichoic acid formation in B. subtilis. This study identifies a soluble protein encoded by the dgkB (yerQ) gene as an essential kinase in the diacylglycerol cycle that drives lipoteichoic acid production.

  19. Toxicity of scorpion venom in chick embryo and mealworm assay depending on the use of the soluble fraction versus the whole venom.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Tom; van der Meijden, Arie

    2014-09-01

    The LD50 is an important metric for venom studies and antivenom development. It has been shown that several variables in the protocol influence the LD50 value obtained, such as venom source, extraction and treatment and administration route. These inconsistencies reduce the utility of the results of these test for comparative studies. In scorpion venom LD50 assays, often only the soluble fraction of the venom is used, whereas other studies use the whole venom. We here tested the toxicity of the soluble fraction in isolation, and of the whole venom in two different systems: chick embryos and mealworms Tenebrio molitor. Ten microliters of venom solutions from Hadrurus arizonensis, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus australis, Grosphus grandidieri and Heterometrus laoticus were applied to five day old chicken embryos at stage 25-27. Our results showed no significant differences between the LD50 based on the whole venom versus that of only the soluble fraction and in the chicken embryo assay in four of the five scorpion species tested. H. laoticus however, showed a significantly lower LD50 value for the whole venom than the soluble fraction. In assays on mealworms however, this pattern was not seen. Nonetheless, caution may be warranted when using LD50 values obtained from only the soluble fraction. The LD50 values of the five species in this study, based on the chicken embryo assay, showed good correlation with values from the literature based on mouse studies. This suggests that the chick embryo assay may be an economic alternative to rodent assays for scorpion LD50 studies. PMID:24951875

  20. A Collaborative Evaluation of LC-MS/MS Based Methods for BMAA Analysis: Soluble Bound BMAA Found to Be an Important Fraction.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Elisabeth J; Antoniou, Maria G; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D₃BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%-32%), implying that D₃BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis. PMID:26938542

  1. A Collaborative Evaluation of LC-MS/MS Based Methods for BMAA Analysis: Soluble Bound BMAA Found to Be an Important Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Antoniou, Maria G.; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L.; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D3BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%–32%), implying that D3BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis. PMID:26938542

  2. Vaccination of mice with a soluble protein fraction of Mycobacterium leprae provides consistent and long-term protection against M. leprae infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, R H; Murray, L; Siu, P; Tsang, M

    1992-01-01

    Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated intradermally with either Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) alone, 10(7) heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae organisms in FIA, or a number of fractions of M. leprae containing soluble and/or cell wall components. At 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later, vaccinated mice were challenged in the right hind footpad with 5,000 live M. leprae organisms, and vaccine protection was assessed 6 to 8 months later, at the peak of M. leprae multiplication in the negative control (FIA alone), by the two-sample rank-sum test. In these studies, a cell wall fraction rich in peptidoglycan was consistently ineffective. Both heat-killed M. leprae and a fraction containing cell wall and fixed proteins generally protected when the interval between vaccination and challenge was 1 or 3 months but not subsequently. On the other hand, soluble proteins of M. leprae alone or in combination (with cell wall fractions) consistently (14 of 14 instances) afforded highly significant protection (P less than or equal to 0.01) at all challenge intervals up to 1 year after vaccination. These results suggest that the soluble protein fraction of M. leprae offers promise for a vaccine against leprosy. PMID:1563772

  3. Isolation and fractionation of soil humin using alkaline urea and dimethylsulphoxide plus sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guixue; Hayes, Michael H. B.; Novotny, Etelvino H.; Simpson, Andre J.

    2011-01-01

    Humin, the most recalcitrant and abundant organic fraction of soils and of sediments, is a significant contributor to the stable carbon pool in soils and is important for the global carbon budget. It has significant resistance to transformations by microorganisms. Based on the classical operational definition, humin can include any humic-type substance that is not soluble in water at any pH. We demonstrate in this study how sequential exhaustive extractions with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) + 6 M urea, followed by dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) + 6% ( v/ v) sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solvent systems, can extract 70-80% of the residual materials remaining after prior exhaustive extractions in neutral and aqueous basic media. Solid-state 13C NMR spectra have shown that the components isolated in the base + urea system were compositionally similar to the humic and fulvic acid fractions isolated at pH 12.6 in the aqueous media. The NMR spectra indicated that the major components isolated in the DMSO + H2SO4 medium had aliphatic hydrocarbon associated with carboxyl functionalities and with lesser amounts of carbohydrate and peptide and minor amounts of lignin-derived components. The major components will have significant contributions from long-chain fatty acids, waxes, to cuticular materials. The isolates in the DMSO + H2SO4 medium were compositionally similar to the organic components that resisted solvation and remained associated with the soil clays. It is concluded that the base + urea system released humic and fulvic acids held by hydrogen bonding or by entrapment within the humin matrix. The recalcitrant humin materials extracted in DMSO + H2SO4 are largely biological molecules (from plants and the soil microbial population) that are likely to be protected from degradation by their hydrophobic moieties and by sorption on the soil clays. Thus, the major components of humin do not satisfy the classical definitions for humic substances which emphasise that these arise from

  4. Cellular fatty acid and soluble protein composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and related organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoon, D A; Mayberry, W R; Slots, J

    1981-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid and protein content of twenty-five representative strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans isolated from juvenile and adult periodontitis patients was compared to that of 15 reference strains of oral and nonoral Actinobacillus species and Haemophilus aphrophilus. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The predominant fatty acids of all 40 strains examined were 14:0, 3-OH 14:0, 16 delta, and 16:0. Actinobacillus seminis (ATCC 15768) was unlike the other strains examined because of a greater amount of 14:0 detected. The soluble protein analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. aphrophilus, and nonoral Actinobacillus species possessed distinct protein profiles attesting to the validity of separating these organisms into different species. Established biotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans could not be differentiated on the basis of fatty acid or protein profiles. PMID:7287893

  5. Solubility of calcium salts of unconjugated and conjugated natural bile acids.

    PubMed

    Gu, J J; Hofmann, A F; Ton-Nu, H T; Schteingart, C D; Mysels, K J

    1992-05-01

    The approximate solubility products of the calcium salts of ten unconjugated bile acids and several taurine conjugated bile acids were determined. The formation of micelles, gels, and/or precipitates in relation to Ca2+,Na+, and bile salt concentration was summarized by "phase maps." Because the ratio of Ca2+ to bile salt in the precipitates was ca. 1:2, and the activity of Ca2+ but not that of bile salt (BA-) could be measured, the ion product of aCa2+ [BA-]2 was calculated. The ion product (= Ksp) ranged over nine orders of magnitude and the solubility thus ranged over three orders of magnitude; its value depended on the number and orientation of the hydroxyl groups in the bile acid. Ion products (in units of 10(-9) mol/l)3 were as follows: cholic (3 alpha OH,7 alpha OH,12 alpha OH) 640; ursocholic (3 alpha OH,7 beta OH,12 alpha OH) 2300; hyocholic (3 alpha OH,6 alpha OH,7 alpha OH) 11; ursodeoxycholic (3 alpha OH,7 beta OH) 91; chenodeoxycholic (3 alpha OH,7 alpha OH) 10; deoxycholic (3 alpha OH,12 alpha OH) 1.5; 12-epideoxycholic (lagodeoxycholic, 3 alpha OH,12 beta OH) 2.2; hyodeoxycholic (3 alpha OH,6 alpha OH) 0.7; and lithocholic (3 alpha OH) 0.00005. The critical micellization temperature of the sodium salt of murideoxycholic acid (3 alpha OH,6 beta OH) was greater than 100 degrees C, and its Ca2+ salt was likely to be very insoluble. Taurine conjugates were much more soluble than their corresponding unconjugated derivatives: chenodeoxycholyltaurine, 384; deoxycholyltaurine, 117; and cholyltaurine, greater than 10,000. Calcium salts of unconjugated bile acids precipitated rapidly in contrast to those of glycine conjugates which were metastable for months. Thus, hepatic conjugation of bile acids with taurine or glycine not only enhances solubility at acidic pH, but also at Ca2+ ion concentrations present in bile and intestinal content.

  6. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  7. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  8. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  9. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K. ); Chattaway, J.A. Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich ); Dawson, A.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and (5-{sup 32}P)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and (2-{sup 3}H)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (Ins(4,5)P{sub 2}) whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P{sub 2}) was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4}. Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} and Ins(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4} was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca{sup 2+}. This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom.

  10. Solubility relationships of aluminium and iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L. ); Reddy, K.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The ability to properly manage the oxidation of pyritic minerals and associated acid mine drainage is dependent upon understanding the chemistry of the disposal environment. One accepted disposal method is placing pyritic-containing materials in the groundwater environment. The objective of this study was to examine solubility relationships of Al and Fe minerals associated with pyritic waste disposed in a low leaching aerobic saturated environment. Two eastern oil shales were used in this oxidizing equilibration study, a New Albany Shale (unweathered, 4.6 percent pyrite), and a Chattanooga Shale (weathered, 1.5 percent pyrite). Oil shale samples were equilibrated with distilled-deionized water from 1 to 180 d with a 1:1 solid-to-solution ratio. The suspensions were filtered and the clear filtrates were analyzed for total cations and anions. Ion activities were calculated from total concentrations. Below pH 6.0, depending upon SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activity, Al{sup 3+} solubility was controlled by AlOHSO{sub 4} (solid phase) for both shales. The results of this study indicate that below pH 6.0, Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} solubilities, are limited by basic Al and Fe sulfate solid phases (AlOHSO{sub 4(s)} and FeHSO{sub 4(s)}). The results from this study further indicate that the acidity in oil shale waters is produced from the hydrolysis of Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} activities in solution. These results indicate a fundamental change in the stoichiometric equations used to predict acidity from iron sulfide oxidation. The results of this study also indicate that water quality predictions associated with acid mine drainage can be based on fundamental thermodynamic relationships. As a result, waste management decisions can be based on waste-specific/site test methods.

  11. Large-scale isolation, fractionation, and purification of soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes: starch synthase and branching enzyme from potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Mukerjea, Rupendra; Falconer, Daniel J; Yoon, Seung-Heon; Robyt, John F

    2010-07-19

    Soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes, starch synthase (SSS) and starch-branching enzyme (SBE), were isolated, fractionated, and purified from white potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) on a large scale. Five steps were used: potato tuber extract from 2 kg of peeled potatoes, two acetone precipitations, and two fractionations on a large ultrafiltration polysulfone hollow fiber 100 kDa cartridge. Three kinds of fractions were obtained: (1) mixtures of SSS and SBE; (2) SSS, free of SBE; and (3) SBE, free of SSS. Contaminating enzymes (amylase, phosphorylase, and disproportionating enzyme) and carbohydrates were absent from the 2nd acetone precipitate and from the column fractions, as judged by the Molisch test and starch triiodide test. Activity yields of 122% (300,000-400,000 units) of SSS fractions and 187% (40,000-50,000 units) of SBE fractions were routinely obtained from the cartridge. Addition of 0.04% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol 50K and 1 mM dithiothreitol to the glycine buffer (pH 8.4) gave long-term stability and higher yields of SSS and SBE, due to activation of inactive enzymes. Several SSS and SBE fractions from the two fractionations had very high specific activities, indicating high degrees of purification. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of selected SSS and SBE fractions gave two to five SSS and/or SBE activity bands, corresponding to the one to five protein bands present in the 2nd acetone precipitate.

  12. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia.

  13. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  14. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut (Juglans regia L.) proteins and protein fractionations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-27

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8-6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa.

  15. Amino Acid Composition, Molecular Weight Distribution and Gel Electrophoresis of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Proteins and Protein Fractionations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8–6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa. PMID:24473146

  16. Simplified sample treatment for the determination of total concentrations and chemical fractionation forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2014-11-15

    A simpler, and faster than wet digestion, sample treatment was proposed prior to determination of total concentrations for selected macro- (Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn) in soluble coffees by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were dissolved in water and acidified with HNO3. Precision was in the range 1-4% and accuracy was better than 2.5%. The method was used in analysis of 18 soluble coffees available on the Polish market. Chemical fractionation patterns for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees, as consumed, using a two-column solid-phase extraction method, determined Ca, Mg and Mn were present predominantly as cations (80-93% of total content). This suggests these elements are likely to be highly bioaccessible. PMID:24912692

  17. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  18. [The effect of terephthalic acid and film made from polyterephthalic acid esters on water soluble vitamins].

    PubMed

    Steiner, I

    1990-12-01

    Terephthalic acid is used for the production of polyterephthalic acid esters for foils that are applied for cooking, roasting, and baking; it is able to migrate as a monomer into foodstuffs. The effect of sodium terephthalate on vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and ascorbic acid at different conditions (variation of time and temperature); effects of a foil made of polyterephthalic acid esters was also tested. Thiamin and riboflavin are stabilized by sodium terephthalate while pyridoxine is decomposed faster, especially at higher temperatures. The tests of thiamin and riboflavin in the foils show similar results, whereas the losses of pyridoxine were not so high compared with the tests where sodium terephthalate had been added. Ascorbic acid is protected, too, by sodium terephthalate, except with long heating periods at a temperature of 220 degrees C.

  19. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, R.W.; Vijgen, A.S.; Harriss, R.C. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA )

    1992-10-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions. 61 refs.

  20. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - Acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions.

  1. Fractionation of Fe isotopes by soil microbes and organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, Susan L.; Liermann, Laura; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Small natural variations in Fe isotopes have been attributed to biological cycling. However, without understanding the mechanism of fractionation, it is impossible to interpret such variations. Here we show that the δ56Fe of Fe dissolved from a silicate soil mineral by siderophore-producing bacteria is as much as 0.8% lighter than bulk Fe in the mineral. A smaller isotopic shift is observed for Fe released abiotically by two chelates, and the magnitude of the shift increases with affinity of the ligand for Fe, consistent with a kinetic isotope effect during hydrolysis of Fe at the mineral surface. Fe dissolved abiotically without chelates shows no isotopic shift. The δ56Fe of the exchange fraction on soil grains is also lighter by ~0.6%-1% than Fe from both hornblende and iron oxyhydroxides. The kinetic isotope effect is therefore preserved in open systems such as soils. when recorded in the rock record, Fe isotopic fractionation could document Fe transport by organic molecules or by microbes where such entities were present in the geologic past.

  2. Redox activity and in vitro bioactivity of the water-soluble fraction of urban particulate matter in relation to particle size and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Velali, Ekaterini; Papachristou, Eleni; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Planou, Styliani; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Besis, Athanasios; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini

    2016-01-01

    Chemical and toxicological characterization of the water-soluble fraction of size-segregated urban particulate matter (PM) (<0.49, 0.49-0.97, 0.97-1.5, 1.5-3.0, 3.0-7.2 and >7.2 μm) was carried out at two urban sites, traffic and urban background, during the cold and the warm period. Chemical analysis of the water-soluble PM fraction included ionic species (NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Ca, and Mg). The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was employed for the abiotic assessment of the oxidative PM activity. Cytotoxic responses were investigated in vitro by applying the mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT) and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) bioassays on human lung cells (MRC-5), while DNA damage was estimated by the single cell gel electrophoresis assay, known as Comet assay. The correlations between the observed bioactivity responses and the concentrations of water-soluble chemical PM constituents in the various size ranges were investigated. The results of the current study corroborate that short-term bioassays using lung human cells and abiotic assays, such as the DTT assay, could be relevant to complete the routine chemical analysis and to obtain a preliminary screening of the potential effects of PM-associated airborne pollutants on human health. PMID:26586634

  3. Effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wei, Guanmian; Li, Tiancheng; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the production of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from grass carp skin. For alkaline pretreatment, 0.05 and 0.1M NaOH removed non-collagenous proteins without significant loss of ASC at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C; while 0.2 and 0.5M NaOH caused significant loss of ASC, and 0.5M NaOH caused structural modification of ASC at 15 and 20 °C. For acid extraction at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C, ASC was partly extracted by 0.1 and 0.2M acetic acid, while 0.5 and 1.0M acetic acid resulted in almost complete extraction. The processing conditions involving 0.05-0.1M NaOH for pretreatment, 0.5M acetic acid for extraction and 4-20 °C for both pretreatment and extraction, produced ASC with the structural integrity being well maintained and hence were recommended to prepare ASC from grass carp skin in practical application.

  4. Quantification of Total Particulate Matter and Benzene-Soluble Fraction Inhalation Exposures in Roofing Workers Performing Tear-off Activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ronald H; Ferraro, John R; Dodson, James L; Hockman, Edwin L; McGovern, Amy E; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt shingle removal (tear-off) from roofs is a major job task for an estimated 174,000 roofers in the United States. However, a literature search showed that there are no published studies that characterize worker inhalation exposures to asphalt particulates during shingle tear-off. To begin to fill this gap, the present study of inhalation exposures of roofers performing asphalt shingle tear-off was undertaken. The airborne agents of interest were total particulate matter (TP) and organic particulates measured as the benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) of total particulate. The study's objectives were to measure the personal breathing zone (PBZ) exposures of roofing tear-off workers to BSF and TP; and to assess whether these PBZ exposures are different from ambient levels. Task-based PBZ samples (typical duration 1-5 hours) were collected during asphalt shingle tear-off from roofs near Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado. Samples were analyzed for TP and BSF using National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5042. As controls, area samples (typical duration 3-6 hours) were collected on the ground near the perimeter of the tear-off project Because of the presence of significant sources of inorganic particulates in the work environment, emphasis was placed on the BSF data. No BSF exposure higher than 0.25 mg/m3 was observed, and 69% of the PBZ samples were below the limit of detection (LOD). Due to unforeseen confounding, however, statistical comparisons of on-the-roof PBZ samples with on-the-ground area samples posed some special challenges. This confounding grew out of the interaction of three factors: statistical censoring from the left; the strong inverse correlation between LOD concentration and sampling duration; and variation in sampling durations between on-the-ground area samples and on-the-roof PBZ samples. A general linear model analysis of variance (GLM-ANOVA) was applied to help address the confounding. The results of this analysis

  5. Effect of diffusion layer pH and solubility on the dissolution rate of pharmaceutical acids and their sodium salts. II: Salicylic acid, theophylline, and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, A T; Jarowski, C I

    1985-02-01

    The pH-solubility profiles of salicylic acid and theophylline, as determined by the addition of HCl or NaOH to their aqueous suspensions, were identical with those of their sodium salts except during phase transitions from acid to salt or vice versa. Supersaturated solutions were formed during phase transitions. Unlike the solubility profiles, the pH-intrinsic dissolution rate profiles of an acid and its salt differed greatly. Good conformity with the Noyes-Whitney equation was demonstrated when the solubility values under pH conditions as the diffusion layer thickness, h, approaches zero (Cs,h = 0) were used rather than solubilities under pH conditions of the bulk media (Cs). The pH when h approaches zero (pHh = 0) was estimated by equilibration of a dissolution medium with an excess of material. Good correlation was shown between the pHh = 0 values of benzoic acid estimated according to this method and the pHh = 0 values reported in the literature. The intrinsic dissolution rate constant, the ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the diffusion layer thickness (D/h), may be assumed constant when comparing the dissolution rates of salicylic acid, theophylline and sodium theophylline. On the other hand, D/h decreased significantly during dissolution of sodium salicylate due to a large increase in Cs,h = 0 and the consequent increase in viscosity in the diffusion layer. A simple method of predicting the dissolution rate of an acid or a salt at different pH values has been developed.

  6. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  7. Water-soluble nitric-oxide-releasing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Barbara; Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Marini, Elisabetta; Joseph, Sony; Morini, Giuseppina; Pozzoli, Cristina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    A series of water-soluble (benzoyloxy)methyl esters of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), commonly known as aspirin, are described. The new derivatives each have alkyl chains containing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nitrooxy group and a solubilizing moiety bonded to the benzoyl ring. The compounds were synthesized and evaluated as ASA prodrugs. After conversion to the appropriate salt, most of the derivatives are solid at room temperature and all possess good water solubility. They are quite stable in acid solution (pH 1) and less stable at physiological pH. In human serum, these compounds are immediately metabolized by esterases, producing a mixture of ASA, salicylic acid (SA), and of the related NO-donor benzoic acids, along with other minor products. Due to ASA release, the prodrugs are capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Simple NO-donor benzoic acids 3-hydroxy-4-(3-nitrooxypropoxy)benzoic acid (28) and 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoic acid (48) were also studied as representative models of the whole class of benzoic acids formed following metabolism of the prodrugs in serum. These simplified derivatives did not trigger antiaggregatory activity when tested at 300 μM. Only 28 displays quite potent NO-dependent vasodilatatory action. Further in vivo evaluation of two selected prodrugs, {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl-3-[(3-[aminopropanoyl)oxy]-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate⋅HCl (38) and {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate oxalate (49), revealed that their anti-inflammatory activities are similar to that of ASA when tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. The gastrotoxicity of the two prodrugs was also determined to be lower than that of ASA in a lesion model in rats. Taken together, these results indicated that these NO-donor ASA prodrugs warrant further investigation for clinical application.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of uric acid and some redeterminations of its solubility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Plunkett, M.A.; Richards, F.A.

    1954-01-01

    The present study was initiated in order to develop a rapid and accurate method for the determination of uric acid in fresh, brackish, and sea water. It was found that the spectrophotometric determination of uric acid based upon its reaction with arsenophosphotungstic acid reagent in the presence of cyanide ion meets this objective. The absorbancy of the blue complex was measured at 890 m??. Slight variations from Beer's law were generally found. The results show the effects of pH, reaction time, concentration of reagents, and temperature upon color development and precipitate formation. Disodium dihydrogen ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Versene) was used as a buffering and complexirig agent. The results are significant in that they give the absorption spectrum of the blue complex and the effects of variables upon its absorbancy. Studies were made with the method to determine the stability of reagents and standard solutions and to determine the rate of bacterial decomposition of uric acid. Measurements of the solubility of uric acid are reported.

  9. Regulation of water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengda; Liu, Jingling; Zhang, Chenlu; Liang, Zongsuo

    2013-07-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) root, generally called Danshen, is an important herb in Chinese medicine widely used for treatment of various diseases. Phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza, as important effective compounds, have become a new research focus in plant secondary metabolism in recent years. This review summarizes the recent advances in the regulation of water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza via regulators at molecular level, such as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (PAL), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase gene (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase gene (TAT), 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase gene (HPPR), 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvated dioxygenase gene (HPPD), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase-like gene (RAS-like), and v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog 4 gene (MYB4), and production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1 gene (AtPAP1), and via regulators at cell level, such as methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines, metal ions, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), ultraviolet-B radiation, and yeast elicitor.

  10. Spectroscopic study of humic acids fractionated by means of tangential ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, O.; Sánchez-Cortés, S.; Casarini, D.; Garcia-Ramos, J. V.; Ciavatta, C.; Gessa, C.

    2002-05-01

    Different chemical and spectroscopic techniques—diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been applied to investigate a peat humic acid (HA) separated by tangential ultrafiltration into different nominal molecular weight (NMW) fractions. Each fraction analyzed showed a characteristic DRIFT and NMR pattern. High nominal molecular weight fractions were mainly characterized by long chains of methyl and methylene groups and poorly substituted aromatic rings, while in low nominal molecular weight fractions (L-NMW), phenolic and oxygen-containing groups were predominant. A comparative study on fractions before and after treatment with 0.5 M HCl was carried out. Purified fractions showed either an increase in the carboxylate and phenolic OH groups or an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of their NMR spectra. The SERS study of NMW fractions allowed significative information on structure and conformation of these fractions. In particular, L-NMW fractions showed a great structural modification, when different alkaline extractants or treatment with HCl were used. Humic-like substances obtained by catechol and gallic acid polymerization on metal surface were investigated using SERS. The SERS spectra of these polymers were compared and discussed with those of NMW HA fractions.

  11. Effects of excess pantothenic acid administration on the other water-soluble vitamin metabolisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Takahashi, Chisato; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo

    2005-12-01

    To acquire the data concerning the tolerable upper intake level which prevents health problems from an excessive intake of pantothenic acid, an animal experiment was done. Rats of the Wistar strain (male, 3 wk old) were fed on a diet which contains 0%, 0.0016% (control group), 1%, or 3% calcium pantothenate for 29 d. The amount of weight increase, the food intake, and the organ weights were measured, as well as the pantothenic acid contents in urine, the liver and blood. Moreover, to learn the influence of excessive pantothenic acid on other water-soluble vitamin metabolism, thiamin, riboflavin, a vitamin B6 catabolite, the niacin catabolites, and ascorbic acid in urine were measured. As for the 3% addition group, enlargement of the testis, diarrhea, and hair damage were observed, and the amount of weight increase and the food intake were less than those of the control group. However, abnormality was not seen in the 1% addition group. The amount of pantothenic acid in urine, the liver, and blood showed a high correlation with intake level of pantothenic acid. It was only for 4-pyridoxic acid, a vitamin B6 catabolite, in urine that a remarkable difference was observed against the control group. Moreover, the (2-Py+4-Py)/MNA excretion ratio for these metabolites of the nicotinamide also indicated a low value in the 3% pantothenic acid group. As for the calcium pantothenate, it was found that the 3% level in the diet was the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and the 1% level was the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). PMID:16521696

  12. Solubility-pH profiles of some acidic, basic and amphoteric drugs.

    PubMed

    Shoghi, Elham; Fuguet, Elisabet; Bosch, Elisabeth; Ràfols, Clara

    2013-01-23

    The solubility vs. pH profiles of five ionizable drugs of different nature (a monoprotic acid, a monoprotic base, a diprotic base and two amphoteric compounds showing a zwitterionic species each one) have been determined through two different methodologies: the classical shake-flask (S-F) and the potentiometric Cheqsol methods using in both instances the appropriate Henderson-Hasselbalch (H-H) or derived relationships. The results obtained independently from both approaches are consistent. A critical revision about the influence of the electrolyte used as buffering agent in the S-F method on the obtained solubility values is also performed. Thus, some deviations of the experimental points with respect the H-H profiles can be attributed to specific interactions between the buffering electrolyte and the drug due to the hydrotrophic character of citric and lactic acids. In other cases, the observed deviations are independent of the buffers used since they are caused by the formation of new species such as drug aggregates (cefadroxil) or the precipitation of a salt from a cationic species of the analyzed compound (quetiapine).

  13. Fractionation and Biological Activities of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Sclerotium of Tiger Milk Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Keong, Choong Yew; B, Vimala; Daker, Maelinda; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mohamad, Shaiful Azuar; Lan, Jin; Chen, Xiangdong; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the direct cytotoxic effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis fractions, especially the polysaccharide fraction, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. L. rhinocerotis crude extract was obtained through hot water extraction. The precipitate saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate was purified with ion-exchanged chromatography. Gel permeation chromatography multiangle laser light scattering analysis equipped with light scattering and UV signals revealed two district groups of polymers. A total of four peaks were observed in the total carbohydrate test. Fraction C, which was the second region of the second peak eluted with 0.3 M NaOH, showed the highest integrated molecular weight, whereas fraction E had the lowest integrated molecular weight of 19,790 Da. Fraction A contained the highest β-D-glucan content. Enzymatic analysis showed that most of the polysaccharide fractions contained β-1-3 and β-1-6 skeletal backbones. The peak eluted with 0.6 M NaOH was separated in fraction D (flask 89-92) and fraction E (93-96). The results showed that fraction E expressed higher antioxidant activities than fraction D whereas fraction D expressed higher chelating activity than fraction E. The extract saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate exhibited higher reducing power than the extract saturated with 100% ammonium sulfate. Fractions D and E significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. There was no apparent difference in the viability of cells exposed or unexposed to L. rhinocerotis fractions. PMID:27279536

  14. Characterization of humic acid fractions by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Thorn, K.A.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soil humic acids from different environments were fractionated by adsorption chromatography on Sephadex and characterized by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C-13 NMR spectra of the fractions consist of some sharp, well-resolved lines and some broad bands in contrast to the spectra of the unfractionated humic acids, where the bands are broader and less well-resolved. The marked increase in resolution is apparently due to increased homogeneity of the fractions. These spectra are compared to the spectra of model compounds.

  15. Fluorescence quenching of three molecular weight fractions of a soil fulvic acid by UO(2)(II).

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Hong, K H; Lee, M H; Cho, Y H; Lee, C W

    2001-01-01

    A soil fulvic acid isolated from a Korean forest was divided into three different molecular weight fractions (F1: less than 220 Da; F2: 220-1000 Da; and F3: 1000-4000 Da) by gel filtration chromatography and the fractions were studied by synchronous fluorescence (SyF) spectroscopy. Analysis of the SyF spectra for the fulvic acid fractions showed that the fractions with molecules of larger sizes have a higher content of condensed aromatic compounds. The information about their interaction with UO(2)(II) ions in an aqueous solution (100 mg l(-1) of fulvic acid, in 0.1 M NaClO(4) at pH 3.5) was obtained from the measurement of SyF spectra at increasing concentrations of metal ions. Self-modeling mixture analysis of the quenching spectra gives two distinct peak components having a maximum peak position of 386 (type I) and 498 nm (type II) for all the size-fractionated fulvic acids. From the analysis of the quenching profiles of the peaks, using a non-linear method, the concentration of binding sites (C(L)), and the corresponding stability constants (logK) were calculated. The stability constants of the UO(2)(II)-fulvate complexes ranged from 4.10 to 5.33, and increased with higher molecular weight fractions, which indicates a stronger affinity for UO(2)(II) in the fraction with molecules of larger size.

  16. Mineral species control of aluminum solubility in sulfate-rich acidic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David

    2011-02-01

    The identification of the mineral species controlling the solubility of Al in acidic waters rich in sulfate has presented researchers with several challenges. One of the particular challenges is that the mineral species may be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. The difficulty in discerning between adsorbed or structural sulfate is a further complication. Numerous studies have employed theoretical calculations to determine the Al mineral species forming in acid sulfate soil environments. The vast majority of these studies indicate the formation of a mineral species matching the stoichiometry of jurbanite, Al(OH)SO 4·5H 2O. Much debate, however, exists as to the reality of jurbanite forming in natural environments, particularly in view of its apparent rare occurrence. In this work the use of Al, S and O K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in combination with elemental composition analyses of groundwater precipitates and a theoretical analysis of soluble Al concentrations ranging from pH 3.5 to 7, were employed to determine the mineral species controlling the solubility of Al draining from acid sulfate soils into Blacks Drain in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. The results indicate that a mixture of amorphous Al hydroxide (Al(OH) 3) and basaluminite (Al 4(SO 4)(OH) 10·5H 2O) was forming. The use of XANES spectroscopy is particularly useful as it provides insight into the nature of the bond between sulfate and Al, and confirms the presence of basaluminite. This counters the possibility that an Al hydroxide species, with appreciable amounts of adsorbed sulfate, is forming within these groundwaters. Below approximately pH 4.5, prior to precipitation of this amorphous Al(OH) 3/basaluminite mixture, our studies indicate that the Al 3+ activity of these acidic sulfate-rich waters is limited by the availability of dissolved Al from exchangeable and amorphous/poorly crystalline mineral species within adjacent soils. Further evidence suggests the Al 3+ activity below pH 4.5 is

  17. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing.

  18. Effects of motor patterns on water-soluble and membrane proteins and cholinesterase activity in subcellular fractions of rat brain tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevzner, L. Z.; Venkov, L.; Cheresharov, L.

