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Sample records for acid solutions representative

  1. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  2. Complex permittivity of representative biological solutions in the 2-67 GHz range.

    PubMed

    Zhadobov, Maxim; Augustine, Robin; Sauleau, Ronan; Alekseev, Stanislav; Di Paola, Alessandra; Le Quément, Catherine; Mahamoud, Yonis Soubere; Le Dréan, Yves

    2012-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is to provide experimental data on the complex permittivity of some biological solutions in the 2-67 GHz range at room and human body temperatures. The permittivity measurements are performed using an open-ended coaxial probe. Permittivity spectra of several representative monomolecular solutions of proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates are analyzed and compared. Furthermore, measurements have also been performed for complex biomolecular solutions, including bovine serum albumin (BSA)-DNA-glucose mixture, culture medium, and yeast extract solution. The results demonstrate that for concentrations below 1%, the permittivity spectra of the solutions do not substantially differ from that of distilled water. Measurements carried out for 4% and 20% BSA solutions show that the presence of proteins results in a decrease in permittivity. For highly concentrated RNA solutions (3%), a slight increase in the imaginary part of the permittivity is observed below 10 GHz. Experimental data show that free water permittivity can be used for modeling of the culture medium above 10 GHz. However, at lower frequencies a substantial increase in the imaginary part of the permittivity due to ionic conductivity should be carefully taken into account. A similar increase has also been observed for the yeast extract solution in the lower frequency region of the considered spectrum. Above 10 GHz, the high concentration of proteins and other low-permittivity components of the yeast extract solution results in a decrease in the complex permittivity compared to that of water. Obtained data are of utmost importance for millimeter-wave dosimetry studies.

  3. ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.

  4. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  5. Solution nonideality related to solute molecular characteristics of amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, C R; Fullerton, G D; Cameron, I L; Xiong, J

    1995-01-01

    By measuring the freezing-point depression for dilute, aqueous solutions of all water-soluble amino acids, we test the hypothesis that nonideality in aqueous solutions is due to solute-induced water structuring near hydrophobic surfaces and solute-induced water destructuring in the dipolar electric fields generated by the solute. Nonideality is expressed with a single solute/solvent interaction parameter I, calculated from experimental measure of delta T. A related parameter, I(n), gives a method of directly relating solute characteristics to solute-induced water structuring or destructuring. I(n)-values correlate directly with hydrophobic surface area and inversely with dipolar strength. By comparing the nonideality of amino acids with progressively larger hydrophobic side chains, structuring is shown to increase with hydrophobic surface area at a rate of one perturbed water molecule per 8.8 square angstroms, implying monolayer coverage. Destructuring is attributed to dielectric realignment as described by the Debye-Hückel theory, but with a constant separation of charges in the amino-carboxyl dipole. By using dimers and trimers of glycine and alanine, this destructuring is shown to increase with increasing dipole strength using increased separation of fixed dipolar charges. The capacity to predict nonideal solution behavior on the basis of amino acid characteristics will permit prediction of free energy of transfer to water, which may help predict the energetics of folding and unfolding of proteins based on the characteristics of constituent amino acids. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7711253

  6. Recovery of pyruvic acid from biotransformation solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, C Q; Li, J C; Qiu, J H; Wang, M; Xu, P

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to separate pyruvic acid of biotransformation solutions from lactic acid through complex extraction. For this purpose, complex extraction was investigated from model solutions. Tri-n-octanylamine (TOA) was used as the extractant. The effects of various diluents, the stoichiometry of pyruvic acid to TOA, and the initial pH of the aqueous phase on the extraction process were investigated in this study. The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and trimethylamine (TMA) on the back extraction process were also studied, respectively. The optimal conditions attained from the model solutions proved efficient on the biotransformation solutions of different concentrations. A total recovery of 71-82% of pyruvic acid was obtained, whereas 89-92% of lactic acid was removed. The purity of pyruvic acid reached 97% after the removal of TMA by a simple distillation.

  7. NIR spectroscopic properties of aqueous acids solutions.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Atan, Hanafi; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir

    2012-06-15

    Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R² above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918-925 nm and 990-996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.

  8. Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Bullock, Sr., Jack C.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    1990-01-01

    A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

  9. Electrical conductivity of acidic chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook; Aoki, Masami

    1988-02-01

    The electrical conductivities of aqueous solutions in the system HCl-MCln (where M = K, Na, Mg, Ni, or Cd) were measured at different temperatures. The equivalent electrical conductivity of H+ was calculated on the basis of simple assumptions for these solutions, and show an inverse relationship with water activity in these solutions. The results obtained by varying temperatures, solute ratios, and ionic strength on the electrical conductivity were found to be consistent with a proton jump mechanism for the H+ ion, where the activity of water is the most significant parameter affecting its equivalent conductance, and a viscous (Stokes’ law) drag mechanism (i.e., Walden’s rule is obeyed) for other ions found in acidic solutions.

  10. Acid rain: Engineering solutions, regulatory aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; Elliott, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Keeping up with efforts to control acid rain, this reference presents current scientific aspects associated with the problem of political and legislative concerns and ideas for developing effective mitigation programs at reasonable cost. The contributors are the authorities in attendance at the Second International Conference on Acid Rain - and this work represents the first time engineers and managers with firsthand knowledge of systems and equipment to reduce SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions gathered in one place. Throughout the book, some 200 tables, charts, diagrams, and photographs augment the textual material.

  11. Speciation in aqueous solutions of nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Hlushak, S; Simonin, J P; De Sio, S; Bernard, O; Ruas, A; Pochon, P; Jan, S; Moisy, P

    2013-02-28

    In this study, speciation in aqueous solutions of nitric acid at 25 °C was assessed in two independent ways. First, Raman experiments were carried out and interpreted in terms of free nitrate ions, ion pairs and neutral HNO(3) molecules. In parallel, a model was developed to account for the formation of these two kinds of pairs. It was based on an extension of the binding mean spherical approximation (BiMSA), or associative MSA (AMSA), in which the size and the charge of the ions in the chemical pair may differ from those of the free ions. A simultaneous fit of the osmotic coefficient and of the proportion of free ions (obtained from Raman spectroscopy experiments) led to an estimation of the speciation in nitric acid solutions. The result obtained using this procedure was compared with the estimation obtained from the Raman experiments.

  12. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  13. Methanol Uptake by Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Essin, A. M.; Golden, D. M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global methanol budget is currently unbalanced, with source terms significantly larger than the sinks terms. To evaluate possible losses of gaseous methanol to sulfate aerosols, the solubility and reactivity of methanol in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols is under investigation. Methanol will partition into sulfate aerosols according to its Henry's law solubility. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, for cold (196 - 220 K) solutions ranging between 45 and 70 wt % H2SO4. We have found that methanol solubility ranges from approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) M/atm for UT/LS conditions. Solubility increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. Although methanol is slightly more soluble than are acetone and formaldehyde, current data indicate that uptake by clean aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and any rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H is not significant over our experimental time scale for solutions below 80 wt % H2SO4. To confirm this directly, results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique will also be presented.

  14. Wet oxidation of salicylic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2010-11-15

    Salicylic acid is a frequent pollutant in several industrial wastewaters. Uncatalyzed wet air oxidation, which is a promising technique for the treatment of phenolic effluents, has not been analyzed yet for the removal of salicylic acid. The effect of different conditions of pH (1.3-12.3), pressure (1.0-4.1 MPa), temperature (413-443 K), and initial concentrations (1.45-14.50 mM) on the wet oxidation of salicylate/salicylic acid solutions have here been investigated. The pH value of the reaction media was found to be a key parameter for the rate of the oxidation process with an optimum at pH 3.1, when the concentrations of salicylic acid and salicylate were similar. The oxidation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with respect to salicylic acid and 0.82 order with respect to dissolved oxygen. Additionally, the evolution of the color during the wet oxidation was analyzed and discussed in relation with the formation of intermediate compounds. Then, a reaction pathway for the noncatalytic wet oxidation of the salicylic acid was proposed.

  15. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  16. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  17. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  18. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  19. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  20. Sonolysis of Short-Chain Organic Dicarboxylic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, Yukio; Harada, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Sonolyses of C4 (carbon number 4) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, maleic acid, and fumaric acid) were performed in aqueous solution. They changed one into the other during sonication, affording carbon-number-conserving transformations. Maleic acid and fumaric acid were produced from saccinic acid by dehydrogenation. Furthermore, malic acid and tartaric acid were obtained by hydroxylation. The sonochemical reaction processes are discussed in terms of the time dependences of products and the addition of radical scavengers. In addition, mutual isomerization of fumaric acid and maleic acid was observed during sonication without the use of mediators.

  1. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-08-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

  2. Conformation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Muroga, Yoshio; Nakaya, Asami; Inoue, Atsuki; Itoh, Daiki; Abiru, Masaya; Wada, Kaori; Takada, Masako; Ikake, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Local conformation and overall conformation of poly(γ-DL-glutamic acid) (PγDLGA) and poly(γ-L-glutamic acid) (PγLGA) in aqueous solution was studied as a function of degree of ionization ε by (1) H-NMR, circular dichroism, and potentiometric titration. It was clarified that their local conformation is represented by random coil over an entire ε range and their overall conformation is represented by expanded random-coil in a range of ε > ε(*) , where ε(*) is about 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.5 for added-salt concentration of 0.02M, 0.05M, 0.1M, and 0.2M, respectively. In a range of ε < ε(*) , however, ε dependence of their overall conformation is significantly differentiated from each other. PγDLGA tends to aggregate intramolecularly and/or intermolecularly with decreasing ε, but PγLGA still behaves as expanded random-coil. It is speculated that spatial arrangement of adjacent carboxyl groups along the backbone chain essentially affects the overall conformation of PγGA in acidic media.

  3. Electrode kinetics at a platinum anode in chloroacetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lotvin, B.M.; Vasil'ev, Yu.B.

    1987-02-01

    It was shown by direct comparison of kinetic and adsorption data that at platinum in solutions of mono- and trichloroacetic acid, the anodic processes are entirely analogous in character to the processes occurring in acetate solutions. The lack of Kolbe electrosynthesis products in the electrolysis of chloroacetic acids is to the special reaction features of the secondary chloroalkyl radicals.

  4. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  5. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  6. REDUCTION OF ACIDITY OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS BY USE OF FORMALDEHYDE

    DOEpatents

    Healy, T.V.

    1958-05-20

    A continuous method is described of concentrating by evaporation and reducing the nitrate ion content of an aqueous solution of metallic salts containing nitric acid not in excess of 8N. It consists of heating the solution and then passing formaldehyde into the heated solution to bring about decomposition of the nitric acid. The evolved gases containing NO are contacted countercurrently with an aqueous metal salt solution containing nitric acid in excess of 8N so as to bring about decomposition of the nitric acid and lower the normality to at least 8N, whereupon it is passed into the body of heated solution.

  7. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  8. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.; Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  9. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Decomposition of pertoluic acid in chlorobenzene solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ariko, N.G.; Kornilova, N.N.; Mitskevich, N.I.

    1985-09-01

    The kinetics and composition of the decomposition products of pertoluic acid in chlorobenzene at 353-403 K were studied. The activation energy of the gross decomposition is 82.4 is identical to 6 kJ/mole; the main products are pertoluic acid and CO/sub 2/. On the basis of the dependence of the yields of CO/sub 2/ on the concentration of the peracid (0.01-0.05 M), it was concluded that the peracid undergoes radical breakdown, and induced breakdown with abstraction of a H atom from OOH group occurs. The formation of toluence (conversion product of the CH/sub 3/-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/. radical) and O/sub 2/ was demonstrated.

  11. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  12. Polymerization of beta-amino acids in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged alpha- and beta-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. alpha-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. beta-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an alpha- and beta-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently by both reagents. These results are explained in terms of the mechanisms of the reactions, and their relevance to prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  13. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

    1982-07-08

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

  14. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA; Smith, Jeffrey W [Lancaster, OH; Ihle, Nathan C [Walla Walla, WA

    1984-01-01

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

  15. Phosphorylation of glyceric acid in aqueous solution using trimetaphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-02-01

    The phosphorylation of glyceric acid is an interesting prebiotic reaction because it converts a simple, potentially prebiotic organic molecule into phosphate derivatives that are central to carbohydrate metabolism. We find that 0.05 M glyceric acid in the presence of 0.5 M trimetaphosphate in alkaline solution gives a mixture of 2- and 3-phosphoglyceric acids in combined yields of up to 40%.

  16. Phosphorylation of Glyceric Acid in Aqueous Solution Using Trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Vera; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glyceric acid is an interesting prebiotic reaction because it converts a simple, potentially prebiotic organic molecule into phosphate derivatives that are central to carbohydrate metabolism. We find that 0.05 M glyceric acid in the presence of 0.5 M trimetaphosphate in alkaline solution gives a mixture of 2- and 3-phosphoglyceric acids in combined yields of up to 40%.

  17. A general solution to the hidden-line problem. [to graphically represent aerodynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgley, D. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements for computer-generated perspective projections of three dimensional objects has escalated. A general solution was developed. The theoretical solution to this problem is presented. The method is very efficient as it minimizes the selection of points and comparison of line segments and hence avoids the devastation of square-law growth.

  18. Reduction of Plutonium in Acidic Solutions by Mesoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi; Jones, Stephen; Wang, Jinxiu; Wu, Zhangxiong; Uribe, Eva; Zhao, Dongyuan; Nitsche, Heino

    2015-12-19

    Batch contact experiments with several porous carbon materials showed that carbon solids spontaneously reduce the oxidation state of plutonium in 1-1.5 M acid solutions, without significant adsorption. The final oxidation state and rate of Pu reduction varies with the solution matrix, and also depends on the surface chemistry and surface area of the carbon. It was demonstrated that acidic Pu(VI) solutions can be reduced to Pu(III) by passing through a column of porous carbon particles, offering an easy alternative to electrolysis with a potentiostat.

  19. Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

  20. Fatty Acid Synthesis Intermediates Represent Novel Noninvasive Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Krishna B; Singh, Shivendra V

    2017-03-14

    Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a distinctive feature of prostate cancer, which continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. Therefore, inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an attractive strategy for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. We have shown previously that dietary feeding of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a phytochemical derived from edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, inhibits incidence and burden of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis of whether fatty acid intermediate(s) can serve as noninvasive biomarker(s) of prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC using archived plasma and tumor specimens from the TRAMP study as well as cellular models of prostate cancer. Exposure of prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and 22Rv1) to pharmacological concentrations of PEITC resulted in downregulation of key fatty acid metabolism proteins, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). The mRNA expression of FASN and CPT1A as well as acetyl-CoA levels were decreased by PEITC treatment in both cell lines. PEITC administration to TRAMP mice also resulted in a significant decrease in tumor expression of FASN protein. Consistent with these findings, the levels of total free fatty acids, total phospholipids, triglyceride, and ATP were significantly lower in the plasma and/or prostate tumors of PEITC-treated TRAMP mice compared with controls. The present study is the first to implicate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC.

  1. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  2. Coulometric determination of berkelium in sulfuric acid and nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, G.A.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Erin, E.A.

    1987-03-01

    Results are reported on the study and quantitative determination of berkelium by the coulometric method in 1 M sulfuric acid, in solutions of nitric acid, and in mixtures of these acids. The best results in the determination of berkelium were obtained in solutions of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. In 1 M HNO/sub 3/ + 0.1 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions, berkelium can be determined with an accuracy within approx. +/- 2%, when its content is 10 ..mu..g/ml.

  3. Population and size distribution of solute-rich mesospecies within mesostructured aqueous amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Lee, Han Seung; McCormick, Alon V; Sefcik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of highly soluble substances such as small amino acids are usually assumed to be essentially homogenous systems with some degree of short range local structuring due to specific interactions on the sub-nanometre scale (e.g. molecular clusters, hydration shells), usually not exceeding several solute molecules. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies have indicated the presence of much larger supramolecular assemblies or mesospecies in solutions of small organic and inorganic molecules as well as proteins. We investigated both supersaturated and undersaturated aqueous solutions of two simple amino acids (glycine and DL-alanine) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Brownian Microscopy/Nanoparticles Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Colloidal scale mesospecies (nanodroplets) were previously reported in supersaturated solutions of these amino acids and were implicated as intermediate species on non-classical crystallization pathways. Surprisingly, we have found that the mesospecies are also present in significant numbers in undersaturated solutions even when the solute concentration is well below the solid-liquid equilibrium concentration (saturation limit). Thus, mesopecies can be observed with mean diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm and a size distribution that broadens towards larger size with increasing solute concentration. We note that the mesospecies are not a separate phase and the system is better described as a thermodynamically stable mesostructured liquid containing solute-rich domains dispersed within bulk solute solution. At a given temperature, solute molecules in such a mesostructured liquid phase are subject to equilibrium distribution between solute-rich mesospecies and the surrounding bulk solution.

  4. Dephosphorization of Steelmaking Slag by Leaching with Acidic Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yong; Diao, Jiang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Xiaosa; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Bing

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, dephosphorization of steelmaking slag by leaching with acidic aqueous solution composed of citric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ion-exchanged water was investigated. The buffer solution of C6H8O7-NaOH-HCl system prevented changes in the pH values. Kinetic parameters including leaching temperature, slag particle size and pH values of the solution were optimized. The results showed that temperature has no obvious effect on the dissolution ratio of phosphorus. However, it has a significant effect on the dissolution ratio of iron. The dephosphorization rate increases with the decrease of slag particle size and the pH value of the solution. Over 90% of the phosphorus can be dissolved in the solution while the corresponding leaching ratio of iron was only 30% below the optimal condition. Leaching kinetics of dephosphorization follow the unreacted shrinking core model with a rate controlled step by the solid diffusion layer, the corresponding apparent activation energy being 1.233 kJ mol-1. A semiempirical kinetic equation was established. After leaching, most of the nC2S-C3P solid solution in the steelmaking slag was selectively dissolved in the aqueous solution and the iron content in the solid residue was correspondingly enriched.

  5. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  6. Coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, D.R.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting successful coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid media were studied. Variables considered in this work were H/sup +/ concentration, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, duration of contact, and rate of feed solution addition. In all experiments, stock solutions of Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ and UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ were fed at a controlled rate into H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ solutions with constant stirring. Samples were taken as a function of time to follow the H/sup +/ concentration of the solution, uranium precipitation, thorium precipitation, precipitant weight/volume of solution, and crystalline structure and growth. The optimum conditions for maximum coprecipitation are low H/sup +/ concentration, high H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, and extended contact time between the solutions.

  7. High Technology Product Training for Sales Representatives of Spectrum Healthcare Solutions and International Business Machines Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, Enid

    This report describes an application of the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) process to a product knowledge training project for Spectrum Healthcare Solutions, Inc., including the steps and substeps in the phases of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The training project was designed to address the need for increased…

  8. γ-Irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Graff, Rebecca L.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1980-12-01

    The γ-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the non-volatile products. Thin layer chromotography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the γ-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  9. Highly accurate boronimeter assay of concentrated boric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.

  10. Polymerization of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Friedman, H.A.; Osborne, M.M.

    1980-10-01

    The polymerization of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been studied spectrophotometrically both to establish the influence of large UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} concentrations on the polymerization rates and, more generally, to review the influence of the major parameters on the polymer reaction. Typically, experiments have been performed at 50{sup 0}C and with 0.05 M Pu in nitric acid solutions that vary in acidity from 0.07 to 0.4 M. An induction period usually precedes the polymer growth stage during which time nucleation of primary hydrolysis products occurs. Uranyl nitrate retards the polymerization reaction by approximately 35% in spite of the counteracting influence of the nitrate ions associated with this solute. The rate of polymer formation, expressed as d(percent polymer)/dt, has been shown to depend on the total plutonium concentration in reactions where the Pu(IV) concentration remained constant; and it is therefore suggested that the polymer reaction rate is not first order with respect to the concentration of plutonium as was previously thought. It has been shown further that accurate acid determinations on stock reagents are essential in order to obtain reliable polymerization experiments. Satisfactory procedures for these analyses did not exist, so appropriate modifications to the iodate precipitation methods were developed. The most ideal plutonium reagent material has been shown to be crystalline Pu(IV) nitrate because it can be added directly to acid solutions without the occurrence of unintentional hydrolysis reactions.

  11. [Sorption of amino acids from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    Nekliudov, A D; Tsibanov, V V

    1985-03-01

    Various methods for quantitative description of amino acid sorption from solutions for parenteral nutrition on activated charcoal were studied under dynamic and static conditions. With the use of the well-known Freindlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms it was shown to be possible to describe in a simplified way the complex multicomponent process of sorption of the amino acids and to estimate their loss at the filtration stage.

  12. Numerical solution of fluid-structure interaction represented by human vocal folds in airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valášek, J.; Sváček, P.; Horáček, J.

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with the human vocal folds vibration excited by the fluid flow. The vocal fold is modelled as an elastic body assuming small displacements and therefore linear elasticity theory is used. The viscous incompressible fluid flow is considered. For purpose of numerical solution the arbitrary Lagrangian-Euler method (ALE) is used. The whole problem is solved by the finite element method (FEM) based solver. Results of numerical experiments with different boundary conditions are presented.

  13. Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

    2003-12-01

    The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells.

  14. [Investigation on mechanism of pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yi, Xiao-Yun; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Yun

    2012-11-01

    The mechanism of pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions was investigated by electrochemical analysis methods, such as open-circuit potential, cyclic voltammetry, Tafel polarization curve and anodic polarization curve, using a pyrite-carbon paste electrode as working electrode. The results showed that the oxidation process of pyrite in acidic solutions was via a two-step reaction: the first step was the dissolution of iron moiety and formation of a passivation film composed of elemental sulphur, metal-deficient sulfide and polysulfide; the second step was the further oxidation of these intermediate products to SO4(2-). The final reaction products of pyrite oxidation were Fe3+ and SO4(2-) in acidic solutions. In addition, the open-circuit potential and corrosion potential were positively shifted, the peak current and the corrosion current were increased with the increase in concentration of H2SO4 solutions. This indicated that increased acidity of the system was advantageous to the oxidation of pyrite.

  15. Avian photoreceptor patterns represent a disordered hyperuniform solution to a multiscale packing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Lau, Timothy; Hatzikirou, Haralampos; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Corbo, Joseph C.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Optimal spatial sampling of light rigorously requires that identical photoreceptors be arranged in perfectly regular arrays in two dimensions. Examples of such perfect arrays in nature include the compound eyes of insects and the nearly crystalline photoreceptor patterns of some fish and reptiles. Birds are highly visual animals with five different cone photoreceptor subtypes, yet their photoreceptor patterns are not perfectly regular. By analyzing the chicken cone photoreceptor system consisting of five different cell types using a variety of sensitive microstructural descriptors, we find that the disordered photoreceptor patterns are "hyperuniform" (exhibiting vanishing infinite-wavelength density fluctuations), a property that had heretofore been identified in a unique subset of physical systems, but had never been observed in any living organism. Remarkably, the patterns of both the total population and the individual cell types are simultaneously hyperuniform. We term such patterns "multihyperuniform" because multiple distinct subsets of the overall point pattern are themselves hyperuniform. We have devised a unique multiscale cell packing model in two dimensions that suggests that photoreceptor types interact with both short- and long-ranged repulsive forces and that the resultant competition between the types gives rise to the aforementioned singular spatial features characterizing the system, including multihyperuniformity. These findings suggest that a disordered hyperuniform pattern may represent the most uniform sampling arrangement attainable in the avian system, given intrinsic packing constraints within the photoreceptor epithelium. In addition, they show how fundamental physical constraints can change the course of a biological optimization process. Our results suggest that multihyperuniform disordered structures have implications for the design of materials with novel physical properties and therefore may represent a fruitful area for future

  16. Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (γ). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on γ, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces γ to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that γ decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

  17. Solution Preserves Nucleic Acids in Body-Fluid Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    A solution has been formulated to preserve deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in specimens of blood, saliva, and other bodily fluids. Specimens of this type are collected for diagnostic molecular pathology, which is becoming the method of choice for diagnosis of many diseases. The solution makes it possible to store such specimens at room temperature, without risk of decomposition, for subsequent analysis in a laboratory that could be remote from the sampling location. Thus, the solution could be a means to bring the benefits of diagnostic molecular pathology to geographic regions where refrigeration equipment and diagnostic laboratories are not available. The table lists the ingredients of the solution. The functions of the ingredients are the following: EDTA chelates divalent cations that are necessary cofactors for nuclease activity. In so doing, it functionally removes these cations and thereby retards the action of nucleases. EDTA also stabilizes the DNA helix. Tris serves as a buffering agent, which is needed because minor contaminants in an unbuffered solution can exert pronounced effects on pH and thereby cause spontaneous degradation of DNA. SDS is an ionic detergent that inhibits ribonuclease activity. SDS has been used in some lysis buffers and as a storage buffer for RNA after purification. The use of the solution is straightforward. For example, a sample of saliva is collected by placing a cotton roll around in the subject's mouth until it becomes saturated, then the cotton is placed in a collection tube. Next, 1.5 mL of the solution are injected directly into the cotton and the tube is capped for storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the solution has been demonstrated in tests on specimens of saliva containing herpes simplex virus. In the tests, the viral DNA, as amplified by polymerase chain reaction, was detected even after storage for 120 days.