    1980-01-01

    Albino rats were kept for a year under conditions of daily motor load or constant hypokinesia. An increase in motor activity results in a rise in the acetylcholinesterase activity determined in the synaptosomal and purified mitochondrial fractions while hypokinesia induces a pronounced decrease in this enzyme activity. The butyrylcholinesterase activity somewhat decreases in the synaptosomal fraction after hypokinesia but does not change under the motor load pattern. Motor load causes an increase in the amount of synaptosomal water-soluble proteins possessing an intermediate electrophoretic mobility and seem to correspond to the brain-specific protein 14-3-2. In the synaptosomal fraction the amount of membrane proteins with a low electrophoretic mobility and with the cholinesterase activity rises. Hypokinesia, on the contrary, decreases the amount of these membrane proteins.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC ACID SIZE FRACTIONS BY SEC AND MALS (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Latahco silt-loam humic acid was separated on a preparatory scale by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a gravity-fed Sepharose column. Four fractions from this separation were collected and further analyzed, along with whole humic acid, by high-performance SEC coupled with a...

  20. Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Francolini, Iolanda; Taresco, Vincenzo; Crisante, Fernanda; Martinelli, Andrea; D’Ilario, Lucio; Piozzi, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples. PMID:23549269

  1. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide on free amino acid and soluble protein contents in tobacco leaves].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Li-Min; Long, Rui-Jun; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2006-04-01

    The work focused on the effects of signal molecules of nitric oxide (NO), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on compounds of nitric metabolites of free amino acid, soluble protein and proline in tobacco. The results indicated that NO, SA and H(2)O(2) were able to regulate the proline, free amino acid and soluble protein content in tobacco. Lower concentration of NO and H(2)O(2) raised the level of proline; while higher concentration of NO and H(2)O(2) lowered the proline, free amino acid content in tobacco. The above three signal molecules also showed similar effects on proline, free amino acid and soluble protein content in tobacco.

  2. Differentiation of roasted and soluble coffees through physical fractionation of selected essential and nonessential metals in their brews and exploratory data analysis.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Stelmach, Ewelina; Welna, Maja

    2016-11-01

    An analytical scheme for physical fractionation of Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn in ground roasted and soluble coffees brews was proposed. It was based on ultrafiltration through five ultrafiltration membranes having molecular weight cut-offs of 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100kDa. The highest ">100kDa" and the lowest "<5kDa" molecular weight fractions were established to differentiate the studied coffees brews the most. Al, Cu, Fe and Ni were mostly associated with the ">100kDa" fraction, while Co, K, Mg and Na - with the "<5kDa" fraction. For Ba, Ca, Mn, Sr and Zn, ">100kDa" and "<5kDa" fractions contributions were equally accounted. The physical fractionation pattern of selected metals was convenient for discovering important features of brews of both coffee types and differences between them by principal component analysis and then classifying them by linear discriminant analysis. PMID:27591664

  3. Wheat aleurone fractions and plasma n-3 fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Calani, Luca; Scazzina, Francesca; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, Francois; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of two wheat aleurone (WA) fractions on circulating n-3 fatty acids in rats. We demonstrated that only the fraction able to induce the highest urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites (>1µmol) resulted in a significant increase in plasma level of Eicosapentanoic acid (+22%, p < 0.05). While other constituents of whole wheat can be involved in this response, our data suggest that cereals containing high levels of phenolic compounds can increase blood n-3 without affecting n-6 fatty acids. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis and explore the underlying biological mechanisms.

  4. Acid-catalyzed hydrothermal severity on the fractionation of agricultural residues for xylose-rich hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Ye; Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of acid-catalyzed hydrothermal fractionation for maximum solubilization of the hemicellulosic portion of three agricultural residues. The fractionation conditions converted into combined severity factor (CS) in the range of 1.2-2.9. The highest hemicellulose yield of 87.88% was achieved when barley straw was fractionated at a CS of 2.19. However, the maximum glucose release of 15.29% was achieved for the case of rice straw. The maximum productions of various by-products were observed with the fractionation of rape straw: 0.88 g/L of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2.16 g/L of furfural, 0.44 g/L of levulinic acid, 1.59 g/L of formic acid, and 3.06 g/L of acetic acid. The highest selectivities, a criterion for evaluating the fractionation of 21.55 for fractionated solid and 7.48 for liquid hydrolyzate were obtained from barley straw.

  5. A novel solid-state fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Shah, Jaimin R; Bailey, Jon; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2015-10-01

    Various sorbent materials were evaluated for the fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs) from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). The solid phase materials include activated carbon (AC), cellulose, iron oxides (magnetite and goethite), polyaniline (PANI) and three types of biochar derived from biomass (BC-1; rice husks, BC-2; acacia low temperature and BC-3; acacia high temperature). NAFCs were semi-quantified using electrospray ionization high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and the metals were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average removal efficacy of NAFCs by AC was 95%. The removal efficacy decreased in the following order: AC, BC-1>BC-2, BC-3, goethite>PANI>cellulose, magnetite. The removal of metals did not follow a clear trend; however, there was notable leaching of potassium by AC and biochar samples. The bound NAFCs by AC were desorbed efficiently with methanol. Methanol regeneration and recycling of AC revealed 88% removal on the fourth cycle; a 4.4% decrease from the first cycle. This fractionation method represents a rapid, cost-effective, efficient, and green strategy for NAFCs from OSPW, as compared with conventional solvent extraction. PMID:26042363

  6. Phenobarbital induction of a soluble cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1982-03-10

    A soluble, cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase-epoxidase isolated from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced about 28-fold by the addition of phenobarbital (8 mM) to the growth medium. Phenobarbital is not a substrate for the enzyme nor does it activate the monooxygenase in the cell-free system. The level of the P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity in cultures harvested during the early stationary phase of growth increased linearly with phenobarbital concentration up to its solubility limit (8 mM) at 35 degrees C. The time course of induction during culture growth in the presence of 4 mM phenobarbital showed an interesting dichotomy. The specific content of cytochrome P-450 increased until the early stationary phase of growth and then leveled off. P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity, however, continued to increase rapidly to midstationary phase and then decreased just as rapidly after this time. At maximum specific activity, a turnover number of about 2,450 was obtained for palmitoleate hydroxylation-epoxidation by the cytochrome P-450 system. PMID:6801029

  7. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different α chains, α1 and α2, as well as a β component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (p<0.01). Maximal solubility of individual collagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type.

  8. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different α chains, α1 and α2, as well as a β component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (p<0.01). Maximal solubility of individual collagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. PMID:24295705

  9. An organelle-free assay for pea chloroplast Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Mg-chelatase, which catalyzes the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin, lies at the branchpoint of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Since magnesium chelation is the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis, one would expect this step to be highly regulated. However, to date little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase due mostly to an inability to assay it's activity outside of the intact plastid. Here the authors report the first truly in vitro i.e. organelle-free, assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts which is 3 to 4 fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts, survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated, by centrifugation, into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity and both were inactivated by boiling; indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane bound protein(s). The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol Mg-Deuteroporphyrin/h/mg protein and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity. The soluble component could be fractionated with ammonium sulfate. The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. Crude separation of chloroplast membranes into thylakoids and envelopes, suggested that the membrane-bound component of Mg-chelatase is probably located in the envelope.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid following administration of aspirin tablets and three different forms of soluble aspirin in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Attardo Parrinello, G; Vitiello, B; Perucca, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of an innovative formulation of soluble aspirin (l-ornithine acetylsalicylate, ldB 1003) was compared with that of conventional tablets and two other soluble dosage forms (d, l-lysine acetylsalicylate and a buffered effervescent formulation of acetylsalicylic acid) after administration of single oral doses in six normal volunteers. All soluble forms showed a rapid absorption profile, peak plasma salicylic acid levels being attained after about 30 min on average and without statistically significant differences among the solutions tested. As compared to the soluble formulations, acetylsalicylic acid given as tablets resulted in slower absorption, with peak plasma salicylic acid levels being reached more than 1 h after dosing. Despite these differences in time course of plasma level profiles, the extent of absorption was similar for all formulations. Apart from the potential advantages in terms of improved gastric tolerability, the increased rate of absorption of aspirin solutions is therapeutically useful whenever a rapid onset of action is required. In this respect, the kinetic pattern of the innovative formulation compares favourably with that of other available soluble dosage forms.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid following administration of aspirin tablets and three different forms of soluble aspirin in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Attardo Parrinello, G; Vitiello, B; Perucca, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of an innovative formulation of soluble aspirin (l-ornithine acetylsalicylate, ldB 1003) was compared with that of conventional tablets and two other soluble dosage forms (d, l-lysine acetylsalicylate and a buffered effervescent formulation of acetylsalicylic acid) after administration of single oral doses in six normal volunteers. All soluble forms showed a rapid absorption profile, peak plasma salicylic acid levels being attained after about 30 min on average and without statistically significant differences among the solutions tested. As compared to the soluble formulations, acetylsalicylic acid given as tablets resulted in slower absorption, with peak plasma salicylic acid levels being reached more than 1 h after dosing. Despite these differences in time course of plasma level profiles, the extent of absorption was similar for all formulations. Apart from the potential advantages in terms of improved gastric tolerability, the increased rate of absorption of aspirin solutions is therapeutically useful whenever a rapid onset of action is required. In this respect, the kinetic pattern of the innovative formulation compares favourably with that of other available soluble dosage forms. PMID:2517497

  12. The entry of HCl through soluble surfactants on sulfuric acid: effects of chain branching.

    PubMed

    Burden, Daniel K; Johnson, Alexis M; Krier, James M; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2014-07-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to determine how a soluble, branched surfactant (2-ethylbutanol) controls the entry of gaseous HCl molecules into 60 and 68 wt % D2SO4 at 213 K. Short-chain alcohols spontaneously segregate to the surfaces of these sulfuric acid solutions, which are representative of aerosol droplets in the lower stratosphere. We find that 2-ethylbutanol enhances HCl entry at low surface coverages, most likely because it provides extra interfacial OH groups that aid HCl dissociation. This enhancement disappears at higher coverages as the alkyl chains crowd each other and block access to the acid. The branched alcohol impedes HCl entry more effectively than its unbranched isomer 1-hexanol, implying that the larger 2-ethybutanol footprint on the surface blocks more HCl molecules from reaching the alcohol-acid interface. This behavior contrasts sharply with gas transport through long-chain monolayers, where branching introduces gaps that allow more facile passage. The experiments suggest that short-chain surfactants with extended footprints may impede transport more effectively than their unbranched isomers. PMID:24620717

  13. PEGylated bile acids for use in drug delivery systems: enhanced solubility and bioavailability of itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Le Dévédec, Frantz; Strandman, Satu; Hildgen, Patrice; Leclair, Grégoire; Zhu, X X

    2013-08-01

    Itraconazole is a drug of choice for the treatment of severe fungal infections and parasitic diseases, but its use is limited by its low water solubility and varying bioavailability. New self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) based on PEGylated bile acids (BA-PEGs) were designed and prepared, where the number and length of PEG arms were varied to optimize the loading of itraconazole in the final drug formulation. The use of both BA-PEGs and oleic acid improved the solubilization and absorption of the drug, which was in a glassy state in the SEDDS prepared with the melting method. High loading efficiencies of itraconazole (up to 20%) and stable liquid formulations were obtained at neutral pH, and full dispersion of itraconazole was reached in 2 h in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). Aqueous emulsions consisting of spherical micelles with mean hydrodynamic diameters (Dh) of ca. 75-220 nm, as verified by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, are expected to improve the intestinal absorption of the drug. The new SEDDS showed good cytocompatibility by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays of BA-PEGs with Caco-2 and RAW 264.2 cells, and a low degree of hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The SEDDS based on PEGylated bile acids provide a controlled release system with significant improvement of the bioavailability of itraconazole in rats, as demonstrated by the pharmacokinetic studies.

  14. Effects of Soluble Lignin on the Formic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of Furfural: A Case Study for the Upgrading of Hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Dussan, Karla; Girisuta, Buana; Lopes, Marystela; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study is presented on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors obtained from the fractionation of Miscanthus, spruce bark, sawdust, and hemp by using formic acid. Experimental tests with varying temperature (130-170 °C), formic acid concentration (10-80 wt%), carbohydrate concentrations, and lignin separation were carried out, and experimental data were compared with predictions obtained by reaction kinetics developed in a previous study. The conversions of xylose and arabinose into furfural were inherently affected by the presence of polymeric soluble lignin, decreasing the maximum furfural yields observed experimentally by up to 24%. These results were also confirmed in synthetic mixtures of pentoses with Miscanthus and commercial alkali lignin. This observation was attributed to side reactions involving intermediate stable sugar species reacting with solubilized lignin during the conversion of xylose into furfural.

  15. Distribution of soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in the mouse brain and its contribution to cerebral epoxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Marowsky, A; Burgener, J; Falck, J R; Fritschy, J-M; Arand, M

    2009-10-01

    Epoxide hydrolases comprise a family of enzymes important in detoxification and conversion of lipid signaling molecules, namely epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), to their supposedly less active form, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). EETs control cerebral blood flow, exert analgesic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects and protect against ischemia. Although the role of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in EET metabolism is well established, knowledge on its detailed distribution in rodent brain is rather limited. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern of sEH and of another important member of the EH family, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), in mouse brain by immunohistochemistry. To investigate the functional relevance of these enzymes in brain, we explored their individual contribution to EET metabolism in acutely isolated brain cells from respective EH -/- mice and wild type littermates by mass spectrometry. We find sEH immunoreactivity almost exclusively in astrocytes throughout the brain, except in the central amygdala, where neurons are also positive for sEH. mEH immunoreactivity is abundant in brain vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle cells) and in choroid plexus epithelial cells. In addition, mEH immunoreactivity is present in specific neuronal populations of the hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and cerebellum, as well as in a fraction of astrocytes. In freshly isolated cells from hippocampus, where both enzymes are expressed, sEH mediates the bulk of EET metabolism. Yet we observe a significant contribution of mEH, pointing to a novel role of this enzyme in the regulation of physiological processes. Furthermore, our findings indicate the presence of additional, hitherto unknown cerebral epoxide hydrolases. Taken together, cerebral EET metabolism is driven by several epoxide hydrolases, a fact important in view of the present targeting of sEH as a potential therapeutic target. Our findings suggest that these different enzymes have

  16. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  17. Determination of acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous solution by the internal standard capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2014-12-01

    A set of 33 drugs with different solubilities, ranging from soluble to very insoluble, has been chosen in order to evaluate the performance of the internal standard CE method to determine acidity constants of compounds with limited solubility. The set of drugs tested in this work has been chosen as a function of their intrinsic solubility. For the most insoluble compounds, several analytical conditions to overcome the insolubility in aqueous buffers have been tested. This paper assesses the compound solubility limits for the IS-CE method in aqueous pKa determinations, and also compares the determined pKa s with the results from the literature data obtained by other methods. It is proved that IS-CE method determines acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous media (compounds with logS down to around -6), whereas other reference methods require the use of aqueous-organic solvent buffers and extrapolation procedures to obtain the aqueous pKa for the same compounds.

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals. PMID:22921654

  19. Chemical structure of humic acids - Part 2, the molecular aggregation of some humic acid fractions in N, N-dimethylformamide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Humic acid fractions form molecular aggregates in solution. In previous studies we have shown by small angle X-ray scattering that the size of these aggregates is a function of pH. In this study we have found that the size of the aggregates of two humic acid fractions in water and buffers and in dimethylformamide solutions can be changed by oxidation with molecular oxygen and air. These results cast new light on the bonding mechanisms that cause aggregation of the humic acid particles in solution. We have interpreted the changes in aggregation sizes as being brought about by changes in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the humic particles. Solvation of the humic molecules by dimethylformamide interferes with some of the hydrogen bonding reactions between proton donor and acceptor groups on the same humic acid molecules or on different molecules.

  20. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy reveals chemical fractionation of humic acid by cation-induced coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Christl,I.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cation-induced coagulation on the chemical composition of dissolved and coagulated fractions of humic acid was investigated in batch coagulation experiments for additions of aluminum at pH 4 and 5, iron at pH 4, and calcium and lead at pH 6. The partitioning of organic carbon and metals was determined by analyzing total organic carbon and total metal contents of the dissolved phase. Both the dissolved and the coagulated humic acid fractions were characterized using synchrotron scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and C-1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Intensities of {pi}* transitions of carboxyl carbon and {sigma}* transitions of alkyl, O-alkyl, and carboxyl carbon decreased with increasing metal concentration for the dissolved humic acid fractions. This decrease was accompanied by an increase of the respective intensities in the coagulated fraction as shown for lead. Intensities of aromatic and phenolic carbon were affected to a larger extent only by aluminum and iron additions. The changes observed in the C-1s NEXAFS spectra coincided with an increasing removal of organic carbon from the dissolved phase with increasing total metal concentrations. We conclude that humic acid was chemically fractionated by cation-induced coagulation, which preferentially removed functional groups involved in metal-cation binding from solution.

  1. Solubility prediction of salicylic acid in water-ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures using the Jouyban-Acree model.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, A; Chew, N Y K; Chan, H K; Khoubnasabjafari, M; Acree, W E

    2006-04-01

    To show the applicability of a solution model, i.e. the Jouyban-Acree model, for predicting the solubility of a solute in ternary solvent systems based on model constants computed using solubility data of the solute in binary solvent systems, the solubility of salicylic acid in water-ethanol, water-propylene glycol, ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures was determined. A minimum number of three data points from each binary system was used to calculate the binary interaction parameters of the model. Then the solubility in other binary solvent compositions and also in a number of ternary solvents was predicted, and the mean percentage deviation (MPD) was calculated as an accuracy criterion. The overall MPD (+/-SD) was 7.3 (+/-7.3)% and those of a similar predictive model was 15.7 (+/-11.5)%. The mean difference between the proposed and a previous model was statistically significant (paired t-test, p < 0.004).

  2. Improving Co-Amorphous Drug Formulations by the Addition of the Highly Water Soluble Amino Acid, Proline

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Katrine Tarp; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Grohganz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug amino acid mixtures were previously shown to be a promising approach to create physically stable amorphous systems with the improved dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aim of this work was to expand the co-amorphous drug amino acid mixture approach by combining the model drug, naproxen (NAP), with an amino acid to physically stabilize the co-amorphous system (tryptophan, TRP, or arginine, ARG) and a second highly soluble amino acid (proline, PRO) for an additional improvement of the dissolution rate. Co-amorphous drug-amino acid blends were prepared by ball milling and investigated for solid state characteristics, stability and the dissolution rate enhancement of NAP. All co-amorphous mixtures were stable at room temperature and 40 °C for a minimum of 84 days. PRO acted as a stabilizer for the co-amorphous system, including NAP–TRP, through enhancing the molecular interactions in the form of hydrogen bonds between all three components in the mixture. A salt formation between the acidic drug, NAP, and the basic amino acid, ARG, was found in co-amorphous NAP–ARG. In comparison to crystalline NAP, binary NAP–TRP and NAP–ARG, it could be shown that the highly soluble amino acid, PRO, improved the dissolution rate of NAP from the ternary co-amorphous systems in combination with either TRP or ARG. In conclusion, both the solubility of the amino acid and potential interactions between the molecules are critical parameters to consider in the development of co-amorphous formulations. PMID:25025400

  3. Improving aqueous solubility and antitumor effects by nanosized gambogic acid-mPEG2000 micelles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lulu; Qiu, Neng; Xiang, Mingli; Tong, Rongsheng; Yan, Junfeng; He, Lin; Shi, Jianyou; Chen, Tao; Wen, Jiaolin; Wang, Wenwen; Chen, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    The clinical application of gambogic acid, a natural component with promising antitumor activity, is limited due to its extremely poor aqueous solubility, short half-life in blood, and severe systemic toxicity. To solve these problems, an amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugate was prepared by attachment of low molecular weight (ie, 2 kDa) methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG) to gambogic acid (GA-mPEG2000) through an ester linkage and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-mPEG2000 conjugates self-assembled to form nanosized micelles, with mean diameters of less than 50 nm, and a very narrow particle size distribution. The properties of the GA-mPEG2000 micelles, including morphology, stability, molecular modeling, and drug release profile, were evaluated. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) tests demonstrated that the GA-mPEG2000 micelle formulation had obvious cytotoxicity to tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further, GA-mPEG2000 micelles were effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged survival in subcutaneous B16-F10 and C26 tumor models. Our findings suggest that GA-mPEG2000 micelles may have promising applications in tumor therapy. PMID:24403830

  4. Authentication of dried distilled grain with solubles (DDGS) by fatty acid and volatile profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tres, Alba; Heenan, Samuel P.; van Ruth, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Demand for ethanol substituted fuels from the utilisation of cereal based biofuel has resulted in an over production of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) that are now readily available on the animal feed market. With this rapid emerging availability comes potential variability in the nutritional value of DDGS and possible risks of feed contaminants. Subsequently, the authentication and traceability of alternative animal feed sources is of high priority. In this study and as part of the EU research project “Quality and Safety of Feeds and Food for Europe (QSAFFE FP7-KBBE-2010-4) an attempt was made to classify the geographical origin of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. DDGS material of wheat and corn origin were obtained from Europe, China, and the USA. Fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints were assessed by gas chromatography flame ionisation (GC-FID) and rapid proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) respectively. Chemometric analysis of fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints allowed for promising classifications of cereals used in DDGS material by geographical and botanical origin and enabled visual representation of the data. This objective analytical approach could be adapted for routine verification of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. PMID:25368433

  5. Formation and catalytic activity of high molecular weight soluble polymers produced by heating amino acids in a modified sea medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihana, Hiroyuki

    1982-06-01

    Eighteen protein amino acids with milk casein composition were heated in a modified sea medium. Marigranules were formed in the precipitates and soluble polymers were formed in the supernatant. Time course of the reaction (ultraviolet spectra, the concentration of metal ions, and the concentration of amino acids in the supernatant) were measured. The time course of the formation of the soluble polymers was also studied by Bio-Gel P-2 column. High molecular weight soluble polymers (HMWSP) were separated from low molecular weight ones by dialysis. It was shown that these polymers catalyzed the dehydrogenation of NADH. These polymers also catalyzed the coupled reaction between dehydrogenation of NADH and reduction of resazurin. This coupled reaction was accelerated by the light.

  6. Stability and solubility enhancement of ellagic acid in cellulose ester solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Harich, Kim; Wegiel, Lindsay; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-02-15

    Structurally varied, carboxyl-containing cellulose derivatives were evaluated for their ability to form amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) with ellagic acid (EA), in order to improve the solubility of this high-melting, poorly bioavailable, but highly bioactive natural flavonoid compound. ASDs of EA with carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared, and EA dissolution from these ASDs was compared with that from pure crystalline EA and from EA/poly(vinylpyrrolidinone) (PVP) solid dispersions (SD). Polymer/drug mixtures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRPD and FT-IR results indicated that EA was amorphous in solid dispersions with EA concentration up to 25 wt%. The stability against crystallization and solution concentrations of EA from these solid dispersions were significantly higher than those observed for physical mixtures and pure crystalline EA. HPMCAS stabilized EA most effectively, among the polymers tested, against both chemical degradation and recrystallization. The relative ability to solubilize EA from ASDs at pH 6.8 was PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB. EA dissolves from ASD in PVP quickly and completely (maximum 92%) at pH 6.8, but EA is also released from PVP at pH 1.2, and then crystallizes rapidly. Therefore PVP is not a practical candidate for EA ASD. In contrast, the cellulose derivative ASDs show very slow EA release at pH 1.2 (<4%) and faster but still incomplete drug release at pH 6.8 (maximum 35% for HPMCAS SD). The pH-triggered drug release from HPMCAS ASD makes HPMCAS a practical choice for EA solubility enhancement. PMID:23399175

  7. The participation of soluble factors in the omega-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver of the sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, W.R.; Wahle, K.W. )

    1991-02-01

    The removal of soluble components from an ovine hepatic microsomal preparation decreased the omega-hydroxylation of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids. The results suggest that one or more soluble components play a role in the microsomal omega-hydroxylation of fatty acids. The possible roles in the reaction of catalase (known to stimulate the microsomal desaturations of fatty acids and alkylglycerols) and superoxide dismutase were investigated. The addition of these enzymes to the complete (but not the washed) microsomal preparation stimulated both the initial omega-hydroxylation reaction and the subsequent dehydrogenation reactions of the omega-oxidation pathway. The similarity of the effects of catalase and superoxide dismutase and stimulation of two different steps of the omega-oxidation pathway suggest that these agents are acting indirectly by removing active oxygen species rather than directly on the enzymes of microsomal fatty acid omega-hydroxylation.

  8. Plastic bags for stable storage of the water-soluble fraction of crude petroleum used in aquatic environment toxicity and tainting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heras, H.; Zhou, S.; Ackman, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    Each year, an estimated 4,000,000 t of petroleum enter the marine environment through sea and land based discharges, atmospheric fall-out and other events. Aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons are tainting components of crude petroleum, and are potentially toxic because they are relatively soluble in water. Depending on concentration, they are also carcinogenic. Many laboratory studies have been conducted with marine organisms, both vertebrates and invertebrates, to assess the effects of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons with respect to physiology, toxicity, and tainting. When such experiments are conducted in a controlled water environment, the WSF is generally used, rather than specific hydrocarbons. This fraction has traditionally been prepared immediately before carrying out the experiment, or in several batches during the study, sometimes with results confused by erratic concentrations. Any procedure to store large amounts of WSF for long periods without changes in the composition would increase the feasibility and reproducibility of long-term studies. As part of an ongoing project which needs large volumes of WSF of constant composition to study the tainting effect of WSF on adult Atlantic salmon, we compared two different storage systems for the stability of contained WSF over time. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mass spectrometry assessment of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 partitioning between soluble and particulate brain homogenate fractions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjun; Huang, Richard Y-C; Turko, Illarion V

    2013-06-18

    Partitioning of specific proteins between soluble and insoluble forms because of aggregation, membrane attachment, and (or) association with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is a major feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is an example of a neuron-specific protein which displays two different dimerization-dependent catalytic activities and can be farnesylated for membrane attachment, oxidized, and truncated. Decreased levels of soluble UCH-L1 are inversely proportional to the number of neurofibrillary tangles. Further assessment of a link between UCH-L1 function and the pathogenesis of AD requires an analytical method to separately quantify different UCH-L1 forms. In the present study, we have developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay to measure UCH-L1 in the high-speed supernatant and pellet of frontal cortex homogenate. The well-characterized (15)N-labeled quantification concatamer (QconCAT) carrying prototypic tryptic peptides of UCH-L1 was used as an internal standard. The composed protocol of frontal cortex processing includes solubilization and reduction/alkylation of proteins in the presence of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and following with desalting/delipidation of the sample by chloroform/methanol precipitation with extra water washing of the protein pellet. The measurements were performed for frontal cortex samples from control and severe AD donors. The proposed workflow can be recommended for quantification of partitioning of other proteins of interest. PMID:23682718

  10. [Lipid peroxidation in cardiac mitochondrial fraction of rats exposed to different supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Shmarakov, I O; Marchenko, M M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) used at different ratios of w-6/w-3 was studied on the content of primary (diene conjugates, DC; triene conjugates, TC), secondary (ketodienes, CD; coupled trienes, CT; TBA-active products) and terminal (Schiff bases) lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and generation of superoxide anion-radical in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. It was shown that diet supplementation with high doses of w-6 or w-3 PUFAs increased the content of primary, secondary and terminal LPO in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. Llipid peroxidation was accompanied by the intensification of superoxide anion-radical generation in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. During diet consumption with the PUFAs leading factor affecting the intensity of lipoperoxidation in rat heart mitochondria is fatty acid composition, rather than the level of their saturation.

  11. In vitro antilisterial effects of citrus oil fractions in combination with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedly, E C; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C; Roman, M; O'Bryan, C; Chalova, V I

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to screen activity of citrus essential oil fractions (EOs) alone and in combination with organic acids against 2 species of Listeria. Five citrus EOs were initially screened by disc diffusion assay for antibacterial activity. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CP terpeneless oil) had the strongest bacteriostatic (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) properties at 0.55% and 1.67%, respectively. Four organic acids were tested for effectiveness against Listeria. Citric and malic acids proved to be the most effective with MBC of 1.1% alone. Assays were conducted to determine synergistic effects of EOs and citric or malic acids. There was a significant decrease in MIC and MBC to 0.04% EO plus 0.12% malic or citric acid. EOs from citrus paired with organic acids offer the potential as an all-natural antimicrobial for improving the safety of all-natural foods. PMID:19323760

  12. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  13. Improving solubility, stability, and cellular uptake of resveratrol by nanoencapsulation with chitosan and γ-poly (glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young Ok; Lee, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound found in grape skins, is a potent antioxidant with broad health benefits. However, its utilization in food has been limited by its poor water solubility, instability, and low bioavailability. The purpose of this study is to improve the solubility, stability, and cellular uptake of RES by nanoencapsulation using chitosan (CS) and γ-poly (glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). The size of nanoparticles significantly decreases with a decrease in the CS/γ-PGA ratio (p<0.05). The nanoparticle size with CS/γ-PGA ratio of 5 was 100-150nm. The entrapment efficiency and UV-light protection effect significantly increases (p<0.05), with an increase in the CS and γ-PGA concentration. The solubility of RES increases 3.2 and 4.2 times before and after lyophilization by nanoencapsulation, respectively. Compared with non-nanoencapsulated RES, the nanoencapsulated RES tends to maintain its solubility and antioxidant activity during storage. CS/γ-PGA nanoencapsulation was able to significantly enhance the transport of RES across a Caco-2 cell monolayer (p<0.05). The highest cellular uptake was found for nanoparticles prepared with 0.5mg/mL CS and 0.1mg/mL γ-PGA, which showed the highest solubility and antioxidant activity during storage. Therefore, CS/γ-PGA nanoencapsulation is found to be a potentially valuable technique for improving the solubility, stability, and cellular uptake of RES. PMID:27518454

  14. Quantifying solubility enhancement due to particle size reduction and crystal habit modification: case study of acetyl salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Robert B; Pencheva, Klimentina; Roberts, Kevin J; Auffret, Tony

    2007-08-01

    The poor solubility of potential drug molecules is a significant problem in the design of pharmaceutical formulations. It is well known, however, that the solubility of crystalline materials is enhanced when the particle size is reduced to submicron levels and this factor can be expected to enhance drug product bioavailability. Direct estimation of solubility enhancement, as calculated via the Gibbs-Thompson relationship, demands reasonably accurate values for the particle/solution interfacial tension and, in particular, its anisotropy with respect to the crystal product's habit and morphology. In this article, an improved, more molecule-centered, approach is presented towards the calculation of solubility enhancement factors in which molecular modeling techniques are applied, and the effects associated with both crystal habit modification and solvent choice are examined. A case study for facetted, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) crystals in equilibrium with saturated aqueous ethanol solution reveals that their solubility will be enhanced in the range (7-58%) for a crystal size of 0.02 microm, with significantly higher enhancement for crystal morphologies in which the hydrophobic crystal faces are more predominant than the hydrophilic faces and for solvents in which the solubility is smaller.

  15. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of solvation of drug molecules: a thermodynamic approach by crystal lattice energy, sublimation, and solubility exemplified by hydroxybenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Perlovich, German L; Volkova, Tatyana V; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2006-07-01

    Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure and heat capacities for the 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured and thermodynamic functions of sublimation calculated (2-hydroxybenzoic acid: DeltaG(sub) (298) = 38.5 kJ/mol; DeltaH(sub) (298) = 96.6 +/- 0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaS(sub) (298) = 191 +/- 3 J/mol . K; 3-hydroxybenzoic acid: DeltaG(sub) (298) = 50.6 kJ/mol; DeltaH(sub) (298) = 105.2 +/- 0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaS(sub) (298) = 180 +/- 2 J/mol . K; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid: DeltaG(sub) (298) = 55.0 kJ/mol; DeltaH(sub) (298) = 113.3 +/- 0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaS(sub) (298) = 193 +/- 2 J/mol . K). Analysis of crystal lattice packing energies based on geometry optimization of the molecules in the crystal using diffraction data and the program Dmol(3) was carried out. The energetic contributions of van der Waals, Coulombic, and hydrogen bond terms to the total packing energy were analyzed. The fraction of hydrogen bond energy in the packing energy increases as: 3-hydroxybenzoic (29.7%) < 2-hydroxybenzoic (34.7%) < 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (42.0%). Enthalpies of evaporation were estimated from enthalpies of sublimation and fusion. Temperature dependencies of the solubility in n-octanol and n-hexane were measured. The thermodynamic functions of solubility and solvation processes were deduced. Specific and nonspecific solvation terms were distinguished using the transfer from the "inert" n-hexane to the other solvents. The transfer of the molecules from water to n-octanol is enthalpy driven process.

  16. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  17. Experimental oxygen isotope fractionation between siderite-water and phosphoric acid liberated CO2-siderite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carothers, W.W.; Adami, L.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium fractionation of O isotopes between synthetic siderite and water has been measured at temperatures ranging from 33?? to 197??C. The fractionation between siderite and water over this temperature range can be represented by the equation: 103 ln ?? = 3.13 ?? 106T-2 - 3.50. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical fractionations is favorable only at approximately 200??C; at lower temperatures, they generally differ by up to 2 permil. Siderite was prepared by the slow addition of ferrous chloride solutions to sodium bicarbonate solutions at the experimental temperatures. It was also used to determine the O isotope fractionation factors between phosphoric acid liberated CO2 and siderite. The fractionation factors for this pair at 25?? and 50??C are 1.01175 and 1.01075, respectively. Preliminary results of the measured C isotope fractionation between siderite and Co2 also indicate C isotopic equilibrium during precipitation of siderite. The measured distribution of 13C between siderite and CO2 coincides with the theoretical values only at about 120??C. Experimental and theoretical C fractionations differ up to 3 permil at higher and lower temperatures. ?? 1988.

  18. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-02-04

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  19. Design, synthesis, structure, and dehydrogenation reactivity of a water-soluble o-iodoxybenzoic acid derivative bearing a trimethylammonium group.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Qian; Dong, Zhi-Lei; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Chi

    2011-12-16

    5-Trimethylammonio-1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-1λ(5)-benzo[d][1,2]iodoxol-1-ol anion (AIBX 1a), an o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) derivative having the trimethylammonium moiety on its phenyl ring, possesses very good solubility in water and distinct oxidative properties from IBX, which is demonstrated in the oxidation of various β-keto esters to the corresponding dehydrogenated products using water as cosolvent. The regeneration of AIBX 1a can be easily realized from the reaction mixture due to its good water solubility. PMID:22082110

  20. Design, synthesis, structure, and dehydrogenation reactivity of a water-soluble o-iodoxybenzoic acid derivative bearing a trimethylammonium group.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Qian; Dong, Zhi-Lei; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Chi

    2011-12-16

    5-Trimethylammonio-1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-1λ(5)-benzo[d][1,2]iodoxol-1-ol anion (AIBX 1a), an o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) derivative having the trimethylammonium moiety on its phenyl ring, possesses very good solubility in water and distinct oxidative properties from IBX, which is demonstrated in the oxidation of various β-keto esters to the corresponding dehydrogenated products using water as cosolvent. The regeneration of AIBX 1a can be easily realized from the reaction mixture due to its good water solubility.

  1. Identification and characterization of component organic and glycosidic acids of crude resin glycoside fraction from Calystegia soldanella.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Ayako; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yokomizo, Kazumi; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of the crude resin glycoside fraction of the leaves, stems, and roots of Calystegia soldanella ROEM. et SCHULT. (Convolvulaceae) gave four new glycosidic acids, named calysolic acids A, B, C, and D, along with one known glycosidic acid, soldanellic acid B, and three organic acids, 2S-methylbutyric, tiglic, and 2S,3S-nilic acids. The structures of the new glycosidic acids were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

  2. Relative effectiveness of various anions on the solubility of acidic Hypoderma lineatum collagenase at pH 7.2.

    PubMed Central

    Carbonnaux, C.; Ries-Kautt, M.; Ducruix, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of various anions on decreasing the solubility of acidic Hypoderma lineatum collagenase at pH 7.2 and 18 degrees C were qualitatively defined by replacing the crystallizing agent of known crystallization conditions by various ammonium salts. The solubility curves measured in the presence of the sulfate, phosphate, citrate, and chloride ammonium salts gave the following ranking of anions: HPO4(2-)/H2PO4- > SO4(2-) > citrate 3-/citrate2- >> Cl-. This order is in agreement with the Hofmeister series. In a previous study on the solubility at pH 4.5 of lysozyme, a basic protein, the effectiveness of anions in decreasing the solubility was found to be in the reverse order. This suggests that the effectiveness of anions in the crystallization of proteins is dependent on the net charge of the protein, i.e., depending on whether a basic protein is crystallized at acidic pH or an acidic protein at basic pH. PMID:8535249

  3. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  4. Adsorption and condensation of amino acids and nucleotides with soluble mineral salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J.; Lahav, N.

    1986-01-01

    The directed synthesis of biopolymers in an abiotic environment is presumably a cyclic sequence of steps which may be realized in a fluctuating environment such as a prebiotic pond undergoing wetting-drying cycles. Soluble mineral salts have been proposed as an essential component of this fluctuating environment. The following sequence may be considered as a most primitive mechanism of information transfer in a fluctuating environment: (1) adsorption of a biomolecule onto a soluable mineral salt surface to act as an adsorbed template; (2) specific adsorption of biomonomers onto the adsorbed template; (3) condensation of the adsorbed biomonomers; and (4) desorption of the elongated oligomer. In this investigation, the salts selected for study were CaSO4.2H2O(gypsum), SrSO4, and several other metal sulfates and chlorides. Adsorption of the monomeric species, gly, 5'AMP 5'GMP, and 5'CMP was investigated. The adsorbed template biopolymers used were Poly-A, Poly-G, Poly-C, and Poly-U. The results of studies involving these experimental participants, the first two steps of the proposed primitive information transfer mechanism, and condensation of amino acids to form oligomers in a fluctuating environment are to be reported.

  5. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of an α/β-type small acid soluble protein (SASP).

    PubMed

    Ojeda-May, P; Pu, Jingzhi

    2013-12-31

    Small acid soluble proteins (SASPs) of α/β-type play a major role in the resistance of spore DNAs to external assaults. It has been found that α/β-type SASP exhibits intrinsic disorder on isolation, but it acquires a defined native state upon binding to DNA. This disorder to order transition is not yet understood. Other questions related to the role of the thermodynamics and structure of the individual protein in the complex formation remain elusive. Characterization of the unbound state of α/β-type SASP in experiments could be a challenging problem because of the heterogeneous nature of the ensemble. Here, computer simulations can help gain more insights into the unbound state of α/β-type SASP. In the present work, by using replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), we simulated an α/β-type SASP on isolation with an implicit solvent. We found that α/β-type SASP undergoes a continuous phase transition with a small free energy barrier, a common feature of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Additionally, we detected the presence of residual α-helical structures at local level and a high degree of plasticity in the chain which can contribute to the fast disorder to order transition by reducing the fly-casting mechanism.

  6. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings.

  7. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

  8. Enhancement of the water solubility of organic pollutants such as pyrene and atrazine by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, H.H.; MacDonald, B.; Fang, F.

    1995-12-31

    Many factors determine the fate and transport of an organic pollutant in the environment but water solubility is certainly one of the most important. Among the environmental factors that alter the solubility of a molecule are naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. We have hypothesized that the humic/fulvic acids from different sources within a watershed have different binding affinities for pollutants such as pyrene and atrazine. This could lead to different rates of transport or bioavailability within the watershed. Humic/fulvic acids were isolated from a stream, adjacent wetland and nearby wooded upland sites. A fluorescence quenching method was developed to quantify the binding coefficient of the pollutants with the dissolved organic carbon. From these results a model was constructed to determine the sites with the greatest potential to modify pollutant contamination in the environment.

  9. Simultaneous determination of molecular weights and contents of water-soluble polysaccharides and their fractions from Lycium barbarum collected in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lam, Shing-Chung; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wei, Feng; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Long, Ze-Rong; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-10

    Molecular weights and contents of water-soluble polysaccharides and their fractions in fifty batches of fruits of Lycium barbarum (wolfberry) collected from different regions of China, including Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Gansu, were simultaneously determined using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector (RID) with the refractive index increment (dn/dc). Results showed that HPSEC chromatograms and molecular weight distributions of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China were similar. Furthermore, the average contents of each polysaccharide fraction (peaks 1, 2, and 3) in crude polysaccharides of L. barbarum collected from Ningxia were similar with those of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Gansu, respectively. However, significant difference was found between polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from Ningxia and Qinghai. Moreover, the average amounts of total polysaccharide fractions (peaks 1, 2, and 3) in the raw material of L. barbarum collected from Ningxia were significantly higher than that of Qinghai. These results may contribute to the rational usage of L. barbarum produced in China, and are beneficial for the improvement of their quality control. Results suggested that HPSEC-MALLS-RID with the dn/dc method could be used as a routine method for the quality evaluation of polysaccharides from natural resources and their products. PMID:27429371

  10. Fractionation of atmospheric acid and base components within storm events by precipitation scavenging processes.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, H M

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of ions in storm rainwater in Texas have been monitored for each 0.254 mm increment of precipitation. The changes in concentrations have been analyzed to investigate the role of differential rates of scavenging of particulate matter of differing particle size, and especially the major acid and base components. The empirical trend at the onset of rainfall is a chemical fractionation of acids and bases with correspondingly wide pH variations. These results are confirmed by model calculations, which show a significant preferential scavenging of calcium relative to sulfate in the first 10 mm of rainfall, resulting in fractionation of bases and acids from their atmospheric concentrations. Previous studies, using Target Transformation Factor Analysis of ion concentrations in storm precipitation and regional ambient aerosol data, statistically determined the average source for acidic secondary species and alkaline particulate matter. Two types of crustal sources were identified as western and eastern soil dust. In this study, an alternate physical explanation for these two soil dust factors is offered. As a storm progresses, the elements in the local soil dust are fractionated as a result of their differential rates of precipitation scavenging, enriching species predominantly in the fine particle size and depleting elements predominantly in the coarse particle size. This fractionation process results in a single source having different elemental ratios at the beginning and at the end of a rain event. For Austin, Dallas, and Tyler, Texas, the soil dust previously identified as being from eastern sources could, instead, be a fractionated form of the western soil source.

  11. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kathryn M; Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D; Gutterman, David D; Falck, J R; Campbell, William B

    2011-10-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H(2)O(2) causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H(2)O(2), catalase is used to inactivate H(2)O(2). However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10-50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1-10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (V(max) = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase(-1)·min(-1), respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H(2)O(2) and EETs.

  12. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kathryn M; Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D; Gutterman, David D; Falck, J R; Campbell, William B

    2011-10-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H(2)O(2) causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H(2)O(2), catalase is used to inactivate H(2)O(2). However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10-50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1-10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (V(max) = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase(-1)·min(-1), respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H(2)O(2) and EETs. PMID:21753077

  13. Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid compositions and molecular weights but differ in fatty acid acylation.

    PubMed Central

    Luhrs, C A; Pitiranggon, P; da Costa, M; Rothenberg, S P; Slomiany, B L; Brink, L; Tous, G I; Stein, S

    1987-01-01

    A membrane-associated folate binding protein (FBP) and a soluble FBP, which is released into the culture medium, have been purified from human KB cells using affinity chromatography. By NaDodSO4/PAGE, both proteins have an apparent Mr of approximately 42,000. However, in the presence of Triton X-100, the soluble FBP eluted from a Sephadex G-150 column with an apparent Mr of approximately 40,000 (similar to NaDodSO4/PAGE) but the membrane-associated FBP eluted with an apparent Mr of approximately 160,000, indicating that this species contains a hydrophobic domain that interacts with the detergent micelles. The amino acid compositions of both forms of FBP were similar, especially with respect to the apolar amino acids. In addition, the 18 amino acids at the amino termini of both proteins were identical. The membrane FBP, following delipidation with chloroform/methanol, contained 7.1 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein, of which 4.7 mol was amide-linked and 2.4 mol was ester-linked. The soluble FBP contained only 0.05 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein. These studies indicate that the membrane FBP of KB cells contains covalently bound fatty acids that may serve to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. Images PMID:3476960

  14. Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid compositions and molecular weights but differ in fatty acid acylation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, C.A.; Pitiranggon, P.; Costa, M.D.; Rothenberg, S.P.; Slomiany, B.L.; Brink, L.; Tous, G.I.; Stein, S.

    1987-09-01

    A membrane-associated folate binding protein (FBP) and a soluble FBP, which is released into the culture medium, have been purified from human KB cells using affinity chromatography. By NaDodSO/sub 4/PAGE, both proteins have an apparent M/sub r/ of approx. 42,000. However, in the presence of Triton X-100, the soluble FBP eluted from a Sephadex G-150 column with an apparent M/sub r/ of approx. 40,000 (similar to NaDodSO/sub 4/PAGE) but the membrane-associated FBP eluted with an apparent M/sub r/ of approx. = 160,000, indicating that this species contains a hydrophobic domain that interacts with the detergent micelles. The amino acid compositions of both forms of FBP were similar, especially with respect to the apolar amino acids. In addition, the 18 amino acids at the amino termini of both proteins were identical. The membrane FBP, following delipidation with chloroformmethanol, contained 7.1 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein, of which 4.7 mol was amide-linked and 2.4 mol was ester-linked. The soluble FBP contained only 0.05 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein. These studies indicate that the membrane FBP of KB cells contains covalently bound fatty acids that may serve to anchor the protein in the cell membrane.

  15. Removal and recovery of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid from aqueous solutions using a soluble polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brian; Gilcrease, Patrick C; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    In the cellulosic ethanol process, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid are formed during the high temperature acidic pretreatment step needed to convert biomass into fermentable sugars. These compounds can inhibit cellulase enzymes and fermentation organisms at relatively low concentrations (≥ 1 g/L). Effective removal of these inhibitory compounds would allow the use of more severe pretreatment conditions to improve sugar yields and lead to more efficient fermentations; if recovered and purified, they could also be sold as valuable by-products. This study investigated the separation of aldhehydes (furfural and HMF) and organic acid (acetic acid) inhibitory compounds from simple aqueous solutions by using polyethyleneimene (PEI), a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. PEI added to simple solutions of each inhibitor at a ratio of 1 mol of functional group to 1 mol inhibitor removed up to 89.1, 58.6, and 81.5 wt% of acetic acid, HMF, and furfural, respectively. Furfural and HMF were recovered after removal by washing the polyelectrolyte/inhibitor complex with dilute sulfuric acid solution. Recoveries up to 81.0 and 97.0 wt% were achieved for furfural and HMF, respectively. The interaction between PEI and acetic acid was easily disrupted by the addition of chloride ions, sulfate ions, or hydroxide ions. The use of soluble polymers for the removal and recovery of inhibitory compounds from biomass slurries is a promising approach to enhance the efficiency and economics of an envisioned biorefinery.

  16. Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Through Complexation of Ferric Iron by Soluble Microbial Growth Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Rajaram, H.; Minchow, K.; Basta, J.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem with deleterious impacts on water quality in streams and watersheds. AMD is generated largely by the oxidation of metal sulfides (i.e. pyrite) by ferric iron. This abiotic reaction is catalyzed by conversion of ferrous to ferric iron by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Biostimulation is currently being investigated as an attempt to inhibit the oxidation of pyrite and growth of iron oxidizing bacteria through addition of organic carbon. This may stimulate growth of indigenous communities of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria to compete for oxygen. The goal of this research is to investigate a secondary mechanism associated with carbon addition: complexation of free Fe(III) by soluble microbial growth products (SMPs) produced by microorganisms growing in waste rock. Exploratory research at the laboratory scale examined the effect of soluble microbial products (SMPs) on the kinetics of oxidation of pure pyrite during shaker flask experiments. The results confirmed a decrease in the rate of pyrite oxidation that was dependent upon the concentration of SMPs in solution. We are using these data to verify results from a pyrite oxidation model that accounts for SMPs. This reactor model involves differential-algebraic equations incorporating total component mass balances and mass action laws for equilibrium reactions. Species concentrations determined in each time step are applied to abiotic pyrite oxidation rate expressions from the literature to determine the evolution of total component concentrations. The model was embedded in a parameter estimation algorithm to determine the reactive surface area of pyrite in an abiotic control experiment, yielding an optimized value of 0.0037 m2. The optimized model exhibited similar behavior to the experiment for this case; the root mean squared of residuals for Fe(III) was calculated to be 7.58 x 10-4 M, which is several orders of magnitude less than the actual

  17. Inter-relationships between solubilities, distribution coefficients and melting points of some substituted benzoic and phenylacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N A; James, K C; Wong, C K

    1979-09-01

    Ten 4-hydroxy and 4-alkoxy benzoic and phenylalkanoic acids have been investigated. Solubilities in aqueous buffer at pH 1.2 were determined, together with distribution coefficients between the buffer and either octanol or isopropyl myristate. When plotted against the total number of carbon atoms in the side chains, log octanol/water distribution coefficients gave two parallel straight lines, one for the substituted benzoic acids, and the other for the substituted phenylalkanoic acids. The slopes approximated to 0.5, the generally accepted value for methylene. Similar plots could be obtained with isopropyl myristate, provided the hydroxy acid results were ignored, and also when log aqueous solubilities were plotted against carbon number, although there was considerable scatter. The differences between the distribution coefficient results were explained in terms of solute-solvent interactions, and the scatter attributed to variations in the heats of fusion of the solutes. Yalkowsky's equation (1977), linking aqueous solubilities and melting points with distribution coefficients, was applied to the results, and found to be of limited predictive value. PMID:41067

  18. Characterization of acid-and pepsin-soluble collagens from spines and skulls of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Ding, Guo-Fang; Li, Zhong-Rui

    2014-09-01

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from the spine (ASC-SP and PSC-SP) and skull (ASC-SK and PSC-SK) of the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, were successfully isolated and characterized. The yields of ASC-SP, PSC-SP, ASC-SK and PSC-SK were (2.47 ± 0.39)%, (5.62 ± 0.82)%, (3.57 ± 0.40)%, and (6.71 ± 0.81)%, respectively, on the basis of dry weight. The four collagens contained Gly (330.2-339.1 residues/1 000 residues) as the major amino acid, and their imino acid contents were between 168.8 and 178.2 residues/1 000 residues. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR investigations confirmed that ASC-SP and ASC-SK were mainly composed of type I collagen, and had higher contents of high-molecular weight cross-links than those of PSC-SK and PSC-SP. The FTIR investigation also certified all the collagens had triple helical structure. The denaturation temperatures of ASC-SK, PSC-SK, ASC-SP, and PSC-SP were 17.8, 16.6, 17.6, and 16.5 °C, respectively. All isolated collagens were soluble at acidic pH (1-5) and lost their solubilities when the NaCl concentration was above 2% (W/V). The isolated collagens from the spines and skulls of skipjack tuna could serve as an alternative source of collagens for further application in food, cosmetic, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Solubility and partial molar volumes of naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzoic acid, and 2-methoxynaphthalene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Goenenc, Z.S.; Akman, U. |; Sunol, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of temperature, pressure, and supercritical fluid density on the retention and solubility in the mobile phase of solutes in supercritical fluid chromatography was investigated. New retention data for naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzoic acid, and 2-methoxynaphthalene were obtained as a function of pressure at different temperatures. Most of the data were taken near the critical region of the fluid phase where the anomalities such as enhanced solubility/selectivity and retrogate behavior are expected. These data were then used to compare two different approaches for modeling the pressure dependence of solute retention on the column. In these approaches, mobile-phase partial molar volumes of the solutes were determined either from bulk solubility data or from infinite-dilution fugacity coefficients. In both approaches, an integrated expression for the change of retention with pressure was utilized to explicitly reveal the nature of interactions between the stationary phase and the solute. The approach that utilizes the infinite-dilution fugacity coefficient predicts the pressure dependence of solute retention more accurately, especially for solutes that are substantially soluble in the mobile phase near the critical point of the mobile phase. Relationships between the pressure and temperature dependence of the solute solubility in the mobile phase and the retention of solutes on the column were also investigated.

  20. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  1. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:21572646

  2. Study of the effect of water-soluble fractions of heavy-oil on coastal marine organisms using enclosed ecosystems, mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Ohwada, Kouichi; Nishimura, Masahiko; Wada, Minoru; Nomura, Hideaki; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Ken; Toyoda, Keita; Yoshida, Akihiro; Takada, Hideshige; Yamada, Mihoko

    2003-01-01

    Mesocosm facilities composed of 4 experimental and 2 reservoir tanks (1.5 m in diameter, 3.0 m in depth and 5 tons in capacity) made of FRP plastics, were constructed in the concrete fish rearing pond in the Fisheries Laboratory, The University of Tokyo. The water-soluble fraction of Rank A heavy residual oil was formed by mixing 500 g of the oil with 10 l of seawater, which was introduced to the 5000 l-capacity tanks. Experimental Run 4 was conducted from May 31 to June 7, 2000. Oil concentrations in the tanks were 4.5 microg/l called LOW, and 13.5 microg/l, called HIGH tank. Bacterial growth rates very quickly accelerated in the HIGH tank just after the loading of oil which corresponded with a high increase of bacterial cells in the same tank after 2 days. Later, bacterial numbers in HIGH tank rapidly decreased, corresponding with the rapid increase of heterotrophic nano-flagellates and virus numbers on the same day. Sediment traps were deployed at the bottom of the experimental tanks, and were periodically retrieved. These samples were observed both under light microscope and epi-fluorescent microscope with UV-excitation. It was observed that the main components of the vertical flux were amorphous suspended matter, mostly originating from dead phytoplankton and living diatoms. It was further observed from the pictures that vertical transport of oil emulsions were probably conducted after adsorption to amorphous suspended matter and living diatoms, and were settling in the sediment traps at the bottom of the tanks. This means that the main force which drives the soluble fraction of oil into bottom sediment would be vertical flux of such amorphous suspended particles and phytoplankton. Further incubation of the samples revealed that the oil emulsions were degraded by the activity of autochtonous bacteria in the sediment in aerobic condition.

  3. Cryomilling-induced solid dispersion of poor glass forming/poorly water-soluble mefenamic acid with polyvinylpyrrolidone K12.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naewon; Lee, Jangmi; Choi, Ji Na; Mao, Chen; Lee, Eun Hee

    2015-06-01

    The effect of mechanical impact on the polymorphic transformation of mefenamic acid (MFA) and the formation of a solid dispersion of mefenamic acid, a poor glass forming/poorly-water soluble compound, with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K12 was investigated. The implication of solid dispersion formation on solubility enhancement of MFA, prepared by cryomilling, was investigated. Solid state characterization was conducted using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with crystal structure analysis. Apparent solubility of the mixtures in pH 7.4 buffer was measured. A calculation to compare the powder patterns and FTIR spectra of solid dispersions with the corresponding physical mixtures was conducted. Solid state characterization showed that (1) MFA I transformed to MFA II when pure MFA I was cryogenically milled (CM); and (2) MFA forms a solid dispersion when MFA was cryogenically milled with PVP K12. FTIR spectral analysis showed that hydrogen bonding facilitated by mechanical impact played a major role in forming solid dispersions. The apparent solubility of MFA was significantly improved by making a solid dispersion with PVP K12 via cryomilling. This study highlights the importance of cryomilling with a good hydrogen bond forming excipient as a technique to prepare solid dispersion, especially when a compound shows a poor glass forming ability and therefore, is not easy to form amorphous forms by conventional method.

  4. Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin

    SciTech Connect

    Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

  5. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  6. J-aggregate formation of a water-soluble porphyrin in acidic aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Osamu; Kaizu, Youkoh; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1993-09-01

    J aggregate of a water-soluble porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (H2TPPS44-), formed in acidified aqueous solutions, exhibits sharp and intense absorption bands at 491 and 707 nm. These characteristic transitions, J bands, are of linear oscillators polarized in the long axis of rodlike aggregate. The molecules in the aggregate stack so as to lift the degeneracy of the porphyrin planar oscillator excited states. Measurements of flow-induced linear dichroism, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, as well as polarized fluorescence excitation spectra provide evidence not only of linear oscillator character of the intense J band at 491 nm, but also of presence of another diffuse absorption band around at 420 nm polarized in the short axis of the aggregate, which is the counterpart of the 491 nm band of porphyrin Soret origin. Extrinsic circular dichroism is induced upon addition of L-tartaric acid or by mechanical swirling flow in the period of aggregate growth. Resonance Raman spectrum of the aggregate is rather similar to that of the monomeric diacid except the polarization. The observed shifts of Raman peaks to lower frequency are ascribed to a deformation of porphyrin moiety and/or hydrophobic interaction between component molecules in the aggregate. The sharp and intense J bands polarized in the long axis of aggregate cannot be well described without taking into account the participation of interporphyrin charge resonance excited states, whereas the broadbands polarized in the short axis are exclusively ascribed to exciton resonance excited states. The porphyrin J band is characterized as sustaining an exchange narrowing by fast migration of excitation over the whole system of chromophores in a linear array of the porphyrin planar oscillators in slipped face-to-face stacking.

  7. Restoration of Brain Acid Soluble Protein 1 Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Run-Sheng; Yu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yue-Yu; Shen, Na; Qiu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1) is identified as a novel potential tumor suppressor in several cancers. However, its role in thyroid cancer has not been investigated yet. In the present study, the antitumor activities of BASP1 against the growth and migration of thyroid cancer cells were evaluated. Methods: BASP1 expression in thyroid cancer tissues and normal tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and the association between its expression and prognosis was analyzed. pcDNA-BASP1 carrying full length of BASP1 cDNA was constructed to restore the expression of BASP1 in thyroid cancer cell lines (BHT-101 and KMH-2). The cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo was evaluated by WST-1 assay and xenograft tumor models, respectively. Cell cycle distribution after transfection was analyzed using flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis after transfection was examined by annexin V/propidium iodide assay. The migration was examined using transwell assay. Results: BASP1 expression was abundant in normal tissues while it is significantly decreased in cancer tissues (P = 0.000). pcDNA-BASP1 restored the expression of BASP1 and significantly inhibited the growth of BHT-101 and KMH-2 cells as well as xenograft tumors in nude mice (P = 0.000). pcDNA-BASP1 induced G1 arrest and apoptosis in BHT-101 and KMH-2 cells. In addition, pcDNA-BASP1 significantly inhibited the cell migration. Conclusions: Downregulation of BASP1 expression may play a role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. Restoration of BASP1 expression exerted extensive antitumor activities against growth and migration of thyroid cancer cells, which suggested that BASP1 gene might act as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:27270539

  8. Low acid hydrothermal fractionation of Giant Miscanthus for production of xylose-rich hydrolysate and furfural.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-10-01

    Low acid hydrothermal (LAH) fractionation was developed for the effective recovery of hemicellulosic sugar (mainly xylose) from Miscanthus sacchariflorus Goedae-Uksae 1 (M. GU-1). The xylose yield was maximized at 74.75% when the M. GU-1 was fractionated at 180°C and 0.3wt.% of sulfuric acid for 10min. At this condition, the hemicellulose (mainly xylan) degradation was 86.41%. The difference between xylan degradation and xylose recovery yield, i.e., xylan loss, was 11.66%, as indicated by the formation of decomposed products. The furfural, the value added biochemical product, was also obtained by 0.42g/L at this condition, which was 53.82% of furfural production yield based on the xylan loss. After then, the furfural production continued to increase to a maximum concentration of 1.87g/L, at which point the xylan loss corresponded to 25.87%. PMID:27380022

  9. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity in subcellular fractions of normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    PubMed

    Kunze, D; Rüstow, B; Olthoff, D; Jung, K

    1985-03-15

    Biopsy samples from normal and dystrophic human muscle (Duchenne type) were fractionated by differential centrifugation and microsomes, mitochondria and cytosol were assayed for phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) and marker enzymes of mitochondria and cytosol. The activity of phosphatidic acid phosphatase was significantly lower in microsomes and higher in cytosol and mitochondria of dystrophic muscle than in the corresponding subcellular fractions of normal muscle. The results support an explanation of earlier findings that there is reduced G3P incorporation into diglycerides and phosphatidylcholine and a qualitative and quantitative change in the amount of phosphatidylcholine in dystrophic microsomes. The possible reasons for the reduction in the activity of only microsomal PA-P-ase were discussed.

  10. Metabolism of palmitic acid in the subcellular fractions of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Horrocks, L A

    1973-03-01

    After an intracerebral injection of [(14)C]palmitic acid to C57BL/10J mice, the radioactivity in the brains decreased rapidly with time. The incorporated radioactivity was primarily in the 16:0 acyl groups of the diacyl phosphoglycerides at 1 and 3 days after injection. At longer times, increasing proportions of the radioactivity were found in cerebrosides, alkenyl groups, and other acyl groups. The specific radioactivities of the phosphoglycerides were highest in the microsomal fraction at 1 day after injection. The exchange of the diacyl glycerophosphorylcholines and diacyl glycerophosphorylethanolamines between the microsomes and the myelin required 8-14 days. When calculated on the basis of the radioactivity in the 16:0 acyl groups, the half-lives for both of these phosphoglycerides were 6-8 days in all subcellular fractions during the period from 14 to 30 days after injection. The radioactivity in the total lipids from the purified myelin fraction did not decline until more than 14 days after injection because of the reutilization of labeled 16:0 acyl groups for lipid biosynthesis. Recycling of the acyl groups explains the long half-lives reported for myelin phosphoglycerides after injection of [(14)C]acetic acid. Lipids with a relatively high specific radioactivity were lost from the myelin fraction during the purification procedure. The most likely source of these lipids is the most recently formed myelin that is not consolidated into the myelin sheath. PMID:4698268

  11. Metabolism of palmitic acid in the subcellular fractions of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Horrocks, L A

    1973-03-01

    After an intracerebral injection of [(14)C]palmitic acid to C57BL/10J mice, the radioactivity in the brains decreased rapidly with time. The incorporated radioactivity was primarily in the 16:0 acyl groups of the diacyl phosphoglycerides at 1 and 3 days after injection. At longer times, increasing proportions of the radioactivity were found in cerebrosides, alkenyl groups, and other acyl groups. The specific radioactivities of the phosphoglycerides were highest in the microsomal fraction at 1 day after injection. The exchange of the diacyl glycerophosphorylcholines and diacyl glycerophosphorylethanolamines between the microsomes and the myelin required 8-14 days. When calculated on the basis of the radioactivity in the 16:0 acyl groups, the half-lives for both of these phosphoglycerides were 6-8 days in all subcellular fractions during the period from 14 to 30 days after injection. The radioactivity in the total lipids from the purified myelin fraction did not decline until more than 14 days after injection because of the reutilization of labeled 16:0 acyl groups for lipid biosynthesis. Recycling of the acyl groups explains the long half-lives reported for myelin phosphoglycerides after injection of [(14)C]acetic acid. Lipids with a relatively high specific radioactivity were lost from the myelin fraction during the purification procedure. The most likely source of these lipids is the most recently formed myelin that is not consolidated into the myelin sheath.