  18. A mechanistic study of copper electropolishing in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansson, Andrew

    The microelectronics industry is using copper as the interconnect material for microchips. A study of copper electropolishing is important for the process development of a new, low downforce approach, which is being developed to replace chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of the copper overburden. A promising technology is a combination of electropolishing with conventional CMP. Electropolishing of copper in phosphoric acid has been studied for, more than 70 years. Previous work has shown that the polishing rate, as measured by current density is directly related to the viscosity of the electrolyte. Also, the limiting species is water. In this study, a multidimensional design of experiments was performed to develop an in-depth model of copper electropolishing. Phosphoric acid was mixed with alcohols of different molecular weight and related viscosity to investigate how the solvents' properties affected polishing. The alcohols used were methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol. The limiting current densities and electrochemical behavior of each solution was measured by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments. Also, the kinematic viscosity and density were measured to determine the dynamic viscosity to investigate the relationship of current density and viscosity. Water, methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol solutions were also examined at 20°C to 60°C. Next, the relative percentage of dissociated phosphoric acid was measured by Raman spectroscopy for each polishing solution. Raman spectroscopy was also used to measure the relative dissociation of phosphoric acid inside the polishing film. Additionally, wafers were electropolished and electrochemical mechanically polished to investigate the effects of the different solvents, fluid flow, current, and potential. The results of these experiments have shown that the molecular mass and the ability of the solvent to dissociate phosphoric acid are the primary electrolyte properties that

  19. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    The efficient conversion of cellulosic materials to ethanol has been hindered by the low yield of sugars, the high energy consumption in pretreatment processes, and the difficulty of recycling the pre-treatment agents. Zinc chloride may provide an alternative for pre-treating biomass prior to the hydrolysis of cellulose. The formation of a zinc-cellulose complex during the pretreatment of cellulose improves the yield of glucose in both the enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of cellulose. Low-temperature acid hydrolysis of cellulose in zinc chloride solution is carried out in two stages, a liquefaction stage and a saccharification stage. Because of the formation of zinc-cellulose complex in the first stage, the required amount of acid in the second stage has been decreased significantly. In 67% zinc chloride solution, a 99.5% yield of soluble sugars has been obtained at 70{degrees}C and 0.5M acid concentration. The ratio of zinc chloride to cellulose has been reduced from 4.5 to 1.5, and the yield of soluble sugars is kept above 80%. The rate of hydrolysis is affected by the ratio of zinc chloride to cellulose, acid concentration, and temperature.

  1. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  2. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  3. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  4. Dissolved oxygen distribution during micro-oxygenation. Determination of representative measurement points in hydroalcoholic solution and wines.

    PubMed

    Nevares, I; del Alamo, M; Gonzalez-Muñoz, C

    2010-02-15

    Red wine tank aging is monitored by organoleptic analysis, therefore, it is necessary to use an objective parameter representing the process. Among the possible parameters to be checked, it stands out the knowledge of dissolved oxygen because it offers the possibility of anticipating undesirable situations that bring about too much oxidation. Dissolved oxygen measurement, with non-intrusive luminescent technology is becoming an effective alternative. Uncertainty arises when trying to choose the measuring point able to represent the entire tank since previous works have considered the existence of gradients throughout the volume of the treated wine. This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the existence and the quantification of gradients of the dissolved oxygen in a 15% hydroalcoholic solution during the micro-oxygenation process. Different measuring point placements are studied and the solutions to monitor the process by controlling a representative point are set out. A successful monitoring of a red wine tank aging with alternative oak products and adaptative micro-oxygenation has proved that an objective control of the process is, indeed, possible.

  5. Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals

    SciTech Connect

    Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A.

    2006-09-15

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

  6. Fast hybridization solution for the detection of immobilized nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Yang, T T; Kain, S R

    1995-03-01

    We have developed a fast hybridization solution, termed ExpressHyb, for the rapid and sensitive detection of nucleic acids immobilized on membrane supports. This solution reduces typical hybridization times of 12-24 h to as little as 1 h while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of detection in many applications. Using ExpressHyb, human beta-actin mRNA was detected on a human multiple tissue Northern (MTN) blot following a 30-min hybridization, with optimal detection occurring with a 1-h hybridization interval. The moderately abundant human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA was detected using similar hybridization conditions and yielded improved signal-to-background characteristics relative to overnight hybridizations in conventional solutions. ExpressHyb can be used with either 32P- or digoxigenin-labeled probes and works effectively with both cDNA and oligonucleotide probes. For non-isotopic detection in particular, ExpressHyb reduces the nonspecific background commonly encountered with this technique. In cDNA library screening, ExpressHyb was found to both reduce the time required for effective hybridizations and to increase the number of positive colonies obtained relative to conventional overnight procedures. Taken together, these results illustrate the broad capability of ExpressHyb Hybridization Solution to improve nucleic acid detection in a variety of important techniques.

  7. Methanol Uptake By Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols in the global budget of methanol, the solubility and reactivity of CH3OH in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions are under investigation. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H(*), for methanol dissolution into 45 to 70 percent by weight H2SO4. We find that methanol solubility ranges from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) M/atm and increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and all rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Our data indicate that simple uptake by aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These results differ from those recently reported in the literature, and an explanation of this disparity will be presented. In addition to solvation, reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H may proceed in the atmosphere but is not significant under our experimental conditions. Results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique confirm this directly. In addition, the extent of methanol sequestration via formation of mono- and dimethylsulfate will be evaluated under several atmospheric conditions.

  8. Sonolysis of an oxalic acid solution under xenon lamp irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hisashi; Harada, Hisashi

    2010-06-01

    The photosonolysis of oxalic acid was carried out in an Ar atmosphere. The detectable products of sonolysis were CO(2), CO, H(2), and H(2)O(2). The yield of CO(2) was higher than that for the sum of sonolysis and photolysis reactions. Namely, a synergistic effect was observed during simultaneous irradiations of 200 kHz ultrasound and Xe lamp. The degradation of oxalic acid was promoted by active species such as H(2)O(2) produced from water by sonolysis. An oxalic acid-H(2)O(2) complex is likely to be present in the solution, but could not be detected. The effects of not only the photo-irradiation but also the thermal or incident energy during Xe lamp illumination were also considered.

  9. Thermochemical comparisons of homogeneous and heterogeneous acids and bases. 1. Sulfonic acid solutions and resins as prototype Broensted acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, E.M.; Haaksma, R.A.; Chawla, B.; Healy, M.H.

    1986-08-06

    Heats of ionization by thermometric titration for a series of bases (or acids) can be used to compare solid acids (or bases) with liquid analogues bearing the same functionalities in homogeneous solutions. The method is demonstrated for Broensted acids by reacting a series of substituted nitrogen bases with solutions of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) in acetonitrile and with suspensions of the microporous polymeric arylsulfonic acid resin-Dowex 50W-X8 in the same solvent. Under well-controlled anhydrous conditions there is a good correlation (r = 0.992) between the heats of reaction of the bases with the homogeneous and heterogeneous acid systems, but the homogeneous system gives a more exothermic interaction by 3-4 kcal mol/sup -1/ for a series of 29 substituted pyrimidines, anilines, and some other amines. This difference may be attributed to homohydrogen bonding interactions between excess acid and sulfonate anion sites which are more restricted geometrically in the resin than in solution. Other factors which affect the enthalpy change for the acid-base interaction are the acid/base ratio, the water content of the sulfonic acid, the solvent, and the resin structure (e.g., microporous vs. macroporous). Steric hindrance in the base does not differentiate solid from homogeneous acid. In addition to the use of titration calorimetry, heats of immersion are reported for the Dowex-arylsulfonic acid resins and the Nafion-perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin in a series of basic liquids. The results are compared with each other and with those from a previous study of several varieties of coal.

  10. Recovery of hydrochloric acid from the waste acid solution by diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Shuguang; Fu, Dan

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion dialysis using a series of anion exchange membranes was employed to recover HCl acid from the waste acid solution. Effects of flow rate, flow rate ratio of water to feed, and Fe ion concentration on the recovery of HCl were investigated. It was found that the flow rate ratio was an important factor in the diffusion dialysis operation, and the recovered HCl concentration and Fe ion concentration in diffusate decreased significantly with the change of flow rate ratio from 0.4 to 1.7. In addition, the higher the Fe ion concentration in the feed, the higher the Fe leakage in the recovered acid solution. The HCl recovery efficiency was influenced not only by the recovered acid concentration, but also the outlet flow rate. While using the actual pot galvanizing waste HCl solution with the co-existence of 2.70 mol/L of Fe and 0.07 mol/L of Zn ions, over 88% HCl recovery efficiency could be achieved and Fe leakage was within the range of 11-23%. However, over 56% of Zn leakage was found due to the formation of negative Zn complexes in solution, which was unfavorable for the recovered acid reuse.

  11. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  12. Pooled, but not single-neuron, responses in macaque V4 represent a solution to the stereo correspondence problem.

    PubMed

    Abdolrahmani ا, Mohammad; Doi, Takahiro; Shiozaki, Hiroshi M; Fujita, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Binocular disparity is an important cue for depth perception. To correctly represent disparity, neurons must find corresponding visual features between the left- and right-eye images. The visual pathway ascending from V1 to inferior temporal cortex solves the correspondence problem. An intermediate area, V4, has been proposed to be a critical stage in the correspondence process. However, the distinction between V1 and V4 is unclear, because accumulating evidence suggests that the process begins within V1. In this article, we report that the pooled responses in macaque V4, but not responses of individual neurons, represent a solution to the correspondence problem. We recorded single-unit responses of V4 neurons to random-dot stereograms of varying degrees of anticorrelation. To achieve gradual anticorrelation, we reversed the contrast of an increasing proportion of dots as in our previous psychophysical studies, which predicted that the neural correlates of the solution to correspondence problem should gradually eliminate their disparity modulation as the level of anticorrelation increases. Inconsistent with this prediction, the tuning amplitudes of individual V4 neurons quickly decreased to a nonzero baseline with small anticorrelation. By contrast, the shapes of individual tuning curves changed more gradually so that the amplitude of population-pooled responses gradually decreased toward zero over the entire range of graded anticorrelation. We explain these results by combining multiple energy-model subunits. From a comparison with the population-pooled responses in V1, we suggest that disparity representation in V4 is distinctly advanced from that in V1. Population readout of V4 responses provides disparity information consistent with the correspondence solution.

  13. Uptake of formaldehyde by sulfuric acid solutions - Impact on stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Pfaff, Jeanne; Jayaweera, Indira; Prather, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The study investigates the uptake of CH2O by low temperature sulfuric acid solutions representative of global stratospheric particulate. It is argued that if similar uptake occurs under stratospheric pressures of CH2O, i.e., 1000 times lower than used in the present study, then the removal of CH2O from the gas phase can take away a significant source of odd hydrogen in the mid- and high-latitude lower stratosphere. It is shown that with the inclusion of this reaction, concentrations of OH and H2O are reduced by as much as 4 percent under background levels of aerosols and more than 15 percent under elevated (volcanic) conditions. The accumulation of CH2O in stratospheric aerosols over a season, reaching about 1 M solutions, will alter the composition and may even change the reactivity of these sulfuric acid-water mixtures.

  14. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  15. Plutonium and Americium Alpha Radiolysis of Nitric Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Horne, Gregory P; Gregson, Colin R; Sims, Howard E; Orr, Robin M; Taylor, Robin J; Pimblott, Simon M

    2017-02-02

    The yield of HNO2, as a function of absorbed dose and HNO3 concentration, from the α-radiolysis of aerated HNO3 solutions containing plutonium or americium has been investigated. There are significant differences in the yields measured from solutions of the two different radionuclides. For 0.1 mol dm(-3) HNO3 solutions, the radiolytic yield of HNO2 produced by americium α-decay is below the detection limit, whereas for plutonium α-decay the yield is considerably greater than that found previously for γ-radiolysis. The differences between the solutions of the two radionuclides are a consequence of redox reactions involving plutonium and the products of aqueous HNO3 radiolysis, in particular H2O2 and HNO2 and its precursors. This radiation chemical behavior is HNO3 concentration dependent with the differences between plutonium and americium α-radiolysis decreasing with increasing HNO3 concentration. This change may be interpreted as a combination of α-radiolysis direct effects and acidity influencing the plutonium oxidation state distribution, which in turn affects the radiation chemistry of the system.

  16. Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.W.

    1980-06-01

    The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 313/sup 0/K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 298/sup 0/K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

  17. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  18. Solution and gas-phase acidities of all-trans (all-E) retinoic acid: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, José-Luis M; Koppel, Ilmar A; Uggerud, Einar; Leito, Ivo; Koppel, Ivar; Sekiguchi, Osamu; Kaupmees, Karl; Saame, Jaan; Kütt, Karl; Mishima, Masaaki

    2015-07-27

    Retinoic acid is of fundamental biological importance. Its acidity was determined in the gas phase and in acetonitrile solution by means of mass spectrometry and UV/Vis spectrophotometry, respectively. The intrinsic acidity is slightly higher than that of benzoic acid. In solution, the situation is opposite. The experimental systems were described theoretically applying quantum chemical methods (wave function theory and density functional theory). This allowed the determination of the molecular structure of the acid and its conjugate base, both in vacuo and in solution, and for computational estimates of its acidity in both phases.

  19. Nanomechanical Behavior of Human Molars Soaked in Slight Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Kang, Shao-Hui; Chu, Chia-Chun

    This paper studied the mechanical and chemical properties of hydroxyl apatite (HA) crystal structure in the teeth when human molars were soaked in slight acid solution. First, we soaked the ground and polished molars respectively in the liquor of 30 wt.% H2CO3 and the liquor of 30 wt.% H2O2 for 10, 20, or 60 minutes. Next, we used a nanoindenter to measure the hardness and Young's modulus. Finally, we used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the variation of Ca, P and Na in teeth, a high resolution transmitting electron microscope (HRTEM) to observe the arrangement of crystallization phase of HA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze the crystallinity of the hexagonal phase of HA. The results showed that the demineralization phenomenon of the calcium-phosphorous compound in teeth made the teeth reduce sharply in hardness and Young's modulus after they were soaked in the two slight acid solutions for 10 minutes, but the re-mineralization phenomenon made the hardness and Young's modulus ascend gradually when the time lasted longer. With the same period of time, the teeth soaked in H2CO3 were lower in the hardness and Young's modulus than that in H2O2.

  20. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngkook; Birdja, Yuvraj Y; Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Koper, Marc T M

    2015-05-22

    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is studied on solid metal electrodes in acidic solution (0.5 M H2 SO4 ) by correlating voltammetry with on-line HPLC product analysis. Three soluble products from HMF hydrogenation are distinguished: 2,5-dihydroxymethylfuran (DHMF), 2,5-dihydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran (DHMTHF), and 2,5-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (DMDHF). Based on the dominant reaction products, the metal catalysts are divided into three groups: (1) metals mainly forming DHMF (Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb), (2) metals forming DHMF and DMDHF depending on the applied potentials (Co, Ag, Au, Cd, Sb, and Bi), and (3) metals forming mainly DMDHF (Pd, Pt, Al, Zn, In, and Sb). Nickel and antimony are the most active catalysts for DHMF (0.95 mM cm(-2) at ca. -0.35 VRHE and -20 mA cm(-2) ) and DMDHF (0.7 mM cm(-2) at -0.6 VRHE and -5 mA cm(-2) ), respectively. The pH of the solution plays an important role in the hydrogenation of HMF: acidic condition lowers the activation energy for HMF hydro-genation and hydrogenates the furan ring further to tetrahydrofuran.

  1. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  2. Corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.M.; Gupta, A.

    2000-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) solutions was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The variation in corrosion rate of mild steel with concentrations of CH{sub 3}COOH, evaluated by weight loss and electrochemical techniques, showed marked resemblance. From both techniques, the maximum corrosion rate was observed for 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution at all three experimental temperatures (25, 35, and 45 C). Anodic polarization curves showed active-passive behavior at each concentration, except at 80% CH{sub 3}COOH. Critical current density (i{sub c}) passive current density (I{sub n}), primary passivation potential (E{sub pp}), and potential for passivity (E{sub p}) had their highest values in 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution. With an increase in temperature, while the anodic polarization curves shifted toward higher current density region at each concentration, the passive region became progressively less distinguishable. With the addition of sodium acetate (NaCOOCH{sub 3}) as a supporting electrolyte, the passive range was enlarged substantially. However, the transpassive region commenced at more or less the same potential. Cathodic polarization curves were almost identical irrespective of the concentration of CH{sub 3}COOH or temperature.

  3. Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Koehler, Birgit G.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Jordon, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We determined the infrared optical constants of nitric acid trihydrate, nitric acid dihydrate, nitric acid monohydrate, and solid amorphous nitric acid solutions which crystallize to form these hydrates. We have also found the infrared optical constants of H2O ice. We measured the transmission of infrared light throught thin films of varying thickness over the frequency range from about 7000 to 500/cm at temperatures below 200 K. We developed a theory for the transmission of light through a substrate that has thin films on both sides. We used an iterative Kramers-Kronig technique to determine the optical constants which gave the best match between measured transmission spectra and those calculated for a variety of films of different thickness. These optical constants should be useful for calculations of the infrared spectrum of polar stratospheric clouds.

  4. The solvent effect on the acidities of haloacetic acids in aqueous solution. A RISM-SCF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Masaaki; Ten-no, Seiichiro; Kato, Shigeki; Hirata, Fumio

    1995-06-01

    The acidities of acetic, fluoracetic and chloroacetic acids in aqueous solution are calculated by means of the ab initio method combined with the reference interaction site method in the statistical mechanics of molecular liquids (the RISM-SCF method). The inversion in the order of acidities experimentally observed when a series of haloacetic acids is immersed into aqueous solution is reproduced. It is shown that the inversion is caused by competition between substitution and solvation effects. The solvation effect is discussed in molecular detail in terms of the charge distribution of the solute and the solute-solvent radial distribution functions.

  5. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  6. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10

  7. Radiolysis gases from nitric acid solutions containing HSA and HAN

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-28

    The concentration of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the radiolytically produced off-gas from 2.76-4.25M HNO{sub 3}/PU solutions has been found to be greatly reduced in the presence of sulfamic acid (HSA) and hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN). The H{sub 2} concentration ([H{sub 2}]) is reduced from 35 percent to about 4 percent by dilution caused from an increase in the production rates of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases. The generation rate of H{sub 2} was not affected by HSA or HAN giving a measured radiolytic yield, G(H{sub 2}), value of 0.201 molecules/100 eV for 2.765M NO{sub 3}{sup -} solution (a value of 0.213 is predicted from previous data). The G(H{sub 2}) values are dependent on the solution nitrate concentration ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]). The generation rates of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} are not dependent on the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in this narrow range, but are dependent on the presence of HSA and the concentration of HAN. The percentage [H{sub 2}] for the 2.5 to 3.0M NO{sub 3}{sup -} range expected in the off- from the FB-Line Pu{sup +3} Hold Tanks is conservatively estimated to be about 3.5 to 4.5 % for Pu + 3 solutions initially containing 0.023M HAN/0.165M HSA. The upper limit [H{sub 2}] may actually be about 4.1 % (4.3 % at 90 % confidence limits) but more {open_quotes}initial{close_quotes} off-gas rate data is needed at about 2.9M [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in Pu{sup +3} solution for verification. Addition of ascorbic acid had no effect on the off-gas rate of Pu{sup +3} solutions containing HSA and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations higher than those expected in the hold tanks. The maximum {open_quotes}hold time{close_quotes} for 50 grams/liter Pu{sup +3}/0.165M HSA/0.023M HAN/2.5-3.0M HNO{sub 3} solution is 20.3{+-}2.1 days. After this time the HSA initially present will become exhausted and the [H{sub 2}] will increase to 35 %. This hold time may be longer in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] < 3.0M, but again more study is needed.

  8. Optical properties of chitosan in aqueous solution of L- and D-ascorbic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinkina, Olga N.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.; Kazmicheva, Olga F.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of aqueous chitosan solutions in L- and D-ascorbic acids were studied by optical rotatory dispersion and spectrophotometry. The specific optical rotation [α] of all chitosan solutions tested was positive, in contrast to aqueous solutions of the ascorbic acid enantiomers, which exhibit an inverse relationship of [α] values. Significant differences in the absolute values of [α] of the chitosan solutions at polymer-acid ratios exceeding the equimolar one were found.

  9. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  10. Fatty acid uptake by isolated rat heart myocytes represents a carrier-mediated transport process.

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which fatty acids enter cardiomyocytes is unclear. Therefore, the influx kinetics of [3H]oleate into isolated rat heart myocytes were examined. Cells were incubated at 37 degrees C with [3H]oleate bound to albumin in various molar ratios and the initial rate of uptake (V0) was determined as a function of the unbound oleate concentration in the medium. V0 was saturable with increasing oleate concentrations incubated (Km 78 nM; Vmax 1.9 nmol X min-1 per 10(6) cells) and temperature dependent with an optimum at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, binding of [3H]oleate to isolated plasma membranes of cardiomyocytes was saturable, revealing a KD of 42 nM, and was inhibited by heat denaturation or trypsin pretreatment of the membranes. From these membranes a single 40-kD protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids was isolated. With a monospecific antibody to this membrane protein, binding as well as cellular influx of [3H]oleate was selectively inhibited. These data indicate that at least a portion of myocardial fatty acid uptake is mediated by a specific membrane protein. Images PMID:3343344

  11. Chemical durability of glaze on Zsolnay architectural ceramics (Budapest, Hungary) in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; May, Zoltán; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Zsolnay glazed architectural ceramics are among the most famous Hungarian ceramics, however, there is no profound knowledge about the deterioration of these building materials. The present study aims to reveal the influence of acidic solutions in the deterioration of Zsolnay ceramics. The studied ceramics are glazed roof tiles, which originate from two buildings in Budapest: one is located in the densely built-up city centre with high traffic rate and another one is in a city quarter with moderate traffic and more open space. The roof tiles represent the construction and the renovation periods of the buildings. The ceramics were mainly covered by lead glazes in the construction period and mainly alkali glazes in the renovation periods. The glaze of the tiles were coloured with iron (for yellow glaze) or chromium/copper/iron (for green glazes) in the case of the building located in the city centre, whereas cobalt was used as colorant and tin oxide as opacifier for the blue glaze of the ceramics of the other building. Six tiles were selected from each building. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solutions of pH2 and pH4 were used to measure the durability of the glazes up to 14 days at room temperature. The surfaces of the glazed ceramics after the treatment were measured by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS techniques to determine the precipitated phases on the surface of the glaze. Electron microprobe analysis was used to quantitatively characterise phases found and to determine the chemical composition of the treated glaze. The recovered sulphuric acid solutions were measured with ICP-OES technique in order to quantify the extent of the ion exchange between the glaze and the solutions. There is a significant difference in the dissolution rates in the treatments with sulphuric acid solutions of pH2 and pH4, respectively. The solution of pH2 induced greater ion exchange (approx. 7-10 times) from the glaze compared to the solution of pH4. Alkali and alkali earth

  12. [On the contamination of the citric acid fermentation. I. The contamination by representatives of Enterobacteriaceae (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leopold, H; Trefil, L

    1979-01-01

    Among the most dangerous bacterial contaminations of the citric acid fermentation is the so-called brown contamination, which is called forth by non pathogenic representatives of Enterobacteriaceae like Escherichia coli, Aerobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris, while other bacteria do not produce the mentioned contamination. There is given a comprehensive characterization of the brown contamination. Enterobacteriaceae interrupt the growth of the mycelium of the mold Aspergillus niger and stop the production of citric acid, produce a characteristic repugnant smell and reduce nitrate to nitrite. In a case of weak contamination the phenomena of the brown contamination do not appear, but the yield of citric acid is rather low. The contamination may be transferred successfully within the first 24 hrs. of incubation. The effect of the bacteria is determined by their virulence and some other factors.