  12. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size fractionated aerosol in the Southern Mississippi Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; Gamboa da Costa, G.; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2014-02-01

    The chemical content of the water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for the period when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5% of particle mass for particles with dp > 0.96 μm and 10% of particle mass for particles with dp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H-C), unsaturated aliphatic (H-C-C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H-C-O), acetalic (O-CH-O) and aromatic (Ar-H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m-3 for particles with 0.96 < dp < 1.5 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m-3 for particles with dp < 0.49 μm, resulting in molar H / C ratios of 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09 observed in combustion-related organic aerosol. The R-H was the most abundant group representing about 45% of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentration followed by H-C-O (27%) and H-C-C= (26%). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanosulfonate were tentatively identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosol and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from -26.81 ± 0.18‰ for the smallest particles to -25.93 ± 0.31‰ for the largest particles and the relative

  13. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size-fractionated aerosol in the southern Mississippi Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; Gamboa da Costa, G.; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2014-06-01

    The chemical content of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for periods when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5% of particle mass for particles with dp > 0.96 μm and 10% of particle mass for particles with dp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H-C), unsaturated aliphatic (H-C-C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H-C-O), acetalic (O-CH-O) and aromatic (Ar-H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m-3 for particles with 1.5 < dp < 3.0 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m-3 for particles with dp < 0.49 μm. The molar H / C ratios varied from 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09, which were comparable to those observed for combustion-related organic aerosol. The R-H was the most abundant group, representing about 45% of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations, followed by H-C-O (27%) and H-C-C= (26%). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanesulfonate were identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosols and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from -26.81 ± 0.18‰ for the smallest particles to -25.93 ± 0.31‰ for the largest

  14. Characterization of Mycolic Acids in Total Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Fractions from Mycobacterium Species by High Resolution MALDI-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Kanae; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Takafumi; Wada, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mycolic acids (MAs) are characteristic components of bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae, such as Mycobacterium. MAs are categorized into subclasses based on their functional bases (cyclopropane ring, methoxy, keto, and epoxy group). Since MAs have heterogeneity among bacterial species, analyzing of MAs are required in the chemotaxonomic field. However, their structural analysis is not easy because of their long carbon-chain lengths and several functional groups. In this study, total fatty acid (FA) methyl ester (ME) fraction of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with a spiral ion trajectory (MALDI spiral-TOFMS). The distributions of carbon-chain length and their relative peak intensities were confirmed with those obtained by analysis of each subclass fraction which was separated from total FA ME fraction using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The observed major peaks were reliably assigned as MAs owing to the high mass accuracy (error<3 ppm). The types of MA subclasses, their distributions of carbon-chain lengths, their relative peak intensities, and the ratio of even- and odd-numbered carbon-chain MAs for the total FA ME fraction were consistent with those of MA subclass fractions. To visualize whole MAs, contour maps of relative peak intensities for whole MAs were created. The contour maps indicated the MA subclasses and their distributions of carbon-chains with relative peak intensities at a glance. Our proposed method allows simple characterization in a short time and thus enables the analysis of large numbers of samples, and it would contribute to the chemotaxonomy. PMID:26819906

  15. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  16. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  17. Iodoamino acid composition of poorly iodinated human thyroglobulin fractionated by isopycnic centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Vignal, A; Nataf, B M; Tubiana, M

    1978-02-01

    The distribution of iodotyrosines and iodothyroinines has been studied in poorly iodinated 19 S thyroglobulins isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from five human thyroid tissue. The 19 S thyroglobulins have been fractionated by isopycnic centrifugation and 34.5% rubidium chloride gradient. The distribution of iodoamino acids depends on the total iodine content of each fraction. The variations in MIT) and DIT residues with increasing levels of iodination are not identical, the elevation of DIT residues being higher than that of MIT. The number of T4 residues increases quite rapidly after 5 atoms of iodine while T3 increases slightly and slowly. It is shown here that, even after fractionation of poorly iodinated thyroglobulin, the synthesis of thyroid hormones is observed at a level of iodine content as low as 1.4 and 1.8 atoms per molecule of thyroglobulin. This shows that the thyroglobulin fractions obtained by isopycnic centrifugation are still heterogeneous, although less than the initial non-fractionated thyroglobulin. In order to explain our data, it must be admitted that a large proportion of thyroglobulin molecules are not iodinated. PMID:580134

  18. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  19. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  20. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size-fractionated aerosol in the southern Mississippi Valley

    PubMed Central

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; da Costa, G. Gamboa; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical content of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for periods when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5 % of particle mass for particles with δp > 0.96 μm and 10 % of particle mass for particles with δp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H–C), unsaturated aliphatic (H–C–C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H–C–O), acetalic (O–CH–O) and aromatic (Ar–H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m−3 for particles with 1.5 < δp < 3.0 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m−3 for particles with δp < 0.49 μm. The molar H/C ratios varied from 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09, which were comparable to those observed for combustion-related organic aerosol. The R–H was the most abundant group, representing about 45 % of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations, followed by H–C–O (27 %) and H–C–C= (26 %). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanesulfonate were identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosols and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from −26.81 ± 0.18 ‰ for the smallest particles to

  1. Cu(II) binding by a pH-fractionated fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.K.; Cabaniss, S.E.; MacCarthy, P.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between acidity, Cu(II) binding and sorption to XAD resin was examined using Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). The work was based on the hypothesis that fractions of SRFA eluted from an XAD column at various pH's from 1.0 to 12.0 would show systematic variations in acidity and possibly aromaticity which in turn would lead to different Cu(II) binding properties. We measured equilibrium Cu(II) binding to these fractions using Cu2+ ion-selective electrode (ISE) potentiometry at pH 6.0. Several model ligands were also examined, including cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (CP-TCA) and tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THF-TCA), the latter binding Cu(II) much more strongly as a consequence of the ether linkage. The SRFA Cu(II) binding properties agreed with previous work at high ionic strength, and binding was enhanced substantially at lower ionic strength, in agreement with Poisson-Boltzmann predictions for small spheres. Determining Cu binding constants (K(i)) by non-linear regression with total ligand concentrations (L(Ti)) taken from previous work, the fractions eluted at varying pH had K(i) similar to the unfractionated SRFA, with a maximum enhancement of 0.50 log units. We conclude that variable-pH elution from XAD does not isolate significantly strong (or weak) Cu(II)-binding components from the SRFA mixture. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Solubility of carbon dioxide in acetone and propionic acid at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, T.; Maurer, G.

    1997-07-01

    The solubility of carbon dioxide in organic solvents acetone and propionic acid has been measured with an analytical method. The composition and the density of the liquid phase in the binary vapor-liquid equilibrium have been investigated at (313 and 333) K (for the system carbon dioxide + acetone) and at (298, 313, and 333) K (for the system carbon dioxide + propionic acid) at pressures up the binary critical pressure. The experimental results for the phase equilibrium have been correlated with the Peng-Robinson EOS applying several mixing rules.

  3. Lactic acid fermentation stimulated iron absorption by Caco-2 cells is associated with increased soluble iron content in carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, Sharon W; Andlid, Thomas; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was applied to explore the impact of lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus FSC1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides FSC2 on the Fe bioavailability of carrot juice. The redox state of Fe in fermented carrot juice was also assessed as a crucial factor for absorption. LA fermentation was shown to improve mineral solubility to different extents at simulated physiological conditions: Mn (2-fold); Fe (1.5-1.7-fold); Zn (1.2-fold); Cu (1-fold). Soluble Fe2+ was increased about 16-fold by LA fermentation, and about one third of the Fe2+ remained soluble after in vitro digestion (about 4-5-fold higher than in fresh juice). Data on cell-line studies showed a 4-fold increase in the efficiency of Fe uptake, but not in transepithelial transfer by Caco2 cells, as a result of fermentation. The increases in Fe2+ level and the efficiency of cellular Fe uptake were strain-dependent. To sum up the effect on both Fe solubility and cellular uptake efficiency, the amount of cellularly absorbed Fe from Ln. mesenteroides FSC2-fermented juice was about 20 % higher than that from L. pentosus FSC1-fermented juice (22.7 v. 19.2 microg/l juice per mg protein). To conclude, LA fermentation enhanced Fe absorption by Caco-2 cells from carrot juice because of increases in not only Fe solubility after digestion, but also the efficiency of cellular Fe uptake. The fermentation-improved efficiency of Fe uptake was possibly due to the increased level of soluble Fe2+ rather than a being a strain-specific event.

  4. Acid-base and copper-binding properties of three organic matter fractions isolated from a forest floor soil solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schaik, Joris W. J.; Kleja, Dan B.; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2010-02-01

    Vast amounts of knowledge about the proton- and metal-binding properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters have been obtained in studies on isolated humic and fulvic (hydrophobic) acids. Although macromolecular hydrophilic acids normally make up about one-third of DOM, their proton- and metal-binding properties are poorly known. Here, we investigated the acid-base and Cu-binding properties of the hydrophobic (fulvic) acid fraction and two hydrophilic fractions isolated from a soil solution. Proton titrations revealed a higher total charge for the hydrophilic acid fractions than for the hydrophobic acid fraction. The most hydrophilic fraction appeared to be dominated by weak acid sites, as evidenced by increased slope of the curve of surface charge versus pH at pH values above 6. The titration curves were poorly predicted by both Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and NICA-Donnan model calculations using generic parameter values, but could be modelled accurately after optimisation of the proton-binding parameters (pH ⩽ 9). Cu-binding isotherms for the three fractions were determined at pH values of 4, 6 and 9. With the optimised proton-binding parameters, the SHM model predictions for Cu binding improved, whereas the NICA-Donnan predictions deteriorated. After optimisation of Cu-binding parameters, both models described the experimental data satisfactorily. Iron(III) and aluminium competed strongly with Cu for binding sites at both pH 4 and pH 6. The SHM model predicted this competition reasonably well, but the NICA-Donnan model underestimated the effects significantly at pH 6. Overall, the Cu-binding behaviour of the two hydrophilic acid fractions was very similar to that of the hydrophobic acid fraction, despite the differences observed in proton-binding characteristics. These results show that for modelling purposes, it is essential to include the hydrophilic acid fraction in the pool of 'active' humic substances.

  5. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed. PMID:26797927

  6. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction.

  7. Soluble CD44 inhibits melanoma tumor growth by blocking cell surface CD44 binding to hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, T; Sleeman, J P; Schempp, C M; Howells, N; Hofmann, M; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P; Simon, J C

    2001-06-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of CD44 from the surface of cells has been observed recently in different cell types. In cell culture supernatants of human melanoma cell lines a 70 kDa soluble CD44 protein (solCD44) was detected at concentrations of 250-300 ng/ml. Protease inhibitor studies revealed that serine proteases and metalloproteases are involved in the cleavage of CD44 from the surface of melanoma cells. To analyse a possible function of soluble CD44 a human malignant melanoma cell line was stably transfected with cDNAs encoding either wild type soluble CD44s or mutated forms with defective HA binding properties (CD44sR41A and CD44sR150A/R154A). Soluble CD44s almost completely inhibited hyaluronic acid binding by melanoma cells, whereas soluble CD44 mutated in the HA binding domain had no effect. When cultivated on hyaluronic acid, melanoma cell proliferation was induced by 30% for both the parental and the control transfected cells. This increase in proliferation was blocked completely in solCD44s-secreting transfectants, whereas solCD44sR41A and solCD44sR150A/R154A-secreting cells again showed hyaluronic acid-induced cell proliferation. These cell lines were subcutaneously injected into MF1 nu/nu mice to compare their growth as tumors in vivo. Compared to tumors derived from parental and control transfected cells, we observed a dramatic reduction of primary tumor growth with solCD44s expressing MM cells. Transfectants expressing solCD44s mutated in the HA binding domain in contrast developed fast-growing primary tumors. These results provide strong evidence that direct solCD44 interactions with hyaluronic acid interfere competitively with processes induced by hyaluronic acid binding to surface CD44. Autocrine, or drug-induced secretion of solCD44 by human melanoma cells may thus exert potent antitumoral effects in vivo. PMID:11423990

  8. Boronic acid-containing aminopyridine- and aminopyrimidinecarboxamide CXCR1/2 antagonists: Optimization of aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Aaron D; Engles, Courtney A; Maeda, Dean Y; Quinn, Mark T; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Wicomb, Winston N; Mason, S Nicholas; Auten, Richard L; Zebala, John A

    2015-09-15

    The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are important pharmaceutical targets due to their key roles in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression. We have previously identified 2-[5-(4-fluoro-phenylcarbamoyl)-pyridin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl]-phenylboronic acid (SX-517) and 6-(2-boronic acid-5-trifluoromethoxy-benzylsulfanyl)-N-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-nicotinamide (SX-576) as potent non-competitive boronic acid-containing CXCR1/2 antagonists. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of aminopyridine and aminopyrimidine analogs of SX-517 and SX-576, identifying (2-{(benzyl)[(5-boronic acid-2-pyridyl)methyl]amino}-5-pyrimidinyl)(4-fluorophenylamino)formaldehyde as a potent chemokine antagonist with improved aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability.

  9. Water-soluble organic carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in the tropical Indian aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.

    2010-06-01

    Tropical aerosol (PM10) samples (n = 49) collected from southeast coast of India were studied for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), together with analyses of total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Their distributions were characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid followed by terephthalic (t-Ph), malonic, and succinic acids. Total concentrations of diacids (227-1030 ng m-3), ketoacids (16-105 ng m-3), and dicarbonyls (4-23 ng m-3) are comparative to those from other Asian megacities such as Tokyo and Hong Kong. t-Ph acid was found as the second most abundant diacid in the Chennai aerosols. This feature has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols. t-Ph acid is most likely derived from the field burning of plastics. Water-soluble diacids were found to contribute 0.4%-3% of TC and 4%-11% of WSOC. Based on molecular distributions and backward air mass trajectories, we found that diacids and related compounds in coastal South Indian aerosols are influenced by South Asian and Indian Ocean monsoons. Organic aerosols are also suggested to be significantly transported long distances from North India and the Middle East in early winter and from Southeast Asia in late winter, but some originate from photochemical reactions over the Bay of Bengal. In contrast, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and South Indian continent are suggested as major source regions in summer. We also found daytime maxima of most diacids, except for C9 and t-Ph acids, which showed nighttime maxima in summer. Emissions from marine and terrestrial plants, combined with land/sea breezes and in situ photochemical oxidation, are suggested especially in summer as an important factor that controls the composition of water-soluble organic aerosols over the southeast coast of India. Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources are also important in megacity Chennai, but their influence is

  10. Amino acids as co-amorphous stabilizers for poorly water-soluble drugs--Part 2: molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Laitinen, Riikka; Strachan, Clare; Rades, Thomas; Grohganz, Holger

    2013-11-01

    The formation of co-amorphous drug-drug mixtures has proved to be a powerful approach to stabilize the amorphous form and at the same time increase the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Molecular interactions in these co-amorphous formulations can play a crucial role in stabilization and dissolution enhancement. In this regard, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a valuable tool to analyze the molecular near range order of the compounds in the co-amorphous mixtures. In this study, several co-amorphous drugs--low molecular weight excipient blends--have been analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. Molecular interactions of the drugs carbamazepine and indomethacin with the amino acids arginine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were investigated. The amino acids were chosen from the biological target site of both drugs and prepared as co-amorphous formulations together with the drugs by vibrational ball milling. A detailed analysis of the FTIR spectra of these formulations revealed specific peak shifts in the vibrational modes of functional groups of drug and amino acid, as long as one amino acid from the biological target site was present in the blends. These peak shifts indicate that the drugs formed specific molecular interactions (hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions) with the amino acids. In the drug-amino acid mixtures that contained amino acids which were not present at the biological target site, no such interactions were identified. This study shows the potential of amino acids as small molecular weight excipients in co-amorphous formulations to stabilize the amorphous form of a poorly water-soluble drug through strong and specific molecular interactions with the drug.

  11. Recent advances in alcohol and organic acid fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Fei; Yang, Sheng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Organosolv fractionation is a promising process to separate lignocellulosic biomass for the preparation of multiply products including biofuels, chemicals, and materials. This review presents the state of art of different processes applying alcohols and organic acids to treat lignocellulosic biomass for the production of ethanol, lignin, xylose, etc. The major organosolv technologies using ethanol, formic acid, and acetic acid, are intensively introduced and discussed in depth. In addition, the structural modifications of the major components of lignocelluloses, the technical processes, and the applications of the products were also summarized. The object of the review is to provide recent information in the field of organosolv process for the integrated biorefinery. The perspectives of the challenge and opportunity related to this topic are also presented. PMID:26476870

  12. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration.

  13. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville,; Emily K. Lesher,; Daniel J. Diedrich,; Diane M. McKnight,; Ruth M. Sofield,

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  14. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of reduced-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to broilers from 23 to 31 days of age.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Perryman, K R; Hess, J B

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using male Ross×Ross 708 broiler chicks to determine the effect of oil extraction from corn distillers dried grains with solubles on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility from 23 to 31 d of age. On an as-fed basis, ether extract concentrations were determined as 5.4% (L-distillers dried grains with solubles), 7.9% (M-distillers dried grains with solubles), and 10.5% (H-distillers dried grains with solubles) for the 3 experimental distillers dried grains with solubles sources. Prior to experimentation, each sample (H-distillers dried grains with solubles (control), M-distillers dried grains with solubles and L-distillers dried grains with solubles) was analyzed on an as-fed basis for crude protein (29.2, 27.6, and 27.9%), starch (4.4, 5.2, and 6.1%), neutral detergent fiber (29.5, 33.2, and 29.9%), and total dietary fiber (31.4, 36.6, and 33.6 %). Four hundred and thirty-two male chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.04 m2 per bird) were randomly assigned to 36 battery grower cages. Broilers were fed one of 3 semi-purified diets, which were comprised of 76% L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M- distillers dried grains with solubles, or H-distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole amino acid source from 23 to 31 d of age. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients were negatively affected (P<0.05) by oil extraction for Met (0.722, 0.788, and 0.791), Lys (0.504, 0.510, and 0.552), Thr (0.563, 0.566, and 0.612), Trp (0.708, 0.733, and 0.767), and Arg (0.762, 0.776, and 0.799) for L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M-distillers dried grains with solubles, and H-distillers dried grains with solubles, respectively. Conversely, no differences in apparent amino acid coefficients were reported for Ile, Leu, and Val. These results indicated that L-distillers dried grains with solubles had lower apparent amino acid digestibility coefficients for Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Arg compared with H-distillers dried grains with

  15. Stable nitrogen isotopes in essential versus non-essential amino acids of different plankton size fractions.

    PubMed

    Loick, Natalie; Gehre, Matthias; Voss, Maren

    2007-12-01

    The stable nitrogen isotope values (delta(15)N) of the essential amino acid (EAA) leucine and the delta(15)N values of six non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) from plankton size fractions from the South China Sea (SCS) were analysed. Data from the SCS were collected during two cruises in July 2003 and 2004 onboard of RV Nghien Cuu Bien. The delta(15)N values of alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine increased with size at all sites. The delta(15)N of glycine did not increase with size, the delta(15)N of tyrosine increased with size only at offshore stations and the delta(15)N of proline increased with size only at inshore stations. We found highly significant correlations between the delta(15)N ratios of leucine to the delta(15)N ratios of glutamic acid, proline, alanine, tyrosine and aspartic acid at oligotrophic sites of enhanced nitrogen fixation. In contrast thereto these correlations were less distinct or absent at more eutrophic sites of low nitrogen fixation. A comparison with an independent data set from the tropical North Atlantic revealed intriguing similar patterns. We interpret these patterns as result of the connected metabolism of EAA and NEAA in zooplankton at sites of nitrogen limitation.

  16. Seasonal and longitudinal distributions of atmospheric water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Imanishi, Katsuya; Boreddy, S. K. R.; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    In order to assess the seasonal variability of atmospheric abundances of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the North Pacific and Sea of Japan, aerosol samples were collected along the longitudinal transacts during six cruises between Canada and Japan. The back trajectory analyses indicate that aerosol samples collected in winter and spring are influenced by the East Asian outflow, whereas summer and fall samples are associated with the pristine maritime air masses. Molecular distributions of water-soluble organics in winter and spring samples show the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic (C4) and malonic acids (C3). In contrast, summer and fall marine aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C3 over C4. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids were higher over the Sea of Japan than the North Pacific. With a lack of continental outflow, higher concentrations during early summer are ascribed to atmospheric oxidation of organic precursors associated with high biological activity in the North Pacific. This interpretation is further supported by the high abundances of azelaic acid, which is a photochemical oxidation product of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids, over the Bering Sea in early summer when surface waters are characterized by high biological productivity. We found higher ratios of oxalic acid to pyruvic and glyoxylic acids (C2/Pyr and C2/ωC2) and glyoxal and methylglyoxal (C2/Gly and C2/MeGly) in summer and fall than in winter and spring, suggesting a production of C2 from the aqueous-phase oxidation of oceanic isoprene. In this study, dicarboxylic acids account for 0.7-38% of water-soluble organic carbon.

  17. Solubility and phase separation of benzocaine and salicylic acid in 1,4-dioxane-water mixtures at several temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peña, M Angeles; Bustamante, Pilar; Escalera, Begoña; Reíllo, Aurora; Bosque-Sendra, Juan Manuel

    2004-11-15

    The solubilities of benzocaine and salicylic acid were determined in water-dioxane mixtures at several temperatures (5-40 degrees C for benzocaine and 10-40 degrees C for salicylic acid). The solubility curves as a function of dioxane ratio showed a maximum at 90% dioxane at all temperatures. Above 25 degrees C, the homogeneous mixture splits into two liquid immiscible phases. For benzocaine, the initial dioxane concentration range at which phase separation takes place increased with temperature (50-60% at 25 degrees C, 50-70% at 30-35 degrees C and 40-70% at 40 degrees C). For salicylic acid, the dioxane concentration required for phase separation (40-60% dioxane) did not change with temperature. Phase separation was not related to solid phase changes (polymorphism or solvates). The phase composition and drug extraction at the drug-rich phase were determined. The apparent enthalpies of the solution process were a nonlinear function of the dioxane ratio for both drugs. The apparent enthalpy of solution of benzocaine was larger than that expected at the upper limit of phase separation (70% dioxane), whereas for salicylic acid the apparent enthalpy of solution decreased abruptly at the region corresponding to phase separation (40-70% dioxane). Both drugs showed a nonlinear pattern of enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  18. Effect of CMC Molecular Weight on Acid-Induced Gelation of Heated WPI-CMC Soluble Complex.

    PubMed

    Huan, Yan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2016-02-01

    Acid-induced gelation properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soluble complex were investigated as a function of CMC molecular weight (270, 680, and 750 kDa) and concentrations (0% to 0.125%). Heated WPI-CMC soluble complex with 6% protein was made by heating biopolymers together at pH 7.0 and 85 °C for 30 min and diluted to 5% protein before acid-induced gelation. Acid-induced gel formed from heated WPI-CMC complexes exhibited increased hardness and decreased water holding capacity with increasing CMC concentrations but gel strength decreased at higher CMC content. The highest gel strength was observed with CMC 750 k at 0.05%. Gels with low CMC concentration showed homogenous microstructure which was independent of CMC molecular weight, while increasing CMC concentration led to microphase separation with higher CMC molecular weight showing more extensive phase separation. When heated WPI-CMC complexes were prepared at 9% protein the acid gels showed improved gel hardness and water holding capacity, which was supported by the more interconnected protein network with less porosity when compared to complexes heated at 6% protein. It is concluded that protein concentration and biopolymer ratio during complex formation are the major factors affecting gel properties while the effect of CMC molecular weight was less significant.

  19. Fractionation of SWNT/nucleic acid complexes by agarose gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetcher, Alexandre A.; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Vetcher, Ivan A.; Abramov, Semen M.; Kozlov, Mikhail; Baughman, Ray H.; Levene, Stephen D.

    2006-08-01

    We show that aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared with the aid of nucleic acids (NAs) such as RNA or DNA, can be separated into fractions using agarose gel electrophoresis. In a DC electric field, SWNT/NA complexes migrate in the gel in the direction of positive potential to form well-defined bands. Raman spectroscopy as a function of band position shows that nanotubes having different spectroscopic properties possess different electrophoretic mobilities. The migration patterns for SWNT/RNA and SWNT/DNA complexes differ. Parallel elution of the SWNT/NA complexes from the gel during electrophoresis and subsequent characterization by AFM reveals differences in nanotube diameter, length and curvature. The results suggest that fractionation of nanotubes can be achieved by this procedure. We discuss factors affecting the mobility of the nanotube complexes and propose analytical applications of this technique.

  20. Crystallization of a salt of a weak organic acid and base: solubility relations, supersaturation control and polymorphic behavior.

    PubMed

    Jones, H P; Davey, R J; Cox, B G

    2005-03-24

    Control of crystallization processes for organic salts is of importance to the pharmaceutical industry as many active pharmaceutical materials are marketed as salts. In this study, a method for estimating the solubility product of a salt of a weak acid and weak base from measured pH-solubility data is described for the first time. This allows calculation of the supersaturation of solutions at known pH. Ethylenediammonium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate is a polymorphic organic salt. A detailed study of the effects of pH, supersaturation, and temperature of crystallization on the physical properties of this salt shows that the desired polymorph may be produced by appropriate selection of the pH and supersaturation of crystallization. Crystal morphology is also controlled by these crystallization conditions.

  1. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-01-26

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm{sup 2}/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  2. Deuterium Fractionation during Amino Acid Formation by Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs Containing Deuterated Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Takano, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) atoms in interstellar deuterated methanol might be distributed into complex organic molecules through molecular evolution by photochemical reactions in interstellar grains. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system to quantitatively analyze amino acids and their deuterated isotopologues formed by the photolysis of interstellar ice analogs containing singly deuterated methanol CH2DOH at 10 K. Five amino acids (glycine, α-alanine, β-alanine, sarcosine, and serine) and their deuterated isotopologues whose D atoms are bound to carbon atoms are detected in organic residues formed by photolysis followed by warming up to room temperature. The abundances of singly deuterated amino acids are in the range of 0.3–1.1 relative to each nondeuterated counterpart, and the relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated species decrease with an increasing number of D atoms in a molecule. The abundances of amino acids increase by a factor of more than five upon the hydrolysis of the organic residues, leading to decreases in the relative abundances of deuterated species for α-alanine and β-alanine. On the other hand, the relative abundances of the deuterated isotopologues of the other three amino acids did not decrease upon hydrolysis, indicating different formation mechanisms of these two groups upon hydrolysis. The present study facilitates both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of D fractionation during molecular evolution in the interstellar medium.

  3. Deuterium Fractionation during Amino Acid Formation by Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs Containing Deuterated Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Takano, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) atoms in interstellar deuterated methanol might be distributed into complex organic molecules through molecular evolution by photochemical reactions in interstellar grains. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system to quantitatively analyze amino acids and their deuterated isotopologues formed by the photolysis of interstellar ice analogs containing singly deuterated methanol CH2DOH at 10 K. Five amino acids (glycine, α-alanine, β-alanine, sarcosine, and serine) and their deuterated isotopologues whose D atoms are bound to carbon atoms are detected in organic residues formed by photolysis followed by warming up to room temperature. The abundances of singly deuterated amino acids are in the range of 0.3-1.1 relative to each nondeuterated counterpart, and the relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated species decrease with an increasing number of D atoms in a molecule. The abundances of amino acids increase by a factor of more than five upon the hydrolysis of the organic residues, leading to decreases in the relative abundances of deuterated species for α-alanine and β-alanine. On the other hand, the relative abundances of the deuterated isotopologues of the other three amino acids did not decrease upon hydrolysis, indicating different formation mechanisms of these two groups upon hydrolysis. The present study facilitates both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of D fractionation during molecular evolution in the interstellar medium.

  4. Fatty acid, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamin composition of wild and captive freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).

    PubMed

    Harlioglu, A Gül; Aydin, S; Yilmaz, O

    2012-02-01

    The proximate analysis (dry matter, protein, fat and ash), cholesterol, fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin compositions of the tail muscle of wild caught and captive crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) were investigated. Captive crayfish contained higher moisture and fat content than wild crayfish. In contrast, wild crayfish contained a higher level of crude protein, ash and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than captive crayfish. Arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) was the major n-6 PUFA in wild A. leptodactylus, and linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was the major n-6 PUFA in captive A. leptodactylus. The percentages of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), PUFA, and n-3/n-6 ratio were higher in wild crayfish and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were lower. Although differences existed between wild and captive crayfish in vitamins A (p < 0.001), δ-Tocopherol (p < 0.001), α-Tocopherol acetate (p < 0.05), no differences were found in vitamins D(2), D(3), α- Tocopherol and K (p > 0.05). The differences may be originated from the diet provided to captive crayfish. Since wild A. leptodactylus contained higher n-3/n-6 ratio than captive A. leptodactylus, crayfish farms can potentially produce a better quality of crayfish meat by increasing the PUFA n-3 (especially DHA and EPA) in the diets of A. leptodactylus.

  5. Amino acids as co-amorphous stabilizers for poorly water soluble drugs--Part 1: preparation, stability and dissolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Laitinen, Riikka; Strachan, Clare; Rades, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Poor aqueous solubility of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is one of the most pressing problems in pharmaceutical research and development because up to 90% of new API candidates under development are poorly water soluble. These drugs usually have a low and variable oral bioavailability, and therefore an unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. One of the most promising approaches to increase dissolution rate and solubility of these drugs is the conversion of a crystalline form of the drug into its respective amorphous form, usually by incorporation into hydrophilic polymers, forming glass solutions. However, this strategy only led to a small number of marketed products usually because of inadequate physical stability of the drug (crystallization). In this study, we investigated a fundamentally different approach to stabilize the amorphous form of drugs, namely the use of amino acids as small molecular weight excipients that form specific molecular interactions with the drug resulting in co-amorphous forms. The two poorly water soluble drugs carbamazepine and indomethacin were combined with amino acids from the binding sites of the biological receptors of these drugs. Mixtures of drug and the amino acids arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine were prepared by vibrational ball milling. Solid-state characterization with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the various blends could be prepared as homogeneous, single phase co-amorphous formulations indicated by the appearance of an amorphous halo in the XRPD diffractograms and a single glass transition temperature (Tg) in the DSC measurements. In addition, the Tgs of the co-amorphous mixtures were significantly increased over those of the individual drugs. The drugs remained chemically stable during the milling process and the co-amorphous formulations were generally physically stable over at least 6 months at 40 °C under dry conditions. The

  6. Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.