  13. Intake of essential fatty acids in Indonesian children: secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Djuwita, Ratna; Otten-Hofman, Anke; Nurdiani, Reisi; Garczarek, Ursula; Sulaeman, Ahmad; Zock, Peter L; Eilander, Ans

    2016-02-28

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are needed for healthy growth and development of children. Worldwide, reliable intake data of EFA are often lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary intake of EFA in Indonesian children. Dietary intake data of 4-12-year-old children (n 45,821) from a nationally representative Indonesian survey were used to estimate median intake and distribution of population fatty acid intake. Missing data on individual fatty acids in the Indonesian food composition table were complemented through chemical analyses of national representative food samples and imputation of data from the US nutrient database. Nutrient adequacy ratios were calculated as a percentage of FAO/WHO intake recommendations. The medians of total fat intake of the children was 26·7 (10th-90th percentile 11·2-40·0) percentage of total daily energy (%E). Intakes of fatty acids were 4·05 (10th-90th percentile 1·83-7·22) %E for total PUFA, 3·36 (10th-90th percentile 1·14-6·29) %E for LA and 0·20 (10th-90th percentile 0·07-0·66) %E for ALA. Median intake of PUFA was 67 % and that of ALA 40 % of the minimum amounts recommended by FAO/WHO. These data indicate that a majority of Indonesian children has intakes of PUFA and specifically ALA that are lower than recommended intake levels. Total fat and LA intakes may be suboptimal for a smaller yet considerable proportion of children. Public health initiatives should provide practical guidelines to promote consumption of PUFA-rich foods.

  14. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  15. HYDROGEN CHEMISORPTION ON Pt SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1980-04-01

    Hydrogen chemisorption from dilute acidic solution onto Pt single crystal surfaces was examined using an electrochemical cell directly coupled to LEED/Auger analytical system. No pre-anodization was used prior to observing hydrogen adsorption by cyclic voltammetry so that clean surfaces having the ordered structures indicated by LEED were studied. The problem of contributions from non-ordered parts of the electrode like support wires and edges was solved by using a gold evaporation masking technique. The specific contribution of atomic imperfections to the voltammetry curve was deduced from the ordered and countable imperfections occurring on high Miller index single crystal surfaces that have a stepped structure. The H-Pt bond energy Has found to be structure sensitive, and sensitive both to local site geometry and long range order in the surface. The bond strength was found to vary systematically: n(111)x(100) > (100) > n(111)x(111) > (110) > (111). Distinct states for hydrogen at steps versus hydrogen on terraces could be distinguished. The (110) surface is shown to be a (111) vicinal, probably the [3(111) x 2(111)] microfacetted surface. The zero coverage heat of adsorption on the well-ordered (111) surface (48 kJ/mol) in solutions is the same as the value reported by Ertl and co-workers for adsorption on a (111) surface in vacuum. Adsorption Isotherms for hydrogen on the (111) and (100) surfaces is adequately fit by the classical model for immobile adsorption at single sites with nearest neighbor repulsive interaction.

  16. Temperature induced denaturation of collagen in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Mu, Changdao; Li, Defu; Lin, Wei; Ding, Yanwei; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2007-07-01

    The denaturation of collagen solution in acetic acid has been investigated by using ultra-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry (US-DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and laser light scattering (LLS). US-DSC measurements reveal that the collagen exhibits a bimodal transition, i.e., there exists a shoulder transition before the major transition. Such a shoulder transition can recover from a cooling when the collagen is heated to a temperature below 35 degrees C. However, when the heating temperature is above 37 degrees C, both the shoulder and major transitions are irreversible. CD measurements demonstrate the content of triple helix slowly decreases with temperature at a temperature below 35 degrees C, but it drastically decreases at a higher temperature. Our experiments suggest that the shoulder transition and major transition arise from the defibrillation and denaturation of collagen, respectively. LLS measurements show the average hydrodynamic radius R(h), radius of gyration R(g)of the collagen gradually decrease before a sharp decrease at a higher temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio R(g)/R(h) gradually increases at a temperature below approximately 34 degrees C and drastically increases in the range 34-40 degrees C, further indicating the defibrillation of collagen before the denaturation.

  17. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy.

  18. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Quong, Roland; Rigdon, Lester P.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  19. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    José, Marco V.; Morgado, Eberto R.; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Zamudio, Gabriel S.; de Farías, Sávio Torres; Bobadilla, Juan R.; Sosa, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional algebraic models, also called Genetic Hotels, are developed to represent the Standard Genetic Code, the Standard tRNA Code (S-tRNA-C), and the Human tRNA code (H-tRNA-C). New algebraic concepts are introduced to be able to describe these models, to wit, the generalization of the 2n-Klein Group and the concept of a subgroup coset with a tail. We found that the H-tRNA-C displayed broken symmetries in regard to the S-tRNA-C, which is highly symmetric. We also show that there are only 12 ways to represent each of the corresponding phenotypic graphs of amino acids. The averages of statistical centrality measures of the 12 graphs for each of the three codes are carried out and they are statistically compared. The phenotypic graphs of the S-tRNA-C display a common triangular prism of amino acids in 10 out of the 12 graphs, whilst the corresponding graphs for the H-tRNA-C display only two triangular prisms. The graphs exhibit disjoint clusters of amino acids when their polar requirement values are used. We contend that the S-tRNA-C is in a frozen-like state, whereas the H-tRNA-C may be in an evolving state. PMID:25370377

  20. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  1. Effects of long chain fatty acids on solute absorption: perfusion studies in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H V; Thomas, P J; Phillips, S F

    1977-01-01

    Perfusion studies were performed in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that net fluid secretion induced by fatty acids is accompanied by parallel reduction in solute transport. Ricinoleic acid provoked a marked net secretion of fluid and concomitantly inhibited the absorption of all solutes tested; these included glucose, xylose, L-leucine, L-lysine, Folic acid, and 2-mono-olein. Oleic acid also reduced net fluid and solute transport, but was less potent in reducing solute absorption than was ricinoleic acid. When fluid secretion was induced osmotically with mannitol, glucose and xylose absorption was not affected. The mechanism for this generalised effect of fatty acids on solute absorption is uncertain, possibly nonspecific, and might be related to mucosal damage and altered mucosal permeability induced by these agents. PMID:590838

  2. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids intake and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Aparicio, Aránzazu; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ortega, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the intake of omega 3 (n-3 PUFAs) and omega 6 (n-6 PUFAs) and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults. For this purpose 418 adults (18 - 60 y), from 15 Spanish provinces were studied. The intake of energy and nutrients [specifically, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs,) α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); and the n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid (LA)] was determined using a 24-hour recall questionnaire for two days. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) was used to estimate participants’ usual fatty acid intake. The total n-3 PUFAs intake was 1.8 ± 0.60 g/day (ALA: 1.3 ± 0.32, EPA: 0.16 ± 0.14, and DHA: 0.33 ± 0.21 g/day) and n-6 PUFA intake was 11.0 ± 2.7 g/day (LA: 10.8 ± 2.7 g/day). A high proportion of participants did not meet their nutrient intake goals for total n-3 PUFAs (84.7 %), ALA (45.0 %), and EPA plus DHA (62.9 %). The main food sources for ALA were oil, dairy products, and meat; for EPA fish; for DHA, fish, eggs, and meat; and for LA, oils, meat, and cereals. Therefore, an increase in the intake of foods rich in n-3 PUFAs or the use of supplements with n-3 PUFAs might help to improve the n-3 PUFA intake.

  3. Isothermal heat measurements of TBP-nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.

    1994-12-16

    Net heats of reaction were measured in an isothermal calorimeter for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO{sub 3} reacting solutions at temperatures above 100 C. The oxidation rate constant was determined to be 5.4E-4 min{sup {minus}1} at 110 C for an open ``vented`` system as compared to 1.33 E-3 min{sup {minus}1} in the closed system. The heat released per unit material oxidized was also reduced. The oxidation in both phases was found to be first order in nitric acid and pseudo-zero order in butylnitrate and water. The hydrolysis (esterification) rate constant determined by Nichols` (1.33E-3 min{sup {minus}1}) fit the experimental data from this work well. Forced evaporation of the volatile components by the product gases from oxidation resulted in a cooling mechanism which more than balanced the heat from the oxidation reaction in the two-phased systems. Rate expressions were derived and rate constants determined for both the single and two phase systems. An approximating mathematical model was developed to fit the experimental data and to extrapolate beyond the experimental conditions. This model shows that one foot of ``reacting`` 14.3M HNO{sub 3} aqueous phase solution at 121 C will transport sufficient water to the organic phase to replace evaporative losses, maintaining endothermicity, for organic layers up to 12.2 + 6.0 feet deep. If the pressure in a reacting system is allowed to increase due to insufficient venting the temperature of the organic phase would increase in temperature to reach a new equilibrium. The rate of oxidation would increase not only due to the increase in temperature but also from the increased concentration of dissolved HNO{sub 3} reduction products. Another important factor is that the cooling system described in this work becomes less effective as the total pressure increases. These factors probably contributed to the explosion at Tomsk.

  4. Uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products, but the lack of kinetics data significantly limited the evaluation of this process in the atmosphere. Here we report the first measurement of the uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Isoprene cannot readily partition into the solution because of its high volatility and low solubility, which hinders its further liquid-phase oxidation. Both methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate can enter the solutions and be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and steady-state uptake was observed with the acidity of solution above 30 wt.% and 70 wt.%, respectively. The steady-state uptake coefficient of methacrylic acid is much larger than that of methyl methacrylate for a solution with same acidity. These observations can be explained by the different reactivity of these two compounds caused by the different electron-withdrawing conjugation between carboxyl and ester groups. The atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on the calculated steady-state uptake coefficients. These results demonstrate that the multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation of methacrylic acid plays a role in secondary organic aerosol formation, but for isoprene and methyl methacrylate, this process is not important in the troposphere.

  5. Effect of citric acid on the acidification of artificial pepsin solution for metacercariae isolation from fish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Ko, Seong-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-11-15

    Artificial digestive solution based on pepsin is essential for collecting metacercariae from fish. To promote the enzymatic reactivity of pepsin, the pH of the solution has to be adjusted to pH 1.0-2.0. Hydrochloride (HCl) is usually used for this purpose, but the use of HCl raises safety concerns. The aim of this work was to address the usefulness of citric acid as an alternative for HCl for the acidification of pepsin solution, and to examine its potential to damage metacercariae during in vitro digestion as compared with HCl. Changes in pH after adding 1-9% of citric acid (m/v) to pepsin solution were compared to a 1% HCl (v/v) addition. Digestion of fish muscle was evaluated by measuring released protein concentrations by spectrophotometry. In addition, survival rates of metacercariae in pepsin solution were determined at different citric acid concentrations and were compared that of with 1% HCl. The present study shows that addition of citric acid reduced the pH of pepsin solutions to the required level. Addition of more than 5% of citric acid resulted in the effective digestion of fish muscle over 3h in vitro, and 5% citric acid was less lethal to metacercariae than 1% HCl in pepsin solution. Pepsin solution containing 5% citric acid had digestive capacity superior to pepsin solution containing 1% HCl after 3h incubation with released protein concentrations of 12.0 ng/ml for 5% citric acid and 9.6 ng/ml for 1% HCl. Accordingly, the present study suggests that the addition of 5% citric acid to pepsin solution is a good alternative to 1% HCl in infection studies because citric acid is a stable at room temperature and has a good safety profile. In addition, we suggest that the use of citric acid enables the preparation of commercial digestive solutions for the detection of microorganisms in fish and other vertebrate muscle tissue.

  6. Impact of Fluorescent Lighting on Oxidation of Model Wine Solutions Containing Organic Acids and Iron.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-22

    Previous studies have provided evidence that light exposure can increase oxygen consumption in wine and that the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate could contribute to this process. In the present study, model wine solutions containing iron(III) and various organic acids, either alone or combined, were stored in sealed clear glass wine bottles and exposed to light from fluorescent lamps. Dissolved oxygen was monitored, and afterward the organic acid degradation products were determined and the capacity of the solutions to bind sulfur dioxide, the main wine preservative, was assessed. In the dark controls, little or no dissolved oxygen was consumed and the organic acids were stable. In the irradiated solutions, dissolved oxygen was consumed at a rate that was dependent on the specific organic acid present, and the latter were oxidized to various carbonyl compounds. For the solutions containing tartaric acid, malic acid, and/or citric acid, irradiation increased their sulfur dioxide-binding capacity.

  7. Surface chemistry of Cu(100) in acidic sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Charles B.; Stickney, John L.

    1990-12-01

    The surface chemistry of Cu(100), in H 2SO 4 and acidic K 2SO 4 solutions, has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Experiments were conducted in an electrochemical cell coupled directly to a UHV surface analysis chamber. Structures formed on the Cu(100) surface emersed (removed) from sulfate solutions were the principal focus of this study. Structures and coverages were primarily dependent on sulfate concentration and the presence of coadsorbates such as Cl and K +. Emersion of Cu(100) from 1 mM H 2SO 4 resulted in a Cu(100)(2 × 2)-SO 2-4 adlattice with a {1}/{4} coverage of sulfate. A {1}/{5} coverage Cu(100)( 5 × 5) R26.6°- SO2-4 structure formed upon emersion mM H 2SO 4 containing trace Cl - contaminants, and a {1}/{3} coverage Cu(100)(2 × 100)- SO2-4 structure formed following e from 10 mM H 2SO 4. Emersion of Cu(100) from 1 mM K 2SO 4 (pH = 3.6) resulted in a Cu(100)(4 × 2 5)- SO2-4, K + surface structure, with K + and SO 2-4 coadsorbed in a 1:1 stoichiometry, each at {1}/{4} coverage. No significant potential-dependent variatio in surface structure or coverage was observed when the electrode was emersed from H 2SO 4 at potentials in the double-layer charging region. For emersion from 1 mM K 2SO 4 (pH = 3.6), a reduction in K + coverage along with a change in the surface structure to a (2 × 2) occurred at positive potentials. Comparisons were made of sulfate adsorption on the low-index planes of Cu using a Cu single crystal polished on three different faces to the (111), (110) and (100) planes. This electrode was emersed from 1 mM K 2SO 4 (pH = 3.6) at several potentials. A c(8 × 2) and a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern were observed on Cu(110) and Cu(111), respectively. The K + and SO 2-4 coverages differed appreciably between the three surfaces. Significant differences were observed in the thermal desorption spectra of Cu(100) emersed from H 2SO 4 and K 2SO

  8. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  9. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  10. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  11. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  12. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  13. The aqueous photolysis of α-pinene in solution with humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Cunningham, Kirkwood M.; Aiken, George R.; Weiner, Eugene R.; ,

    1992-01-01

    Terpenes are produced abundantly by environmental processes but are found in very low concentrations in natural waters. Aqueous photolysis of solutions containing α-pinene, a representative terpene, in the presence of humic acid resulted in degradation of the pinene. Comparison of this reaction to photolysis of α-pinene in the presence of methylene blue leads to the conclusion that the reactive pathway for the abiotic degradation of α-pinene is due to reaction with singlet oxygen produced by irradiation of the humic material. The initial product of single oxygen and α-pinene is a hydroperoxide. Since humic materials are prevalent in most natural waters, this mechanism of photodecomposition for α-pinene probably also applies to other terpenes in surface waters and may be reasonably considered to contribute to their low environmental concentration.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions Containing Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-04

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel based alloy containing alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. It is highly corrosion resistant both under reducing and under oxidizing conditions. Electrochemical studies such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. Tests were also carried out in NaCl solutions containing oxalic acid or acetic acid. It is shown that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was higher in a solution containing oxalic acid than in a solution of the same pH acidified with HCl. Acetic acid was not corrosive to Alloy 22. The corrosivity of oxalic acid was attributed to its capacity to form stable complex species with metallic cations from Alloy 22.

  15. Facile preparation of acid-resistant magnetite particles for removal of Sb(Ⅲ) from strong acidic solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Guan, Kaiwen; Bai, Zhiping; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new facile coating strategy based on the hydrophobicity of methyl groups was developed to prevent nano-sized magnetite particles from strong acid corrosion. In this method, three steps of hydrolysis led to three layers of protection shell coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Filled with hydrophobic methyl groups, the middle layer mainly prevented the magnetic core from strong acid corrosion. These magnetite particles managed to resist 1 M HCl solution and 2.5 M H2SO4 solution. The acid resistant ability was higher than those reported previously. After further modification with amino-methylene-phosphonic groups, these magnetite particles successfully adsorbed Sb(III) in strong acid solution. This new strategy can also be applied to protect other materials from strong acid corrosion. PMID:27877860

  16. Thermochemical study of the reactions of acid-base interaction in an aqueous solution of α-aminobutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Skvortsov, I. A.; Korchagina, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The heat effects of the interaction between a solution of α-aminobutyric acid and solutions of HNO3 and KOH are measured by means of calorimetry in different ranges of pH at 298.15 K and values of ionic strength of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 (KNO3). The heat effects of the stepwise dissociation of the amino acid are determined. Standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δr H 0, Δr G 0, and Δr S 0) of the reactions of acid-base interaction in aqueous solutions of α-aminobutyric acid are calculated. The connection between the thermodynamic characteristics of the dissociation of the amino acid and the structure of this compound is considered.

  17. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  18. The standard enthalpies of formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid and its aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernyavskaya, N. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Nikol'Skii, V. M.

    2007-07-01

    The energy of combustion of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid (CMAA) was determined by bomb calorimetry in oxygen. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid were calculated. The heat effects of solution of crystalline CMAA in water and a solution of sodium hydroxide were measured at 298.15 K by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of CMAA and its dissociation products in aqueous solution were determined.

  19. Oxalic acid complexes: promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-03-21

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes.

  20. Solution properties and taste behavior of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions at different temperatures: Volumetric and rheological approach.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sinha, Biswajit

    2016-11-15

    The densities and viscosities of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions with several molal concentrations m=(0.00-0.08)molkg(-1) of ascorbic acid were determined at T=(298.15-318.15)K and pressure p=101kPa. Using experimental data apparent molar volume (ϕV), standard partial molar volume (ϕV(0)), the slope (SV(∗)), apparent specific volumes (ϕVsp), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕE(0)) and its temperature dependence [Formula: see text] the viscosity B-coefficient and solvation number (Sn) were determined. Viscosity B-coefficients were further employed to obtain the free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of the solvents (Δμ1(0≠)) and of the solute (Δμ2(0≠)). Effects of molality, solute structure and temperature and taste behavior were analyzed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions; results revealed that the solutions are characterized predominantly by solute-solvent interactions and lactose monohydrate behaves as a long-range structure maker.

  1. Solution properties and emulsification properties of amino acid-based gemini surfactants derived from cysteine.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Sakato, Ayako; Esumi, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid-based anionic gemini surfactants (2C(n)diCys, where n represents an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 12, or 14 carbons and "di" and "Cys" indicate adipoyl and cysteine, respectively) were synthesized using the amino acid cysteine. Biodegradability, equilibrium surface tension, and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the properties of gemini surfactants. Additionally, the effects of alkyl chain length, number of chains, and structure on these properties were evaluated by comparing previously reported gemini surfactants derived from cystine (2C(n)Cys) and monomeric surfactants (C(n)Cys). 2C(n)diCys shows relatively higher biodegradability than does C(n)Cys and previously reported sugar-based gemini surfactants. Both critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension decrease when alkyl chain length is increased from 10 to 12, while a further increase in chain length to 14 results in increased CMC and surface tension. This indicates that long-chain gemini surfactants have a decreased aggregation tendency due to the steric hindrance of the bulky spacer as well as premicelle formation at concentrations below the CMC and are poorly packed at the air/water interface. Formation of micelles (measuring 2 to 5 nm in solution) from 2C(n)diCys shows no dependence on alkyl chain length. Further, shaking the mixtures of aqueous 2C(n)diCys surfactant solutions and squalane results in the formation of oil-in-water type emulsions. The highly stable emulsions are formed using 2C₁₂diCys or 2C₁₄diCys solution and squalane in a 1:1 or 2:1 volume ratio.

  2. Biosorption of acidic textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by Paecilomyces sp. isolated from acidic mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Ahmet; Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Özel, Yasemin Kevser; Kocabıyık, Erçin

    2013-07-01

    Removal of textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by biosorption onto a dead fungal biomass isolated from acidic mine drainage in the Çanakkale Region of Turkey was investigated. The fungus was found to be a promising biosorbent and identified as Paecilomyces sp. The optimal conditions for bioremediation were as follows: pH, 2.0; initial dyestuff concentration, 50 mg l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85 and Reactive Orange 12, and 75 mg l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; biomass dosage, 2 g l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85, 3 g l(-1) for Reactive Orange 12, 4 g l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; temperature, 25 °C; and agitation rate, 100 rpm. Zeta potential measurements indicated an electrostatic interaction between the binding sites and dye anions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that amine, hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amide bonds were involved in the dyestuff biosorption. A toxicity investigation was also carried out before and after the biosorption process. These results showed that the toxicities for the reactive dyestuffs in aqueous solutions after biosorption studies decreased. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium, and isotherm constants were evaluated for each dyestuff. Equilibrium data of biosorption of RY85 and RO12 dyestuffs fitted well to both models at the studied concentration and temperature.

  3. Chemical equilibrium of minced turkey meat in organic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Goli, T; Abi Nakhoul, P; Zakhia-Rozis, N; Trystram, G; Bohuon, P

    2007-02-01

    The distribution of acid (HA), anions (A(-)), free protons (H(3)O(+)) and bound protons (H(b)), in homogenized turkey meat was evaluated at various meat/water mass ratios of (1/4-1/10) during titration with acetic acid (0.25N) or lactic acid (0.2N). H(b) concentration was determined by titration with hydrochloric acid (0.075N) and a correlation for [H(b)]=f(pH) was proposed. A procedure was used to calculate the fractions of the various species in equilibrium, starting from an initial acid concentration in a meat/water system and assuming the accuracy of the pK(a) value of the pure weak acids despite the chemical complexity of meat. Calculated results were in very good agreement (±0.15) with experimental pH values, whatever the acid, meat batch or meat/water mass ratios used. Less than 1% of the total protons were free (H(3)O(+)) and determined the meat pH.

  4. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  5. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  6. Discoloration of titanium alloy in acidic saline solutions with peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare corrosion behavior in several titanium alloys with immersion in acidulated saline solutions containing hydrogen peroxide. Seven types of titanium alloy were immersed in saline solutions with varying levels of pH and hydrogen peroxide content, and resulting differences in color and release of metallic elements determined in each alloy. Some alloys were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy. Ti-55Ni alloy showed a high level of dissolution and difference in color. With immersion in solution containing hydrogen peroxide at pH 4, the other alloys showed a marked difference in color but a low level of dissolution. The formation of a thick oxide film was observed in commercially pure titanium showing discoloration. The results suggest that discoloration in titanium alloys immersed in hydrogen peroxide-containing acidulated solutions is caused by an increase in the thickness of this oxide film, whereas discoloration of Ti-55Ni is caused by corrosion.

  7. Separation of ions in acidic solution by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Michelle

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective method for separating ionic species according to differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. CE separations of amino acids by direct detection are difficult due to their similar electrophoretic mobilities and low absorbances. However, native amino acids can be separated by CE as cations at a low pH by adding an alkanesulfonic acid to the electrolyte carrier which imparts selectivity to the system. Derivatization is unnecessary when direct UV detection is used at 185 nm. Simultaneous speciation of metal cations such as vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) can easily be performed without complexation prior to analysis. An indirect UV detection scheme for acidic conditions was also developed using guanidine as the background carrier electrolyte (BCE) for the indirect detection of metal cations. Three chapters have been removed for separate processing. This report contains introductory material, references, and general conclusions. 80 refs.