  7. Analysis of the oxocarboxylic acid fraction in serum and urine as O-methyloximes by thermionic specific detection.

    PubMed

    Liebich, H M; Pickert, A; Wöll, J

    1981-11-01

    After O-methyloximation of the carbonyl functions, the organic acids in serum and urine are extracted by anion-exchange chromatography, transformed into the methyl esters and pre-fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. In one of the four fractions and on the basis of the nitrogen in the O-methyloxime esters, the profiles of the oxocarboxylic acids are analyzed by gas chromatography with thermionic specific detection. The method has good specificity for the oxocarboxylic acids and is suitable for comparative studies. During diabetic or fasting ketoacidosis the serum concentrations of 3-oxobutyric acid and of the amino acid metabolites 2-oxobutyric, 2-oxoisovaleric and especially 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric and 2-oxoisocaproic acid are increased. In urine mainly 3-oxobutyric acid and only small amounts of the 2-oxocarboxylic acids are excreted.

  8. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  9. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the stable electrophoretic fractions of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoi, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2015-02-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been used for the hydrophobicity analysis of soil humic acids and their stable electrophoretic fractions A, B, and C + D preliminarily prepared by the combination of gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In two humic acid preparations of different genesis, the electrophoretic fraction A of the larger molecular size was the most hydrophobic (60-73% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on a hydrophobic reversed-phase (RF) column C18), and the fraction C + D of the smallest molecular size was the most hydrophilic. The fraction B of medium size occupied an intermediate position (33-47% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on the column). The use of RP-HPLC allowed for the first time detecting the hydrophobic electrophoretic fraction A of the largest molecular size mainly composed of aliphatic long-chained hydrocarbon, protein, and carbohydrate fragments in soil humic acids. Data on the degree of hydrophobicity and the earlier obtained physicochemical characteristics of stable electrophoretic fractions are discussed in terms of the supramolecular and macromolecular structure of soil humic acids.

  10. Acute exposure of water soluble fractions of marine diesel on Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus: effects on survival and biomarker response.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Jager, Tjalling; Nordtug, Trond

    2013-04-01

    The use of marine diesels in Arctic areas is expected to increase due to increased shipping transport, oil and gas activities, and the ban of heavy bunker oils in many areas. This project aimed at gathering information regarding the sensitivity of an Arctic copepod to marine diesel. The approach undertaken was to study the effects on survival (LC50s) and gene expression of a known detoxification gene (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) in Calanus glacialis following exposure to water soluble fractions (WSFs) of marine diesel (at 2 °C). We compared the observed LC-values of C. glacialis to the identical experimental data of the boreal Calanus finmarchicus (at 10 °C), and to the predicted LC50-values using regression models. The C. glacialis appeared more tolerant to the acute effects of marine diesel WSF compared to the "average pelagic crustacean" as predicted by regression models, and compared to C. finmarchicus. Although these results may be explained by a slower equilibration of petrogenic chemicals from the WSF at lower temperatures, C. glacialis also displayed higher GST expression following exposure than C. finmarchicus. In addition, the lipid content of the test organisms appears to be an important factor for the determination of acute toxicity, as copepods with high lipid content survived longer than copepods with low lipid content. PMID:23434578

  11. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5% Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; da Cruz, André Luís; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon Araújo; Yamashita, Sayuri Rocha; Carqueija, César Roberto Goes; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2015-11-01

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0% (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6%, 10%, 22%, 46% and 100%, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6% exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10%-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality.

  12. Genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction of heavy oil in the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi (Gammaridea) as assessed using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Weber, Laura; Carvalho, Ligia; Sá, Natália; Silva, Viviane; Beraldini, Nathalia; Souza, Valderes; Conceição, Moisés

    2013-05-01

    Amphipod crustaceans have been widely used as invertebrate models in ecotoxicology due to their importance in the food chain. However, few studies have evaluated the genotoxic effects of pollutants in this model using the comet assay. The main obstacle to using amphipods in the comet assay is the difficulty in obtaining enough blood cells from a single individual. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of heavy oil on the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi, which is common in the coastal lagoons of southeastern Brazil, using hemocytes obtained from single amphipods (without pooling) after optimizing hemolymph extraction. The comet assay revealed significantly higher DNA damage levels (2- to 6-fold higher) in treated amphipods compared to untreated ones with a sublethal concentration of 17.6 % of the WSF within 72 h of treatment. Two independent experiments confirmed an "up and down" pattern of DNA damage, measured as the % of DNA contained in the tail of the comets. Elevations in DNA damage levels were observed at the 6 and 48 h time points, while very low levels of DNA damage were observed at the 24 and 72 h time points. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed gender variability in the levels of DNA damage after short-term exposure. PMID:23479060

  13. Chronic toxicity of water-soluble fractions of fresh and water-leached solvent refined coal-II liquids to a freshwater benthic invertebrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Fallon, W.E.; Gray, R.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    A solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquid blend (2.9:1, middle to heavy distillate) obtained from a pilot plant was sequentially extracted with water to observe compositional changes in water soluble fractions (WSF). An initial WSF, designed to simulate chemicals present after contact with water, and a water-leached (artificially weathered) WSF, designed to represent conditions after exposure to the aqueous environment were chemically characterized. Toxicities of the two WSFs were compared by observing chronic effects on a freshwater benthic invertebrate, Tanytarsus dissimilis. Survival to emergence was suppressed at 3.0 ppth of the initial WSF and at 9.4 ppth of the artificially weathered WSF. However, based on equal concentrations of organic carbon and phenolics, weathered WSF solutions were three to five times more toxic. Concentrations, relative distributions, and loss over time of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons differed between aqueous extractions derived from the fresh and weathered SRC II material. Tests assessing long-term effects of complex materials must be designed and interpreted on the basis of organism exposure to compounds most likely to persist in the environment.

  14. Genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction of heavy oil in the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi (Gammaridea) as assessed using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Weber, Laura; Carvalho, Ligia; Sá, Natália; Silva, Viviane; Beraldini, Nathalia; Souza, Valderes; Conceição, Moisés

    2013-05-01

    Amphipod crustaceans have been widely used as invertebrate models in ecotoxicology due to their importance in the food chain. However, few studies have evaluated the genotoxic effects of pollutants in this model using the comet assay. The main obstacle to using amphipods in the comet assay is the difficulty in obtaining enough blood cells from a single individual. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of heavy oil on the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi, which is common in the coastal lagoons of southeastern Brazil, using hemocytes obtained from single amphipods (without pooling) after optimizing hemolymph extraction. The comet assay revealed significantly higher DNA damage levels (2- to 6-fold higher) in treated amphipods compared to untreated ones with a sublethal concentration of 17.6 % of the WSF within 72 h of treatment. Two independent experiments confirmed an "up and down" pattern of DNA damage, measured as the % of DNA contained in the tail of the comets. Elevations in DNA damage levels were observed at the 6 and 48 h time points, while very low levels of DNA damage were observed at the 24 and 72 h time points. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed gender variability in the levels of DNA damage after short-term exposure.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, solubility and stability studies of hydrate cocrystal of antitubercular Isoniazid with antioxidant and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Isoniazid is an important component used in "triple therapy" to combat tuberculosis. It has reduced Tabletting formulations stability. Anti-oxidants are obligatory to counter oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation, and free radical burst from macrophages caused in tuberculosis and other diseases. In the present study a hydrate cocrystal of Isoniazid with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in 1:1 is reported. This Cocrystal may have improved tabletting stability and anti-oxidant properties. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the Cocrystal. Other synthons of different graph sets involving Nsbnd H···O and Osbnd H···N bonds are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformer. Solubility studies revealed that cocrystal is less soluble as compared to isoniazid in buffer at pH 7.4 at 22 °C while stability studies at 80 °C for 24 h period disclosed the fact that cocrystal has higher stability than that of isoniazid.

  16. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in "Starkrimson" during the Ripening Period in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulian; Chen, Nianlai; Ma, Zonghuan; Che, Fei; Mao, Juan; Chen, Baihong

    2016-01-01

    "Starkrimson" is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of "Starkrimson" fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE) parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal), fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity. PMID:27338331

  17. A comparison of water solubility enhancements of organic solutes by aquatic humic materials and commercial humic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chlou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Brinton, T.I.; Malcolm, R.L.; Leenheer, J.A.; MacCarthy, P.

    1987-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of 1,1-bis(p-chloro-phenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p???-DDT), 2,4,5,2???,5???-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB), and 2,4,4???-tri-chlorobiphenyl (2,4,4???-PCB) by dissolved organic matter have been studied with the following samples: (1) acidic water samples from the Suwannee River, Georgia, and the Sopchoppy River, Florida; (2) a humic extract of a nearly neutral pH water from the Calcasieu River, Louisiana; (3) commercial humic acids from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and Fluka-Tridom Chemical Corp. The calculated partition coefficients on a dissolved organic carbon basis (Kdoc) for organic solutes with water samples and aquatic humic extracts from this and earlier studies indicate that the enhancement effect varies with the molecular composition of the aquatic humic materials. The Kdoc values with water and aquatic humic samples are, however, far less than the observed Kdoc values obtained with the two commercial samples, by factors of about 4-20. In view of this finding, one should be cautious in interpreting the effects of the dissolved organic matter on solubility enhancement of organic solutes on the basis of the use of commercial humic acids.

  18. In situ acidity and pH of size-fractionated aerosols during a recent smoke-haze episode in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sailesh N; Cheng, Jinping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of aerosol acidity has received increased attention in recent years due to its influence on atmospheric visibility, climate change and human health. Distribution of water soluble inorganic (WSI) ions in 12 different size fractions of aerosols was investigated under two different atmospheric conditions (smoke-haze and non-haze periods) in 2012 using the Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and nano-MOUDI for the first time in Singapore. To estimate the in situ acidity ([H(+)]Ins) and in situ aerosol pH (pHIS), the Aerosol Inorganic Model version-IV under deliquescent mode of airborne particles was used at prevailing ambient temperature and relative humidity. The study revealed an increase in the levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) mass and concentrations of WSI ions for all size fractions during the smoke-haze period, which was caused by the trans-boundary transport of biomass burning-impacted air masses from Indonesia. A bimodal distribution was observed for concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+), whereas concentrations of NH4(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) showed a single mode distribution. The concentration of WSI ions in PM1.8 during the smoke-haze period increased by 3.8 (for SO4(2-)) to 10.5 (for K(+)) times more than those observed during the non-haze period. The pHIS were observed to be lower during the smoke-haze period than that during the non-haze period for all size fractions of PM, indicating that atmospheric aerosols were more acidic due to the influence of biomass burning emissions. The particles in the accumulation mode were more acidic than those in the coarse mode.

  19. In situ acidity and pH of size-fractionated aerosols during a recent smoke-haze episode in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sailesh N; Cheng, Jinping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of aerosol acidity has received increased attention in recent years due to its influence on atmospheric visibility, climate change and human health. Distribution of water soluble inorganic (WSI) ions in 12 different size fractions of aerosols was investigated under two different atmospheric conditions (smoke-haze and non-haze periods) in 2012 using the Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and nano-MOUDI for the first time in Singapore. To estimate the in situ acidity ([H(+)]Ins) and in situ aerosol pH (pHIS), the Aerosol Inorganic Model version-IV under deliquescent mode of airborne particles was used at prevailing ambient temperature and relative humidity. The study revealed an increase in the levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) mass and concentrations of WSI ions for all size fractions during the smoke-haze period, which was caused by the trans-boundary transport of biomass burning-impacted air masses from Indonesia. A bimodal distribution was observed for concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+), whereas concentrations of NH4(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) showed a single mode distribution. The concentration of WSI ions in PM1.8 during the smoke-haze period increased by 3.8 (for SO4(2-)) to 10.5 (for K(+)) times more than those observed during the non-haze period. The pHIS were observed to be lower during the smoke-haze period than that during the non-haze period for all size fractions of PM, indicating that atmospheric aerosols were more acidic due to the influence of biomass burning emissions. The particles in the accumulation mode were more acidic than those in the coarse mode. PMID:25432456

  20. Neuroprotective effect of rough aster butanol fraction against oxidative stress in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Sok, Dai-Eun; Oh, Sang Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Mee Ree

    2003-07-30

    The neuroprotective effect of the butanol fraction from the methanol extract of Aster scaber Thunb. (rough aster butanol fraction) on oxidative damage in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid was examined using behavioral signs and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. The rough aster butanol fraction (0.4-1.0 g/kg) was administered to ICR male mice, 6-8 weeks, through a gavage for 4 days consecutively, and on the third day, kainic acid (50 mg/kg) was ip administered. When compared to the vehicle-treated control, no significant changes in body and brain weight were observed in mice administered the rough aster butanol fraction. Administration of kainic acid only, causing a lethality of approximately 54%, resulted in a significant decrease of total glutathione level and an increase of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value in brain tissue. When the rough aster butanol fraction was examined for neuroprotective action, the rough aster butanol fraction (0.4 g/kg) alleviated the lethality (25%) of kainic acid and the behavioral sign of its neurotoxicity. Moreover, administration of the rough aster butanol fraction at a dose of 0.4 g/kg restored the glutathione level in the cytosolic portion of brain homogenate to approximately 80% (p < 0.05). Also, the rough aster butanol fraction (0.4 g/kg) led to a significant reduction of kainic acid-induced increase of TBARS value. In addition, the glutathione peroxidase activity was restored significantly (p < 0.05) in the cytosolic portion of brain homogenate, whereas glutathione reductase activity was not. On the basis of these results, the rough aster butanol fraction is suggested to contain a functional agent to prevent oxidative stress in the brain of mice.

  1. Mefenamic acid taste-masked oral disintegrating tablets with enhanced solubility via molecular interaction produced by hot melt extrusion technology

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Sultan M.; Park, Jun-Bom; Alsulays, Bader B.; Tiwari, Roshan V.; Almutairy, Bjad; Alshetaili, Abdullah S.; Morott, Joseph; Shah, Sejal; Kulkarni, Vijay; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Martin, Scott T.; Mishra, Sanjay; Wang, Lijia; Repka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility as well as to mask the intensely bitter taste of the poorly soluble drug, Mefenamic acid (MA). The taste masking and solubility of the drug was improved by using Eudragit® E PO in different ratios via hot melt extrusion (HME), solid dispersion technology. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies demonstrated that MA and E PO were completely miscible up to 40% drug loads. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that MA was converted to its amorphous phase in all of the formulations. Additionally, FT-IR analysis indicated hydrogen bonding between the drug and the carrier up to 25% of drug loading. SEM images indicated aggregation of MA at over 30% of drug loading. Based on the FT-IR, SEM and dissolution results for the extrudates, two optimized formulations (20% and 25% drug loads) were selected to formulate the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). ODTs were successfully prepared with excellent friability and rapid disintegration time in addition to having the desired taste-masking effect. All of the extruded formulations and the ODTs were found to be physically and chemically stable over a period of 6 months at 40°C/75% RH and 12 months at 25°C/60% RH, respectively. PMID:25914727

  2. Alkaline and acid hydrolytic processes in aerobic and anaerobic sludges: effect on total EPS and fractions.

    PubMed

    Cassini, S T; Andrade, M C E; Abreu, T A; Keller, R; Gonçalves, R F

    2006-01-01

    Sludge samples from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and four submerged aerated biofilters (BFs) of a wastewater treatment plant (1,000 inhab.) were processed at bench scale by alkaline and acid hydrolysis with the objective to evaluate the organic matter solubilization, volatile solids (VS) destruction and the effect of hydrolytic processes on the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) fraction of the sludge samples. The results showed that alkaline hydrolysis of sludge samples treatment with 1.0% total solids (TS) using NaOH 20 meq L(-1) was more efficient on organic matter solubilization and VS destruction than acid hydrolysis. The EPS sludge content was also affected by the alkaline treatment of anaerobic sludge samples. The EPS concentrations (mg EPS/gVSS) on the anaerobic sludge after the alkaline treatment were significantly lowered according to sample height in the UASB reactor. Data indicated that the EPS sludge fraction is the main component affected by the alkaline hydrolytic process of anaerobic sludge samples. PMID:16784189

  3. Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid.

    PubMed

    Canellas, Luciano P; Piccolo, Alessandro; Dobbss, Leonardo B; Spaccini, Riccardo; Olivares, Fábio L; Zandonadi, Daniel B; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-01-01

    Preparative high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to humic acids (HA) extracted from vermicompost in order to separate humic matter of different molecular dimension and evaluate the relationship between chemical properties of size-fractions (SF) and their effects on plant root growth. Molecular dimensions of components in humic SF was further achieved by diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR) based on diffusion coefficients (D), while carbon distribution was evaluated by solid state (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR. Seedlings of maize and Arabidopsis were treated with different concentrations of SF to evaluate root growth. Six different SF were obtained and their carbohydrate-like content and alkyl chain length decreased with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon was also observed with decreasing molecular size of separated fractions. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra showed that SF were composed of complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrates constituents that could be separated on the basis of their diffusion. All SF promoted root growth in Arabidopsis and maize seedlings but the effects differed according to molecular size and plant species. In Arabidopsis seedlings, the bulk HA and its SF revealed a classical large auxin-like exogenous response, i.e.: shortened the principal root axis and induced lateral roots, while the effects in maize corresponded to low auxin-like levels, as suggested by enhanced principal axis length and induction of lateral roots. The reduction of humic heterogeneity obtained in HPSEC separated size-fractions suggested that their physiological influence on root growth and architecture was less an effect of their size than their content of specific bioactive molecules. However, these molecules may be dynamically released from humic superstructures and exert their bioactivity when weaker is the humic conformational stability as that obtained

  4. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  5. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2013-11-01

    A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory.

  6. Protection from hypertension in mice by the Mediterranean diet is mediated by nitro fatty acid inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Rebecca L.; Rudyk, Olena; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Kamynina, Alisa; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Eaton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is inhibited by electrophilic lipids by their adduction to Cys521 proximal to its catalytic center. This inhibition prevents hydrolysis of the enzymes’ epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) substrates, so they accumulate inducing vasodilation to lower blood pressure (BP). We generated a Cys521Ser sEH redox-dead knockin (KI) mouse model that was resistant to this mode of inhibition. The electrophilic lipid 10-nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) inhibited hydrolase activity and also lowered BP in an angiotensin II-induced hypertension model in wild-type (WT) but not KI mice. Furthermore, EET/dihydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid isomer ratios were elevated in plasma from WT but not KI mice following NO2-OA treatment, consistent with the redox-dead mutant being resistant to inhibition by lipid electrophiles. sEH was inhibited in WT mice fed linoleic acid and nitrite, key constituents of the Mediterranean diet that elevates electrophilic nitro fatty acid levels, whereas KIs were unaffected. These observations reveal that lipid electrophiles such as NO2-OA mediate antihypertensive signaling actions by inhibiting sEH and suggest a mechanism accounting for protection from hypertension afforded by the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24843165

  7. In vitro oxidation of indoleacetic acid by soluble auxin-oxidases and peroxidases from maize roots. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Beffa, R.; Martin, H.V.; Pilet, P.E. )

    1990-10-01

    Soluble auxin-oxidases were extracted from Zea mays L. cv LG11 apical root segments and partially separated from peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) by size-exclusion chromatography. Auxin-oxidases were resolved into one main peak corresponding to a molecular mass of 32.5 kilodaltons and a minor peak at 54.5 kilodaltons. Peroxidases were separated into at least four peaks, with molecular masses from 32.5 to 78 kilodaltons. In vitro activity of indoleacetic acid-oxidases was dependent on the presence of MnCl{sub 2} and p-coumaric acid. Compound(s) present in the crude extract and several synthetic auxin transport inhibitors (including 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) inhibited auxin-oxidase activity, but had no effect on peroxidases. The products resulting from the in vitro enzymatic oxidation of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid were separated by HPLC and the major metabolite was found to cochromatograph with indol-3yl-methanol.

  8. Expression of Soluble Forms of Yeast Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 That Integrate a Broad Range of Saturated Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Haïli, Nawel; Louap, Julien; Canonge, Michel; Jagic, Franjo; Louis-Mondésir, Christelle; Chardot, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y. lipolytica Dga1p as fusion proteins: the first one lacking the N-terminal hydrophilic segment (Dga1pΔ19), the second one also devoid of the N-terminal putative transmembrane domain (Dga1pΔ85). Most DGAT assays are performed on membrane fractions or microsomes, using radiolabeled substrates. We implemented a fluorescent assay in order to decipher the substrate specificity of purified Dga1p enzymes. Both enzyme versions prefer acyl-CoA saturated substrates to unsaturated ones. Dga1pΔ85 preferentially uses long-chain saturated substrates. Dga1p activities are inhibited by niacin, a specific DGAT2 inhibitor. The N-terminal transmembrane domain appears important, but not essential, for TG biosynthesis. The soluble and active proteins described here could be useful tools for future functional and structural studies in order to better understand and optimize DGAT enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:27780240

  9. Influence of certain essential oils on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and acid-soluble sulfhydryls in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Sharma, R; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    1994-01-01

    The influence of essential oils from naturally occurring plant dietary items such as cardamom, celery seed, cumin seed, coriander, ginger, nutmeg, and zanthoxylum on the activities of hepatic carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase) and acid-soluble sulfhydryl level was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Each oil was fed by gavage at 10 microliters/day for 14 days, and then the animals were sacrificed and their hepatic enzyme activities and sulfhydryl levels were evaluated. Only nutmeg and zanthoxylum oils induced cytochrome P450 level significantly (p < 0.05), whereas cardamom oil caused a significant reduction in its activity (p < 0.05). Furthermore, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly elevated only by treatment with ginger oil (p < 0.01), whereas nutmeg oil caused a significant reduction in its activity (p < 0.01). The remaining oils did not significantly alter the level of cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in all experimental groups (p < 0.1-p < 0.001) compared with controls. The acid-soluble sulfhydryl was significantly elevated only by the essential oils of cardamom (p < 0.05), nutmeg (p < 0.05), and zanthoxylum (p < 0.01). Our observations suggest that intake of essential oils affects the host enzymes associated with activation and detoxication of xenobiotic compounds, including chemical carcinogens and mutagens. PMID:8072879

  10. Rational design of translational pausing without altering the amino acid sequence dramatically promotes soluble protein expression: a strategic demonstration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Jin, Jingjie; Gu, Wei; Wei, Bo; Lei, Yun; Xiong, Sheng; Zhang, Gong

    2014-11-10

    The production of many pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in prokaryotic hosts is hindered by the insolubility of industrial expression products resulting from misfolding. Even with a correct primary sequence, an improper translation elongation rate in a heterologous expression system is an important cause of misfolding. In silico analysis revealed that most of the endogenous Escherichia coli genes display translational pausing sites that promote correct folding, and almost 1/5 genes have pausing sites at the 3'-termini of their coding sequence. Therefore, we established a novel strategy to efficiently promote the expression of soluble and active proteins without altering the amino acid sequence or expression conditions. This strategy uses the rational design of translational pausing based on structural information solely through synonymous substitutions, i.e. no change on the amino acids sequence. We demonstrated this strategy on a promising antiviral candidate, Cyanovirin-N (CVN), which could not be efficiently expressed in any previously reported system. By introducing silent mutations, we increased the soluble expression level in E. coli by 2000-fold without altering the CVN protein sequence, and the specific activity was slightly higher for the optimized CVN than for the wild-type variant. This strategy introduces new possibilities for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins.

  11. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountaintop aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol (TSP) samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N, 117.10° E) located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220-6070 ng m-3) were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid (105-3920 ng m-3) followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M), isomaleic (iM) and fumaric (F) acids, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, isophthalic and terephthalic acids). ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24-610 ng m-3) were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11-360 ng m-3), followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3-140 ng m-3) and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1-230 ng m-3 and methylglyoxal, 2-120 ng m-3). We found that these levels (>6000 ng m-3 for diacids) are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June, showing a maximum on 7 June, and then significantly decreased during the period 8-11 June, when the wind direction shifted from southerly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat straw) in the North China Plain and the subsequent photochemical oxidation of

  12. The effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil on survival, physiology and behaviour of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev, 1870).

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed

    2016-01-01

    The water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons that aquatic organisms directly encounter in oil spills. WSF plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the effects of WSF on juvenile Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, at lethal and sub-lethal level was investigated. The lethality of WSF on R. caspicus was studied by conducting 96h LC50 tests with semi-static exposure methods with 6 and 24h solution renewals. The 96h LC50 of WSF was estimated at 62.5% and 35.9% WSF concentrations for 24h and 6h renewal methods, respectively. To investigate the sub-lethal effect of WSF on R. caspicus, fish were exposed to 62.5, 31.3, and 6.3% concentrations of WSF for 24h and changes in their respiration rate and swimming activity was monitored during the exposure. At the end of the exposure period, four hematologic parameters [O2 and CO2 pressures (pO2 and pCO2), hematocrit, and hemoglobin content] of the fish were measured. The result of the behavioural experiment revealed that all three studied concentrations of WSF elevated the respiration rate and reduced the swimming activity of R. caspicus. No significant changes were detected in the hematocrit and hemoglobin content of the fish blood, but the blood pO2 of the fish exposed to 62.5% WSF decreased while the blood pCO2 increased. The results of this study suggest that the egression of the volatile components in hydrocarbon mixtures during conventional semi-static toxicity tests may lead to underestimating the toxicity of the hydrocarbons. The results of the sub-lethal experiments propose that failure of the respiratory system that leads to asphyxia may be a major mechanism that results in lethal effect of WSF in high concentrations.

  13. Morphological and neurotoxicological findings in tropical freshwater fish (Astyanax sp.) after waterborne and acute exposure to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Akaishi, F M; de Assis, H C Silva; Jakobi, S C G; Eiras-Stofella, D R; St-Jean, S D; Courtenay, S C; Lima, E F; Wagener, A L R; Scofield, A L; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil is a complex highly volatile and toxic mixture of hydrocarbon chains (polyaromatics, heterocyclics), phenols, and heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen and sulfur. To evaluate the toxic effects of WSF in tropical freshwater teleosts and to develop methodologies that could investigate the toxic mechanisms of WSF in tropical organisms, an acute toxicity experiment was conducted with Astyanax sp. Three dilutions (15%, 33%, and 50%) of WSF obtained from Campos Bay's crude oil (Brazil) were used to study morphological and biochemical responses of the fish. Prior to exposure, the distribution and rate of volatilization of the WSF into each aquarium for the same exposure period was quantified by spectrofluorimetry. Five individuals of Astyvanax sp. were exposed to duplicate WSF of 0, 15, 33, and 50% for each of 12-, 24-, and 96-h exposures for a total of 120 individuals. Liver and gills were sampled from five fish from each treatment and were analyzed by histology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A fragment of muscle was also collected from each fish to measure acetylcholinesterase activity. Water analysis showed that only 4 h after dilution, an important loss of hydrocarbons in 33% and 50% of WSF was observed. In addition, 50% of hydrocarbon mass was lost in all tested dilutions after 24 h with significant difference for the 50% WSF at all measured times, demonstrating the high volatility of WSF in freshwater. Damage in the liver and the gills included the presence of necrosis, loss of hepatocytes limit, inflammation areas, cellular proliferation, aneurysms, and disorganization of the second lamellae. The 33% WSF significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity in fish. Our study demonstrated that the WSF of crude oil caused damage in organs and tissues of tropical freshwater Astyanax sp. and provided also the basis for a better understanding of the toxic mechanisms of WSF in freshwater fishes. PMID

  14. The effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil on survival, physiology and behaviour of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev, 1870).

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed

    2016-01-01

    The water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons that aquatic organisms directly encounter in oil spills. WSF plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the effects of WSF on juvenile Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, at lethal and sub-lethal level was investigated. The lethality of WSF on R. caspicus was studied by conducting 96h LC50 tests with semi-static exposure methods with 6 and 24h solution renewals. The 96h LC50 of WSF was estimated at 62.5% and 35.9% WSF concentrations for 24h and 6h renewal methods, respectively. To investigate the sub-lethal effect of WSF on R. caspicus, fish were exposed to 62.5, 31.3, and 6.3% concentrations of WSF for 24h and changes in their respiration rate and swimming activity was monitored during the exposure. At the end of the exposure period, four hematologic parameters [O2 and CO2 pressures (pO2 and pCO2), hematocrit, and hemoglobin content] of the fish were measured. The result of the behavioural experiment revealed that all three studied concentrations of WSF elevated the respiration rate and reduced the swimming activity of R. caspicus. No significant changes were detected in the hematocrit and hemoglobin content of the fish blood, but the blood pO2 of the fish exposed to 62.5% WSF decreased while the blood pCO2 increased. The results of this study suggest that the egression of the volatile components in hydrocarbon mixtures during conventional semi-static toxicity tests may lead to underestimating the toxicity of the hydrocarbons. The results of the sub-lethal experiments propose that failure of the respiratory system that leads to asphyxia may be a major mechanism that results in lethal effect of WSF in high concentrations. PMID:26377481

  15. Transformation of the water soluble fraction from "alpeorujo" by Coriolopsis rigida: the role of laccase in the process and its impact on Azospirillum brasiliense survival.

    PubMed

    Saparrat, Mario C N; Jurado, Miguel; Díaz, Rosario; Romera, Inmaculada Garcia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of the white rot basidiomycete Coriolopsis rigida to detoxify the water soluble fraction from "alpeorujo" (WSFA), a solid by-product produced by the olive oil extraction industry and characterized by a high concentration of phenols which limits its use as fertilizer and/or amendment. C. rigida reduced the phenol content in the liquid media supplemented with WSFA at 10 and 20% (v/v) after 15d of incubation. The analysis of WSFA toxicity after fungal treatment showed that C. rigida was responsible for a significant increase in the survival rate of Azospirillum brasiliense, a N(2) fixing soil rhizobacterium which promotes plant growth. Supplementation of culture medium with CuSO(4) (300 microM) resulted in strong laccase induction thus facilitating higher phenol reduction and detoxification of WSFA. In vitro reactions using a crude extracellular preparation from laccase-active C. rigida showed phenol removal as well as detoxification of the WSFA at 20%. These results suggest that C. rigida reduces the phenol content of the WSFA through the effect of laccase on free phenolic compounds consequently decreasing the toxic effect on A. brasiliense, which suggests that the enzyme plays an important role in the process. These findings have implications in the management and revalorization of olive-mill residues treated with laccase-producing fungi and their potential impact on integrative agricultural systems including organic residues and the co-inoculation with microorganisms which can facilitate the growth of plants of agricultural interest.

  16. Effect of temperature on the toxicity of the water-soluble fractions of Diesel Fuel No. 2 and H-Coal crude oil to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, S.O. Jr.; Millemann, R.E.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the interactions between temperature and the water soluble fractions (WSFs) of H-coal crude oil and No. 2 diesel fuel oil on the survival, respiration, and food assimilation of Daphnia magna. Results of acute toxicity tests with both oils showed that mortality was directly related to temperature and that H-coal was more toxic than diesel fuel oil to D. magna. The 48-h LC50s for diesel oil at 10, 20, and 25/sup 0/C were 87%, 32%, and 9.7% WSF, respectively. The values for H-coal were 0.70% at 10/sup 0/C, 0.44% at 20/sup 0/C, and 0.18% at 25/sup 0/C. Respiration rates of animals exposed to sublethal concentrations of the two oils at 10, 20, and 25/sup 0/C were dependent on the concentration of the oil and temperature. Low concentrations of diesel oil stimulated respiration rates at each temperature, but higher concentrations depressed them. At all temperatures, oxygen consumption rates of animals exposed to H-coal oil decreased with increased concentration. The exposure to sublethal concentrations of both oils affected food assimilation of the animals in a manner similar to that observed when respiration was the criterion of toxic effect. At 20 and 25/sup 0/C, low concentrations of diesel oil stimulated assimilation rates, whereas low concentrations of H-coal depressed them. Generally, higher concentrations of both oils depressed assimilation rates below controls. Assimilation rates of animals at 10/sup 0/C decreased sharply with low concentrations of both oils as compared with controls, but with increased concentrations the respective decreases were much less. The use of short-term physiological tests as predictors of long-term effects is briefly discussed.