  8. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Klocke, Arndt; Mihailova, Boriana; Tosheva, Lubomira; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2008-07-24

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and complementary scanning electron microscopy were applied to analyze the surface structure of enamel apatite exposed to citric acid and to investigate the protective potential of fluorine-containing reagents against citric acid-induced erosion. Enamel and, for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2.0% for fluoride solutions. The two solutions were applied either simultaneously or consecutively. The citric acid-induced structural modification of apatite increases with the increase in the citric acid concentration and the number of treatments. The application of sodium fluoride alone does not suppress the atomic level changes in apatite exposed to acidic agents. The addition of sodium fluoride to citric acid solutions leads to formation of surface CaF2 and considerably reduces the changes in the apatite P-O-Ca framework. However, the CaF2 globules deposited on the enamel surface seem to be insufficient to prevent the alteration of the apatite structure upon further exposure to acidic agents. No evidence for fluorine-induced recovery of the apatite structure was found.

  9. Near infrared photochemistry of pyruvic acid in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Molly C; Vaida, Veronica

    2012-06-21

    Recent experimental and theoretical results have suggested that organic acids such as pyruvic acid, can be photolyzed in the ground electronic state by the excitation of the OH stretch vibrational overtone. These overtones absorb in the near-infrared and visible regions of the spectrum where the solar photons are plentiful and could provide a reaction pathway for the organic acids and alcohols that are abundant in the earth's atmosphere. In this paper the overtone initiated photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid is investigated by monitoring the evolution of carbon dioxide. In these experiments CO(2) is being produced by excitation in the near-infrared, between 850 nm and ∼1150 nm (11,765-8696 cm(-1)), where the second OH vibrational overtone (Δν = 3) of pyruvic acid is expected to absorb. These findings show not only that the overtone initiated photochemical decarboxylation reaction occurs but also that in the aqueous phase it occurs at a lower energy than was predicted for the overtone initiated reaction of pyruvic acid in the gas phase (13,380 cm(-1)). A quantum yield of (3.5 ± 1.0) × 10(-4) is estimated, suggesting that although this process does occur, it does so with a very low efficiency.

  10. Effects of electrolytes on virus inactivation by acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Nishide, Mitsunori; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Ikeda, Keiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime; Arakawa, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Acidic pH is frequently used to inactivate viruses. We have previously shown that arginine synergizes with low pH in enhancing virus inactivation. Considering a potential application of the acid inactivation of viruses for the prevention and treatment of superficial virus infection at body surfaces and fixtures, herein we have examined the effects of various electrolytes on the acid-induced inactivation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), the influenza A virus (IAV) and the poliovirus upon their incubation at 30˚C for 5 min. Eight electrolytes, i.e., phosphate, NaCl, glutamate, aspartate, pyrrolidone carboxylate, citrate, malate and acetate were tested. No detectable inactivation of the poliovirus was observed under the conditions examined, reflecting its acid-resistance. HSV-1 and HSV-2 responded similarly to the acid-treatment and electrolytes. Some electrolytes showed a stronger virus inactivation than others at a given pH and concentration. The effects of the electrolytes were virus-dependent, as IAV responded differently from HSV-1 and HSV-2 to these electrolytes, indicating that certain combinations of the electrolytes and a low pH can exert a more effective virus inactivation than other combinations and that their effects are virus-specific. These results should be useful in designing acidic solvents for the inactivation of viruses at various surfaces.

  11. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  12. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  13. A multiphase microscopic diffusion model for stratum corneum permeability. I. Formulation, solution, and illustrative results for representative compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsuo-Feng; Kasting, Gerald B; Nitsche, Johannes M

    2006-03-01

    A two-dimensional microscopic transport model of the stratum corneum (SC) incorporating corneocytes of varying hydration and permeability embedded in an anisotropic lipid matrix is presented. Results are expressed in terms of a dimensionless permeability (P(SC/w)(comp), which is a function of two dimensionless parameters, R and sigma. R is a ratio of transbilayer to lateral molecular flows within a lipid bilayer and sigma is the ratio of (lateral) permeability in the lipid phase, D(lip)K(lip/w), to that in the corneocyte phase, D(cor)K(cor/w.) The shape of the dimensionless permeability surface is also governed by the arrangement of the SC lipids, where Model 1 represents the extreme in which lipid-phase transport can occur with no transbilayer transport, whereas Model 2 entails maximum transbilayer transport. Model calculations are exemplified by characterizing the skin permeability of four representative permeants: water, ethanol, nicotinamide, and testosterone. A comparison with experimental steady state permeability and partition data supports that the transport properties of the SC lipids are highly anisotropic, with lateral diffusivities several orders of magnitude higher than the equivalent diffusivity calculated from transbilayer hopping. Nevertheless, the calculations suggest that corneocyte-phase transport plays a major role for all four permeants. These results confirm our previous calculations on water permeability and present a marked contrast to the commonly stated doctrine that the SC transport pathway is primarily intercellular.

  14. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena.

  15. Failure of ESI Spectra to Represent Metal-Complex Solution Composition: A Study of Lanthanide-Carboxylate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Luther W.; Campbell, James A.; Clark, Sue B.

    2014-01-21

    Electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for the characterization of uranyl complexed to tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (DBP). The stoichiometry of uranyl with TBP and DBP was determined, and the gas phase speciation was found to be dependent on the cone voltage applied to induce fragmentation on the gas phase complexes. To quantitatively compare the gas phase distribution of species to solution, apparent stability constants were calculated. With a cone voltage of 80V, the apparent stability constants for the complexes UO2(NO3)2•2TBP, UO2(NO3)2(H2O)•2TBP, and UO2(DBP)+ were determined. With a lower cone voltage applied, larger complexes were observed and stability constants for the complexes UO2(NO3)2•3TBP and UO2(DBP)42- were determined.

  16. Thermodynamics of the complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudarisova, R. Kh.; Badykova, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    The thermodynamics of complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions is studied by means spectroscopy. The standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δ H°; Δ G°; Δ S°) of complexation are calculated.

  17. Adsorption of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the studies on the benzoic acid (BA) onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) was studied in aqueous solution in a batch system. Physico-chemical properties including surface area, surface texture of the GAC before and after BA adsorption onto BFA were analysed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The optimum initial pH for the adsorption of BA was found to be 5.56. The adsorbent dose was 10 g/l for BFA and the equilibrium time 8 h of reaction. Pseudo first and second order models were used to find the adsorption kinetics. It was found that intraparticle diffusion played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of BA and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model rather than the pseudo first order kinetic model. Isotherm data were generated for BA solution having initial concentrations of BA in the range of 10-200 mg/l for the BFA dosage of 10 g/l at temperatures of 288, 303, and 318 K. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was favorably influenced by an increase in temperature. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model. Values of the change in entropy ( ΔS 0), heat of adsorption ( ΔH 0) for adsorption of BA on BFA was found to be 120.10 and 19.61 kJ/mol respectively. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was an endothermic reaction. Desorption of BA from BFA was studied by various solvents method. Acetic acid was found to be a better eluant for desorption of BA with a maximum desorption efficiency of 55.2 %. Owing to its heating value, spent BFA can be used as a co-fuel for the production of heat in boiler furnaces.

  18. Thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic Acid in aqueous protic ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Sharma, Gyanendra; Gardas, Ramesh L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in water and in presence of newly synthesized ammonium based protic ionic liquid (diethylethanolammonium propionate) as a function of concentration and temperature. Apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression, which characterize the solvation state of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of protic ionic liquid (PIL) has been determined from precise density and speed of sound measurements at temperatures (293.15 to 328.15) K with 5 K interval. The strength of molecular interactions prevailing in ternary solutions has been discussed on the basis of infinite dilution partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression, corresponding volume of transfer and interaction coefficients. Result has been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring between ascorbic acid and PIL in ternary solutions (AA + water + PIL).

  19. Behaviors of acrylamide/itaconic acid hydrogels in uptake of uranyl ions from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Karadag, E.; Saraydin, D.; Gueven, O.

    1995-12-01

    In this study, adsorptions of uranyl ions from two different aqueous uranyl solutions by acrylamide-itaconic acid hydrogels were investigated by a spectroscopic method. The hydrogels were prepared by irradiating with {gamma}-radiation. In the experiment of uranyl ions adsorption, Type II adsorption was found. One gram of acrylamide-itaconic acid hydrogels sorbed 178-219 mg uranyl ions from the solutions of uranyl acetate, 42-76 mg uranyl ions from the aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate, while acrylamide hydrogel did not sorb any uranyl ion. For the hydrogel containing 40 mg of itaconic acid and irradiated to 3.73 kGy, swelling of the hydrogels was observed in water (1660%), in the aqueous solution of uranyl acetate (730%), and in the aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate (580%). Diffusions of water onto hydrogels were a non-Fickian type of diffusion, whereas diffusions of uranyl ions were a Fickian type of diffusion.

  20. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium from a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant to and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate, nonsaturated in uranium. The uranium is stripped from, the organic extractant into the stripping solution, and the resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  1. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  2. Thermodynamic and Ultrasonic Properties of Ascorbic Acid in Aqueous Protic Ionic Liquid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Sharma, Gyanendra; Gardas, Ramesh L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in water and in presence of newly synthesized ammonium based protic ionic liquid (diethylethanolammonium propionate) as a function of concentration and temperature. Apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression, which characterize the solvation state of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of protic ionic liquid (PIL) has been determined from precise density and speed of sound measurements at temperatures (293.15 to 328.15) K with 5 K interval. The strength of molecular interactions prevailing in ternary solutions has been discussed on the basis of infinite dilution partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression, corresponding volume of transfer and interaction coefficients. Result has been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring between ascorbic acid and PIL in ternary solutions (AA + water + PIL). PMID:26009887

  3. Moving single bubble sonoluminescence in phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Troia, A; Ripa, D Madonna; Spagnolo, R

    2006-04-01

    The phenomenon of sonoluminescence still presents some unsolved aspects. Recently [Y.T. Didenko, K. Suslick, Molecular Emission during Single Bubble Sonoluminescence, Nature 407 (2000) 877-879.], it was found that a single cavitating air bubble in polar aprotic liquids (including formamide and adiponitrile) can produce very strong sonoluminescence while undergoing macroscopic translation movements in the resonator, a condition known as moving single bubble sonoluminescing (MSBSL). Here we describe some experiments conducted in aqueous solutions of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. In these liquid media, it is possible to reproduce MSBSL and luminescence is emitted even if a trapped bubble is subjected to a strong shape instability, named in the literature "jittering phase". When a moving and luminescing bubble was present and the acoustic pressure gradually increased, we observed the generation of a discrete lattice of trapped bubbles. The bubbles in the lattice emit very intense light flashes and can change their position while maintaining the overall spatial distribution in time. Some preliminary results, obtained from Mie-scattering and measurements of relative light intensity, are reported.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  5. Coulometric determination of americium in acetonitrile solution of phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, S.A.; Kulyakov, Yu.M.; Lebedev, I.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-10-20

    A procedure was developed for the coulometric determination of americium using the electrochemical couple Am(IV)-Am(III). An acetonitrile solution of 0.3-0.2 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was used as the electrolyte. Americium can be determined in the presence of large amounts of Cm, Pu, Ce, and other impurities; limit of detection approx. 10 ..mu..g.

  6. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, P.C.; Melcer, M.E.; Siegel, D.I.; Hassett, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25° and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 μmole/Kg compared to 50 μmole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH.The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid anions which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  7. Treatment of infectious skin defects or ulcers with electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K; Harii, K

    1997-01-01

    A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.

  8. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Melcer, M.E.; Siegel, D.I.; Hassett, J.P. )

    1988-06-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25{degree}C and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 {mu}mole/Kg compared to 50 {mu}mole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH. The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  9. On the completeness and the linear dependence of the Cartesian multipole series in representing the solution to the Helmholtz equation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangfan; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-08-01

    The (Cartesian) multipole series, i.e., the series comprising monopole, dipoles, quadrupoles, etc., can be used, as an alternative to the spherical or cylindrical wave series, in representing sound fields in a wide range of problems, such as source radiation, sound scattering, etc. The proofs of the completeness of the spherical and cylindrical wave series in these problems are classical results, and it is also generally agreed that the Cartesian multipole series spans the same space as the spherical waves: a rigorous mathematical proof of that statement has, however, not been presented. In the present work, such a proof of the completeness of the Cartesian multipole series, both in two and three dimensions, is given, and the linear dependence relations among different orders of multipoles are discussed, which then allows one to easily extract a basis from the multipole series. In particular, it is concluded that the multipoles comprising the two highest orders in the series form a basis of the whole series, since the multipoles of all the lower source orders can be expressed as a linear combination of that basis.

  10. Interfacial structures of acidic and basic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, C.; Ji, N.; Waychunas, G.; Shen, Y.R.

    2008-10-20

    Phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study water/vapor interfaces of HCl, HI, and NaOH solutions. The measured imaginary part of the surface spectral responses provided direct characterization of OH stretch vibrations and information about net polar orientations of water species contributing to different regions of the spectrum. We found clear evidence that hydronium ions prefer to emerge at interfaces. Their OH stretches contribute to the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum. Their charges create a positive surface field that tends to reorient water molecules more loosely bonded to the topmost water layer with oxygen toward the interface, and thus enhances significantly the 'liquid-like' band in the spectrum. Iodine ions in solution also like to appear at the interface and alter the positive surface field by forming a narrow double-charge layer with hydronium ions. In NaOH solution, the observed weak change of the 'liquid-like' band and disappearance of the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum indicates that OH{sup -} ions must also have excess at the interface. How they are incorporated in the interfacial water structure is however not clear.

  11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of phosphoric acid solution compared to other root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; de ALMEIDA, José Flávio Affonso; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a 37% phosphoric acid solution to other irrigants commonly used in endodontics. Material and Methods : The substances 37% phosphoric acid, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine (solution and gel), and 5.25% NaOCl were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces meyeri, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens according to the agar diffusion method. The cytotoxicity of the irrigants was determined by using the MTT assay. Results : Phosphoric acid presented higher antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested irrigants. With regard to the cell viability, this solution showed results similar to those with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution), whereas 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed higher cell viability compared to other irrigants. Conclusion : Phosphoric acid demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution). PMID:26018307

  12. Environment and solute-solvent interaction effects on photo-physical behaviors of Folic acid and Folinic acid drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadem Sadigh, M.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.; Johari-Ahar, M.; Zare Haghighi, L.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, spectral properties of Folic acid and Folinic acid as widely used drugs in the treatment of some diseases have been studied in various environments with different polarity. Our results show that the absorption, emission and stokes shifts of solute molecules depend strongly on molecular surrounding characteristics, solute-solvent interactions and, different active groups in their chemical structures. In order to investigate the contribution of specific and nonspecific interactions on various properties of drug samples, the linear solvation energy relationships concept is used. Moreover, the calculated dipole moments by means of solvatochromic method show that the high values of dipole moments in excited state are due to local intramolecular charge transfer. Furthermore, the obtained results about molecular interactions can be extended to biological systems and can indicate completely the behaviors of Folic acid and Folinic acid in polar solvents such as water in body system.

  13. Liquid chromatographic assay of diatrizoic acid and its diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of diatrizoic acid (2,4,6-triiodo-3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid) and its 2,4- and 2,6-diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque injection solutions. The method is accurate, precise, and linear at a concentration range of 5-50 ppm. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Celik, Z Ceylan; Can, B Z; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2008-03-21

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid.

  15. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  16. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  18. Solute-enhanced production of gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from aqueous solutions of levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif Ispir

    2016-06-28

    A method to produce levulinic acid (LA) and gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from biomass-derived cellulose or lignocellulose by selective extraction of LA using GVL and optionally converting the LA so isolated into GVL, with no purifications steps required to yield the GVL.

  19. Solute-enhanced production of gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from aqueous solutions of levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A; Wettstein, Stephanie G; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif Ispir

    2015-02-24

    A method to produce levulinic acid (LA) and gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from biomass-derived cellulose or lignocellulose by selective extraction of LA using GVL and optionally converting the LA so isolated into GVL, with no purifications steps required to yield the GVL.

  20. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  1. Time dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase in irradiated solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, K.; Pilot, T.F.; Meany, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The xanthine oxidase catalyzed oxidation of hypoxanthine was followed by monitoring the formation of uric acid at 290 nm. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase occurs in aqueous solutions of folic acid methotrexate and aminopterin. These compounds are known to dissociate upon exposure to ultraviolet light resulting in the formation of their respective 6-formylpteridine derivatives. The relative rates of dissociation were monitored spectrophotometrically by determining the absorbance of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives at 500 nm. When aqueous solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate were exposed to uv light, a direct correlation was observed between the concentrations of the 6-formylpteridine derivatives existing in solution and the ability of these solutions to inhibit xanthine oxidase. The relative potency of the respective photolysis products were estimated.

  2. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  3. Evaluation of a taurine containing amino acid solution in parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, L; Griffin, E

    1991-01-01

    Vaminolact, an amino acid solution containing taurine, was given to 15 sick newborn babies. They were compared with a group of 10 babies who received a solution that did not contain taurine (Vamin glucose). Efficacy and safety were evaluated by monitoring plasma amino acid patterns, growth patterns, nitrogen balance, and biochemical and haematological profiles. No serious abnormalities in amino acid concentrations were found. After an initial fall the taurine concentration recovered more rapidly in those receiving the taurine supplement, though this difference was not significant. Phenylalanine concentrations were within the reference range in the group receiving Vaminolact, and were significantly lower than in the group receiving Vamin glucose. Metabolic acidosis, which occurred in several subjects in each group, was not a serious problem. Liver function tests remained satisfactory. Nitrogen retention was greater among those receiving Vaminolact than in the control group. Vaminolact is a safe and effective amino acid solution for use in critically ill babies. PMID:1899989

  4. Acid gas absorption in aqueous solutions of mixed amines

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.S.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-12-31

    A mass transfer model has been developed to describe the rate of absorption (or desorption) of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of a tertiary and a secondary or a primary amine. The model is based on penetration theory, and all significant chemical reactions are incorporated in the model. The reactions are taken to be reversible, with reactions involving only a proton transfer considered to be at equilibrium. The particular amines studied in this research were methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a tertiary amine, and diethanolamine (DEA), a secondary amine. Key physicochemical data needed in the model, such as diffusion coefficients, kinetic rate constants, and gas solubilities, were measured. Experimental absorption rates of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were measured in a model gas-liquid contacting device and were compared with model predictions. Experiments were carried out for single amine solutions (both MDEA and DEA) and for amine blends.

  5. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon: effect of acidic and alkaline solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Chun, Ji I; Han, Da H; Cho, Hye Y; O, Se J; Kim, Dong S

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using activated carbon (AC) has been investigated. Adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied on the adsorption process. Equilibrium data were mathematically modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different dye concentrations and temperature. Parameters of best-fit model were calculated and discussed. To understand the mechanism of adsorption, kinetic models were employed to follow the adsorption processes; the pseudo-first-order best described the adsorption of MB onto AC. It was found that pH plays a major role in the adsorption process; adsorption capacity was influenced by the physical and surface chemical properties of carbon and the pH of the solution. 99.0% MB removal was achieved at equilibrium.

  6. Photodegradation of Mercaptopropionic Acid- and Thioglycollic Acid-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Buffer Solutions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanping; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Jie; Du, Yingying; He, Haiyan; Liu, Yunshi

    2015-06-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thioglycollic acid (TGA) as capping agents. It is confirmed that TGA and MPA molecules were attached on the surface of the QDs using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The movement of the QDs in agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that MPA-capped CdTe QDs had small hydrodynamic diameter. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of TGA-capped QDs is higher than that of MPA-capped QDs at same QD concentration because of the surface passivation of TGA. To systemically investigate the photodegradation, CdTe QDs with various PL peak wavelengths were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TBE) buffer solutions. It was found that the PL intensity of the QDs in PBS decreased with time. The PL peak wavelengths of the QDs in PBS solutions remained unchanged. As for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, the results of PL peak wavelengths in TBE buffer solutions indicated that S(2-) released by TGA attached to Cd(2+) and formed CdS-like clusters layer on the surface of aqueous CdTe QDs. In addition, the number of TGA on the CdTe QDs surface was more than that of MPA. When the QDs were added to buffer solutions, agents were removed from the surface of CdTe QDs, which decreased the passivation of agents thus resulted in photodegradation of CdTe QDs in buffer solutions.

  7. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  8. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  9. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.; Legg, Benjamin; Khalid, Syed; Zhang, Hengzhong; Mørup, Steen; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV-vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the other two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.

  10. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Khalid, Syed; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.; Legg, Benjamin; Zhang, Hengzhong; Morup, Steen; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2015-10-03

    In this study, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV–vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the other two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.

  11. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Khalid, Syed; Frandsen, Cathrine; ...

    2015-10-03

    In this study, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV–vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the othermore » two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.« less

  12. BrCl production in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions representative of sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Chapman, E. G.; Barchet, W. R.; Colson, S. D.; Howd, C. D.

    Atomic bromine and chlorine liberated from sea-salt aerosol is thought to play an important role in chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Despite numerous modeling studies, no prior experimental investigations of the oxidation of halide species contained in simulated, or actual, sea-salt solutions have been performed. We present laboratory data that examines chemistry in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions at 290 K. Ozonation experiments were performed by flowing ozone in air through a nitric acid/salt solution and monitoring pH with time using an ion-sensitive electrode. The rate of oxidation was observed to be first order in ozone concentration and to have a non-first order bromide concentration dependence. Ion Chromatography was used to measure both bromide disappearance as well as oxidation products formed during the course of the reactions studied. Our measurements of the oxidation rate versus ion concentration indicate that the high ionic strength present in sea-salt aerosol will possess unique kinetics different from dilute solution behavior. In addition, our results are consistent with the reaction sequence O3 + H+ + Br- → O2 + HOBr and HOBr + Cl- + H+ → BrCl + H2O. These observations support the HOBr mediated Cl- oxidation process proposed previously (Vogt et al., 1996).

  13. Comparison of XAD macroporous resins for the concentration of fulvic acid from aqueous solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Five macroreticular, nonlonlc AmberlHe XAD resins were evaluated for concentration and Isolation of fulvlc acid from aqueous solution. The capacity of each resin for fulvlc acid was measured by both batch and column techniques. Elution efficiencies were determined by desorptlon with 0.1 N NaOH. Highest recoveries were obtained with the acrylic ester resins which proved to be most efficient for both adsorption and elution of fulvlc acid. Compared to the acrylic ester resins, usefulness of the styrene dvlnybenzene resins to remove fulvlc acid is limited because of slow diffusion-controlled adsorption and formation of charge-transfer complexes, which hinders elution. ?? 1979 American Chemical Society.

  14. The kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Kochergin, B. A.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of the oxidation of bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and their mixture in aqueous solutions under the action of air oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are presented. The observed and true rate constants for the oxidation reactions were determined. It was shown that the oxidation of tetrapyrrole pigment occurred under these conditions bypassing the stage of biliverdin formation to monopyrrole products. Simultaneous oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid was shown to be accompanied by the inhibition of ascorbic acid oxidation by bilirubin, whereas ascorbic acid itself activated the oxidation of bilirubin.

  15. Separation of thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using silica based anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanliang; Wei, Yuezhou; He, Linfeng; Tang, Fangdong

    2016-09-30

    To separate thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using anion exchange process, a strong base silica-based anion exchange resin (SiPyR-N4) was synthesized. Batch experiments were conducted and the separation factor of thorium and uranium in 9M nitric acid was about 10. Ion exchange chromatography was applied to separate thorium and uranium in different ratios. Uranium could be eluted by 9M nitric acid and thorium was eluted by 0.1M nitric acid. It was proved that thorium and uranium can be separated and recovered successfully by this method.