  17. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  18. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  19. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  20. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat.

  1. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  2. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountain aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol (TSP) samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N; 117.10° E) located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220-6070 ng m-3) were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid (105-3920 ng m-3) followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M), isomaleic (iM) and fumaric (F) acid, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, iso-phthalic and tere-phthalic acids). ω-Oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24-610 ng m-3) were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11-360 ng m-3), followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3-140 ng m-3) and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1-230 ng m-3 and methylglyoxal, 2-120 ng m-3). We found that these levels (> 6000 ng m-3 for diacids) are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June showing a maximum on 7 June and then significantly decreased during 8-11 June when the wind direction shifted from northeasterly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning products of agricultural wastes (wheat straw) in the North China Plain and the subsequent photochemical oxidation of volatile and semi

  3. Aircraft observations of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids in the aerosols over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Qing Fu, Ping; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Takami, Akinori; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Vertical profiles of dicarboxylic acids, related organic compounds and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracer compounds in particle phase have not yet been simultaneously explored in East Asia, although there is growing evidence that aqueous-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds may be responsible for the elevated organic aerosols (OA) in the troposphere. Here, we found consistently good correlation of oxalic acid, the most abundant individual organic compounds in aerosols globally, with its precursors as well as biogenic-derived SOA compounds in Chinese tropospheric aerosols by aircraft measurements. Anthropogenically derived dicarboxylic acids (i.e., C5 and C6 diacids) at high altitudes were 4-20 times higher than those from surface measurements and even occasionally dominant over oxalic acid at altitudes higher than 2 km, which is in contrast to the predominance of oxalic acid previously reported globally including the tropospheric and surface aerosols. This indicates an enhancement of tropospheric SOA formation from anthropogenic precursors. Furthermore, oxalic acid-to-sulfate ratio maximized at altitudes of ˜ 2 km, explaining aqueous-phase SOA production that was supported by good correlations with predicted liquid water content, organic carbon and biogenic SOA tracers. These results demonstrate that elevated oxalic acid and related SOA compounds from both the anthropogenic and biogenic sources may substantially contribute to tropospheric OA burden over polluted regions of China, implying aerosol-associated climate effects and intercontinental transport.

  4. Fractionation of Dipeptidase Activities of Streptococcus lactis and Dipeptidase Specificity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sørhaug, Terje; Solberg, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Proteins in sonic extracts of Streptococcus lactis were separated by starch-gel electrophoresis at high voltage. Each slab was sliced longitudinally, and half was stained for peptidases in a mixture containing a peptide, L-amino acid oxidase (snake venom), peroxidase, and o-dianisdine; the other half was stained in amido black for protein. In addition to sonic treatment, trypsin also released enzyme from acetone-treated cells. Glycyl-L-phenylalanine, L-phenylalanyl-glycine, L-alanyl-L-phenylalanine, and L-phenylalanyl-L-alanine served as substrates in characterizing the enzymes. Five different fractions of various specificities appeared in the gels. Broad-range substrate specificities were found for sonic extracts of S. lactis, S. cremoris, S. durans, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Images PMID:4633426

  5. Transport of Corilagin, Gallic Acid, and Ellagic Acid from Fructus Phyllanthi Tannin Fraction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-juan; Liang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Wen-Jing; Han, Shu-Xian; Qi, Qi; Cui, Ya-Ping; Li, Shi; Yang, Guang-Hui; Shao, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the absorption property of the representative hydrolyzable tannin, namely corilagin, and its hydrolysates gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) from the Fructus Phyllanthi tannin fraction (PTF) in vitro. Methods. Caco-2 cells monolayer model was established. Influences of PTF on Caco-2 cells viability were detected with MTT assay. The transport across monolayers was examined for different time points, concentrations, and secretory directions. The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) and sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and tight junction modulators were used to study the transport mechanism. LC-MS method was employed to quantify the absorption concentration. Results. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of the three compounds were below 1.0 × 10−6 cm/s. The absorption of corilagin and GA were much lower than their efflux, and the uptake of both compounds was increased in the presence of inhibitors of P-gp and MRPs. The absorption of EA was decreased in the company of OATP and SGLT1 inhibitors. Moreover, the transport of corilagin, GA, and EA was enhanced by tight junction modulators. Conclusion. These observations indicated that the three compounds in PTF were transported via passive diffusion combined with protein mediated transport. P-gp and MRPs might get involved in the transport of corilagin and GA. The absorption of EA could be attributed to OATP and SGLT1 protein. PMID:27738446

  6. Formation of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and a-dicarbonyls by ozone oxidation of isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hirokawa, J.

    2014-12-01

    Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic acid (C2) are the dominant organic compound class in atmospheric aerosols. They can act as cloud condensation nuclei and affect on the Earth climate. Diacids can be primary emitted from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning and secondarily produced by photochemical oxidations of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons. However, their sources and formation processes are still not well understood. Recently model and observation studies suggested the importance of isoprene as a precursor of oxalic acid. Isoprene is the most abundant BVOC emitted from terrestrial plants and can serve as important precursors of diacids. We conducted a laboratory oxidation of isoprene (2.0 ppm) with ozone (4.3 ppm) in a Teflon bag for 10 to 480 min. The formed particles were collected with quartz fiber filters and analyzed for diacids, oxoacids and a-dicarbonyls employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization and using GC and GC/MS techniques. Here, we report the analytical results to better understand the formation process of diacids and related compounds from isoprene. We detected homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C6), unsaturated diacids (maleic and methylmaleic acids), w-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. We found that oxalic acid (3000-9700 ngm-3) is the most abundant diacid followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Their concentrations increased with reaction time showing a maximum in 4 hours. Interestingly, C3/C4 ratios increased with time. The second most abundant species after oxalic acid was generally methylglyoxal (3600-9600 ngm-3), except for the 30 min. sample where methylglyoxal was more abundant than oxalic acid. Glyoxylic acid (wC2) was found as the most abundant oxoacid (1600-3800 ngm-3) followed by wC3 and wC4. Although the concentrations of diacids and related compounds are 1-2 orders magnitude higher than those reported in ambient aerosols, this study

  7. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles. PMID:24437520

  8. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  9. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

    2012-08-01

    Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (Ā), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment.

  10. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  11. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  12. Solubility and equilibrium vapor pressures of HC1 dissolved in polar stratospheric cloud materials - Ice and the trihydrate of nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the pressure-solubility behavior of HC1 in water ice and in the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) crystal at 200 K are reported. It was found that HC1 is about 20 times more soluble in NAT than in ice for stratospheric conditions. A relation between HC1 pressure and substrate composition based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation is developed. This relation, along with other thermodynamic data, can be used to obtain the HC1 pressure-solubility behavior at different temperatures. Implications of these results for the south polar ozone hole are discussed.

  13. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). PMID:27112879

  14. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa).

  15. Release of a Poorly Soluble Drug from Hydrophobically Modified Poly (Acrylic Acid) in Simulated Intestinal Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Knöös, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    A large part of new pharmaceutical substances are characterized by a poor solubility and high hydrophobicity, which might lead to a difference in drug adsorption between fasted and fed patients. We have previously evaluated the release of hydrophobic drugs from tablets based on Pemulen TR2 and showed that the release can be manipulated by adding surfactants. Here we further evaluate the possibility to use Pemulen TR2 in controlled release tablet formulations containing a poorly soluble substance, griseofulvin. The release is evaluated in simulated intestinal media that model the fasted state (FaSSIF medium) or fed state (FeSSIF). The rheology of polymer gels is studied in separate experiments, in order to gain more information on possible interactions. The release of griseofulvin in tablets without surfactant varied greatly and the slowest release were observed in FeSSIF. Addition of SDS to the tablets eliminated the differences and all tablets showed a slow linear release, which is of obvious relevance for robust drug delivery. Comparing the data from the release studies and the rheology experiment showed that the effects on the release from the different media could to a large extent be rationalised as a consequence of the interactions between the polymer and the surfactants in the media. The study shows that Pemulen TR2 is a candidate for controlled release formulations in which addition of surfactant provides a way to eliminate food effects on the release profile. However, the formulation used needs to be designed to give a faster release rate than the tablets currently investigated. PMID:26473964

  16. Bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids: aqueous solubility and release characteristics from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan W; Parshad, Henrik; Larsen, Claus

    2005-11-01

    In the search for poorly soluble bupivacaine salts potentially enabling prolonged postoperative pain relief after local joint administration in the form of suspensions the solubility of bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids were investigated together with the release characteristics of selected 1:1 salts from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model. The poorest soluble bupivacaine salts were obtained from the aromatic ortho-hydroxycarboxylic acids diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and salicylic acid (aqueous solubilities: 0.6-1.9 mM at 37 degrees C). Diffusant appearance rates in the acceptor phase upon instillation of solutions of various salts in the donor cell applied to first-order kinetics. Calculated permeability coefficients for bupivacaine and the counterions diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and mandelic acid were found to be correlated with the molecular size of the diffusants. Release experiments at physiological pH involving suspensions of the bupivacaine-diflunisal salt revealed that at each sampling point the diflunisal concentration exceeded that of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase. However, after an initial lag period, a steady state situation was attained resulting in equal and constant fluxes of the two diffusants controlled by the permeability coefficients in combination with the solubility product of the salt. Due to the fact that the saturation solubility of the bupivacaine-salicylic acid salt in water exceeded that of bupivacaine at pH 7.4, suspensions of the latter salt were unable to provide simultaneous release of the cationic and anionic species at pH 7.4. The release profiles were characterised by a rapid release of salicylate accompanied by a much slower appearance of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase caused by precipitation of bupivacaine base from the solution upon dissolution of the salt in the donor cell.

  17. Modeling solubility, acid-base properties and activity coefficients of amoxicillin, ampicillin and (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid, in NaCl(aq) at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Cucinotta, Daniela; De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio; Vianelli, Giuseppina

    2012-11-20

    The total solubility of three penicillin derivatives was determined, in pure water and NaCl aqueous solutions at different salt concentrations (from ∼0.15 to 1.0 mol L(-1) for ampicillin and amoxicillin, and from ∼0.05 to 2.0 mol L(-1) for (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid), using the shake-flask method for generating the saturated solutions, followed by potentiometric analysis. The knowledge of the pH of solubilization and of the protonation constants determined in the same experimental conditions, allowed us to calculate, by means of the mass balance equations, the solubility of the neutral species at different ionic strength values, to model its dependence on the salt concentration and to determine the corresponding values at infinite dilution. The salting parameter and the activity coefficients of the neutral species were calculated by the Setschenow equation. The protonation constants of ampicillin and amoxicillin, determined at different temperatures (from T=288.15 to 318.15K), from potentiometric and spectrophotometric measurements, were used to calculate, by means of the Van't Hoff equation, the temperature coefficients at different ionic strength values and the corresponding protonation entropies. The protonation enthalpies of the (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid were determined by isoperibol calorimetric titrations at T=298.15K and up to I=2.0 mol L(-1). The dependence of the protonation constants on ionic strength was modeled by means of the Debye-Hückel and SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) approaches, and the specific interaction parameters of the ionic species were determined. The hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring was studied by spectrophotometric and H NMR investigations as a function of pH, ionic strength and time. Potentiometric measurements carried out on the hydrolyzed (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid allowed us to highlight that the opened and the closed β-lactam forms of the (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid have quite different acid-base properties. An

  18. Effects of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Eschen, O; Christensen, J H; LA Rovere, M T; Romano, P; Sala, P; Schmidt, E B

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory markers as circulating soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAMs) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and may constitute an increased risk of adverse outcome. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n-3 PUFA) may have anti-inflammatory effect and reduce levels of sCAMs (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), P-selectin) and hsCRP. In a randomized, controlled trial, 138 patients with NYHA class II-III CHF were allocated to receive a daily supplement of 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA or olive oil for 24 weeks. After supplementation, no significant changes occurred in sCAMs or hsCRP after adjusting for possible confounders. However, a significant reduction was observed in sP-selectin in patients receiving n-3 PUFA, but this result was only of borderline significance in a between-group analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplement with 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA does not significantly affect plasma levels of sCAMs or hs-CRP in patients with CHF. n-3 PUFA may reduce sP-selectin, indicating a possible effect on platelet (and endothelial) activation. The results also indicate that the low dose of n-3 PUFA used in many intervention trials does not have deleterious effects on sCAMs or hsCRP.

  19. Cotton wool-like poly(lactic acid)/vaterite composite scaffolds releasing soluble silica for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Obata, Akiko; Ozasa, Hiroki; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jones, Julian R

    2013-07-01

    Cotton wool-like poly(L-lactic acid) and siloxane-doped vaterite (SiV) composite scaffolds were prepared with a modified electrospinning system for bone tissue engineering applications. The effects of changing the SiV content in the materials from 10 to 30 wt% on elasticity and the ability to release calcium ions and soluble silica were evaluated. The elasticity of the cotton wool-like composites was almost the same as that of the PLLA from the results of compressibility and recovery tests. The materials released calcium ions for more than 56 days and soluble silica for 28-56 days in a tris buffer solution (pH 7.4). Mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) were cultured on/in the cotton wool-like materials or the fibremats out of the same composite materials as that used for the cotton wool-like materials. The cells penetrated into and proliferated inside the cotton wool-like materials, although they mainly adhered on the fibremat surface.

  20. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products.

  1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25952845

  2. SOLUBLE HEPATIC δ-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID SYNTHETASE: END-PRODUCT INHIBITION OF THE PARTIALLY PURIFIED ENZYME*

    PubMed Central

    Scholnick, Perry L.; Hammaker, Lydia E.; Marver, Harvey S.

    1969-01-01

    The present study confirms the existence of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in the cytosol of the liver, suggests that this enzyme may be in transit to the mitochondria, and defines some of the characteristics of the partially purified enzyme. The substrate and cofactor requirements are similar to those of mitochondrial δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase. Heme strongly inhibits the partially purified enzyme. A number of proteins that bind heme block this inhibition, which explains previous failures to demonstrate heme inhibition in crude systems. End-product inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in the mitochondria may play an important role in the regulation of heme biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. PMID:5257968

  3. Water-Soluble Poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s: A Sensor Array Discriminates Aromatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinsong; Wang, Benhua; Bender, Markus; Seehafer, Kai; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2016-08-10

    A chemical tongue consisting of 11 elements (four poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s (PAE) at pH 7 and pH 13, and seven electrostatic complexes formed from oppositely charged poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s at pH 7) discriminate 21 benzoic and phenylacetic acid derivatives in aqueous solution. The mechanism of discrimination is the fluorescence modulation of the PAEs, leading to quenching or fluorescence turn-on. The PAEs alone at both pH values and the tongue, consisting of the complexes only, discriminate the 21 acids with 92% (PAEs at pH 7), 95% (PAEs at pH 13), and 99% (complexes at pH 7) reliability after linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A sensor field with all 14 elements, according to LDA, discriminates all of the 21 acids with 100% accuracy. PMID:27415439

  4. The role of small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) in protection of spores of Clostridium botulinum against nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Carolyn A; Cartman, Stephen T; McClure, Peter J; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-01-01

    Mutant strains of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 were generated using the ClosTron in four genes (CBO1789, CBO1790, CBO3048, CBO3145) identified as encoding α/β-type SASP homologues. The spores of mutant strains in which CBO1789 or CBO1790 was inactivated demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity to the damaging agent nitrous acid (P<0.01), a phenotype that was partially restored to wild-type in complementation studies. In contrast to nitrous acid, the spores of the CBO1789 and CBO1790 mutants showed no change in their resistance to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide (P>0.05), two other chemicals commonly used as components of disinfection regimes. These data indicate that the SASPs CBO1789 or CBO1790 play a significant role in resistance to nitrous acid, but not in resistance to formaldehyde or hydrogen peroxide.

  5. The role of small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) in protection of spores of Clostridium botulinum against nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Carolyn A; Cartman, Stephen T; McClure, Peter J; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-01-01

    Mutant strains of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 were generated using the ClosTron in four genes (CBO1789, CBO1790, CBO3048, CBO3145) identified as encoding α/β-type SASP homologues. The spores of mutant strains in which CBO1789 or CBO1790 was inactivated demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity to the damaging agent nitrous acid (P<0.01), a phenotype that was partially restored to wild-type in complementation studies. In contrast to nitrous acid, the spores of the CBO1789 and CBO1790 mutants showed no change in their resistance to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide (P>0.05), two other chemicals commonly used as components of disinfection regimes. These data indicate that the SASPs CBO1789 or CBO1790 play a significant role in resistance to nitrous acid, but not in resistance to formaldehyde or hydrogen peroxide. PMID:26386202

  6. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere: Acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1992-10-01

    We report here the distribution of selected acidic gases and aerosol species in the North American Arctic and sub-Arctic summer troposphere. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases and acidic sulfate aerosols dominating the particulate phase. Our data show that the acidic gas and aerosol composition is uniform on a large spatial scale. There appears to be a surface source of NH4+ over the Arctic Ocean pack ice which may reflect release of NH3 from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface near ice leads, release from rotting sea ice, or an upward flux from surface ocean waters in open ice leads. This NH3 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity in the boundary layer. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southwestern Alaska inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the nearby Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO42-. While there were only minor effects on aerosol chemistry over the tundra from sea salt, the rainwater chemistry showed influence from marine aerosols which were apparently incorporated into air masses during frontal passages moving inland from the Bering Sea. The rainwater acidity over the tundra (pH 4.69) is typical of remote regions. The principal acidity components are H2SO4 and carboxylic acids, especially HCOOH. The carboxylic acids appear to have a strong continental biogenic source, but hydrocarbons of marine origin and emissions from forest fires may also be important. The wet deposition fluxes of NO3--N and SO42--S over sub-Arctic tundra during July-August 1988 were 2.1 and 2.4 mmol m-2 yr-1. Wet deposition of NO3- was nearly 3 times higher than the average NOy deposition flux, which is believed to represent primarily dry deposition of HNO3 (Bakwin et al., this issue). Our measurements indicate that the mid-troposphere in the Arctic is generally contaminated with low levels of anthropogenic pollutants even in summer when direct atmospheric coupling

  7. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread.

  8. Histidine-functionalized water-soluble nanoparticles for biomimetic nucleophilic/general-base catalysis under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Geetika; Zhao, Yan

    2013-10-21

    Cross-linking the micelles of 4-dodecyloxybenzyltripropargylammonium bromide by 1,4-diazidobutane-2,3-diol in the presence of azide-functionalized imidazole derivatives yielded surface-cross-linked micelles (SCMs) with imidazole groups on the surface. The resulting water-soluble nanoparticles were found, by fluorescence spectroscopy, to contain hydrophobic binding sites. The imidazole groups promoted the photo-deprotonation of 2-naphthol at pH 6 and catalyzed the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) in aqueous solution at pH ≥ 4. Although the overall hydrolysis rate slowed down with decreasing solution pH, the catalytic effect of the imidazole became stronger because the reactions catalyzed by unfunctionalized SCMs slowed down much more. The unusual ability of the imidazole–SCMs to catalyze the hydrolysis of PNPA under acidic conditions was attributed to the local hydrophobicity and the positive nature of the SCMs.

  9. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  10. Hygroscopic properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the boreal forest: diurnal variation, solubility and the influence of sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Aufmhoff, H.; Aalto, P.; Hämeri, K.; Arnold, F.; Laaksonen, A.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-10-01

    Freshly formed atmospheric aerosol particles are neither large enough to efficiently scatter incoming solar radiation nor able to act as cloud condensation nuclei. As the particles grow larger, their hygroscopicity determines the limiting size after which they are important in both of the aforementioned processes. The condensing species resulting in growth alter the hygroscopicity of the particles. We have measured hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles present in a boreal forest, along with the very hygroscopic atmospheric trace gas sulfuric acid. The focus was on days with new particle formation by nucleation. The measured hygroscopic growth factors (GF) correlated positively with gaseous phase sulfuric acid concentrations. This correlation had a strong size dependency; the smaller the particle, the more condensing sulfuric acid is bound to alter the GF due to initially smaller mass. In addition, water uptake of nucleation mode particles was monitored during new particle formation events and followed during their growth to Aitken mode sizes. As the modal diameter increased, the solubility of the particles decreased. This indicated that initially more hygroscopic particles transformed into less hygroscopic or even hydrophobic particles. A similar behavior was seen also during days with no particle formation, with GF decreasing during the evenings and increasing during early morning. This can be tentatively explained by day- and nighttime differences in the hygroscopicity of condensable vapors.

  11. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. PMID:27507500

  12. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens. PMID:2625499

  13. PM chemical composition and oxidative potential of the soluble fraction of particles at two sites in the urban area of Milan, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Zhou, Jun; Malandrino, Mery; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Ferrero, Luca; Dommen, Josef; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence support the hypothesis that health effects from inhalation of air particles are governed by more than just particle mass, since specific chemical components have been identified as important contributors to mortality and hospitality admissions. We studied the chemical composition and the oxidative potential (OP) of total suspended particle (TSP) samples from Milan at two sites with different traffic loads: a site in the low emission zone (LEZ) and a traffic site (TR) outside. Two a-cellular assays; dithiothreitol (OPDTT) and 2‧,7' dichlorofluorescin (OPDCFH) were used to characterize the OP of the soluble fraction of particles. TSP samples from LEZ showed significantly lower concentrations of traffic-related chemical components compared to TR. The decrease in the concentrations from TR to LEZ was maximum for EC, with a LEZ/TR ratio of 0.64 (±0.18), and a significant reduction (p < 0.01) was also observed for PAHs (LEZ/TR = 0.73 ± 0.16), elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb: LEZ/TR ranged between 0.64 and 0.82), OC (LEZ/TR = 0.85 ± 0.12) and NH4+ (LEZ/TR = 0.92 ± 0.07). OP measures, expressed as OP/m3 or OP/mg, were comparable between sites both for OPDTT and OPDCFH, thus not showing any significant impact of local traffic on OP values at sites. OPDTT and OPDCFH showed contrasting seasonal and daily trends, indicating that the two a-cellular assays gave complementary information on the OP of particles in Milan. The two OP assays resulted to be sensitive to different chemical properties of PM samples. OPDTT correlated positively only with Global Radiation (Spearman's rs = 0.38, p < 0.05), which could be considered as a proxy for high concentrations of secondary oxidizing organics, while OPDCFH was related to various PM chemical species, mainly correlated with total mass (rs = 0.65; p < 0.01), elements (e.g. Zn, rs = 0.67; As, rs = 0.65; p < 0.01) and the sum of sulfate and nitrate (rs = 0.63; p < 0.01), a proxy for secondary aerosol.

  14. Dual strategies to improve oral bioavailability of oleanolic acid: Enhancing water-solubility, permeability and inhibiting cytochrome P450 isozymes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qikun; Yang, Xiaoxu; Du, Ping; Zhang, Huifen; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-02-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a typical BCS IV drug with low water-solubility and poor permeability, metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestinal tract, such as CYP3A. These are the reasons for the low oral bioavailability of OA which have restricted its wide application. In this study, a solidified phospholipid complex (OPCH) composed of OA-phospholipid complex (OPC) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by simple solvent evaporation. OPC was used to improve the liposolubility of OA, and HA was used to improve the flowability of OPC. Ketoconazole (KCZ, inhibitor of CYP3A) was co-administrated with OPCH to inhibit the metabolism of OA by CYP3A in the intestine. DSC, PXRD, SEM and IR analysis confirmed the formation of OPC and OPCH. Compared with the water-solubility and n-octanol solubility of OA, that of OPCH was increased nearly 15.3-fold and 3.19-fold, respectively. An in vitro dissolution study showed that the cumulative dissolution rate of OPCH was nearly 2.23-fold and 4.57-fold higher than that of OA and OPC at 2h. Single-pass intestinal perfusion studies showed that the absorption of OA from OPCH was increased nearly 1.6-2.6-fold compared with that of pure OA and this was mainly due to the improved permeability and was further increased by OPCH with KCZ 1.2-2.4-fold compared with that of OPCH because KCZ inhibited metabolism of OA by CYP3A. A pharmacokinetic study of OPCH in rats following co-administration of KCZ was investigated. The Cmax was increased markedly from 59.5 to 78.7 and 131.3ng/mL in case of OA alone, OPCH alone and OPCH with KCZ. In parallel with the Cmax, the AUC0-24h was increased from 259.6 to 306.6 and 707.7ngh/mL, respectively. All the results obtained demonstrated that formulation of OPCH and co-administration of KCZ significantly improved the bioavailability of OA by increasing the solubility and permeability in combination with inhibiting the metabolism of OA.

  15. Bile acids of snakes of the subfamily Viperinae and the biosynthesis of C-23-hydroxylated bile acids in liver homogenate fractions from the adder, Vipera berus (Linn.).

    PubMed Central

    Ikawa, S; Tammar, A R

    1976-01-01

    1. Analysis of bile salts of four snakes of the subfamily Viperinae showed that their bile acids consisted mainly of C-23-hydroxylated bile acids. 2. Incubations of 14C-labelled sodium cholate (3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oate) and deoxycholate (3 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oate) with whole and fractionated adder liver homogenates were carried out in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH or an NADPH-generating system. The formation of C-23-hydroxylated bile acids, namely bitocholic acid (3 alpha, 12 alpha, 23xi-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 23 xi-tetrahydroxy-cholanic acid (3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 23 xi-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid), was observed mainly in the microsomal fraction and partly in the mitochondrial fraction. 3. Biosynthetic pathways of C-23-hydroxylated bile acids are discussed. PMID:6007

  16. Deriving Gene Networks from SNP Associated with Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Fractions from Ribeyes of Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Justin W.; Reecy, James M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Duan, Qing; Beitz, Don C.; Koltes, James E.; Saatchi, Mahdi; Koesterke, Lars; Mateescu, Raluca G.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction. Posterior means of the effects were estimated for each of the 54 k SNP and for the collective effects of all the SNP in every 1-Mb genomic window in terms of the proportion of genetic variance explained by the window. Windows that explained the largest proportions of genetic variance for individual lipids were found in the triacylglycerol fraction. There was almost no overlap in the genomic regions explaining variance between the triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions. Partial correlations were used to identify correlated regions of the genome for the set of largest 1 Mb windows that explained up to 35% genetic variation in either fatty acid fraction. SNP were allocated to windows based on the bovine UMD3.1 assembly. Gene network clusters were generated utilizing a partial correlation and information theory algorithm. Results were used in conjunction with network scoring and visualization software to analyze correlated SNP across 39 fatty acid phenotypes to identify SNP of significance. Significant pathways implicated in fatty acid metabolism through GO term enrichment analysis included homeostasis of number of cells, homeostatic process, coenzyme/cofactor activity, and immunoglobulin. These results suggest different metabolic pathways regulate the development of different types of lipids found in

  17. Deriving Gene Networks from SNP Associated with Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Fractions from Ribeyes of Angus Cattle.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Justin W; Reecy, James M; Garrick, Dorian J; Duan, Qing; Beitz, Don C; Koltes, James E; Saatchi, Mahdi; Koesterke, Lars; Mateescu, Raluca G

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction. Posterior means of the effects were estimated for each of the 54 k SNP and for the collective effects of all the SNP in every 1-Mb genomic window in terms of the proportion of genetic variance explained by the window. Windows that explained the largest proportions of genetic variance for individual lipids were found in the triacylglycerol fraction. There was almost no overlap in the genomic regions explaining variance between the triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions. Partial correlations were used to identify correlated regions of the genome for the set of largest 1 Mb windows that explained up to 35% genetic variation in either fatty acid fraction. SNP were allocated to windows based on the bovine UMD3.1 assembly. Gene network clusters were generated utilizing a partial correlation and information theory algorithm. Results were used in conjunction with network scoring and visualization software to analyze correlated SNP across 39 fatty acid phenotypes to identify SNP of significance. Significant pathways implicated in fatty acid metabolism through GO term enrichment analysis included homeostasis of number of cells, homeostatic process, coenzyme/cofactor activity, and immunoglobulin. These results suggest different metabolic pathways regulate the development of different types of lipids found in

  18. Redox potentials and kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction and solubility of cerium sulfates in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulenova, A.; Creager, S. E.; Navratil, J. D.; Wei, Y.

    Experimental work was performed with the aim of evaluating the Ce 4+/Ce 3+ redox couple in sulfuric acid electrolyte for use in redox flow battery (RFB) technology. The solubility of cerium sulfates in 0.1-4.0 M sulfuric acid at 20-60 °C was studied. A synergistic effect of both sulfuric acid concentration and temperature on the solubility of cerous sulfate was observed. The solubility of cerous sulfate significantly decreased with rising concentration of sulfuric acid and rising temperature, while the solubility of ceric sulfate goes through a significant maximum at 40 °C. Redox potentials and the kinetics of the cerous/ceric redox reaction were also studied under the same temperature-concentration conditions. The redox potentials were measured using the combined redox electrode (Pt-Ag/AgCl) in equimolar Ce 4+/Ce 3+ solutions (i.e.[Ce 3+]=[Ce 4+]) in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox potentials significantly decrease (i.e. shift to more negative values) with rising sulfuric acid concentration; a small maximum is observed at 40 °C. Cyclic voltammetric experiments confirmed slow electrochemical kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction on carbon glassy electrodes (CGEs) in sulfuric acid solutions. The observed dependencies of solubilities, the redox potentials and the kinetics of Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction on sulfuric acid concentration are thought to be the result of inequivalent complexation of the two redox species by sulfate anions: the ceric ion is much more strongly bound to sulfate than is the cerous ion. The best temperature-concentration conditions for the RFB electrolytes appear to be 40 °C and 1 M sulfuric acid, where the relatively good solubility of both cerium species, the maximum of redox potentials, and the more or less satisfying stability of CGE s were found. Even so, the relatively low solubility of cerium salts in sulfuric acid media and slow redox kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction at carbon indicate that the Ce 3+/Ce

  19. pH Shifting alters solubility characteristics and thermal stability of soy protein isolate and its globulin fractions in different pH, salt concentration, and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2010-07-14

    Soy protein isolate (SPI), beta-conglycinin (7S), and glycinin (11S) were subjected to pH-shifting treatments, that is, unfolding at pH 1.5 or 12.0 followed by refolding at pH 7.0, to induce molten globule structures. Treated samples were analyzed for protein solubility, thermal stability, and aggregation in 0, 0.1, and 0.6 M NaCl solutions at pH 2.0-8.0. The pH(12) shifting resulted in drastic increases (up to 2.5-fold) in SPI solubility in the pH 6.0-7.0 range, especially at 0 M NaCl. The pH(1.5) shifting had a generally lesser effect on solubility. 11S exhibited a solubility pattern similar to that of SPI, but the solubility of 7S was unaffected by pH shifting except at 0.6 M NaCl. The pH shifting, notably at pH 12.0, produced soluble, disulfide-linked polymers from 11S and reduced (P < 0.05) its enthalpy but not its temperature of denaturation. Soy proteins structurally altered by pH shifting had a reduced sensitivity to thermal aggregation.

  20. Soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates in coffee pulp (Coffea arabica) from seven cultivars at three ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Ramírez-Coronel, Ma Ascención; Aranda-Delgado, Eduardo; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    The contents of soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) were analyzed in coffee pulp (CP) of seven cultivars of Coffea arabica at three different ripening stages. Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of HCAs were evaluated and improved. HCAs were present mainly in the soluble fraction (68-97%). Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid (94-98%) in the soluble fraction, whereas caffeic acid was the most abundant HCA found in the bound fraction (72-88%). Small amounts of free and bound ferulic and p-coumaric acids were also detected. The content of total HCAs in CP reached the maximum concentration at the semiripe stage (7.4-25.5 mg/g CP, dw) but decreased at the ripe stage for six of the seven cultivars. These findings suggest that unripe or semiripe coffee cherries, considered as defective cherries, are a potential inexpensive source of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids.

  1. Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Acid and base fractions from petroleum vacuum resids with no detectable (by visible spectrophotometry) quantities of porphyrinic Ni or V complexes were hydrotreated under various conditions to determine if significant amounts of porphyrinic metals were released, via disassociation or other means, upon hydrotreating. No significant quantities were observed, thereby indicating that nonporphyrinic metals were not simply associated, complexed or otherwise masked (in terms of visible spectrophotometric response) porphyrinic metal complexes. However, it is possible that hydrotreating was simply not effective in breaking up these associates and/or that some porphyrinic forms of metal were in fact released but were rapidly destroyed by hydrotreating. In addition, three liquid chromatographic (LC) separation methods were sequentially applied to Cerro Negro (Orinoco belt Venezuelan heavy crude) >700{degree}C resid in an effort to separate and concentrate the metal complexes present. Nonaqueous ion exchange chromatography was used initially to separate the resid into acid, base and neutral types. Two concentrates containing 19,500 and 13,500 ppm total V, or an estimated 19 and 13 wt % V-containing compounds respectively, were obtained. The degree of enrichment of Ni compounds obtained was significantly lower. By visible spectrophotometry, using vanadyl etioporphyrin as a standard, each of the concentrates contained near a 1:1 ratio of porphyrinic:nonporphyrinic V complexes. Analogous separation behavior for porphyrinic versus nonporphyrinic metal forms was observed throughout much of the work, thereby suggesting that a comparable diversity of structures existed within each general class of metal compounds. The generally wide dispersion of both Ni and V over the LC separation scheme suggests a structural variety of metal complexes that is comparable to that observed for other heteroatoms (N, S, O) in petroleum.

  2. Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Acid and base fractions from petroleum vacuum resids with no detectable (by visible spectrophotometry) quantities of porphyrinic Ni or V complexes were hydrotreated under various conditions to determine if significant amounts of porphyrinic metals were released, via disassociation or other means, upon hydrotreating. No significant quantities were observed, thereby indicating that nonporphyrinic metals were not simply associated, complexed or otherwise masked (in terms of visible spectrophotometric response) porphyrinic metal complexes. However, it is possible that hydrotreating was simply not effective in breaking up these associates and/or that some porphyrinic forms of metal were in fact released but were rapidly destroyed by hydrotreating. In addition, three liquid chromatographic (LC) separation methods were sequentially applied to Cerro Negro (Orinoco belt Venezuelan heavy crude) >700[degree]C resid in an effort to separate and concentrate the metal complexes present. Nonaqueous ion exchange chromatography was used initially to separate the resid into acid, base and neutral types. Two concentrates containing 19,500 and 13,500 ppm total V, or an estimated 19 and 13 wt % V-containing compounds respectively, were obtained. The degree of enrichment of Ni compounds obtained was significantly lower. By visible spectrophotometry, using vanadyl etioporphyrin as a standard, each of the concentrates contained near a 1:1 ratio of porphyrinic:nonporphyrinic V complexes. Analogous separation behavior for porphyrinic versus nonporphyrinic metal forms was observed throughout much of the work, thereby suggesting that a comparable diversity of structures existed within each general class of metal compounds. The generally wide dispersion of both Ni and V over the LC separation scheme suggests a structural variety of metal complexes that is comparable to that observed for other heteroatoms (N, S, O) in petroleum.

  3. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe

  4. Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass for the 1982 volcanic eruptions of El Chichon are investigated using data from balloon soundings at Laramie (41 deg N) and in southern Texas (27-29 deg N). The total stratospheric mass of these eruptions is estimated to be approximately 8 Tg about 6.5 months after the eruption with possibly as much as 20 Tg in the stratosphere about 45 days after the eruption. Observations of the aerosol in Texas revealed two primary layers, both highly volatile at 150 C. Aerosol in the upper layer at about 25 km was composed of an approximately 80 percent H2SO4 solution while the lower layer at approximately 18 km was composed of a 60-65 percent H2SO4 solution aerosol. It is calculated that an H2SO4 vapor concentration of at least 3 x 10 to the 7th molecules/cu cm is needed to sustain the large droplets in the upper layer. An early bi-modal nature in the size distribution indicates droplet nucleation from the gas phase during the first 3 months, while the similarity of the large particle profiles 2 months apart shows continued particle growth 6.5 months after the explosion.

  5. Photoinductive activity of humic acid fractions with the presence of Fe(III): the role of aromaticity and oxygen groups involved in fractions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-06-01

    Relationship between the photoinductive activity and the properties of humic acids (HA) fractions were investigated with and without Fe(III). Three fractions were separated based on the molecular weight (M(w)) and were obtained following the order of M(w): F(A)>F(B)>F(C). Compared to F(A) and F(B), photodegradation of atrazine under simulated sunlight was much faster in solution containing F(C), whose structure was dominated by greater aromaticity, more oxygen groups and fluorophores. The interaction of HA fractions and Fe(III) was studied using fluorescence spectrometry and F(C) had the largest quenching constant. The capacity of electron transfer, estimated from the amount of photoformed Fe(II), was also highest for F(C). Thus, the Fe(III)-F(C) complex was efficient in phototransformation of atrazine in nearly neutral aqueous solutions. These results suggest that the aromaticity and oxygen groups content of HA exert great influence on the binding ability of metals and on the fate of pollutants in natural waters.

  6. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  7. Rational Design of a Colorimetric pH Sensor from a Soluble Retinoic Acid Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Berbasova, Tetyana; Nosrati, Meisam; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Wang, Wenjing; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Yapici, Ipek; Geiger, James H.; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Reengineering of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII) to be capable of binding retinal as a protonated Schiff base is described. Through rational alterations of the binding pocket, electrostatic perturbations of the embedded retinylidene chromophore that favor delocalization of the iminium charge lead to exquisite control in the regulation of chromophoric absorption properties, spanning the visible spectrum (474–640 nm). The pKa of the retinylidene protonated Schiff base was modulated from 2.4 to 8.1, giving rise to a set of proteins of varying colors and pH sensitivities. These proteins were used to demonstrate a concentration-independent, ratiometric pH sensor. PMID:24059243

  8. Rational design of a colorimetric pH sensor from a soluble retinoic acid chaperone.

    PubMed

    Berbasova, Tetyana; Nosrati, Meisam; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Wang, Wenjing; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Yapici, Ipek; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak

    2013-10-30

    Reengineering of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII) to be capable of binding retinal as a protonated Schiff base is described. Through rational alterations of the binding pocket, electrostatic perturbations of the embedded retinylidene chromophore that favor delocalization of the iminium charge lead to exquisite control in the regulation of chromophoric absorption properties, spanning the visible spectrum (474-640 nm). The pKa of the retinylidene protonated Schiff base was modulated from 2.4 to 8.1, giving rise to a set of proteins of varying colors and pH sensitivities. These proteins were used to demonstrate a concentration-independent, ratiometric pH sensor. PMID:24059243

  9. DNA detection using water-soluble conjugated polymers and peptide nucleic acid probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, Brent S.; Heeger, Alan J.; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2002-08-01

    The light-harvesting properties of cationic conjugated polymers are used to sensitize the emission of a dye on a specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence for the purpose of homogeneous, "real-time" DNA detection. Signal transduction is controlled by hybridization of the neutral PNA probe and the negative DNA target. Electrostatic interactions bring the hybrid complex and cationic polymer within distances required for Förster energy transfer. Conjugated polymer excitation provides fluorescein emission >25 times higher than that obtained by exciting the dye, allowing detection of target DNA at concentrations of 10 pM with a standard fluorometer. A simple and highly sensitive assay with optical amplification that uses the improved hybridization behavior of PNA/DNA complexes is thus demonstrated.

  10. Molecular simulation of aqueous electrolyte solubility. 3. Alkali-halide salts and their mixtures in water and in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Moučka, Filip; Lísal, Martin; Smith, William R

    2012-05-10

    We extend the osmotic ensemble Monte Carlo (OEMC) molecular simulation method (Moučka et al. J. Phys Chem. B 2011, 115, 7849-7861) for directly calculating the aqueous solubility of electrolytes and for calculating their chemical potentials as functions of concentration to cases involving electrolyte hydrates and mixed electrolytes, including invariant points involving simultaneous precipitation of several solutes. The method utilizes a particular semigrand canonical ensemble, which performs simulations of the solution at a fixed number of solvent molecules, pressure, temperature, and specified overall electrolyte chemical potential. It avoids calculations for the solid phase, incorporating available solid chemical potential data from thermochemical tables, which are based on well-defined reference states, or from other sources. We apply the method to a range of alkali halides in water and to selected examples involving LiCl monohydrate, mixed electrolyte solutions involving water and hydrochloric acid, and invariant points in these solvents. The method uses several existing force-field models from the literature, and the results are compared with experiment. The calculated results agree qualitatively well with the experimental trends and are of reasonable accuracy. The accuracy of the calculated solubility is highly dependent on the solid chemical potential value and also on the force-field model used. Our results indicate that pairwise additive effective force-field models developed for the solution phase are unlikely to also be good models for the corresponding crystalline solid. We find that, in our OEMC simulations, each ionic force-field model is characterized by a limiting value of the total solution chemical potential and a corresponding aqueous concentration. For higher values of the imposed chemical potential, the solid phase in the simulation grows in size without limit.

  11. Glycyrrhetinic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-glycyrrhetinic acid tri-block conjugates based self-assembled micelles for hepatic targeted delivery of poorly water soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengbo; Xu, Ting; Liu, Chi; Chen, Can; Song, Xiangrong; Zheng, Yu; He, Gu

    2013-01-01

    The triblock 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)18β-glycyrrhetinic acid conjugates (GA-PEG-GA) based self-assembled micelles were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. The GA-PEG-GA conjugates having the critical micelle concentration of 6 × 10(-5) M were used to form nanosized micelles, with mean diameters of 159.21 ± 2.2 nm, and then paclitaxel (PTX) was incorporated into GA-PEG-GA micelles by self-assembly method. The physicochemical properties of the PTX loaded GA-PEG-GA micelles were evaluated including in vitro cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug release profile, and in vivo tissue distribution. The results demonstrate that the GA-PEG-GA micelles had low cytotoxicity and good ability of selectively delivering drug to hepatic cells in vitro and in vivo by the targeting moiety glycyrrhetinic acid. In conclusion, the GA-PEG-GA conjugates have potential medical applications for targeted delivery of poor soluble drug delivery.

  12. Determination of soluble solids content and titratable acidity of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin using a hand-held NIR instrument in transmittance mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin was investigated using a hand-held NIR instrument “NIR-Gun” in transmittance mode. The resulting calibration equation measured SSC of intact fruit and juice with a standard error o...

  13. Highly water-soluble monoboronic acid probes that show optical sensitivity to glucose based on 4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    Two highly water-soluble monoboronic acid probes that display the more desirable off-on fluorescence response were synthesized based on 4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalic anhydride and a remarkable sensitivity for glucose rather than fructose and galactose was also observed.

  14. Species specific identification of spore-producing microbes using the gene sequence of small acid-soluble spore coat proteins for amplification based diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers for the detection of certain Bacillus species, such as Bacillus anthracis. The primers specifically amplify only DNA found in the target species and can distinguish closely related species. Species-specific PCR primers for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus globigii and Clostridium perfringens are disclosed. The primers are directed to unique sequences within sasp (small acid soluble protein) genes.

  15. HOBr in sulfuric acid solutions: Solubility and reaction with HCl as a function of temperature and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Waschewsky, G.C.G.; Abbatt, J.P.D.

    1999-07-08

    Although the total atmospheric loading of inorganic bromine is relatively low, not exceeding a few tens of parts per trillion, there has been considerable interest in recent years in the heterogeneous interactions which brominated species undergo in the atmosphere. A detailed study of the interaction of HOBr and HCl in cold sulfuric acid solutions has been performed using a coated-wall flow tube coupled to an electron-impact mass spectrometer. The liquid-phase bimolecular rate constants, measured over a temperature range from 213 to 238 K and in solutions from 59.7 to 70.1 wt % composition, show a strong positive dependence on both acid composition and temperature. The solubility of HOBr has also been measured in these solutions by analyzing its time-dependent uptake. Henry`s Law constants (H) determined from the measured values of HD{sup 1/2} and the liquid-phase diffusion coefficient (D) are independent of acid composition over the above range of solution compositions. The values of H demonstrate a clear Clausius-Clapeyron temperature dependence, with a heat of solution of {minus}9 {+-} 1 kcal/mol. When the atmospheric importance of these data is assessed, two conclusions are reached. In the stratosphere, under aerosol conditions observed soon after the Mt. Pinatubo volcano eruption, the rates of HCl activation via the HOBr/HCl heterogeneous reaction are comparable with the rate of activation via gas-phase reaction with OH at relatively warm temperatures (205--220 K), where other HCl-activating heterogeneous reactions occur slowly. In the high Arctic boundary layer, it is possible that significant HCl activation could occur when elevated levels of photochemically active bromine are present.

  16. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2007-02-01

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural

  17. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  18. The fraction of cells that resume growth after acetic acid addition is a strain-dependent parameter of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Steve; Fernández-Niño, Miguel; González-Ramos, Daniel; van Maris, Antonius J A; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-06-01

    High acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a relevant phenotype in industrial biotechnology when using lignocellulosic hydrolysates as feedstock. A screening of 38 S. cerevisiae strains for tolerance to acetic acid revealed considerable differences, particularly with regard to the duration of the latency phase. To understand how this phenotype is quantitatively manifested, four strains exhibiting significant differences were studied in more detail. Our data show that the duration of the latency phase is primarily determined by the fraction of cells within the population that resume growth. Only this fraction contributed to the exponential growth observed after the latency phase, while all other cells persisted in a viable but non-proliferating state. A remarkable variation in the size of the fraction was observed among the tested strains differing by several orders of magnitude. In fact, only 11 out of 10(7)  cells of the industrial bioethanol production strain Ethanol Red resumed growth after exposure to 157 mM acetic acid at pH 4.5, while this fraction was 3.6 × 10(6) (out of 10(7)  cells) in the highly acetic acid tolerant isolate ATCC 96581. These strain-specific differences are genetically determined and represent a valuable starting point to identify genetic targets for future strain improvement.

  19. Secondary Structures in a Freeze-Dried Lignite Humic Acid Fraction Caused by Hydrogen-Bonding of Acidic Protons with Aromatic Rings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A; Mao, Jingdong

    2016-02-16

    A lignite humic acid (HA) was separated from inorganic and non-HA impurities (i.e., aluminosilicates, metals) and fractionated by a combination of dialysis and XAD-8 resin. Fractionation revealed a more homogeneous structure of lignite HA. New and more specific structural information on the main lignite HA fraction is obtained by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Quantitative (13)C multiple cross-polarization (multiCP) NMR indicated oxidized phenyl propane structures derived from lignin. MultiCP experiments, conducted on potassium HA salts titrated to pH 10 and pH 12, revealed shifts consistent with carboxylate and phenolate formation, but structural changes associated with enolate formation from aromatic beta keto acids were not detected. Two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (2D HETCOR) NMR indicated aryl-aliphatic ketones, aliphatic and aromatic carboxyl groups, phenol, and methoxy phenyl ethers. Acidic protons from carboxyl groups in both the lignite HA fraction and a synthetic HA-like polycondensate were found to be hydrogen-bonded with electron-rich aromatic rings. Our results coupled with published infrared spectra provide evidence for the preferential hydrogen bonding of acidic hydrogens with electron-rich aromatic rings rather than adjacent carbonyl groups. These hydrogen-bonding interactions likely result from stereochemical arrangements in primary structures and folding. PMID:26836017

  20. Secondary Structures in a Freeze-Dried Lignite Humic Acid Fraction Caused by Hydrogen-Bonding of Acidic Protons with Aromatic Rings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A; Mao, Jingdong

    2016-02-16

    A lignite humic acid (HA) was separated from inorganic and non-HA impurities (i.e., aluminosilicates, metals) and fractionated by a combination of dialysis and XAD-8 resin. Fractionation revealed a more homogeneous structure of lignite HA. New and more specific structural information on the main lignite HA fraction is obtained by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Quantitative (13)C multiple cross-polarization (multiCP) NMR indicated oxidized phenyl propane structures derived from lignin. MultiCP experiments, conducted on potassium HA salts titrated to pH 10 and pH 12, revealed shifts consistent with carboxylate and phenolate formation, but structural changes associated with enolate formation from aromatic beta keto acids were not detected. Two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (2D HETCOR) NMR indicated aryl-aliphatic ketones, aliphatic and aromatic carboxyl groups, phenol, and methoxy phenyl ethers. Acidic protons from carboxyl groups in both the lignite HA fraction and a synthetic HA-like polycondensate were found to be hydrogen-bonded with electron-rich aromatic rings. Our results coupled with published infrared spectra provide evidence for the preferential hydrogen bonding of acidic hydrogens with electron-rich aromatic rings rather than adjacent carbonyl groups. These hydrogen-bonding interactions likely result from stereochemical arrangements in primary structures and folding.

  1. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Sohail; Shahzadi, Lubna; Mahmood, Nasir; Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar; Rauf, Abdul; Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Yar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes.

  2. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

  3. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  4. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  5. Correlation of biological value of feed phosphates with their solubility in water, dilute hydrogen chloride, dilute citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Gonzalez, N J; Bond, P L

    1992-12-01

    Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates (D-MCP, 18.5% phosphorus), and 14 defluorinated phosphates (DFP, 18.0% phosphorus) were evaluated. The average relative BV for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP samples were 97.6, 94.6, and 90.8%, respectively. Solubility of phosphates was determined by four recognized methods. The solvents were water, .4% HCl, 2.0% citric acid (CA), and neutral ammonium citrate (NAC). Water solubility of M-DCP samples was greater (67.5%) than that of D-MCP (38.8%) and DFP (8.9%) samples. Correlation of water solubility of phosphates to their relative BV was quite low, and water solubility was a poor indicator of BV. When .4% HCl was the solvent, correlation coefficients (r) were .55, .33, and .72 for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP, respectively. Based on these results and prediction equations, .4% HCl solubility would be inappropriate for estimating BV of M-DCP and D-MCP samples. Solubility of feed phosphates (mainly D-MCP and DFP) in 2.0% CA or NAC was positively correlated with BV; the r values were .87 to .95. Both of these solubility tests provided a good index of BV. However, it would seem inappropriate and risky to replace bioassays totally with these tests. Feed phosphate users could perform either the 2.0% CA or NAC solubility test easily as a screen for BV along with other quality control procedures (i.e., phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and fluoride determinations).

  6. Directed evolution and structural analysis of N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase provide insights into recombinant protein solubility in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shimin; Li, Chunhong; Zhang, Weiwen; Cai, Yuanheng; Yang, Yunlin; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2007-03-15

    One of the greatest bottlenecks in producing recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is that over-expressed target proteins are mostly present in an insoluble form without any biological activity. N-carbamoyl-D-amino-acid amidohydrolase (DCase) is an important enzyme involved in semi-synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics in industry. In this study, in order to determine the amino acid sites responsible for solubility in DCase, error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling techniques are applied to randomly mutate its encoding sequence, followed by an efficient screening based on structural complementation. Several mutants of DCase with reduced aggregation are isolated. Solubility tests of these mutants and several other mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis indicate that three amino acid residues of DCase (A18, Y30 and K34) are related to the protein solubility in DCase. In silico structural modeling analyses further suggest that hydrophilicity and/or negative charge at these three residues may be responsible for the increased solubility of DCase proteins in E. coli. Based on the information, multiple engineering designated mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis; among them, a triple mutant A18T/Y30N/K34E (named as DCase-M3) can be over-expressed in E. coli with up to 80% of DCase-M3 protein as soluble. DCase-M3 is purified to homogeneity and a comparative analysis with WT DCase demonstrates that DCase-M3 enzyme is similar to the native DCase in terms of its kinetic and thermodynamic properties. The study provides new insights on recombinant protein solubility in E. coli.

  7. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation.

  8. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation. PMID:25615406

  9. Fractionated PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid: effective, cost effective, and patient friendly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vijlder, Hannah C.; Middelburg, Tom A.; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Neumann, H. A. Martino; de Haas, Ellen R. M.

    2009-06-01

    PDT with ALA and MAL is established as a relatively effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer and premalignancies. PDT is often repeated, because a single treatment gives poor long term results. Preclinical studies showed that ALA-PDT applying a fractionated illumination scheme with a small first light fraction and a second larger light fraction separated by a dark interval of two hours resulted in a significant increase in efficacy. Whereas the efficacy was not enhanced by fractionating MAL-PDT, indicating that ALA-PDT mechanism is not the same as MAL-PDT mechanism. The increase in efficacy using fractionated PDT was confirmed clinically. A randomized comparative clinical study comparing fractionated ALA-PDT versus non-fractionated ALA-PDT in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma showed a significant higher response rate in the lesions treated with fractionated ALA-PDT after a follow-up of one year ( p<0.002, log-rank test). The five year follow-up is studied at moment. So far the complete response in the group treated with fractionated ALA-PDT seems to be only a few percentages lower compared to the one year follow-up. Besides the gain in response rate, fractionated ALA PDT is cost effective. ALA gel is less expensive than the commercially available MAL (Metvix) and moreover fractionated ALA-PDT takes one treatment day, instead of two treatment days using the Metvix treatment protocol (two MAL-PDT treatments separated by one week), both reducing direct and indirect costs and the burden to the patient.

  10. Technique development for characterization of metalloorganics in acid-base-neutral fractions of heavy petroleum residues: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach for the characterization of metallorganic compounds in heavy petroleum residues has been developed. Wilmington 1000/sup 0/ F+ and Mayan 925/sup 0/ F+ residues and hydrotreated products were separated into acid-base-neutral (ABN) fractions by a unique nonaqueous ion-exchange technique developed at NIPER. The metal complexes in the feeds, hydrotreated products and ABN fractions were then characterized by determining the total vanadium and nickel and by measuring the vanadium and nickel porphyrin content of each fraction. Molecular weight distribution profiles of the vanadium and nickel compounds in the feed, 400/sup 0/C hydrotreated product and corresponding ABN fractions were obtained by size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma. The majority of the metal appeared to be in non-porphyrinic form. The vanadium and nickel complexes were distributed into all of the ABN fractions. In the feed and the whole hydrotreated products the porphyrin levels decreased as hydrotreating temperatures increased. In contrast to previously reported work, porphyrins do not always decrease when hydrotreated. The amount of porphyrins in certain ABN fractions increased after hydrotreating at moderate temperatures. The Mayan V and Ni complexes were more resistant to hydrotreating than the Wilmington metal complexes; in particular, the high molecular weight Mayan metal complexes were more resistant to hydrotreating than the high molecular weight Wilmington metal complexes. 15 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal.

  12. Effects of USDA beef quality grade and cooking on fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipid fractions.

    PubMed

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C

    2015-02-01

    The effects of USDA beef quality grade (QG; Prime, Low Choice, and Standard; n=8) and cooking (RC) on fatty acid (FA) concentrations (mg/g dry matter) and percentages of neutral and polar lipid fractions (NL and PL, respectively)from strip steaks were explored. An increase in QG led to an accumulation of most FA, especially in the NL fraction (P < 0.001). Common effects on FA percentages were two-way interactions of either QG or RC with LF (P ≤ 0.019). Fatty acids were affected differently by QG and RC depending on their originating LF. Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentages of the PL were dependent on QG (P ≤ 0.014). Cooking and QG had minimal impact on FA percentages of the NL, however, greatly influenced PL MUFA and PUFA percentages (P b 0.001). There was evidence indicating that dry heat cookery affected not only PUFA, as generally thought, but also the MUFA of PL fraction.

  13. Synthesis, crystal growth, solubility, structural, optical, dielectric and microhardness studies of Benzotriazole-4-hydroxybenzoic acid single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-06-01

    Organic Benzotriazole-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHBA), a novel second-order nonlinear optical single crystal was grown by solution growth method. The solubility and nucleation studies were performed for BHBA crystal at different temperatures 30, 35, 40 45 and 50 °C. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the BHBA belongs to Pna21 space group of orthorhombic crystal system. The crystal perfection of BHBA was examined from powder and high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. UV-visible and photoluminescence spectra were recorded to study its transmittance and excitation, emission behaviors respectively. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test reveals that, the frequency conversion efficiency of BHBA is 3.7 times higher than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss values were estimated for BHBA crystal at various temperatures and frequencies. The mechanical property of BHBA crystal was studied on (110), (010) and (012) planes by using Vicker's microhardness test. The chemical etching study was performed on (012) facet of BHBA crystal to analyze its growth feature.

  14. Water-soluble N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride as a nucleic acids vector for cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Faizuloev, Evgeny; Marova, Anna; Nikonova, Alexandra; Volkova, Irina; Gorshkova, Marina; Izumrudov, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    To endow the cationic polysaccharides with solubility in the whole pH-range without loss of functionality of the amino groups, different chitosan samples were treated with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. Each modified unit of the exhaustively alkylated quaternized chitosan (QCht) contained both quaternary and secondary amino groups. The intercalated dye displacement assay and ζ-potential measurements implied stability of QCht polyplexes at physiological conditions and protonation of the secondary amino groups in slightly acidic media which is favorable for transfection according to proton sponge mechanism. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficacy increased with the chain lengthening. Nevertheless, the longest chains of QCht, 250 kDa were less toxic than PEI for COS-1 cells and revealed comparable and even significantly higher transfection activity of siRNA and plasmid DNA, respectively. Thus, highly polymerized QCht (250 kDa) provided the highest level of the plasmid DNA transfection being 5 and 80 times more active than QCht (100 kDa) and QCht (50 kDa), respectively, and 4-fold more effective than PEI, 25 kDa. The established influence of QCht molecular weight on toxicity and transfection efficacy allows elaborating polysaccharide vectors that possess rational balance of these characteristics. PMID:24750918

  15. Effect of the duration of prefeeding on amino acid digestibility of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of prefeeding on prececal amino acid (AA) digestibility of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broilers. The experimental diets with DDGS at levels of 0, 10, and 20% were offered ad libitum for 7, 5, and 3 d, starting on 14, 16, and 18 d of age. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Six pens of 10 birds were allocated to each treatment. Digesta was sampled on a pen basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileo-ceca-colonic junction. Ingested and digested amounts of AA were determined for each pen. Digestibility of AA in the diets was not significantly affected by the duration of prefeeding but was significantly reduced by inclusion of DDGS. Digestibility of AA in DDGS was determined by using a linear regression approach. The digestibility of AA in DDGS ranged from 76% (Arg, 5 d of feeding) to 33% (Asp, 3 d of feeding). There was no significant effect of prefeeding time on AA digestibility of DDGS. Lysine digestibility of DDGS was 72%. The mean digestibility of the AA Arg, Cys, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val of DDGS across the 3 prefeeding times was 66%. This study gave evidence that 3 d of prefeeding a diet is sufficient in studying prececal AA digestibility in broilers when low-digestible feeds are used. PMID:20308399

  16. Acid-Soluble Internal Capsules for Closed-Face Cassette Elemental Sampling and Analysis of Workplace Air

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Ashley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles that are collected using closed-face filter cassettes (CFCs), which are used widely in the sampling of workplace aerosols, can deposit in places other than on the filter and thereby may not be included in the ensuing analysis. A technique for ensuring that internal non-filter deposits are included in the analysis is to collect airborne particles within an acid-soluble internal capsule that, following sampling, can be dissolved along with the filter for subsequent elemental analysis. An interlaboratory study (ILS) was carried out to evaluate the use of cellulosic CFC capsule inserts for their suitability in the determination of trace elements in airborne samples. The ILS was performed in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice, ASTM E691, which describes statistical procedures for investigating interlaboratory precision. Performance evaluation materials consisted of prototype cellulose acetate capsules attached to mixed-cellulose ester filters. Batches of capsules were dosed with Pb-containing materials (standard aqueous solutions, and certified reference material soil and paint). Also, aerosol samples containing nine target analyte elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, and Ni) were generated using a multiport sampler; various concentrations and sampling times were employed to yield samples fortified at desired loading levels. Triplicates of spiked capsules at three different loadings were conveyed to each volunteer laboratory; loading levels were unknown to the participants. The laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by atomic spectrometry in accordance with applicable ASTM International Standards. Participants were asked to report their results in units of μg of each target element per sample. For the elements investigated, interlaboratory precision and recovery estimates from the participating laboratories demonstrated the utility of the

  17. Chemical composition of fatty acid and unsaponifiable fractions of leaves, stems and roots of Arbutus unedo and in vitro antimicrobial activity of unsaponifiable extracts.

    PubMed

    Diba, Mohamed Amine; Paolini, Julien; Bendahou, Mourad; Varesi, Laurent; Allali, Hocine; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of the fatty acid and unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, stems and roots of Arbutus unedo L. were determined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fatty acid fractions of the leaves, stems and roots contained 38.5%, 31.3% and 14.1% palmitic acid, respectively, along with other long-chain fatty acids (up to C22). The chemical composition of the unsaponifiable fractions differed: the leaf and stem fractions contained high levels of aliphatic (32.1% and 62.6%, respectively) and terpenic compounds (49.6% and 25.7%, respectively), and the root fraction mainly contained esters, of which the most abundant was benzyl cinnamate (36.6%). The antimicrobial activities of the unsaponifiable fractions against nine species of microorganisms were assessed. The unsaponifiable leaf and stem extracts inhibited the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. PMID:20734946

  18. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  19. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  20. Fractionation of polyphenols in hawthorn into polymeric procyanidins, phenolic acids and flavonoids prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Svedström, Ulla; Vuorela, Heikki; Kostiainen, Risto; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2006-04-21

    Polymeric procyanidins, phenolic carboxylic acids and flavonoids of hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) were fractionated prior to HPLC analysis using column chromatography and solid-phase extraction (SPE). The flavonoid fraction also contained (-)-epicatechin. The three groups of phenolics, each with clearly different UV spectra, were examined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The average repeatability of the method (RSD) was in the range of 8-13% for chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside. The polymeric procyanidins of hawthorn flowers consisted mainly of (-)-epicatechin subunits, and their mean degree of polymerization (DP) was 22.2. The HPLC methods developed can be used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of different phenolic compounds in hawthorn plant material and their extracts.