  16. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net absorption in a linear fashion with increasing cholesterol concentration in the perfusion solutions. 1 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion induced by 6 mM oleic acid (P less than 0.005), but had no effect on fluid secretion induced by 6 mM linolenic acid. Glucose absorption was generally affected in a similar manner as water transport. In vitro, 1 mM cholesterol reduced monomer activity of 6 mM oleic acid to 72.3 +/- 0.9% of control and that of linolenic acid to 81.1 +/- 1.7% of control. Although statistically significant (P less than 0.001), the difference in the effects of cholesterol on monomer activities of the two fatty acids was rather small and it is unlikely that changes in monomer concentration of fatty acids and bile acids account for the protective effect of cholesterol. The in vivo observations point to a new physiological role for biliary cholesterol: the modification of the response of the small intestine to the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. PMID:7358850

  17. Hydrogen peroxide generation in a model paediatric parenteral amino acid solution.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1993-12-01

    1. Parenteral amino acid solutions undergo photooxidation, which may be an important factor in total parenteral nutrition-associated hepatic dysfunction. Light-exposed parenteral solutions containing amino acids, in addition to vitamins and trace minerals, generate free radicals, which, in turn, may contribute to this type of injury. This study examined the characteristics of H2O2 production in a parenteral amino acid solution modelled on a commercially available paediatric parenteral amino acid solution. 2. The solution was exposed to light in the presence of riboflavin-5'-monophosphate (riboflavin), and peroxide formation in the presence and absence of catalase (H2O2 formation) was assayed using potassium iodide/molybdate. 3. Peak H2O2 production occurred at a light intensity of 8 microW cm-2 nm-1 in the 425-475 nm waveband and was linear to 2 h of light exposure. H2O2 production reached 500 mumol/l at 24 h. 4. H2O2 was directly related to a riboflavin concentration of up to 20 mumol/l and was maximal at 30 mumol/l. 5. H2O2 production was greatest in the amino acid/riboflavin solution at a pH of between 5 and 6. 6. Under the conditions of light exposure intensity, light exposure time, riboflavin concentration and pH found during the administration of parenteral nutrition in neonatal intensive care units, net H2O2 production occurs in solutions modelled on a paediatric parenteral amino acid preparation.

  18. Poly(N-vinylimidazole) gels as insoluble buffers that neutralize acid solutions without dissolving.

    PubMed

    Horta, Arturo; Piérola, Inés F

    2009-04-02

    Typical buffers are solutions containing weak acids or bases. If these groups were anchored to insoluble gels, what would be their behavior? Simple thermodynamics is used to calculate the pH in two-phase systems that contain the weak acid or base fixed to only one of the phases and is absent in the other. The experimental reference of such systems are pH sensitive hydrogels and heterogeneous systems of biological interest. It is predicted that a basic hydrogel immersed in slightly acidic solutions should absorb the acid and leave the external solution exactly neutral (pH 7). This is in accordance with experimental results of cross-linked poly(N-vinylimidazole). The pH 7 cannot be obtained if the system were homogeneous; the confinement of the weak base inside the gel phase is a requisite for this neutral pH in the external solution. The solution inside the gel is regulated to a much higher pH, which has important implications in studies on chemical reactions and physical processes taking place inside a phase insoluble but in contact with a solution.

  19. Extensional flow of hyaluronic acid solutions in an optimized microfluidic cross-slot device.

    PubMed

    Haward, S J; Jaishankar, A; Oliveira, M S N; Alves, M A; McKinley, G H

    2013-07-01

    We utilize a recently developed microfluidic device, the Optimized Shape Cross-slot Extensional Rheometer (OSCER), to study the elongational flow behavior and rheological properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions representative of the synovial fluid (SF) found in the knee joint. The OSCER geometry is a stagnation point device that imposes a planar extensional flow with a homogenous extension rate over a significant length of the inlet and outlet channel axes. Due to the compressive nature of the flow generated along the inlet channels, and the planar elongational flow along the outlet channels, the flow field in the OSCER device can also be considered as representative of the flow field that arises between compressing articular cartilage layers of the knee joints during running or jumping movements. Full-field birefringence microscopy measurements demonstrate a high degree of localized macromolecular orientation along streamlines passing close to the stagnation point of the OSCER device, while micro-particle image velocimetry is used to quantify the flow kinematics. The stress-optical rule is used to assess the local extensional viscosity in the elongating fluid elements as a function of the measured deformation rate. The large limiting values of the dimensionless Trouton ratio, Tr ∼ O(50), demonstrate that these fluids are highly extensional-thickening, providing a clear mechanism for the load-dampening properties of SF. The results also indicate the potential for utilizing the OSCER in screening of physiological SF samples, which will lead to improved understanding of, and therapies for, disease progression in arthritis sufferers.

  20. Effects of solution degassing on solubility, crystal growth and dissolution-Case study: Salicylic acid in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of dissolved gases on the crystallization parameter solubility, MZW, growth and dissolution rates was investigated experimentally using degassed and non-degassed (air-saturated) solutions. The results of this study show that degassing has no effect on the solubility curve of the used model substance salicylic acid (SA) in methanol (MeOH). This reveals in the assumption that a thermodynamic effect of dissolved gases can be excluded. Growth rates were measured by means of a desupersaturation method and the results indicate that the growth rates of SA are not affected by degassing. The results of the dissolution rate measurements reveal a distinct decrease in dissolution rates for non-degassed solutions compared to degassed solutions, especially, at low temperature (10 °C). To explain this phenomenon the gas solubility, represented by oxygen, in MeOH in dependence on the SA concentration was estimated by means of Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) [1]. It was found that the oxygen solubility decreases with increasing SA content which explains the inhibition of crystal dissolution in non-degassed solution compared to degassed solution. Moreover, this kind of 'drowing-out' mechanism would not appear in growth rate measurements, where indeed no effect of degassing could be observed.

  1. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  2. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Solution of Mortars with Quaternary Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhloufi, Zoubir; Bederina, Madani; Bouhicha, Mohamed; Kadri, El-Hadj

    This research consists to study the synergistic action of three mineral additions simultaneously added to the cement. This synergistic effect has a positive effect on the sustainability of limestone mortars. Tests were performed on mortars based on crushed limestone sand and manufactured by five quaternary binders (ordinary Portland cement and CPO mixed simultaneously with filler limestone, blast-furnace and natural pozzolan). The purpose of this research was to identify the resistance of five different mortars to the solution of sulfuric acid. Changes in weight loss and compressive strength measured at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days for each acid solution were studied. We followed up on the change in pH of the sulfuric acid solution at the end of each month up to 180 days.

  3. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  4. Formation of amino acids by cobalt-60 irradiation of hydrogen cyanide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, M. A.; Toste, A. P.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the pathway for the prebiotic origin of amino acids from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) under the action of ionizing radiation considered as an effective source of energy on the primitive earth. The irradiations were performed in a cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 200,000 rad/hr. Seven naturally occurring amino acids are identified among the products formed by the hydrolysis of gamma-irradiated solutions of HCN: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The identity of these amino acids is established by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Control experiments provided evidence that the amino acids are not the result of contamination.

  5. Urinary solute transport by ileal segments. I. Effects of nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Piñeiro, L; Mateos, F; Montero, A; Madero, R; Martínez-Piñeiro, J A

    1993-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantify urinary solute transport by the ileum, using an in vivo human model, and to determine the effect of nicotinic acid on this process. Patients were studied under both basal conditions and niacin therapy. The rates of solute transport were established by analysis of excretion indexes for each solute. Potassium and ammonium were absorbed by the ileum, while phosphorus, sodium and bicarbonate were secreted. The percentage excretion index of sodium and bicarbonate increased by approximately 100 and 600% respectively, causing a significant rise in urinary pH. Although not statistically significant, there was a tendency for chloride to be absorbed and for water to pass into the bowel lumen. Nicotinic acid 3 g/day had no significant effect on urinary solute transport.

  6. Examination of Organic Reactions in UT/LS Aerosols: Temperature Dependence in Sulfuric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2004-12-01

    Sulfuric acid has been used for decades as an industrial catalyst for organic reactions, but its parallel role in atmospheric aerosols is relatively unexplored, despite identification of a wide array of organic compounds in particles. Several recent studies have demonstrated possible reactions in acidic particles, generally involving carbonyl groups (C=O) and leading to the formation of larger molecules. Reactions of oxygenated organic compounds in acidic solution are most often studied near room temperature, while the sulfate particles of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are significantly colder. Our studies of ethanal (acetaldehyde) suggest that reactivity in ~50 wt% H2SO4 solutions may be enhanced at lower temperatures, contrary to expectations. We will present temperature-dependent results of acid catalyzed condensation reactions, leading to formation of higher molecular weight products. Implications for aerosol composition and reactivity will be discussed.

  7. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  8. Sum frequency generation surface spectra of ice, water, and acid solution investigated by an exciton model.

    PubMed

    Buch, V; Tarbuck, T; Richmond, G L; Groenzin, H; Li, I; Shultz, M J

    2007-11-28

    A new computational scheme is presented for calculation of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra, based on the exciton model for OH bonds. The scheme is applied to unified analysis of the SFG spectra in the OH-stretch region of the surfaces of ice, liquid water, and acid solution. A significant role of intermolecularly coupled collective modes is pointed out. SFG intensity amplification observed for acid solutions in the H-bonded OH-stretch region is reproduced qualitatively and accounted for by enhanced orientational preference "into the surface" of the H(2)O bisectors within the hydronium solvation shell.

  9. Recovery of water and acid from leach solutions using direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Kesieme, Uchenna K; Milne, Nicholas; Cheng, Chu Yong; Aral, Hal; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for acid and water recovery from a real leach solution generated by a hydrometallurgical plant. The leach solutions considered contained H2SO4 or HCl. In all tests the temperature of the feed solution was kept at 60 °C. The test work showed that fluxes were within the range of 18-33 kg/m(2)/h and 15-35 kg/m(2)/h for the H2SO4 and HCl systems, respectively. In the H2SO4 leach system, the final concentration of free acid in the sample solution increased on the concentrate side of the DCMD system from 1.04 M up to 4.60 M. The sulfate separation efficiency was over 99.9% and overall water recovery exceeded 80%. In the HCl leach system, HCl vapour passed through the membrane from the feed side to the permeate. The concentration of HCl captured in the permeate was about 1.10 M leaving behind only 0.41 M in the feed from the initial concentration of 2.13 M. In all the experiments, salt rejection was >99.9%. DCMD is clearly viable for high recovery of high quality water and concentrated H2SO4 from spent sulfuric acid leach solution where solvent extraction could then be applied to recover the sulfuric acid and metals. While HCl can be recovered for reuse using only DCMD.

  10. Stability of antimicrobial activity of peracetic acid solutions used in the final disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange Alves da Silva; Paula, Olívia Ferreira Pereira de; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves E; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos

    2015-01-01

    The instruments and materials used in health establishments are frequently exposed to microorganism contamination, and chemical products are used before sterilization to reduce occupational infection. We evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness, physical stability, and corrosiveness of two commercial formulations of peracetic acid on experimentally contaminated specimens. Stainless steel specimens were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, blood, and saliva and then immersed in a ready peracetic acid solution: 2% Sekusept Aktiv (SA) or 0.25% Proxitane Alpha (PA), for different times. Then, washes of these instruments were plated in culture medium and colony-forming units counted. This procedure was repeated six times per day over 24 non-consecutive days. The corrosion capacity was assessed with the mass loss test, and the concentration of peracetic acid and pH of the solutions were measured with indicator tapes. Both SA and PA significantly eliminated microorganisms; however, the SA solution was stable for only 4 days, whereas PA remained stable throughout the experiment. The concentration of peracetic acid in the SA solutions decreased over time until the chemical was undetectable, although the pH remained at 5. The PA solution had a concentration of 500-400 mg/L and a pH of 2-3. Neither formulation induced corrosion and both reduced the number of microorganisms (p = 0.0001). However, the differences observed in the performance of each product highlight the necessity of establishing a protocol for optimizing the use of each one.

  11. Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solution on activated bleaching earth.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Chang, C Y; Ing, C H; Chang, C F

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, activated bleaching earth was used as clay adsorbent for an investigation of the adsorbability and adsorption kinetics of acid dyes (i.e., acid orange 51, acid blue 9, and acid orange 10) with three different molecular sizes from aqueous solution at 25 degrees C in a batch adsorber. The rate of adsorption has been investigated under the most important process parameters (i.e., initial dye concentration). A simple pseudo-second-order model has been tested to predict the adsorption rate constant, equilibrium adsorbate concentration, and equilibrium adsorption capacity by the fittings of the experimental data. The results showed that the adsorbability of the acid acids by activated bleaching earth follows the order: acid orange 51 > acid blue 9 > acid orange 10, parallel to the molecular weights and molecular sizes of the acid dyes. The adsorption removals (below 3%) of acid blue 9 and acid orange 10 onto the clay adsorbent are far lower than that (approximately 24%) of acid orange 51. Further, the adsorption kinetic of acid orange 51 can be well described by the pseudo-second-order reaction model. Based on the isotherm data obtained from the fittings of the adsorption kinetics, the Langmuir model appears to fit the adsorption better than the Freundlich model. The external coefficients of mass transfer of the acid orange 51 molecule across the boundary layer of adsorbent particle have also been estimated at the order of 10(-4)-10(-5) cm s(-1) based on the film-pore model and pseudo-second-order reaction model.

  12. Radiation-induced degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid in aqueous solutions by gamma ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wenbao; He, Yanquan; Ling, Yongsheng; Hei, Daqian; Shan, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jiatong

    2015-04-01

    The radiation-induced degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid under gamma ray irradiation was investigated. Degradation experiments were performed with 100 mL sealed Pyrex glass vessels loaded with 80 mL of cyclohexanebutyric acid solutions at various initial concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 mg L-1. The absorbed doses were controlled at 0, 0.65, 1.95, 3.25, 6.5, 9.75, and 13 kGy. The results showed that gamma ray irradiation could effectively degrade cyclohexanebutyric acid in aqueous solutions. The removal rate of cyclohexanebutyric acid increased significantly with the increase of absorbed dose and the decrease of its initial concentration. At the same time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was as effective as that of cyclohexanebutyric acid. The kinetic studies showed that the degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid followed pseudo first-order reaction. Above all, the proposed mechanism obtained when NaNO2, NaNO3 and tert-butanol were added showed that the •OH radical played a major role in the gamma degradation process of cyclohexanebutyric acid, while •H and eaq- played a minor role in the gamma degradation process. The degradation products were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) during cyclohexanebutyric acid degradation.

  13. The indicator amino acid oxidation method identified limiting amino acids in two parenteral nutrition solutions in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Janet A; Shoveller, Anna K; Pencharz, Paul B; Ball, Ronald O

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique in TPN-fed piglets and infants have been instrumental in defining parenteral amino acid requirements. None of the commercial products in use are ideal when assessed against these new data. Our objectives were to determine whether the oxidation of an indicator amino acid would decline with the addition of amino acids that were limiting in the diets of TPN-fed piglets, and to use this technique to identify limiting amino acids in a new amino acid profile. Piglets (n = 26) were randomized to receive TPN with amino acids provided by Vaminolact (VM) or by a new profile (NP). After 5 d of TPN administration, lysine oxidation was measured using a constant infusion of L- [1-(14)C]-lysine. Immediately following the first IAAO study, the piglets were further randomized within diet group to receive either 1) supplemental aromatic amino acids (AAA), 2) sulfur amino acids (SAA) or 3) both (AAA+SAA) (n = 4-5 per treatment group). A second IAAO study was carried out 18 h later. In the first IAAO study, lysine oxidation was high for both groups (18 vs. 21% for VM and NP, respectively, P = 0.055). The addition of AAA to VM induced a 30% decline in lysine oxidation compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Similarly, SAA added to NP lowered lysine oxidation by approximately 30% (P < 0.01). The application of the IAAO technique facilitates rapid evaluation of the amino acids that are limiting to protein synthesis in parenteral solutions.

  14. ANATOMICAL MNEMONICS OF THE GENETIC CODE: A FUNCTIONAL ICOSAHEDRON AND THE VIGESIMAL SYSTEM OF THE MAYA TO REPRESENT THE TWENTY PROTEINOGENIC AMINO ACIDS.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    In programming and bioinformatics, the graphical interface is vital to describe and to abbreviate aspects and concepts of the physical world. The Mayan Culture developed the vigesimal system, a numerical system based on their count of fingers and toes. My objective is to equate the Mayan system and their numerical representation to the twenty amino acids according to size, except for the number one, represented by a dot, that here is given to cysteine, which acts as glue among peptides as one of its properties; in such a way, two vertical dots will be easily used to represent its related selenocysteine. The Mayan numerical system included the zero, represented by the Maya with an empty shell that here is used to represent the stop codons. On the other hand, the Chinese had a binary numerical system, similar to the binary comparisons of the three properties of Nucleotides within the double helix: H-Bonds, C-Rings and Tautomerism, called the I Ching which here is applied to the natural groups of amino acids that result of the 64-codons compared in binary in their H-Bonds versus their C-Rings, used here to successfully represent the mature sequence of the glucagon amino acids. Additional anatomical tools for the mnemonics of the genetic code and of its amino acid groups are also presented, as well as a functional icosahedron to represent them. Concluding, tools are presented for the visual analysis of proteins and peptide sequencing in bioinformatics and education to teach the genetic code and its resulting amino acids, plus their numerical systems.

  15. ANATOMICAL MNEMONICS OF THE GENETIC CODE: A FUNCTIONAL ICOSAHEDRON AND THE VIGESIMAL SYSTEM OF THE MAYA TO REPRESENT THE TWENTY PROTEINOGENIC AMINO ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO-CHAVEZ, FERNANDO

    2016-01-01

    In programming and bioinformatics, the graphical interface is vital to describe and to abbreviate aspects and concepts of the physical world. The Mayan Culture developed the vigesimal system, a numerical system based on their count of fingers and toes. My objective is to equate the Mayan system and their numerical representation to the twenty amino acids according to size, except for the number one, represented by a dot, that here is given to cysteine, which acts as glue among peptides as one of its properties; in such a way, two vertical dots will be easily used to represent its related selenocysteine. The Mayan numerical system included the zero, represented by the Maya with an empty shell that here is used to represent the stop codons. On the other hand, the Chinese had a binary numerical system, similar to the binary comparisons of the three properties of Nucleotides within the double helix: H-Bonds, C-Rings and Tautomerism, called the I Ching which here is applied to the natural groups of amino acids that result of the 64-codons compared in binary in their H-Bonds versus their C-Rings, used here to successfully represent the mature sequence of the glucagon amino acids. Additional anatomical tools for the mnemonics of the genetic code and of its amino acid groups are also presented, as well as a functional icosahedron to represent them. Concluding, tools are presented for the visual analysis of proteins and peptide sequencing in bioinformatics and education to teach the genetic code and its resulting amino acids, plus their numerical systems. PMID:27081676

  16. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  17. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence determination of thorium in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirashi, N. N.; Dhara, Sangita; Kumar, S. Sanjay; Chaudhury, Satyajeet; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2010-07-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence studies on determination of thorium (in the range of 7 to 137 mg/mL) in phosphoric acid solutions obtained by dissolution of thoria in autoclave were made. Fixed amounts of Y internal standard solutions, after dilution with equal amount of phosphoric acid, were added to the calibration as well as sample solutions. Solution aliquots of approximately 2-5 µL were deposited on thick absorbent sheets to absorb the solutions and the sheets were presented for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements. A calibration plot was made between intensity ratios (Th Lα/Y Kα) against respective amounts of thorium in the calibration solutions. Thorium amounts in phosphoric acid samples were determined using their energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra and the above calibration plot. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence results, thus obtained, were compared with the corresponding gamma ray spectrometry results and were found to be within average deviation of 2.6% from the respective gamma ray spectrometry values. The average precision obtained in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence determinations was found to be 4% (1 σ). The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method has an advantage over gamma ray spectrometry for thorium determination as the amount of sample required and measurement time is far less compared to that required in gamma ray spectrometry.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO/sub 3/, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO/sub 3/ neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)/sub 2/ as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO/sub 4/ are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies.

  19. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory Hudson [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  20. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors: Increase of Solute Uptake.

    PubMed

    Rausch, T; Kahl, G; Hilgenberg, W

    1984-06-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant K(i) is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed.

  1. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  2. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES IN AN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH FORMALDEHYDE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.M.

    1959-06-01

    A method is given for reducing Pu to the tetravalent state and lowering the high acidity of dissolver solutions containing U and Pu. Formaldehyde is added to the HNO/sub 3/ solution of U and Pu to effect a formaldehyde to HNO/sub 3/ molar ratio of 0.375:1 to 1.5:1. The Pu can then be removed from the solution by carrier precipitation using BiPO/sub 4/ or by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  3. [Catalytic ozonation by ceramic honeycomb for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Sun, Zhi-Zhong; Ma, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Comparative experiments for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution were carried out in the three processes of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation and ceramic honeycomb adsorption. The results show that the degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation, ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb adsorption systems are 37.6%, 2.2% and 0.4%, and the presence of ceramic honeycomb catalyst significantly improves the degradation rate of oxalic acid compared to the results from non-catalytic ozonation and adsorption. With the addition of tert-butanol, the degradation rates of oxalic acid in catalytic ozonation system decrease by 24.1%, 29.0% and 30.1%, respectively, at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15 mg x L(-1). This phenomenon indicates that ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution follows the mechanism of *OH oxidation, namely the heterogeneous surface of catalyst enhances the initiation of *OH. The results of TOC analysis demonstrate that the process of ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation can achieve the complete mineralization level without the formation of intermediary degradation products. The experimental results suggest that the reaction temperature has positive relationship with the degradation rate of oxalic acid. The degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation system are 16.4%, 37.6%, 61.3% and 68.2%, at the respective reaction temperature of 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C.

  4. The mechanism of the dehydration of alcohols and the hydration of alkenes in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, M. I.; Obraztsov, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Kinetic data for the hydration of unsaturated compounds, the dehydration of alcohols, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols and aqueous solutions of strong acids are analysed to establish the detailed mechanisms of these reactions. The catalytic action of the acid is caused not only by its ability to protonate the reactant but also by the possibility of the formation of reactive complexes of the reactant with the acid hydrates or the molecules of the undissociated acids. Equations are presented whereby the influence of the ionising capacity of the medium on the effective rate constants for the reactions indicated can be taken into account quantitatively. The question of the involvement of carbonium ions as reactive intermediates in reactions involving the dehydration of alcohols, the hydration of unsaturated compounds, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols is examined. Complexes of the reactant with a solvated proton, the acid molecules, and the acid hydrates are the intermediates in these reactions. The relative contributions of the complexes to the effective rate constant depend on the acid concentration in the aqueous solution. The bibliography includes 65 references

  5. Adipic and malonic acid aqueous solutions: surface tensions and saturation vapor pressures.

    PubMed

    Riipinen, Ilona; Koponen, Ismo K; Frank, Göran P; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Vanhanen, Joonas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Bilde, Merete; Kulmala, Markku

    2007-12-20

    The surface tension of adipic aqueous solutions was measured as a function of temperature (T=278-313 K) and adipic acid mole fraction (X=0.000-0.003) using the Wilhelmy plate method. A parametrization fitted to these data is presented. The evaporation rates of binary water-malonic and water-adipic acid droplets were measured with a TDMA technique at different temperatures (T=293-300 K) and relative humidities (58-80%), and the saturation vapor pressures of subcooled liquid malonic and adipic acids were derived from the data using a binary evaporation model. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressures was obtained as least-squares fits to the derived vapor pressures: ln(Psat,l) (Pa)=220.2389-22634.96/T (K)-26.66767 ln T (K) for malonic acid and ln(Psat,l) (Pa)=140.6704-18230.97/T (K)-15.48011 ln T (K) for adipic acid.

  6. Statistical mechanics of hydrophobic amino acids in aqueous solution: A joint experimental scattering and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lingshuang; Yang, Lin; Huang, Wei; Meng, Jie; Yang, Sichun

    How hydrophobic amino acids interact with each other is still a fundamental question in understanding protein dynamics and folding. Here, we describe an integrative experimental-computational approach of combining x-ray solution scattering and atomistic molecular simulations to determine the molecular properties of a hydrophobic leucine amino acid in an aqueous solution. First, scattering data were acquired at a series of amino acid and salt concentrations and these scattering profiles were further used to calibrate atomistic molecular simulations via a single parameter for solute-solvent interaction. Second, these accurate data of atomistic leucine simulations were used to quantify the effective interacting potentials via a structural simplification of one-bead-per-residue and two-bead-per-residue representations. Third, comparative energetic analyses between the one-bead and two-bead representations were performed to reach a simple picture of residue-residue interactions with an accurate energy function. Taken together, this joint experimental-computational study provides critical insights into microscopic interactions of hydrophobic amino acids in solution with a profound application for studying molecular dynamics of, e.g., intrinsically disordered proteins and their folding.

  7. Effect of acid solutions on plants studied by the optical beam deflection method.

    PubMed

    Nie, Liangjiao; Kuboda, Mitsutoshi; Inoue, Tomomi; Wu, Xingzheng

    2013-12-01

    The optical beam deflection method was applied to study the effects of acid solution on both a terrestial and aquatic plants Egeria and Cerastium, which are common aquatic plant and terrestial weed respectively. A probe beam from a He-Ne laser was passed through a vicinity of a leaf of the plants, which were put in culture dishes filled with acid solutions. Deflection signals of the probe beam were monitored and compared for acid solutions with different pH values. The results of Egria showed that the deflection signals changed dramatically when pH values of acid solutions were 2.0 and 3.0, while little at pH of 4.0 and 5.0. For Cerastium when pH were below 3.0, deflection signals changed greatly with time at the begining. After a certain period of time, deflection signals changed little with time. When pH value was above 4.0, deflection signals of Cerastium were still changing with time even after 20 hours. The results suggested that the damage threshold of pH was between 3.0 and 4.0 for both the land and aquatic plants.

  8. Long-term stability of earthen materials in contact with acidic tailings solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Erikson, R.L.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-11-01

    The objectives of the studies documented in this report were to use experimental and geochemical computer modeling tools to assess the long-term environmental impact of leachate movement from acidic uranium mill tailings. Liner failure (i.e., an increase in the permeability of the liner material) was not found to be a problem when various acidic tailings solutions leached through liner materials for periods up to 3 years. On the contrary, materials that contained over 30% clay showed a decrease in permeability with time in the laboratory columns. The high clay materials tested appear suitable for lining tailings impoundment ponds. The decreases in permeability are attributed to pore plugging resulting from the precipitation of minerals and solids. This precipitation takes place due to the increase in pH of the tailings solution brought about by the buffering capacity of the soil. Geochemical modeling predicts, and x-ray characterization confirms, that precipitation of solids from solution is occurring in the acidic tailings solution/liner interactions studied. In conclusion the same mineralogical changes and contaminant reactions predicted by geochemical modeling and observed in laboratory studies were found at a drained evaporation pond (Lucky Mc in Wyoming) with a 4 year history of acid attack.

  9. Improved process for the production of cellulose sulfate using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Hongwen

    2013-06-05

    An improved process for production of cellulose sulfate (CS) was developed by using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution as sulfonating agent and Na2SO4 as water absorbent. The FTIR, SEM and TG analysis were used to characterize the CS prepared. The total degree of substitution and viscosity of the product solution (2%, w/v) were ranging from 0.28 to 0.77 and from 115 to 907 mPa s, respectively, by changing the process parameters such as the amount of Na2SO4, the reaction time, the temperature, the sulfuric acid/alcohol ratio and liquid/solid ratio. The results indicated that the product with DS (0.28-0.77) and η2% (115-907) mPa s could be produced by using this improved process and more cellulose sulfate could be produced when cellulose was sulfonated for 3-4 h at -2 °C in sulfuric acid/ethanol (1.4-1.6) solution with addition of 0.8 g Na2SO4. The (13)C NMR indicated that the sulfate group of CS produced using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution was at C6 position.

  10. Assessment of the Effects Exerted by Acid and Alkaline Solutions on Bone: Is Chemistry the Answer?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Camici, Arianna; Porta, Davide; Cucca, Lucia; Merli, Daniele; Milanese, Chiara; Profumo, Antonella; Rassifi, Nabila; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of corpses with extremely acid or basic liquids is sometimes performed in criminal contexts. A thorough characterization by chemical analysis may provide further help to macroscopic and microscopic analysis; 63 porcine bone samples were treated with solutions at different pH (1-14) for immersion periods up to 70 days, as well as in extremely acidic sulfuric acid solutions (9 M/18 M) and extremely basic sodium hydroxide. Inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)/plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that only the sulfuric acid solution 18 M was able to completely dissolve the sample. In addition, chemical analysis allowed to recognize the contact between bone and substances. Hydrated calcium sulfate arose from extreme pH. The possibility of detecting the presence of human material within the residual solution was demonstrated, especially with FT-IR, ICP-OES, and EDX.

  11. PHYSICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ACID ROCK DRAINAGE AT REMOTE SITES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program, Activity III, Project 42, Physical Solutions for Acid Rock Drainage at Remote Sites, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy. A...

  12. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  13. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  14. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  15. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  16. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  17. [Effects of UV Radiation on the Physicochemical Properties and Coagulation Properties of Humic Acid Solution].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-dong; Zhang, Ke; Fan, Qing-hai; Zheng, Dan

    2016-03-15

    To investigate the mechanism of UV light in promoting the removal of humic acid ( HA) by coagulation, the variations of the physical and chemical properties of the HA solution before and after UV light radiation were investigated. The effects of the changes in water quality conditions on the removal performance of HA in coagulation were also observed. Experimental results showed that except zeta potential, pH, chromaticity and viscosity of the HA solution exhibited varying degrees of decline after UV radiation. Further study showed that the impact of changes in viscosity of the solution on humic acid coagulation performance was relatively small. Under acidic conditions, the coagulation performance of HA significantly increased. The increase of zeta potential led to easy gathering of colloidal particles and improved the coagulation performance. Furthermore, except for HA with relative molecular mass of between (10-30) x 10³ and less than 10³, there was little variation in the proportion of low molecular weight HA, which may be an important reason that the coagulation performance of the humic acid solution increased after UV radiation.

  18. IMPROVEMENT UPON THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-23

    A process is reported for improving the removal of plutonlum by carrier precipitation by the addition of nitrite ions to a nitrlc acid solutlon of neutronirradiated unanium so as to destroy any hydrazine that may be present in the solution since the hydrazine tends to complex the tetravalent plutonium and prevents removal by the carrier precipltate, such as bismuth phospbate.

  19. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free-solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid to produce natural superabsorbent gels. The gel properties are defined by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and uptake of water, salt solutions, and aqueous ethanol. Temperatures above 120'C and dry cond...

  20. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  1. New approach in the treatment of refractory vitiligo: CO2 laser combined with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Scabine Pessotti, Nabila; Bonati Mattos, Camila; Salai, Ana Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser (CO2 ) with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution in the treatment of patients with refractory vitiligo in hands. Each hand of the patient was randomly assigned to one of two groups: lesion treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser associated with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution administration or lesion treated only with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution. We conclude that combined treatment with fractional carbon dioxide laser and betamethasone associated with salicylic acid solution could effectively and safely be used in the treatment of refractory vitiligo.

  2. Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

    2008-03-15

    Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

  3. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  4. Lessons from comparative physiology: could uric acid represent a physiologic alarm signal gone awry in western society?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Sautin, Yuri Y; Oliver, William J; Roncal, Carlos; Mu, Wei; Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Benner, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid has historically been viewed as a purine metabolic waste product excreted by the kidney and gut that is relatively unimportant other than its penchant to crystallize in joints to cause the disease gout. In recent years, however, there has been the realization that uric acid is not biologically inert but may have a wide range of actions, including being both a pro- and anti-oxidant, a neurostimulant, and an inducer of inflammation and activator of the innate immune response. In this paper, we present the hypothesis that uric acid has a key role in the foraging response associated with starvation and fasting. We further suggest that there is a complex interplay between fructose, uric acid and vitamin C, with fructose and uric acid stimulating the foraging response and vitamin C countering this response. Finally, we suggest that the mutations in ascorbate synthesis and uricase that characterized early primate evolution were likely in response to the need to stimulate the foraging "survival" response and might have inadvertently had a role in accelerating the development of bipedal locomotion and intellectual development. Unfortunately, due to marked changes in the diet, resulting in dramatic increases in fructose- and purine-rich foods, these identical genotypic changes may be largely responsible for the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in today's society.

  5. An overview of the recovery of acid from spent acidic solutions from steel and electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K K

    2009-11-15

    Every metal and metallurgical industry is associated with the generation of waste, which may be a solid, liquid or gaseous in nature. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable due to their complex and hazardous nature affecting the living and non-living environment which is an alarming issue to the environmentalist. The increasingly stringent regulations regarding the discharge of acid and metal into the environment, and the increasing stress upon the recycling/reuse of these effluents after proper treatment have focused the interest of the research community on the development of new approaches for the recovery of acid and metals from industrial wastes. This paper is a critical review on the acidic waste streams generated from steel and electroplating industries particularly from waste pickle liquor and spent bleed streams. Various aspects on the generation of these streams and the methods used for their treatment either for the recovery of acid for reuse or disposal are being dealt with. Major stress is laid upon the hydrometallurgical methods such as solvent extraction.

  6. Comparative study of the stability of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin in acidic solutions and lyophilized samples.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, A; Louzao, M C; Vieytes, M R; Botana, L M

    1994-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) has historically been a problem for the shellfish industry. In order to prevent the marketing of contaminated seafood products, governments have implemented monitoring programs where standards of toxins are necessary. The stability of these standard toxins is very important. In this paper we analysed the stability of saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin in acidic solution and lyophilized samples. Individual toxins were determined in each sample using a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure employing post-column oxidation of the toxins to form fluorescent derivatives. Our results demonstrate that STX is very stable in solution samples and could be adopted as a reference standard. This toxin can be kept in dilute acidic solutions for 18 months without loss of potency. However, neosaxitoxin is unstable, possibly due to transformation to other toxins.

  7. Corrosion behavior of niobium coated 304 stainless steel in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, J.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    The niobium coating is fabricated on the surface of AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304SS) by using a high energy micro arc alloying technique in order to improvecorrosion resistance of the steel against acidic environments. The electrochemical corrosion resistance of the niobium coating in 0.7 M sulfuric acid solutions is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and the open circuit potential versus time. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the niobium coating increases the free corrosion potential of the substrate by 110 mV and a reduction in the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude compared to the substrate alone. The niobium coating maintains large impedance and effectively offers good protection for the substrate during the long-term exposure tests, which is mainly ascribed to the niobium coating acting inhibiting permeation of corrosive species. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical impedance models are proposed to elucidate the corrosion resistance behavior of the niobium coating in acid solutions.

  8. A fingerprinting mixing model approach to generate uniformly representative solutions for distributed contributions of sediment sources in a Pyrenean drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazón, Leticia; Gaspar, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Blake, Will; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Spanish Pyrenean reservoirs are under pressure from high sediment yields in contributing catchments. Sediment fingerprinting approaches offer potential to quantify the contribution of different sediment sources, evaluate catchment erosion dynamics and develop management plans to tackle the reservoir siltation problems. The drainage basin of the Barasona reservoir (1509 km2), located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, is an alpine-prealpine agroforest basin supplying sediments to the reservoir at an annual rate of around 350 t km-2 with implications for reservoir longevity. The climate is mountain type, wet and cold, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean influences. Steep slopes and the presence of deep and narrow gorges favour rapid runoff and large floods. The ability of geochemical fingerprint properties to discriminate between the sediment sources was investigated by conducting the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (minimization of Wilk's lambda). This standard procedure selects potential fingerprinting properties as optimum composite fingerprint to characterize and discriminate between sediment sources to the reservoir. Then the contribution of each potential sediment source was assessed by applying a Monte Carlo mixing model to obtain source proportions for the Barasona reservoir sediment samples. The Monte Carlo mixing model was written in C programming language and designed to deliver a user-defined number possible solutions. A Combinatorial Principals method was used to identify the most probable solution with associated uncertainty based on source variability. The unique solution for each sample was characterized by the mean value and the standard deviation of the generated solutions and the lower goodness of fit value applied. This method is argued to guarantee a similar set of representative solutions in all unmixing cases based on likelihood of occurrence. Soil samples for the different potential sediment

  9. Protonation of Alcohols in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at UT/LS Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Vernier, K.; Axson, J.; Morley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The protonation of several small alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol) in cold sulfuric acid aqueous solutions was measured using variable temperature 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acidity of the sulfuric acid + deuterium oxide solutions ranged from 43 to 81 weight percent (wt %) H2SO4. The pKBH+ values, which are a measure of the acidity of each alcohol, range from -2.0 for butanol at room temperature to -2.2 for ethanol at -20°C. The protonation enthalpies of the three alcohols over the temperature range of 22°C to -35°C were found to be small and negative, ranging from -1.8 kJ mol-1 for 2-propanol to -2.3 kJ mol-1 for ethanol. A small, negative protonation enthalpy means that the degree of protonation of the alcohol slightly decreases as temperature decreases. The pKBH+values and protonation enthalpies are used to predict the form of dissolved alcohols in sulfate aerosols. For typical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) conditions (40-70 wt % H2SO4 and 220 K), all three alcohols increase from approximately 10% protonated in 40 wt % H2SO4 to over 60% protonated in 70 wt % H2SO4. The percent of protonated alcohol depends more strongly on m*, the slope factor of the excess acidity treatment, than on pKBH+ values. This relationship may reflect solvation effects. The treatment of strongly acidic, non-ideal solutions as applied to organic solutes in sulfate aerosol particles will be discussed.

  10. Corrosion-wear behavior of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in acid and alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li-cai; Qin, Wen; Yang, Jun; Liu, Wei-min; Zhou, Ling-ping

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion-wear behavior of a nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy disc coupled with a Si3N4 ball was investigated in acid (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 9) aqueous solutions. The dry wear was also measured for reference. The average friction coefficient of Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 solution was approximately 0.2, which was lower than those observed for Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 3 solution and in the case of dry wear. The fluctuation of the friction coefficient of samples subjected to the pH 9 solution also showed similar characteristics. The wear rate in the pH 9 solution slightly increased with increasing applied load. The wear rate was approximately one order of magnitude less than that in the pH 3 solution and was far lower than that in the case of dry wear, especially at high applied load. The wear traces of Fe88Si12 alloy under different wear conditions were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the tribo-chemical reactions that involve oxidation of the worn surface and hydrolysis of the Si3N4 ball in the acid solution were restricted in the pH 9 aqueous solution. Thus, water lubrication can effectively improve the wear resistance of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 aqueous solution.

  11. Adsorptions of some heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions by acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Saraydin, D.; Karadag, E.; Gueven, O.

    1995-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide-maleic acid (AAm/MA) hydrogels in the form of rod have been prepared by {gamma}-radiation. They have been used for adsorption of some heavy metal ions such as uranium, iron, and copper. For the hydrogel containing 40 mg of maleic acid and irradiated at 3.73 kGy, maximum and minimum swellings in the aqueous solutions of the heavy metal ions have been observed with water (1480%) and the aqueous solution of iron(III) nitrate (410%), respectively. Diffusions of water and heavy metal ions onto hydrogels have been found to be of the non-Fickian type of diffusion. In experiments of uranyl ions adsorption, Type II adsorption has been found. One gram of AAa/MA hydrogels sorbed 14-86 mg uranyl ions from solutions of uranyl acetate, 14-90 mg uranyl ions from solutions of uranyl nitrate, 16-39 mg iron ions from solutions of iron(IV) nitrate, and 28-81 mg copper ions from solutions of copper acetate, while acrylamide hydrogel did not sorb any heavy metals ions.

  12. Effective Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution by Organic Acid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Liang, Yuyan; Chen, Xuelan; Xu, Wei; Wu, Kesheng; Wei, Hua; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled iron oxide nanocomposites are good magnetic nano-adsorbents that can be prepared using simple methods. Four types of organic acid-functionalised (oleic acid, undecenoic acid, caprylic acid or hexanoic acid) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised through a one-pot chemisorption method for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The undecenoic acid-coated MNPs (UA-MNPs) exhibited the highest adsorption efficiency and can be easily retrieved with a low-gradient magnetic separator (0.4 Tesla) at pH 5.0 aqueous solution. The TC adsorption process on the UA-MNPs followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities increased from 86.96 mg g(-1) to 222.2 mg g(-1) with the increase in temperature from 288 K to 318 K. The kinetics of adsorption fits pseudo-second-order model perfectly with a rate constant, 5.946 g mg(-1) min(-1) at 298 K. The positive values of the enthalpy (AH) and the negative value of the free energy (AG) indicated an endothermic and spontaneous adsorption process of TC on the UA-MNPs. Moreover, the UA-MNPs possessed excellent ability to adsorb the other three major types of TC antibiotics, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline.

  13. Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. I. Theory and an approximate analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Iván, Kristóf; Simon, Péter L; Wittmann, Mária; Noszticzius, Zoltán

    2005-10-22

    Until now acid-base diodes and transistors applied strong mineral acids and bases exclusively. In this work properties of electrolyte diodes with weak electrolytes are studied and compared with those of diodes with strong ones to show the advantages of weak acids and bases in these applications. The theoretical model is a one dimensional piece of gel containing fixed ionizable groups and connecting reservoirs of an acid and a base. The electric current flowing through the gel is measured as a function of the applied voltage. The steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of such a gel looks like that of a diode under these conditions. Results of our theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations are reported in two parts. In this first, theoretical part governing equations necessary to calculate the steady-state CVC of a reverse-biased electrolyte diode are presented together with an approximate analytical solution of this reaction-diffusion-ionic migration problem. The applied approximations are quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium. It is shown that the gel can be divided into an alkaline and an acidic zone separated by a middle weakly acidic region. As a further approximation it is assumed that the ionization of the fixed acidic groups is complete in the alkaline zone and that it is completely suppressed in the acidic one. The general solution given here describes the CVC and the potential and ionic concentration profiles of diodes applying either strong or weak electrolytes. It is proven that previous formulas valid for a strong acid-strong base diode can be regarded as a special case of the more general formulas presented here.

  14. [Efficient killing of anthrax spores using aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid solutions].

    PubMed

    Nattermann, H; Becker, S; Jacob, D; Klee, S R; Schwebke, I; Appel, B

    2005-08-01

    We analysed the sporicidal effect of different concentrations of aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid (PAA) solutions on anthrax spores in suspension and germ carrier tests. In activation of anthrax spores in suspension assays was achieved in less than 2 min using 1% PAA solution and in less than 3 min using 0.5% PAA solution, respectively. In contrast, in germ carrier as says, a test under practical conditions, spores on 38% of the germ carriers survived treatment with 1% PAA solution for 15 min. The use of PAA in 80% ethyl alcohol outclassed the sporicidal effect of aqueous PAA solutions in both suspension and germ carrier assays. Anthrax spores on 14% of germ carriers tested survived 30 min of treatment with a 1% aqueous PAA solution. In contrast anthrax spores were reliably inactivated under the same test procedure using a 1% alcoholic PAA solution for 30 min. The proven enhancement of the sporicidal effect of alcoholic PAA solutions should be kept in mind when using disinfectants in practice. In further surveys we will optimise the test conditions.

  15. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma.

  16. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma. PMID:27183129

  17. Dilute nitric or nitrous acid solution containing halide ions as effective media for pure gold dissolution.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Masashi; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Okamura, Kei

    2015-08-14

    The greatly enhanced oxidation ability of dilute aqueous nitric acid (0.10-2.0 mol L(-1)) containing bromide and iodide salts as well as chloride salts has been examined based on the dissolution kinetics of pure gold at 30-60 °C. It has been found that bromide salts are more effective than chloride salts in gaining the ability of dissolving gold in dilute aqueous nitric acid solution. At 60 °C, a piece of gold-wire (ca. 20 mg) is dissolved in 20 mL of as low as 0.10 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution containing 1.0-5.0 mol L(-1) NaBr and the dissolution rate constant, log(k/s(-1)), increases linearly (from -5.78 to -4.52) with the increasing NaBr concentration. The addition of organic solvents, such as acetonitrile and acetic acid, causes acceleration of gold dissolution in LiBr and NaBr solutions. With increasing MeCN contents, for instance, the log(k/s(-1)) value of 0.10 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution containing 2.0 mol L(-1) NaBr increases linearly from -5.30 to -4.61 at 30% (v/v) MeCN. The bromide salts affect the gold dissolution rate constant in the order of KBr < NaBr < LiBr < CaBr2. With increasing NaI concentration (0.20-3.0 mol L(-1)), some acceleration in log(k/s(-1)) of 0.50 or 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution has been observed; however, the slope of acceleration as the function of NaI concentration is much smaller than that of NaCl or NaBr. The gold dissolution ability has been examined also for nitrous acid containing chloride and bromide ions at 35 °C. The NaNO2 solution containing twice or more amounts of HX (X = Cl, Br) gives the maximum efficiency for gold dissolution, according to the log(k/s(-1)) values of the mixed solutions of NaNO2 (0.10-2.0 mol L(-1)) and HX of various concentrations. The influence of oxidation by dilute nitric and nitrous acids on the gold dissolution is discussed from the standpoint of the redox potentials in "modified" aqueous solutions and not of the changes in the activity coefficients of ions.

  18. Ab initio aqueous thermochemistry: application to the oxidation of hydroxylamine in nitric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Robert W; Raman, Sumathy; Green, William H

    2007-10-18

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed and thermochemical parameters estimated for 46 species involved in the oxidation of hydroxylamine in aqueous nitric acid solution. Solution-phase properties were estimated using the several levels of theory in Gaussian03 and using COSMOtherm. The use of computational chemistry calculations for the estimation of physical properties and constants in solution is addressed. The connection between the pseudochemical potential of Ben-Naim and the traditional standard state-based thermochemistry is shown, and the connection of these ideas to computational chemistry results is established. This theoretical framework provides a basis for the practical use of the solution-phase computational chemistry estimates for real systems, without the implicit assumptions that often hide the nuances of solution-phase thermochemistry. The effect of nonidealities and a method to account for them is also discussed. A method is presented for estimating the solvation enthalpy and entropy for dilute aqueous solutions based on the solvation free energy from the ab initio calculations. The accuracy of the estimated thermochemical parameters was determined through comparison with (i) enthalpies of formation in the gas phase and in solution, (ii) Henry's law data for aqueous solutions, and (iii) various reaction equilibria in aqueous solution. Typical mean absolute deviations (MAD) for the solvation free energy in room-temperature water appear to be ~1.5 kcal/mol for most methods investigated. The MAD for computed enthalpies of formation in solution was 1.5-3 kcal/mol, depending on the methodology employed and the type of species (ion, radical, closed-shell) being computed. This work provides a relatively simple and unambiguous approach that can be used to estimate the thermochemical parameters needed to build detailed ab initio kinetic models of systems in aqueous solution. Technical challenges that limit the accuracy of the estimates are

  19. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Results: Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels (P < 0.05) and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Conclusion: Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel. PMID:28299301

  20. Aquatic photolysis: photolytic redox reactions between goethite and adsorbed organic acids in aqueous solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; Cunningham, K.M.; Weiner, Eugene R.

    1993-01-01

    Photolysis of mono and di-carboxylic acids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the iron oxyhydroxide (goethite) results in an oxidation of the organic material and a reduction from Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the iron complex. There is a subsequent release of Fe2+ ions into solution. At constant light flux and constant solution light absorption, the factors responsible for the degree of photolytic reaction include: the number of lattice sites that are bonded by the organic acid; the rate of acid readsorption to the surface during photolysis; the conformation and structure of the organic acid; the degree of oxidation of the organic acid; the presence or absence of an ??-hydroxy group on the acid, the number of carbons in the di-acid chain and the conformation of the di-acid. The ability to liberate Fe(III) at pH 6.5 from the geothite lattice is described by the lyotropic series: tartrate>citrate> oxalate > glycolate > maleate > succinate > formate > fumarate > malonate > glutarate > benzoate = butanoate = control. Although a larger amount of iron is liberated, the series is almost the same at pH 5.5 except that oxalate > citrate and succinate > maleate. A set of rate equations are given that describe the release of iron from the goethite lattice. It was observed that the pH of the solution increases during photolysis if the solutions are not buffered. There is evidence to suggest the primary mechanism for all these reactions is an electron transfer from the organic ligand to the Fe(III) in the complex. Of all the iron-oxyhydroxide materials, crystalline goethite is the least soluble in water; yet, this study indicates that in an aqueous suspension, iron can be liberated from the goethite lattice. Further, it has been shown that photolysis can occur in a multiphase system at the sediment- water interface which results in an oxidation of the organic species and release of Fe2+ to solution where it becomes available for further reaction. ?? 1993.

  1. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins.

  2. Effect of tritium on corrosion behavior of chromium in 0.01 N sulfuric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Oyaidzu, M.; Isobe, K.; Hayashi, T.