  1. Pressurized water extraction of β-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract β-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly β-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), α-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a β-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  2. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Theophine Chinwuba; Akah, Peter Achunike; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya; Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Odoh, Uchenna Estella

    2012-01-01

    Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity. PMID:22675389

  3. Dicaffeoylquinic Acid-Enriched Fraction of Cichorium glandulosum Seeds Attenuates Experimental Type 1 Diabetes via Multipathway Protection.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Ma, Bingxin; Ge, Lanlan; Mo, Qigui; Zhou, Gao; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2015-12-23

    Chicory has a major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet, a genus Cichorium, is used for medicinal and food purposes in Asia. In this study, a dicaffeoylquinic acid-enriched fraction of C. glandulosum seeds n-BuOH fraction (CGSB) could ameliorate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice with continuous administration for 2 weeks. CGSB treatment showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels but lower free fatty acids in adipose tissue and liver. Moreover, CGSB improved pancreatic islet mass. In vitro, different fractions of C. glandulosum seed (CGS) induced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The mRNA level for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha increased in high glucose treatment group in HepG2 cells, while CGSB significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression. The main compound of CGSB, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, was isolated and identified, which exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated that CGSB attenuated experimental T1DM via multipathway protection.

  4. Dicaffeoylquinic Acid-Enriched Fraction of Cichorium glandulosum Seeds Attenuates Experimental Type 1 Diabetes via Multipathway Protection.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Ma, Bingxin; Ge, Lanlan; Mo, Qigui; Zhou, Gao; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2015-12-23

    Chicory has a major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet, a genus Cichorium, is used for medicinal and food purposes in Asia. In this study, a dicaffeoylquinic acid-enriched fraction of C. glandulosum seeds n-BuOH fraction (CGSB) could ameliorate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice with continuous administration for 2 weeks. CGSB treatment showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels but lower free fatty acids in adipose tissue and liver. Moreover, CGSB improved pancreatic islet mass. In vitro, different fractions of C. glandulosum seed (CGS) induced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The mRNA level for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha increased in high glucose treatment group in HepG2 cells, while CGSB significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression. The main compound of CGSB, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, was isolated and identified, which exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated that CGSB attenuated experimental T1DM via multipathway protection. PMID:26586022

  5. Physical solubility of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Arabi, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The study was undertaken to develop a method that would make direct measurements of acid gases, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, physical solubilities in aqueous alkanolamine solutions possible. Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide physical solubilities in 20, 35, and 50% by weight diethanolamine aqueous solutions were measured. The solubility measurements were made at acid gas partial pressure up to 1000 psia and temperatures of 80, 150, 240 F. The solubility of nitrous oxide in water and in protonated diethanolamine solution was also determined at 80 F. A method that allows for direct measurements of acid gases physical solubilities has been developed. The method eliminates amines reactivity with acid gases by protonating the amines prior to their contact with acid gases. CO{sub 2} physical solubility in aqueous DEA solutions occurs mainly in the water portion of the solution. Therefore, the physical solubility of CO{sub 2} in an aqueous amine solution must be corrected based on the fraction of water in the solution. However, H{sub 2}S physical solubility in aqueous DEA solutions is the same as H{sub 2}S solubility in water. At any acid gas partial pressure, the physical solubility of H{sub 2}S is higher than that of CO{sub 2} for the same solution concentration and for the same temperature. This is also true for their solubilities is pure water. The ratio of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S physical solubility to N{sub 2}O solubility in aqueous DEA solutions is not the same as their ratio in pure water.

  6. Synthesis, chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, and aqueous solubility of amino acid ester prodrugs of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Agarwal, Hitesh K; abd Alla, Mosaad S M; Tjarks, Werner

    2012-09-01

    Various water-soluble L-valine-, L-glutamate-, and glycine ester prodrugs of two 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogs (3-CTAs), designated N5 and N5-2OH, were synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors since the water solubilities of the parental compounds proved to be insufficient in preclinical studies. The amino acid ester prodrugs were prepared and stored as hydrochloride salts. The water solubilities of these amino acid ester prodrugs, evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.4, improved 48-6600 times compared with parental N5 and N5-2OH. The stability of the amino acid ester prodrugs was evaluated in PBS at pH 7.4, Bovine serum, and Bovine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The rate of the hydrolysis in all three incubation media depended primarily on the amino acid promoiety and, to a lesser extend, on the site of esterification at the deoxyribose portion of the 3-CTAs. In general, 3'-amino acid ester prodrugs were less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis than 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs and the stabilities of the latter decreased in the following order: 5'-valine > 5'-glutamate > 5'-glycine. The rate of the hydrolysis of the 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs in Bovine CSF was overall higher than in PBS and somewhat lower than in Bovine serum. Overall, 5'-glutamate ester prodrug of N5 and the 5'-glycine ester prodrugs of N5 and N5-2OH appeared to be the most promising candidates for preclinical BNCT studies. PMID:22889558

  7. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation.

  8. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides. PMID:25996959

  9. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  10. Field measurement of acid gases and soluble anions in atmospheric particulate matter using a parallel plate wet denuder and an alternating filter-based automated analysis system.

    PubMed

    Boring, C Bradley; Al-Horr, Rida; Genfa, Zhang; Dasgupta, Pumendu K; Martin, Michael W; Smith, William F

    2002-03-15

    We present a new fully automated instrument for the measurement of acid gases and soluble anionic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter. The instrument operates in two independent parallel channels. In one channel, a wet denuder collects soluble acid gases; these are analyzed by anion chromatography (IC). In a second channel, a cyclone removes large particles and the aerosol stream is then processed by another wet denuder to remove potentially interfering gases. The particles are then collected by one of two glass fiber filters which are alternately sampled, washed, and dried. The washings are preconcentrated and analyzed by IC. Detection limits of low to subnanogram per cubic meter concentrations of most gaseous and particulate constituents can be readily attained. The instrument has been extensively field-tested; some field data are presented. Results of attempts to decipher the total anionic constitution of urban ambient aerosol by IC-MS analysis are also presented.

  11. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid onto a lacustrine Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid fractions.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Mahrous M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    Sorption-desorption of the insecticide imidacloprid 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine onto a lacustrine sandy clay loam Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid (HA) fractions was investigated in 24-h batch equilibrium experiments. Imidacloprid (IMDA) sorption-desorption isotherms onto the three sorbents were found to belong to a non-linear L-type and were best described by the Freundlich model. The value of the IMDA adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd(ads), varied according to its initial concentration and was ranged 40-84 for HA, 14-58 for clay and 1.85-4.15 for bulk soil. Freundlich sorption coefficient, Kf(ads), values were 63.0, 39.7 and 4.0 for HA, clay and bulk soil, respectively. The normalized soil Koc value for imidacloprid sorption was ∼800 indicating its slight mobility in soils. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were indicated by 1/n(ads) values <1 for all sorbents. Values of the hysteresis index (H) were <1, indicating the irreversibility of imidacloprid sorption process with all tested sorbents. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values indicated a spontaneous and physicosorption process for IMDA and a more favorable sorption to HA than clay and soil. In conclusion, although the humic acid fraction showed the highest capacity and affinity for imidacloprid sorption, the clay fraction contributed to approximately 95% of soil-sorbed insecticide. Clay and humic acid fractions were found to be the major two factors controlling IMDA sorption in soils. The slight mobility of IMDA in soils and the hysteresis phenomenon associated with the irreversibility of its sorption onto, mainly, clay and organic matter of soils make its leachability unlikely to occur.

  12. Transcription of fractionated mammalian chromatin by mammalian ribonucleic acid polymerase. Demonstration of temperature-dependent rifampicin-resistant initiation sites in euchromatin deoxyribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chesterton, C. James; Coupar, Barbara E. H.; Butterworth, Peter H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The chromatin fractionation method of Frenster et al. (1963) as modified by Leake et al. (1972) was used to prepare fragments of euchromatin from rat liver nuclei. These remain soluble in 5mm-MgCl2, and contain DNA of maximum mol.wt. 1×106–2×106. The fragments were separated from condensable chromatin on a sucrose gradient. Euchromatin contains endogenous DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and most of the nascent RNA labelled in vivo or in vitro. Euchromatin fragments allow initiation of transcription by added purified rat liver form-B RNA polymerase and contain temperature-dependent rifampicin-resistant initiation sites for the form-B enzyme. These findings indicate that transcription of the euchromatin regions of interphase chromosomes is not initiated in condensed chromatin, but is initiated within the euchromatin stretches. Condensable chromatin also contains most of these activities, but is not associated with nascent RNA. PMID:4464858

  13. Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Wang, Yan; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-07-01

    Mild-mannered manipulation: A catalytic method for the conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone in acidic aqueous media has been developed. The water-soluble iridium complexes were observed to be extremely catalytically active for providing γ-valerolactone in high yields with high TONs. The homogeneous catalysts can also be recycled and reused by applying a simple phase separation process. PMID:23757330

  14. Effects of sulfur and acidity on performance and digestibility in feedlot lambs fed dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Morrow, L A; Felix, T L; Fluharty, F L; Daniels, K M; Loerch, S C

    2013-05-01

    Negative interactions of the acidity and S content of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) have not been quantified. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of dietary S, dietary acidity, and their interactions on growth, feed efficiency, ruminal H2S concentration, and apparent nutrient digestibility in lambs fed DDGS-based diets. To neutralize acidity, the DDGS was untreated or treated with 2% NaOH. Dietary S content was adjusted with Na2SO4 to achieve a 0.2 percentage unit difference in dietary S. Experiment 1 included 72 ewe and wether lambs (BW = 24.9 ± 0.4 kg) penned by sex in 24 pens, blocked by BW, and allotted in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments for a 60 d feeding trial. On a DM basis, diets were: i) 60% DDGS + 0% Na2SO4, ii) 60% DDGS + 0.88% Na2SO4, iii) 62% NaOH-treated DDGS + 0% Na2SO4, and iv) 62% NaOH-treated DDGS + 0.83% Na2SO4. There were no interactions (P ≥ 0.19) of dietary S concentration and NaOH treatment. Lambs fed DDGS treated with 2% NaOH had 4% greater (P = 0.05) final BW and tended (P ≤ 0.07) to have greater DMI and ADG than lambs fed untreated DDGS; however, NaOH treatment did not affect (P = 0.42) G:F. Increasing dietary S with Na2SO4 tended (P = 0.07) to reduce DMI; however, dietary S did not affect (P > 0.17) ADG, G:F, or final BW. Rumen H2S concentration in gas samples collected on d 32 and 60 were not (P > 0.17) affected by dietary S or NaOH treatment. Experiment 2 included 24 lambs (initial BW = 43.0 ± 4.4 kg) used to determine the effects of NaOH treatment of DDGS and sulfur (Na2SO4) supplementation on N retention and the apparent digestibility of NDF, ADF, and OM. Treatments were similar to those used in Exp. 1, except that dietary DDGS was reduced to 45% of DM. Intake of DM, NDF, ADF, and N was not affected (P > 0.16) by NaOH treatment of DDGS or dietary S (Na2SO4) content. Treating DDGS with 2% NaOH reduced (P = 0.05) NDF digestibility by 10% compared with lambs fed untreated DDGS

  15. Boric Acid Adsorption onto Humic Acids: Structures, Stabilities, 11B NMR and 11B,10B Isotopic Fractionations of Surface Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Boric acid, B(OH)3, forms complexes in aqueous solution with a number of bidentate O-containing ligands, L- 2, such as C2O4-2 (oxalate), C3H2O4-2 (malonate), C2H4O2-2 (glycolate), C6H4O2-2 (catecholate) and C10H6O2-2 (dioxynaphthalene). McElligot and Byrne (1998) have also found it to form a complex with CO3-2. Recently Lemarchand, et al. (2005) have studied the formation of surface complexes of B(OH)3 on humic acid, determining formation constants, 11B NMR shifts and 11B,10B isotope fractionations for a number of such complexes. This helps to clarify both the interaction of boric acid with the humic acid and the nature of the coordinating sites on the humic acid. The determination of isotope fractionations may be seen as a form of vibrational spectroscopy, using the fractionating element as a local probe of the vibrational spectrum which determines the fractionation. We have calculated quantum mechanically the structures, stabilities, vibrational spectra, 11B NMR spectra and 11B,110B isotope fractionations of a number of complexes B(OH)2L- formed by reactions of the type: B(OH)3 + HL- ? B(OH)2L- + H2O (1) using the 6-311G(d,p) B3LYP method for structures and isotopic fractionations, the highly accurate Complete Basis Set-QB3 method for energetics and the GIAO HF method with a 6-311+G(2d,p) basis for the NMR shieldings. Oxalic acid, malonic acid and catechol all form stable complexes (?G<0 for reaction 1),which are deshielded (less negative ?) vs. B(OH)4- by 2.7, 0.6 and 5.6 ppm, respectively, and which are isotopically lighter than B(OH)4- (more negative ? 11B) by 3, 2 and 5 ‰, respectively. The calculated 11B NMR shifts match well with the results of Lemarchand, et al. (2005) while the calculated isotopic fractionations are qualitatively consistent with their results, but show much smaller deviations from B(OH)4-. This is probably a consequence of the use by these authors of a value of 1.0194 (Kakihana, et al., 1977) for the 11B,10B isotopic exchange

  16. Effect of Drying on Heavy Metal Fraction Distribution in Rice Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanbing; Huang, Biao; Darilek, Jeremy Landon

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples. PMID:24823670

  17. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides--influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen S; Ranville, James F; Lesher, Emily K; Diedrich, Daniel J; McKnight, Diane M; Sofield, Ruth M

    2014-10-21

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  18. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly (d,l-lactic acid) nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qi-Wei; Zi, Yun-Peng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Rong; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Zheng, Wei-Jie; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (ACP-PLA) nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63) cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due to the high biocompatibility, sustained drug release, and fast mineralization, the as-prepared composite nanofibers may have potential applications in water-soluble drug loading and release for tissue engineering. PMID:27785016

  19. The influence of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the transformation and solubility of metallic palladium and palladium(II) oxide in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Vang, My; Albers, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Schindl, Roland; Leopold, Kerstin

    2015-05-01

    The environmental occurrence of elevated concentrations of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) from automotive catalytic converters has been well-documented. Limited information exists regarding their chemical behavior post-emission, however, especially in the presence of commonly occurring complexing agents. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the possible environmental transformation and solubility of Pd by conducting batch experiments using metallic palladium (Pd black) and palladium(ii) oxide (PdO). Changes in the particle surface chemistry of treated samples were analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Transition Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (TEM/EDX) techniques. Metallic palladium was partially transformed into PdOx (x < 1), while PdO remained largely unaffected. The pH of EDTA solutions was observed to modulate Pd solubility, with Pd black demonstrating a higher solubility compared to PdO. Solubility was also found to increase with a corresponding increase in the strength of EDTA solution concentrations, as well as with the length of extraction time. The overall solubility of Pd remained relatively low for most samples (<1 wt%). A dissolution rate of 2.01 ± 0.17 nmol m(-2) h(-1) was calculated for Pd black in 0.1 M EDTA (pH 7). In contrast to previously held assumptions about the environmental immobility of Pd, small amounts of this element emitted in metallic form are likely to be soluble in the presence of complexing agents such as EDTA.

  20. Simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd binding strengths with fulvic acid fractions by Schubert's method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.K.; MacCarthy, P.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium binding of Ca2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ with unfractionated Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA) and an enhanced metal binding subfraction of SRFA was measured using Schubert's ion-exchange method at pH 6.0 and at an ionic strength (??) of 0.1 (NaNO3). The fractionation and subfractionation were directed towards obtaining an isolate with an elevated metal binding capacity or binding strength as estimated by Cu2+ potentiometry (ISE). Fractions were obtained by stepwise eluting an XAD-8 column loaded with SRFA with water eluents of pH 1.0 to pH 12.0. Subfractions were obtained by loading the fraction eluted from XAD-8 at pH 5.0 onto a silica gel column and eluting with solvents of increasing polarity. Schuberts ion exchange method was rigorously tested by measuring simultaneously the conditional stability constants (K) of citric acid complexed with the five metals at pH 3.5 and 6.0. The logK of SRFA with Ca2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ determined simultaneously at pH 6.0 follow the sequence of Cu2+>Cd2+>Ni2+>Zn2+>Ca2+ while all logK values increased for the enhanced metal binding subfraction and followed a different sequence of Cu2+>Cd2+>Ca2+>Ni2+>Zn2+. Both fulvic acid samples and citric acid exhibited a 1:1 metal to ligand stochiometry under the relatively low metal loading conditions used here. Quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increases in aromaticity and ketone content and decreases in aliphatic carbon for the elevated metal binding fraction while the carboxyl carbon, and elemental nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur content did not change. The more polar, elevated metal binding fraction did show a significant increase in molecular weight over the unfractionated SRFA. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. The activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in nuclei from brain fractionated by zonal centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Stambolova, M. A.; Cox, D.; Mathias, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    1. The DNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.7) activity in purified intact brain nuclei from infant rats was investigated. The effects of pH, Mg2+, glycerol, sonication and storage of the nuclei under different conditions were examined and a suitable assay system was established. 2. The nuclei from infant brain cells were fractionated by zonal centrifugation in a discontinuous sucrose gradient into five zones: zone (I) contained neuronal nuclei (59%) and astrocytic nuclei (41%); zone (II) contained astrocytic nuclei (81%) and neuronal nuclei (19%); zone (III) contained astrocytic nuclei (82%) and oligodendrocytic nuclei (18%); zone (IV) contained oligodendrocytic nuclei (92%) and zone (V) contained oligodendrocytic nuclei (100%). 3. The content of DNA, RNA and protein for each fraction was measured. 4. The distribution of DNA polymerase activity in the fractionated infant and adult rat brain nuclei was determined. The highest activity was found in the neuronal nuclei from zone (I) and the following zones exhibited a progressive decline. In contrast with the nuclei from infant rats those from adults had a much higher activity and expressed a preference for native DNA as template. 5. The deoxyribonuclease activity in all classes of nuclei was measured with [3H]DNA as substrate. A general correspondence in the pattern of the relative activities in the nuclear fractions with the distribution of DNA polymerase was found. 6. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into nuclear DNA in infant and adult rat brain was investigated. The specific radioactivity of the DNA in the 10-day-old rats was highest in zone (V) whereas in the nuclei of adult rats, which exhibited a comparatively low incorporation, the highest specific radioactivity was associated with zones (I) and (V). PMID:4780694

  2. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  3. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation.

  4. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation. PMID:27452420

  5. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  6. Isotope fractionation of Si in protonation/deprotonation reaction of silicic acid: A new pH proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Pringle, Emily A.; Chaussidon, Marc; Moynier, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Isotopic fractionation of Si in protonation/deprotonation reactions of monomeric silicic acids was theoretically and experimentally studied. The reduced partition function ratio for Si (as 1000 ln β) complexes was theoretically estimated by ab initio methods. Three permil of isotope fractionation was estimated to be possible for the 28Si-30Si isotope pair. This prediction was experimentally demonstrated by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer measurements of Si-bearing aqueous solutions, for which equilibrated Si(OH)4 and SiO(OH)3- were separated using an anionic exchange column. The results create a new possibility for the application of Si isotopes as proxies for paleo-pH in the 9 < pH < 12 range.

  7. A chemical test of the principle of critical point universality: The solubility of nickel (II) oxide in isobutyric acid + water near the consolute point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baichuan; Baird, James K.; Richey, Randi D.; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2011-04-01

    A mixture of isobutyric acid + water has an upper consolute point at 38.8 mass % isobutyric acid and temperature near 26 °C. Nickel (II) oxide dissolves in this mixture by reacting with the acid to produce water and nickel isobutyrate. The solubility of nickel (II) oxide in isobutyric acid + water has been measured as a function of temperature at compositions, 25, 38.8, and 60 mass % isobutyric acid. For values of the temperature, T, which were at least 2 K in excess of the liquid-liquid phase transition temperature, the measured values of the solubility, s, lie on a straight line when plotted in van't Hoff form with ln s versus 1/T. The slope, (∂ln s/∂(1/T)), of the line is negative indicating that the dissolution reaction is endothermic. When the temperature was within 2 K of the phase transition temperature, however, (∂ln s/∂(1/T)) diverged toward negative infinity. The principle of critical point universality predicts that when excess solid nickel (II) oxide is in dissolution equilibrium with liquid isobutyric acid + water, (∂ln s/∂(1/T)) should diverge upon approaching the consolute point along the critical isopleth at 38.8 mass % isobutyric acid. As determined by the sign of the enthalpy of solution, the sign of this divergence is expected to be negative. Not only do our experiments confirm these predictions, but they also show that identical behavior can be observed at both 25 and 60 mass % isobustyric acid, compositions which lie substantially to either side of the critical composition.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua)

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kelton W; Polito, Michael J; Abel, Stephanie; McCarthy, Matthew D; Thorrold, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AA) has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. However, applications to avian ecology have been limited because no controlled studies have examined the patterns in AA isotope fractionation in birds. We conducted a controlled CSIA feeding experiment on an avian species, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), to examine patterns in individual AA carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation between diet (D) and consumer (C) (Δ13CC-D and Δ15NC-D, respectively). We found that essential AA δ13C values and source AA δ15N values in feathers showed minimal trophic fractionation between diet and consumer, providing independent but complimentary archival proxies for primary producers and nitrogen sources respectively, at the base of food webs supporting penguins. Variations in nonessential AA Δ13CC-D values reflected differences in macromolecule sources used for biosynthesis (e.g., protein vs. lipids) and provided a metric to assess resource utilization. The avian-specific nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (TDFGlu-Phe = 3.5 ± 0.4‰) that we calculated from the difference in trophic fractionation (Δ15NC-D) of glutamic acid and phenylalanine was significantly lower than the conventional literature value of 7.6‰. Trophic positions of five species of wild penguins calculated using a multi-TDFGlu-Phe equation with the avian-specific TDFGlu-Phe value from our experiment provided estimates that were more ecologically realistic than estimates using a single TDFGlu-Phe of 7.6‰ from the previous literature. Our results provide a quantitative, mechanistic framework for the use of CSIA in nonlethal, archival feathers to study the movement and foraging ecology of avian consumers. PMID:25859333

  9. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Polito, Michael J; Abel, Stephanie; McCarthy, Matthew D; Thorrold, Simon R

    2015-03-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids (AA) has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. However, applications to avian ecology have been limited because no controlled studies have examined the patterns in AA isotope fractionation in birds. We conducted a controlled CSIA feeding experiment on an avian species, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), to examine patterns in individual AA carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation between diet (D) and consumer (C) (Δ(13)CC-D and Δ(15)NC-D, respectively). We found that essential AA δ (13)C values and source AA δ (15)N values in feathers showed minimal trophic fractionation between diet and consumer, providing independent but complimentary archival proxies for primary producers and nitrogen sources respectively, at the base of food webs supporting penguins. Variations in nonessential AA Δ(13)CC-D values reflected differences in macromolecule sources used for biosynthesis (e.g., protein vs. lipids) and provided a metric to assess resource utilization. The avian-specific nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (TDFGlu-Phe = 3.5 ± 0.4‰) that we calculated from the difference in trophic fractionation (Δ(15)NC -D) of glutamic acid and phenylalanine was significantly lower than the conventional literature value of 7.6‰. Trophic positions of five species of wild penguins calculated using a multi-TDFG lu-Phe equation with the avian-specific TDFG lu-Phe value from our experiment provided estimates that were more ecologically realistic than estimates using a single TDFG lu-Phe of 7.6‰ from the previous literature. Our results provide a quantitative, mechanistic framework for the use of CSIA in nonlethal, archival feathers to study the movement and foraging ecology of avian consumers. PMID:25859333

  10. Influences of fatty acid moiety and esterification of polyglycerol fatty acid esters on the crystallization of palm mid fraction in oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Ohba, Azusa; Kuriyama, Juhei; Maruo, Kouichi; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2004-08-15

    We examined the crystallization of palm mid fraction (PMF) in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, after adding polyglycerol fatty acid esters (PGFEs). We employed ultrasonic velocity measurements and DSC techniques, with special emphases on the influences of fatty acid moiety and esterification of PGFE. Twelve types of PGFEs were examined as additives. PGFEs have a large hydrophilic moiety composed of 10 glycerol molecules to which palmitic, stearic and behenic acids were esterified as the fatty acid moiety with different degrees of esterification. Crystallization temperature (T(c)) of PMF remarkably increased with increasing concentrations of the PGFEs as the chain length of the fatty acid moiety increased, and the PGFE became more hydrophobic in accordance with increasing degree of esterification. We observed that the heterogeneous nucleation of PMF in the O/W emulsion was activated at the oil-water interface, where the template effect of very hydrophobic long saturated fatty acid chains of the PGFE might play the main role of heterogeneous nucleation.

  11. In vitro release of arachidonic acid and in vivo responses to respirable fractions of cotton dust

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.A.; Edwards, J.H.; Al-Zubaidy, T.S.; Brown, R.C.; Poole, A.; Nicholls, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It was considered that the fall in lung function seen after exposure to cotton dust may be attributable in part to the activity of arachidonic acid metabolites, such as leucotrienes as well as to the more established release of histamine by cotton dust. However, we found that cotton and barley dusts elicited poor release of arachidonic acid from an established macrophage like cell line compared with that observed with other organic dusts. In the experimental animal, pulmonary cellular responses to both cotton and barley dust were similar to those evoked by moldy hay and pigeon dropping dusts, although after multiple doses a more severe response was seen to cotton and barley. Since both moldy hay and pigeon droppings elicit a greater arachidonic acid release than cotton or barley, a role for arachidonic acid in inducing the cellular response is less likely than other factors. There are limitations to our conclusions using this system, i.e., the arachidonic acid may be released in a nonmetabolized form, although it is noted that the two dusts with the greatest arachidonic acid release produce their clinical responses in humans largely by hypersensitivity mechanisms.

  12. Boric acid adsorption on humic acids: Ab initio calculation of structures, stabilities, 11B NMR and 11B, 10B isotopic fractionations of surface complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    Boric acid, B(OH) 3, forms complexes in aqueous solution with a number of bidentate O-containing ligands, HL -, where H 2L is C 2O 4H 2 (oxalic acid), C 3O 4H 4 (malonic acid), C 2H 6O 2 (ethylene glycol), C 6H 6O 2 (catechol), C 10H 8O 2 (dioxynaphthalene) and C 2O 3H 4 (glycolic acid). McElligott and Byrne [McElligott, S., Byrne, R.H., 1998. Interaction of B(OH)30 and HCO3- in seawater: Formation of B(OH)CO3-. Aquat. Geochem.3, 345-356.] have also found B(OH) 3 to form an aqueous complex with HCO3-1. Recently Lemarchand et al. [Lemarchand, E., Schott, J., Gaillardeet, J., 2005. Boron isotopic fractionation related to boron sorption on humic acid and the structure of surface complexes formed. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta69, 3519-3533] have studied the formation of surface complexes of B(OH) 3 on humic acid, determining 11B NMR shifts and fitted values of formation constants, and 11B, 10B isotope fractionations for a number of surface complexation models. Their work helps to clarify both the nature of the interaction of boric acid with the functional groups in humic acid and the nature of some of these coordinating sites on the humic acid. The determination of isotope fractionations may be seen as a form of vibrational spectroscopy, using the fractionating element as a local probe of the vibrational spectrum. We have calculated quantum mechanically the structures, stabilities, vibrational spectra, 11B NMR spectra and 11B, 10B isotope fractionations of a number of complexes B(OH) 2L - formed by reactions of the type: B(OH)3+HL-⇒B(OH)2L+HO using a 6-311G(d,p) basis set and the B3LYP method for determination of structures, vibrational frequencies and isotopic fractionations, the highly accurate Complete Basis Set-QB3 method for calculating the free energies and the GIAO HF method with a 6-311+G(2d,p) basis for the NMR shieldings. The calculations indicate that oxalic acid, malonic acid, catechol and glycolic acid all form stable complexes (Δ G < 0 for Reaction (1

  13. Controls on Calcite Solubility in Metamorphic and Magmatic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Eguchi, J.; Galvez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Calcite is an important hydrothermal alteration product in a wide range of environments. The role of calcite in hydrothermal alteration depends on its solubility in geologic fluids, especially H2O. At ambient T and P, calcite solubility is low and it exhibits well-known declining, or "reverse", solubility with rising T. However, experimental and theoretical studies show that increasing P yields higher solubility and restricts the region of reverse solubility behavior to higher temperature. At 0.2 GPa the reverse solubility region lies at T>600°C; at 0.5 GPa, >800°C. Thus, whereas calcite possesses relatively low solubility in pure H2O in shallow hydrothermal systems (typically <10 ppm C), it is substantially more soluble at conditions of middle and lower crustal metamorphism and magmatism, reaching concentrations ≥1000 ppm. At the higher P of subduction zones, aragonite solubility in H2O is even greater. Thus, neglecting other solubility controls, calcite precipitation is favored as crustal fluids cool and/or decompress. However, the solubility of calcite in H2O also depends strongly on other solutes, pH, and fO2. Sources of alkalinity decrease calcite solubility. In contrast, sources of acidity such as CO2 and Cl increase solubility. Crustal fluids can be enriched in alkali halides such as NaCl. Calcite solubility increases with increasing salt content at a given P and T. From approximately seawater salinity to salt saturation, the fluid behaves as a dilute molten salt and calcite solubility increases as the square of the salt mole fraction regardless of the alkali (Li, Na, K, Cs) or halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) considered. Similar behavior is seen in mixed salt solutions. At lower salinities, solubility behavior is as expected in dilute electrolyte solutions. The transition from dilute electrolyte to molten salt is fundamental to the properties of crustal fluids. Reduction of carbonate species or CO2 in the fluid to CH4, which is common during serpentinization of

  14. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake).

  15. Extraction and analysis of soluble inositol polyphosphates from yeast.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristina; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    Soluble inositol polyphosphates are implicated in the regulation of many important cellular functions. This protocol to extract and separate inositol polyphosphates from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is divided into three steps: labeling of yeast, extraction of soluble inositol polyphosphates and chromatographic separation. Yeast cells are incubated with tritiated inositol, which is taken up and metabolized into different phosphorylated forms. Soluble inositol polyphosphates are then acid-extracted and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity of each fraction is determined by scintillation counting. This highly sensitive and reproducible method allows the accurate detection of subtle changes in the inositol polyphosphate profile and takes less than 48 h. It can easily be applied to other systems and we have included two adaptations of the protocol, one optimized for mammalian cells and the other for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:17406485

  16. A novel flow battery-A lead-acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead(II). Part VI. Studies of the lead dioxide positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletcher, Derek; Zhou, Hantao; Kear, Gareth; Low, C. T. John; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    The structure of thick lead dioxide deposits (approximately 1 mm) formed in conditions likely to be met at the positive electrode during the charge/discharge cycling of a soluble lead-acid flow battery is examined. Compact and well adherent layers are possible with current densities >100 mA cm -2 in electrolytes containing 0.1-1.5 M lead(II) and methanesulfonic acid concentrations in the range 0-2.4 M; the solutions also contained 5 mM hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation, C 16H 33(CH 3) 3N +. From the viewpoint of the layer properties, the limitation is stress within the deposit leading to cracking and lifting away from the substrate; the stress appears highest at high acid concentration and high current density. There are, however, other factors limiting the maximum current density for lead dioxide deposition, namely oxygen evolution