    2015-03-15

    The effects of tritium on the corrosion behavior of chromium in 0.01 N sulfuric solution have been investigated in the present study. Electrochemical experiments have been carried our for pure chromium. At first, the concentration dependence of sulfuric acid solution on anodic polarization behavior of chromium was experimented, resulting in that 0.01 N one was found appropriate. The dependence of both dissolved oxygen and tritium concentration on anodic behavior of chromium were performed. It was found from that the self-passivation of chromium induced by dissolved oxygen was inhibited in tritiated solution resulting in the enhancement of the corrosion. As a consequence it is highly likely that the elution of chromium by highly oxidative radiolysis products would explain the passivation inhibitory effect of SUS304 stainless steel observed in tritiated solutions.

  3. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of ciprofloxacin with amino acids in aqueous solution following solvatochromic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Kamal; Mobarrez, Mahsa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    Complexation of a fluoroquinolone derivative (ciprofloxacin), L, and some amino acids has been studied using spectrofluorimetric method. Results indicated that ciprofloxacin have a greater tendency to form a 1:1 complex with aspartic acid and arginine than the other tested molecules. The fluorescence of ciprofloxacin exhibits quenching process while it has been titrated with these amino acids. Formation constant values (Kf) for complex formed between ciprofloxacin and amino acids were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were studied too. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence were discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting complexes. Besides the solution studies, solvatochromic properties of the ciprofloxacin are discussed by studying its spectra in a selection of different solvents.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, polyphenolic compounds, amino acids and mineral elements of representative genotypes of Lonicera edulis.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Pohanka, Miroslav; Skutkova, Helena; Baron, Mojmir; Tomaskova, Lenka; Balla, Stefan; Klejdus, Borivoj; Pokluda, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri; Trojakova, Zuzana; Saloun, Jan

    2014-05-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis). A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC-UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD) that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity) during one growing season.

  6. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  7. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  8. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  9. The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K. [spectral reflectance measurement of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the IR spectral reflectance at near-normal incidence of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of 75% and 95.6% by weight. Kramers-Kronig analyses of the reflectance data are employed to obtain values of the optical constants n(nu) and k(nu) in the spectral range from 400 to 6000 cm to the -1 power. The optical constants of these solutions at 250 K and 300 K are compared. It is found that in spectral regions remote from strong absorption bands, the values of the n(nu) indices obtained at 250 K agree with the values given by Lorentz-Lorenz correction of the same indices at 300 K. All absorption bands observed at 300 K are found to be present at 250 K with slight shifts in frequency and with significant differences in the k(nu) indices at the band maxima. Based on these results, it is concluded that the clouds of Venus probably consist of droplets of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of about 75% by weight.

  10. Action of combined magnetic fields on aqueous solution of glutamic acid: the further development of investigations.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Livio; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella; D'Emilia, Enrico; Bobkova, Natalia; Zhadin, Mikhail

    2008-01-25

    In the present work the results of the known investigation of the influence of combined static (40 microT) and alternating (amplitude of 40 nT) parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid, were successfully replicated. Fourteen experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed into a Plexiglas reaction vessel at application of static voltage to golden electrodes placed into the solution. Six experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed in a Plexiglas reaction vessel, without electrodes, within an electric field, generated by means of a capacitor at the voltage of 27 mV. The frequency of the alternating field was scanned within the bounds of 1.0 Hz including the cyclotron frequency corresponding to a glutamic acid ion and to the applied static magnetic field. In this study the prominent peaks with half-width of approximately 0.5 Hz and with different heights (till 80 nA) were registered at the alternating magnetic field frequency equal to the cyclotron frequency (4.2 Hz). The general reproducibility of the investigated effects was 70% among the all solutions studied by us and they arose usually after 40-60 min. after preparation of the solution. In some made-up solutions the appearance of instability in the registered current was noted in 30-45 min after the solution preparation. This instability endured for 20-40 min. At the end of such instability period the effects of combined fields action appeared practically every time. The possible mechanisms of revealed effects were discussed on the basis of modern quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

  12. Sorption of As(V) from aqueous solution using acid modified carbon black.

    PubMed

    Borah, Dipu; Satokawa, Shigeo; Kato, Shigeru; Kojima, Toshinori

    2009-03-15

    The sorption performance of a modified carbon black was explored with respect to arsenic removal following batch equilibrium technique. Modification was accomplished by refluxing the commercial carbon black with an acid mixture comprising HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4). Modification resulted in the substantial changes to the inherent properties like surface chemistry and morphology of the commercial carbon black to explore its potential as sorbent. The suspension pH as well as the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the material was found to be highly acidic. The material showed excellent sorption performance for the removal of arsenic from a synthetic aqueous solution. It removed approximately 93% arsenic from a 50mg/L solution at equilibration time. The modified carbon black is capable of removing arsenic in a relatively broad pH range of 3-6, invariably in the acidic region. Both pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics were applied to search for the best fitted kinetic model to the sorption results. The sorption process is best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic. It has also been found that intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step for the initial phases of the reaction. Modelling of the equilibrium data with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms revealed that the correlation coefficient is more satisfactory with the Langmuir model although Freundlich model predicted a good sorption process. The sorption performance has been found to be strongly dependent on the solution pH with a maximum display at pH of 5.0. The temperature has a positive effect on sorption increasing the extent of removal with temperature up to the optimum temperature. The sorption process has been found to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature, and proceeds with the increase in randomness at the solid-solution interface. The spent sorbent was desorbed with various acidic and basic extracting solutions with KOH demonstrating the best result ( approximately 85% desorption).

  13. Aluminum contamination of parenteral nutrition additives, amino acid solutions, and lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Popińska, K; Kierkuś, J; Lyszkowska, M; Socha, J; Pietraszek, E; Kmiotek, W; Ksiazyk, J

    1999-09-01

    Contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions with aluminum may result in accumulation of this element in bones and, in premature infants, may inhibit bone calcium uptake and induce cholestasis. We measured the aluminum concentration of small-volume parenterals, amino acid solutions, lipid emulsions, and special solutions containing glucose, amino acids, electrolytes, and trace elements (standard I for children with a body weight of 3-5 kg, standard II for children with a body weight of 5-10 kg). The method used was graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry GTA-AAS (SpectrAA-400 Plus, Varian, PtY Ltd., Mulgrave, Australia). Quality control was run with the use of control serum (Seronorm, Nycomed, Oslo, Norway). The aluminum contents of parenterally administered solutions were: pediatric trace elements, 130 micrograms/L, and pediatric trace elements, 3000 micrograms/L; phosphorus salts: K-phosphates, 9800 micrograms/L, and Na/K phosphates, 13,000 micrograms/L; 10% calcium gluconate, 4400 micrograms/L; 6.5% amino acids, 30 micrograms/L; 10% amino acids, 120 micrograms/L; 12.5% amino acids, 121 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 30 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 180 micrograms/L; water-soluble vitamins, 12 micrograms/L; lipid soluble vitamins, 360 micrograms/L; standard I, 55 micrograms/L; standard II, 90 micrograms/L; The aluminum intake from parenteral nutrition was 6.6-10.8 micrograms.kg-1.d-1--a dose exceeding the safety limit of 2 micrograms.kg-1.d-1. The possible association of aluminum not only with metabolic bone disease, but also with encephalopathy, dictates caution when dealing with the pediatric population on long-term parenteral nutrition. In the absence of reliable label information, it seems proper to monitor the aluminum concentration in parenteral nutrition products and to report it in professional journals.

  14. [Studies on carbonization of saccharides by using aqueous solution of various acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; He, An-Qi; Kang, Ting-Guo; Xia, Jin-Ming; Weng, Shi-Fu; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2014-09-01

    The authors tried to establish an approach to use acids to convert biomass into a fuel with higher carbon content and lower oxygen content in a zero-energy-consumption fashion. Considering that biomass is composed of monosaccharide, we used aqueous solutions of variation acids including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and perchloric acid to treat 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose at ambient temperature and pressure. Black substances were produced after a period of time when 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose were mixed with aqueous solutions containing 8 mol · L(-1) acids. The black substance was collected and characterized by using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Elemental analysis results indicate that the contents of carbon increases significantly in the black substances in comparison with 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose. Moreover, XPS results indicate that the content of oxygen in the black substance undergoes a significant decrease compared with pure 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose. In the XPS spectra, the is peaks of 2-deoxy-ribose, strong sub peak at 286. 05 eV, which is assigned to carbon linked to oxygen directly, dominate in the C is peak envelop. After treatment by HClO4, the peak decreased dramatically. This result also supports the conclusion that the content of oxygen in mono-saccharide is significantly reduced after treatment by acids. In the FTIR spectra of the black substances, strong peaks can be observed around 1 600 cm(-1), indicating that C==C bond is formed in the product. The above results suggest that treatments with acids may be developed as a new zero-energy-consumption approach to convert biomass in a new fuel with improved energy output efficiency.

  15. Energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.; Jiang, W.; Rahman, B. M. A.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2017-03-01

    A criterion of the energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions is proposed for the first time. The criterion has been derived based on calculating the limit of the ratio value of the conductivity of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air. In other words, the conductivity ratio of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air  = 1, was applied to determine the energy efficiency of the metallic glass in the aqueous solution when the conductivity of a metallic glass in air became equal (decreased) to the steady conductivity of the metallic glass in aqueous solution as a function of time of the exposure of the metallic glass to the aqueous solution. This criterion was not only used to determine the energy efficiency of different metallic glasses, but also, the criterion was used to determine the energy efficiency of metallic glasses exposed to a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. These conductivity values were determined by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, the criterion can be applied under diverse test conditions with a predetermined period of the operational life of the metallic glasses as functional materials. Furthermore, variations of the energy efficiency of the metallic glasses as a function of the acid concentration and time were produced by fitting the experimental data to a numerical model using a nonlinear regression method. The profiles of the metallic glasses exhibit a less conservative behavior of the energy efficiency than the proposed analytical criterion.

  16. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  17. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  18. Investigations on the mechanism of superlubricity achieved with phosphoric acid solution by direct observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinjin; Ma, Liran; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Chenhui; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the contact region between a Si3N4 ball and a SiO2 plate with the lubrication of phosphoric acid solution is observed directly by an optical microscope combined with a Raman microscope to understand the superlubricity mechanism. It is found that the wear on the friction surfaces mainly occurs at the beginning of the test and nearly disappears after the friction coefficient reduces to 0.05. When the superlubricity appears (μ = 0.004), there is only a limited amount of solution available to the contact (forming starvation state), resulting in an "H" distribution surrounding the contact region. Moreover, it is observed that the hydrogen bond effect in the solution is enhanced with time going by, and finally a thin film with hydrogen bond network among H3PO4, H2PO4-, and H2O is formed on the friction surfaces, leading to the superlubricity. By employing this direct observation approach, the structure of the confined solution and the superlubricity mechanism of phosphoric acid solution are finally investigated and discussed.

  19. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  20. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  1. Degradation of hydroxycinnamic acid mixtures in aqueous sucrose solutions by the Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Danny M T; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    The degradation efficiencies and behaviors of caffeic acid (CaA), p-coumaric acid (pCoA), and ferulic acid (FeA) in aqueous sucrose solutions containing the mixture of these hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were studied by the Fenton oxidation process. Central composite design and multiresponse surface methodology were used to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of process parameters. Four quadratic polynomial models were developed for the degradation of each individual acid in the mixture and the total HCAs degraded. Sucrose was the most influential parameter that significantly affected the total amount of HCA degraded. Under the conditions studied there was a <0.01% loss of sucrose in all reactions. The optimal values of the process parameters for a 200 mg/L HCA mixture in water (pH 4.73, 25.15 °C) and sucrose solution (13 mass %, pH 5.39, 35.98 °C) were 77% and 57%, respectively. Regression analysis showed goodness of fit between the experimental results and the predicted values. The degradation behavior of CaA differed from those of pCoA and FeA, where further CaA degradation is observed at increasing sucrose and decreasing solution pH. The differences (established using UV/vis and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) were because, unlike the other acids, CaA formed a complex with Fe(III) or with Fe(III) hydrogen-bonded to sucrose and coprecipitated with lepidocrocite, an iron oxyhydroxide.

  2. Sorption of acidic organic solute onto kaolinitic soils from methanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Kim, Minhee; Hyun, Seunghun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-01-01

    The fate of the acidic organic solute from the soil-water-solvent system is not well-understood. In this study, the effect of the acidic functional group of organic solute in the sorption from cosolvent system was evaluated. The sorption of naphthalene (NAP) and 1-naphthoic acid (1-NAPA) by three kaolinitic soils and two model sorbents (kaolinite and humic acid) were measured as functions of the methanol volume fractions (f (c) ≤ 0.4) and ionic compositions (CaCl(2) and KCl). The solubility of 1-NAPA was also measured in various ionic compositions. The sorption data were interpreted using the cosolvency-induced sorption model. The K (m) values (= the linear sorption coefficient) of NAP with kaolinitic soil for both ionic compositions was log linearly decreased with f (c). However, the K (m) values of 1-NAPA with both ionic compositions remained relatively constant over the f (c) range. For the model sorbent, the K (m) values of 1-NAPA with kaolinite for the KCl system and with humic acid for both ionic compositions decreased with f (c), while the sorption of 1-NAPA with kaolinite for the CaCl(2) system was increased with f (c). From the solubility data of 1-NAPA with f (c), no significant difference was observed with the different ionic compositions, indicating an insignificant change in the aqueous activity of the liquid phase. In conclusion, the enhanced 1-NAPA sorption, greater than that predicted from the cosolvency-induced model, was due to an untraceable interaction between the carboxylate and hydrophilic soil domain in the methanol-water system. Therefore, in order to accurately predict the environmental fate of acidic pesticides and organic solutes, an effort to quantitatively incorporate the enhanced hydrophilic sorption into the current cosolvency-induced sorption model is required.

  3. Kinetics of the extraction of succinic acid with tri-n-octylamine in 1-octanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young-Si; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2005-01-01

    Kinetic studies for the extraction of succinic acid from aqueous solution with 1-octanol solutions of tri-n-octylamine (TOA) were carried out using a stirred cell with a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The interfacial concentrations of species were correlated and thus the intrinsic kinetics was obtained. The overall extraction process was controlled by the chemical reaction at or near the interface between the aqueous and organic phases. The formation reaction of succinic acid-TOA complex was found to be first order with respect to the concentration of succinic acid in the aqueous phase and the order of 0.5 with respect to that of TOA in the organic phase with a rate constant of (3.14 +/- 0.6) x 10(-8) m(2.5) x mol(-0.5) x s(-1). The dissociation reaction of succinic acid-TOA complex was found to be the second-order with respect to that of succinic acid-TOA complex in the organic phase and the order of -2 with respect to that of TOA in the organic phase with a rate constant of (1.44 +/- 1.4) x 10(-4) mol x m(-2) x s(-1).

  4. Reaction of methanol with chlorate ions in acid solution containing Hg{sup +2} by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, W.R.; Indu, B.; Crump, B.; Gelbaum, L.T.

    1996-05-01

    The reaction rate of methanol was measured in solutions of sodium chlorate and sulfuric acid at several levels of temperature and concentration, in the presence of mercuric nitrate. The progress of the reaction was monitored by proton NMR signals corresponding to methanol and formic acid. Chlorine dioxide formation was suppressed by adding mercuric nitrate, which was shown earlier to catalyze the disproportionation of the intermediate species, chlorous acid, and sequester chloride ions. The reaction is first order in methanol and chlorate concentration and in the Hammett acidity function. The reaction of formic acid, sodium chlorate and sulfuric acid was also studied using the same technique. Formic acid was stable and did not react with chlorate at a measurable rate, even at concentrations and temperatures of a commercial process. This study related to commercial processes that produce chlorine dioxide by reducing chlorate ions with methanol. Chlorine dioxide is an oxidizing chemical that is used in water purification and is replacing chlorine in many chemical bleaching processes because of environmental concerns.

  5. Three-dimensional patterns from the thin-film drying of amino acid solutions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehua; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the dried-in patterns from amino acid solutions which can be in the form of dots or networks. The three-dimensional lattice-gas Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model is applied to simulate the formation of dot-like and network-like particle structures from the evaporating thin films of solutions. A sigmoidal jump in the chemical potential value is implemented to obtain dual-scale structures with the grain size distribution peaking at two distinctive values. The simulated and experimental results are qualitatively comparable. PMID:26039636

  6. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  7. Spectral and Acid-Base Properties of Hydroxyflavones in Micellar Solutions of Cationic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Rugal', A. A.

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that the spectral characteristics (intensity, position of the absorption band) and the acid-base properties in a series of structurally similar hydroxyflavones depend on the concentration of the cationic surfactants miramistin and decamethoxin in aqueous solutions, and the extent of their changes is more pronounced for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. For the first time, we have determined the apparent dissociation constants of quercetin and rutin in solutions of these cationic surfactants (pKa1) over a broad concentration range and we have established that they decrease in the series water-decamethoxin-miramistin.

  8. The effect of high-energy radiation on aqueous solution of Acid Red 1 textile dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földváry, Cs. M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of high-energy radiation on Acid Red 1 (AR1) azo-dye solution was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. Doses in the order of 10 kGy cause complete decolouration of the 10 -3-10 -4 mol dm -3 solutions; however, for complete mineralization doses higher by 1-2 order of magnitude are needed. Hydrated electrons and H rad atom are more effective in fading reaction, while the rad OH radicals have higher efficiency in mineralization. The HO 2•/O 2•- radical-radical anion pair is rather inefficient in fading reaction.

  9. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-01

    A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  10. Corrosion resistance of Ti-Ta-Zr coatings in the Boiling Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, I. A.; Lenivtseva, O. G.; Samoylenko, V. V.; Colkovski, M. G.; Ivanchik, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study corrosion resistance of Ti-Ta-Zr coatings fabricated on VT14 titanium alloy workpieces using a high-energy electron beam injected in the atmosphere was investigated. Estimation of corrosion resistance of surface alloyed layers was carried out by the weight-change method. Boiling solution of 65 % nitric acid in water and 5 % of sulfuric acid in water were used as the corrosive environments. Investigation of samples after corrosion tests was carried out using a Carl Zeiss EVO 50 XVP scanning electron microscope.

  11. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bartsch, Richard A.; Barrans, Jr., Richard E.; Rausch, David

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  12. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  13. Electro-oxidation of methanol on Pt(111) in acid solutions: effects of electrolyte anions during electrocatalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Ito, Masatoki

    1995-10-01

    The electro-oxidation of methanol on a Pt(111) surface in both sulfuric and perchloric acid solutions was investigated by combined apparatus under both ultra-high vacuum and electrochemical environments. In sulfuric acid solution, a strong lateral interaction was observed between adsorbed bisulfate and CO derived from methanol. Coadsorption of CO derived from methanol with bisulfate ion yielded a (√7 × √7)-R19.1°-CO-bisulfate structure. In perchloric acid solution, however, no lateral interaction between adsorbed CO and perchlorate was seen. The difference in reaction rates of methanol oxidation in both solutions was explained by these specific anion adsorption effects.

  14. Comparison of dissolution and surface reactions between calcite and aragonite in L-glutamic and L-aspartic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Miyoung; Kim, Hwan; Lim, Mihee; You, Kwangsuk; Ahn, Jiwhan

    2010-01-11

    We have investigated dissolution and surface reaction of calcite and aragonite in amino acid solutions of L-glutamic (L-glu) and L-aspartic acid (L-asp) at weak acidity of above pH 3. The surface reactions of calcite and aragonite were related with the dissolution. Calcite was dissolved in both solutions but the dissolution was limited by an adsorption of Ca-carboxylate salt. Aragonite was neither dissolved nor reacted in amino acid solutions because the crystal surface consisted of a hard to dissolve structure.

  15. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  16. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  17. Enhanced removal of Hg(II) from acidic aqueous solution using thiol-functionalized biomass.

    PubMed

    Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Qingzhu; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Yunyan

    2010-01-01

    Spent grain, the low-cost and abundant biomass produced in the brewing industry, was functionalized with thiol groups to be used as an adsorbent for Hg(II) removal from acidic aqueous solution. The adsorbents were characterized by the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption onto the thiol-functionalized spent grain (TFSG) was 2.0. The equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG from acidic aqueous solution were investigated. From the Langmuir isotherm model the maximum adsorption capacity of TFSG for Hg(II) was found to be 221.73 mg g(-1), which was higher than that of most various adsorbents reported in literature. Moreover, the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  18. Competitive adsorption of boric acid and chromate onto alumina in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, A; Pashalidis, I

    2014-01-01

    The competitive adsorption of boric acid and chromate from aqueous solutions by alumina has been investigated by spectrophotometry at pH 8, ionic strength = 0.0, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaClO4, T = 22 ± 3 °C and under normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental data show that addition of excess boric acid in the system leads to the increase of Cr(VI) concentration in solution, indicating the replacement of adsorbed chromate by boron on the alumina surface. Data evaluation results in the determination of the competition reaction constant and the formation constant of the Cr(VI) surface complexes, which are logKCr(VI)-B(III) = -3.5 ± 0.2 and logβ*Cr = 7.6 ± 0.3, respectively.

  19. Mechanistic study of fulvic acid assisted propranolol photodegradation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Makunina, Maria P; Pozdnyakov, Ivan P; Chen, Yong; Grivin, Vyacheslav P; Bazhin, Nikolay M; Plyusnin, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    Laser flash (355 nm) and stationary (365 nm) photolysis were used to study the mechanisms of propranolol photolysis in the presence of fulvic acid in aqueous solutions. The FA-assisted photodegradation of propranolol was observed using UV-A irradiation (where propranolol is stable). Direct evidence indicated that the photodegradation resulted from the static quenching of the FA triplet state by propranolol via the electron transfer mechanism. The triplet state yield (ϕT≈0.6%) and the T-T absorption coefficient (ɛT(620 nm)≈5×10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) were estimated for the first time by modeling the yields of the FA triplet state in the presence of propranolol. Thus, fulvic acid is a promising agent for accelerating propranolol photodegradation in aqueous solutions under UV-A light irradiation.

  20. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. On the Temperature Dependence of the Formation Constant of Thiocyanatopentaaquochromium (III) in Acidic Solution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    constants for metal ion complexes Bflandamer’s method Chromium (III) complexes Heat capacity of activation Equilibrium and kinetics of reactions in solution...20 ABSTRACT (Continue on reveree aide if neceetary and Identify by block number) The equilibrium constants for the ionization of carboxylic acids in...water pass through a maximum as temperature changes. If the equilibrium constant repre- sents a one-step process, then the attendant thermodynamic

  2. Removal of transition metals from dilute aqueous solution by carboxylic acid group containing absorbent polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new carboxylic acid group containing resin with cation exchange capacity, 12.67 meq/g has been used to remove Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from dilute aqueous solution. The resin has Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ removal capacity, 216 mg/g, 154 mg/g and 180 mg/g, respectively. The selectivity of the resin to ...

  3. Application of hydroalcoholic solutions of formaldehyde in preparation of acetylsalicylic acid gastro-resistant capsules.

    PubMed

    Pina, M E; Sousa, A T

    2002-04-01

    Enteric coating of hard gelatin capsules by application of hydroalcoholic solutions of formaldehyde was studied and developed in accordance with previous publications. It is possible to affirm that this coating constitutes a simple, stable, reproducible, and inexpensive method, being a valid alternative to those which have been proposed. The aim of the present investigation is the preparation of acetylsalicylic acid gelatin capsules with good conditions of gastro-resistance and enteros solubility.

  4. Aromatic ionene topology and counterion-tuned gelation of acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Bachl, Jürgen; Bertran, Oscar; Mayr, Judith; Alemán, Carlos; Díaz Díaz, David

    2017-04-04

    Unusual gelation of acidic solutions was achieved using polycations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties. These ionene polymers are based on a disubstituted phenylene dibenzamide core, which allows the construction of different topomers (i.e. ortho-1, meta-2 and para-3). The topology of the polymers was found to play a key role on their aggregation behaviour both in pure water and in a variety of aqueous acidic solutions leading to the formation of stable acidic gels. Specifically, ortho-1 showed superior gelation ability than the analogues meta-2 and para-3 in numerous solutions of different pH and ionic strengths. Lower critical gelation concentrations, higher gel-to-sol transition temperatures and faster gelation were usually observed for ortho-1 regardless the solvent system. Detailed computational molecular dynamic simulations revealed a major role of the counterion (Cl(-)) and specific polymerpolymer interactions. In particular, hydrogen bonds, N-Hπ interactions and intramolecular π-π stacking networks are distinctive in ortho-1. In addition, counterions located at internal hydration regions also affect to such polymerpolymer interactions, acting as binders and, therefore, providing additional stability.

  5. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  6. Fluorescent carboxylic and phosphonic acids: comparative photophysics from solution to organic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Faucon, Adrien; Lenk, Romaric; Hémez, Julie; Gautron, Eric; Jacquemin, Denis; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Graton, Jérôme; Brosseau, Arnaud; Ishow, Eléna

    2013-08-14

    Phosphonic and carboxylic fluorescent nanoparticles have been fabricated by direct reprecipitation in water. Their fluorescence properties strongly differ from those of the corresponding esters where strong H-bonding formation is prohibited. Comparative experiments between the two acid derivatives, differing only in their acid functions while keeping the same alkyl chain, have evidenced the peculiar behavior of the phosphonic acid derivative compared to its carboxylic analog. A dramatic emission quenching for the phosphonic acid in aprotic toluene could be observed while a fivefold increase in the fluorescence signal was observed for molecules assembled as nanoparticles. Such properties have been attributed on the theoretical basis to the formation of folded conformers in solution, leading to deactivation of the radiative excited state through intramolecular H-bonding. These studies evidence for the first time through time-resolved fluorescence measurements the stronger H-donating character of phosphonic acids compared to the carboxylic ones, and provide information on the degree of structural heterogeneity within the nanoparticles. They should pave the way for the rational fabrication of chelating acid fluorophores, able to complex metal oxides to yield stiff hybrid magnetofluorescent nanoparticles which are attracting considerable attention in the growing fields of bimodal imaging and vectorization applications.

  7. Uptake of methacrolein into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Wu, Ling-Yan; Wang, Tian-He; Ge, Mao-Fa; Wang, Wei-Gang

    2012-01-12

    Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products, but the kinetics and chemical mechanism remain largely uncertain. Here we report the first measurement of uptake of methacrolein into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide in the temperature range of 253-293 K. The steady-state uptake coefficients were acquired and increased quickly with increasing sulfuric acid concentration and decreasing temperature. Propyne, acetone, and 2,3-dihydroxymethacrylic acid were suggested as the products. The chemical mechanism is proposed to be the oxidation of carbonyl group and C═C double bonds by peroxide hydrogen in acidic environment, which could explain the large content of polyhydroxyl compounds in atmospheric fine particles. These results indicate that multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation of methacrolein by hydrogen peroxide can contribute to SOA mass in the atmosphere, especially in the upper troposphere.

  8. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution.

  9. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  10. Dose rate dependence of the speciation of neptunium in irradiated solutions of nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Precek, M.; Paulenova, A.; Mincher, B.J.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of radiation on the redox speciation of neptunium are of interest due to their impact on the performance of separation of neptunium from highly radioactive solutions of dissolved used nuclear fuel. In this study, the influence of dose rate change from 0.4 kGy/h to 6 kGy/h was examined during irradiation of solutions of initially hexavalent 2.0-2.5 mM neptunium in nitric acid of two different concentrations (0.5 and 1 M). Results indicate that the immediate radiolytic steady-state concentration of neptunium(V) were depressed and its initial radiolytic yield was up to 2-times lower (in 1 M HNO{sub 3} solutions)during irradiations with the higher dose rate. The finding is explained on the basis of the enhancement of the role of oxidizing radicals during the radiolytic process. (authors)

  11. Acid-catalysed autoreduction of ferrylmyoblobin in aqueous solution studied by freeze quenching and ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kröger-Ohlsen, M V; Andersen, M L; Skibsted, L H

    1999-04-01

    Decay of the hypervalent muscle pigment ferrylmyoglobin, formed by activation of metmyoglobin by hydrogen peroxide, was found, when studied by a combination of ESR and UV/VIS spectroscopy in aqueous solution at physiological pH, to proceed by parallel second- and first-order kinetics. At pH below 6.5 a sharp ESR signal (g = 2.003) with an increasing intensity for decreasing pH were observed in solutions frozen in liquid nitrogen, and a broad signal (g = 2.005) was seen throughout the studied pH range also in frozen solutions. The g = 2.005 signal is suggested to arise from an intermediate formed in an intramolecular rate-determining electron-transfer in ferrylmyoglobin, whereas the g 2.003 signal is caused by a radical formed in a proton-assisted electron-transfer initiating the specific acid-catalysed autoreduction.

  12. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  13. Influence of D-Penicillamine on the Viscosity of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy E.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2006-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan) is an important component in synovial fluid. Its presence results in highly viscoelastic solutions with excellent lubricating and shock-absorbing properties. In comparison to healthy synovial fluid, diseased fluid has a reduced viscosity. In osteoarthritis this reduction in viscosity results from a decline in both the molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronic acid HA. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine affects the rheology of bovine synovial fluid, a model synovial fluid solution, and its components, including HA. In order to understand how D-penicillamine modifies the viscosity of these solutions, the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with D-penicillamine were studied as function of time, D-penicillamine concentration (0 -- 0.01 M), and storage conditions. Penicillamine has a complex, time dependent effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions---reducing the zero shear rate viscosity of a 3 mg/mL NaHA in PBS by ca. 40% after 44 days.

  14. Properties of alkali-solubilized collagen solution crosslinked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihui; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2011-03-01

    The effect of N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) on the properties of alkali-solubilized collagen solutions was examined. The residual amino group content in crosslinked collagen, determined by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, was decreased with increasing NHS-AA concentration. The results from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the maximum denaturation temperature ( T d) of crosslinked collagen solution was about 4.2°C higher than that of un-crosslinked collagen solution (36.6°C). Moreover, the values of storage modulus ( G'), loss modulus ( G″) and complex viscosity ( η*), obtained by means of dynamic frequency sweeps, were increased as NHS-AA concentration added up to 1.5 mM, and then decreased slightly when further increased NHS-AA concentration. Besides, for collagen solution crosslinked with 1.5 mM NHS-AA, dynamic denaturation temperature ( T dd) was about 1.1°C lower than T d (40.8°C), and the Arrhenius-type time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was applied to yield the activation energy to be 474.4 kJmol-1.

  15. EXAFS study of the speciation of protactinium(V) in aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Stéphanie M; Wilson, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The speciation of protactinium(V) in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on an aqueous solution of 0.05 M protactinium(V) with various HF concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 27 M in order to probe the protactinium coordination sphere with respect to the identity and number of coordinating ligands. The resulting fits to the spectra suggest the presence of an eight-coordinate homoleptic fluoro complex in highly concentrated fluoride solutions (27 M), with equilibrium between seven- and eight-coordinate fluoro complexes at moderate acidities, and in more dilute solutions, results indicate that one water molecule is likely to replace a fluoride in the first coordination sphere, at a distance of 2.54-2.57 Å. Comparisons of this chemistry with group V metals, niobium and tantalum, are presented, and the potential implications for these results on the hydrolytic behavior of protactinium in aqueous systems are discussed.

  16. Representing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Handbooks denote representative authority, which gives their content normative value and through which editors and authors can emphasize certain views and orientations within a field. The representative authority of a handbook is reinforced in various ways, both obvious and subtle. The "SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" is no exception…

  17. The influence of tributyl phosphate on molybdenum extraction with solutions of dibutyl phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goletskiy, N. D.; Zilberman, B. Ya.; Fedorov, Yu. S.; Khonina, I. V.; Kukharev, D. N.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out to study the influence of TBP on Mo extraction by HDBP solutions in xylene and TBP in xylene. The dependences of DMo on HNO3 concentration for both HDBP and D2EHPA have minima at about 3 mol/L HNO3. This shows similar extraction properties of HDBP and D2EHPA. The presence of TBP in the solvent results in the reduction of Mo extraction and in an increase in the formal slopes of the falling and rising parts of the logDMo — log[HNO3] curve from -0.5 and +2 up to -2 and +4. Solvent loading curves with Mo show that in the absence of TBP a molybdenum solvate with two molecules of HDBP is formed at low acidity. Anomalous increase in the maximum solvent loading in the presence of TBP is caused by the ability of TBP to extract Mo from oversaturated low acidity solutions following the acidic mechanism. A molybdenum solvate with two HDBP molecules and one HNO3 molecule is possibly formed at high acidity. A flowsheet for Mo recovery from HLW with HDBP-TBP solvent was tested in centrifugal contactors.

  18. White Paper on Potential Hazards Associated with Contaminated Cheesecloth Exposed to Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, Philip A.

    2016-09-20

    This white paper addresses the potential hazards associated with waste cheesecloth that has been exposed to nitric acid solutions. This issue was highlighted by the cleanup of a 100 ml leak of aqueous nitric acid solution containing Heat Source (HS) plutonium on 21 June 2016. Nitration of cellulosic material is a well-understood process due to industrial/military applications of the resulting material. Within the Department of Energy complex, nitric acids have been used extensively, as have cellulosic wipes. If cellulosic materials are nitrated, the cellulosic material can become ignitable and in extreme cases, reactive. We have chemistry knowledge and operating experience to support the conclusion that all current wastes are safe and compliant. There are technical questions worthy of further experimental evaluation. An extent of condition evaluation has been conducted back to 2004. During this time period there have been interruptions in the authorization to use cellulosic wipes in PF-4. Limited use has been authorized since 2007 (for purposes other than spill cleanup), so our extent of condition includes the entire current span of use. Our evaluation shows that there is no indication that process spills involving high molarity nitric acid were cleaned up with cheesecloth since 2007. The materials generated in the 21 June leak will be managed in a safe manner compliant with all applicable requirements.

  19. [Adsorption of acid orange II from aqueous solution onto modified peat-resin particles].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Ye; Yang, Lin-Zhang

    2007-06-01

    The adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles was examined in aqueous solution in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic and the intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The results showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models could be used to describe the adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was 71.43 mg x g(-1). The data analysis indicated that the intraparticle diffusion model could fit the results of kinetic experiment well. The adsorption rate of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles is affected by the initial dye concentrations, sizes and doses of modified peat-resin particles and agitation rates. The surface of modified peat-resin particle is the major adsorption area.

  20. Thermosensitivity of bile acid-based oligo(ethylene glycol) stars in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Strandman, Satu; Le Dévédec, Frantz; Zhu, X X

    2011-08-03

    Amphiphilic star-shaped oligo(ethylene glycol)s with a hydrophobic bile acid core and varying number of hydrophilic arms have been made. Their thermal behavior in aqueous solutions depends on the number rather than the length of the arms. The two-armed lithocholate derivative showed the strongest tendency for association and exhibited the lowest cloud point (79 °C) of the oligomers made, as well as another phase separation at a lower temperature (31 °C). The "double thermosensitivity" arising both from the salt-dependent LCST of the oligo(ethylene glycol) segments and the temperature-responsive self-assembly of amphiphilic bile acid derivative provides an interesting path in the design of bile acid-based smart materials.

  1. Increased intake of water and NaCl solutions in omega-3 fatty acid deficient monkeys.

    PubMed

    Reisbick, S; Neuringer, M; Connor, W E; Iliff-Sizemore, S

    1991-06-01

    We previously reported that long-term omega-3 fatty acid deficiency is associated with increased water intake in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether the increase was specific to water, intakes of salt solutions were measured in 15-minute single-bottle tests. Deficient monkeys drank at least twice as much of all NaCl concentrations as controls. Overall intake decreased as salt concentration increased. In 2-bottle preference tests, deficient monkeys again drank more total fluid but neither preferred nor avoided normal saline compared to controls. When deprived of water, deficient monkeys concentrated urine as well as controls, demonstrating that the increased intake was not a result of renal failure or diabetes insipidus. Omega-3 fatty acids have roles both in neural membrane function and in metabolism of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may affect drinking through changes in one or both of these functions.

  2. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  3. Light scattering study of partially ionized poly(acrylic acid) systems : comparison between gels and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, A.; Munch, J. P.; Schosseler, F.; Candau, S. J.

    1991-06-01

    Static and quasielastic light scattering experiments have been performed on the reaction bath of partially neutralized poly(acrylic acid) solutions and gels. The intensity scattered from gels is independent on the scattering wavevector, giving thus evidence that the gels are homogeneous at the scale of the wavelength of the light, contrary to what is generally observed in neutral gels. The comparison of the time and ensemble averages of the autocorrelation function of scattered light intensity shows that the gels behave with respect to that experiment as ergodic media. The variations of the intensity scattered from gels and solutions, with the ionization degree and the polymer concentration were found to be in good agreement with those predicted from simple theoretical arguments. The variations of the cooperative diffusion with these same parameters were found similar for gels and solutions. Des mesures de diffusion statique et quasiélastique de la lumière ont été effectuées sur des solutions et des gels d'acide poly(acrylique) partiellement ionisés. L'intensité diffusée par les gels est indépendante du vecteur d'onde de transfert, ce qui montre leur homogénéité, contrairement au cas des gels neutres. La comparaison des moyennes temporelle et spatiale de la fonction d'autocorrélation de l'intensité de la lumière diffusée montre que ces gels se comportent comme des milieux ergodiques. Les variations de l'intensité diffusée par les gels et les solutions en fonction de la concentration en polymère et du degré d'ionisation sont en bon accord avec les prédictions théoriques. Les variations du coefficient de diffusion avec ces mêmes paramètres sont identiques pour les gels et les solutions.

  4. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  5. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  6. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-06

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  7. Rate Constants for Peroxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Sterols in Solution and in Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Libin; Davis, Todd A.; Porter, Ned A.

    2013-01-01

    Rate constants for autoxidation propagation of several unsaturated lipids in benzene solution at 37°C and in phosphatidylcholine liposomes were determined by a linoleate radical clock. This radical clock is based on competition between hydrogen atom abstraction by an intermediate peroxyl radical derived from linoleic acid that leads to a trans,cis-conjugated hydroxyoctadecadienoic product and β–fragmentation of the same peroxyl that gives the trans,trans-product hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Rate constants determined by this approach in solution relative to linoleic acid (kp = 62 M−1s−1) were: arachidonic acid (kp = 197 ± 13 M−1s−1), eicosapentaenoic acid (kp = 249 ± 16 M−1s−1), docosahexaenoic acid (kp = 334 ± 37 M−1s−1), cholesterol (kp = 11 ± 2 M−1s−1), and 7-dehydrocholesterol (kp = 2,260 ± 40 M−1s−1). Free radical oxidations of multilamellar and unilamellar liposomes of various mixtures of glycerophosphatidylcholine molecular species were also carried out. In some experiments, cholesterol or 7-dehydrocholesterol was incorporated into the lipid mixture undergoing oxidation. A phosphatidylcholine bearing a linoleate ester at sn-2 was a component of each liposome peroxidation reaction and the ratio of trans,cis/trans,trans (t,c/t,t)-conjugated diene oxidation products formed from this phospholipid was determined for each oxidation reaction. This t,c/t,t-product ratio from linoleate was used to “clock” liposome constituents as hydrogen atom donors in the lipid bilayer. Application of this lipid bilayer radical clock gives relative autoxidation propagation rate constants of arachidonate (20:4), eicosapentaenoate (20:5), docosahexaenoate (22:6), and 7-dehydrocholesterol to be 115 ± 7, 145 ± 8, 172 ± 13, and 832 ± 86, respectively, a reactivity trend that parallels the one in solution. We also conclude from the liposome oxidations that linoleate peroxyl radicals at different positions on the eighteen-carbon chain (at C-9 and C

  8. Complexation of U(VI) with 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonicAcid (HEDPA) in Acidic to Basic Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W A; Rao, L; Zanonato, P; Garnov, A; Powell, B A; Nash, K L

    2007-01-24

    Complexation of U(VI) with 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in acidic to basic solutions has been studied with multiple techniques. A number of 1:1 (UO{sub 2}H{sub 3}L), 1:2 (UO{sub 2}H{sub j}L{sub 2} where j = 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 and -1) and 2:2 ((UO{sub 2}){sub 2}H{sub j}L{sub 2} where j = 1, 0 and -1) complexes form, but the 1:2 complexes are the major species in a wide pH range. Thermodynamic parameters (formation constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation) were determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. Data indicate that the complexation of U(VI) with HEDPA is exothermic, favored by the enthalpy of complexation. This is in contrast to the complexation of U(VI) with dicarboxylic acids in which the enthalpy term usually is unfavorable. Results from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and {sup 31}P NMR have confirmed the presence of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:2 U(VI)-HEDPA complexes.

  9. Effect of Organic Acid Additions on the General and Localized Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Ilevbare, G O; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-28

    Electrochemical studies such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 (N06022) in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. All the tested material was wrought Mill Annealed (MA). Tests were also performed in NaCl solutions containing weak organic acids such as oxalic, acetic, citric and picric. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was significantly higher in solutions containing oxalic acid than in solutions of pure NaCl at the same pH. Citric and picric acids showed a slightly higher corrosion rate, and acetic acid maintained the corrosion rate of pure chloride solutions at the same pH. Organic acids revealed to be weak inhibitors for crevice corrosion. Higher concentration ratios, compared to nitrate ions, were needed to completely inhibit crevice corrosion in chloride solutions. Results are discussed considering acid dissociation constants, buffer capacity and complex formation constants of the different weak acids.

  10. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  11. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination.

  12. Effect of sodium metabisulfite on hydrogen peroxide production in light-exposed pediatric parenteral amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1998-06-15

    The effect of sodium metabisulfite (MBS) on hydrogen peroxide (HP) production in model and commercial amino acid solutions exposed to phototherapy light was studied. Model and commercial pediatric amino acid solutions were prepared such that the amino acid concentration was 1%. MBS concentration, riboflavin concentration, and duration of exposure to phototherapy light were varied to determine the effect on HP production. Control solutions were kept in the dark. HP production was assayed in the model amino acid solutions by using potassium iodide in the presence of ammonium molybdate. In all experiments, HP production was measured at 360 nm in the presence and absence of catalase. In light-exposed solutions, HP production increased linearly for several hours and reached a plateau by eight hours. A mean maximum of 940 microM was produced (data pooled for all solutions). No detectable HP was generated in the solutions kept in the dark. After two hours of light exposure, it was necessary to add at least 10 times more MBS than is typically found in commercial total parenteral nutrient solutions to scavenge all the HP produced. An average of up to 940 microM of HP was produced in model and commercial pediatric parenteral 1% amino acid solutions in the presence of phototherapy light and clinically relevant concentrations of riboflavin and MBS. Light exposure decreased the antioxidant effect of MBS.

  13. Simultaneous determination of nitric acid and uranium concentrations in aqueous solution from measurements of electrical conductivity, density, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants handle aqueous solutions of nitric acid and uranium in large quantities. Automatic control of process operations requires reliable measurements of these solutes concentration, but this is difficult to directly measure. Physical properties such as solution density and electrical conductivity vary with solute concentration and temperature. Conductivity, density and temperature can be measured accurately with relatively simple and inexpensive devices. These properties can be used to determine solute concentrations will good correlations. This paper provides the appropriate correlations for solutions containing 2 to 6 Molar (M) nitric acid and 0 to 300 g/L uranium metal at temperatures from 25--90{degrees}C. The equations are most accurate below 5 M nitric acid, due to a broad maximum in the conductivity curve at 6 M. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of dichloroacetic acid from aqueous solution using mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Zhu, Jianzhong; Cao, Yang; Chen, Shenglu

    2014-08-01

    The presence of disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in water, is believed to be harmful to human health. In this work, mesoporous carbon was synthesized with the evaporation-induced self-assembly method and employed to evaluate the effects of initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature on the removal of dichloroacetic acid in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 480 min and the maximum adsorption (350mg/g) of dichloroacetic acid on the mesoporous carbon was observed to occur at 308 K and pH 3.0. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to analyse the equilibrium data at different temperatures; kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models and found that the adsorption capacity, mass transfer coefficient and diffusivity of dichloroacetic acid were directly affected by the physical and chemical parameters. In addition, the various thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy (Delta G), enthalpy (Delta H = 54.35 kJmol-1) and entropy (Delta S = 258.36 Jmol-1 K-1) were calculated to analyse the adsorption process. The experimental results indicated that the mesoporous carbon was an excellent adsorbent for dichloroacetic acid removal from aqueous solutions.

  15. Influence on the generation of disinfection byproducts in a tannic acid solution by aluminum ions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Chen, Hongbin

    2016-08-17

    Aluminum (Al) commonly exists in natural waters, and its salts are often used as coagulants in drinking water treatment. Therefore, associated with the security of drinking water, functions of Al ions (Al(3+)) on generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) should not be ignored. This study focuses on DBPs and the carcinogenic factor of chlorinated water samples after the addition of Al(3+) with different Al(3+)/initial tannic acid molar ratios. The results imply that Al(3+) acts as a promoter of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and an inhibitor of trihalomethanes (THMs) when tannic acid is selected as model compound of natural organic matter during chlorination. Depending on the results of size exclusion chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometer, an equilibrium system can be assumed between hydrolysis and flocculation in tannic acid solution with Al(3+). Furthermore, influences on the equilibrium system for Al(3+) addition may result in various effects on generation and distribution ratios of THMs and HAAs during chlorination. Finally, according to the analyses of a fluorescence spectrophotometer, it is demonstrated that the presence of Al(3+) helps to increase precursors of DBPs (humic acid-like organics) and then improve the generation of DBPs.

  16. Solubility of HOBr in Acidic Solution and Implications for Liberation of Halogens Via Aerosol Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Rammer, T. A.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Halogen species are known to catalytically destroy ozone in several regions of the atmosphere. In addition to direct catalytic losses, bromine compounds can indirectly enhance ozone loss through coupling to other radical families. Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species in the linkage of BrOx to ClOx and HOx. The aqueous- phase coupling reaction HOBr + HCI (right arrow) BrCl + H2O may provide a pathway for chlorine activation on sulfate aerosols at temperatures warmer than those required for polar stratospheric cloud formation. We have measured t h e solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol dm(exp -3) atm(exp -1). The expected inverse dependence of H* on temperature was observed, but only a weak dependence on acidity was found. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that equilibrium concentrations of HOBr could equal or exceed those of HBr in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols. Despite the high solubility of HOBr, aerosol volumes are not large enough to sequester a significant fraction of inorganic bromine from the gas phase. Our measurements of HOBr uptake in aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases show the evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2.

  17. Protection of copper surface with phytic acid against corrosion in chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Peca, Dunja; Pihlar, Boris; Ingrid, Milošev

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for copper in 3% sodium chloride. Phytic acid is a natural compound derived from plants, it is not toxic and can be considered as a green inhibitor. Electrochemical methods of linear polarization and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the electrochemical behaviour and evaluate the inhibition effectiveness. To obtain the optimal corrosion protection the following experimental conditions were investigated: effect of surface pre-treatment (abrasion and three procedures of surface roughening), pre-formation of the layer of phytic acid, time of immersion and concentration of phytic acid. To evaluate the surface pre-treatment procedures the surface roughness and contact angle were measured. Optimal conditions for formation of phytic layer were selected resulting in the inhibition effectiveness of nearly 80%. Morphology and composition of the layer were further studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The layer of phytic acid with thickness in the nanometer range homogeneously covers the copper surface. The obtained results show that this natural compound can be used as a mildly effective corrosion inhibitor for copper in chloride solution.

  18. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in sulfuric acid solutions using pressurized ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    High-resolution pressurized ion exchange has been used successfully to study and separate hafnium and zirconium sulfate complexes by chromatographic elution from Dowex 50W-X8 (15 to 25 ..mu..m) resin with sulfuric acid solutions. Techniques were developed to continuously monitor the column effluents for zirconium and hafnium by reaction with fluorometric and colorimetric reagents. Since neither reagent was specific for either metal ion, peak patterns were initially identified by using the stable isotopes /sup 90/Zr and /sup 180/Hf as fingerprints of their elution position. Distribution ratios for both zirconium and hafnium decrease as the inverse fourth power of the sulfuric acid concentration below 2N and as the inverse second power at higher acid concentration. The hafnium-to-zirconium separation factor is approximately constant (approx. 8) over the 0.5 to 3N range. Under certain conditions, an unseparated fraction was observed that was not retained by the resin. The amount of this fraction which is thought to be a polymeric hydrolysis product appears to be a function of metal and sulfuric acid concentrations. Conditions are being sought to give the highest zirconium concentration and the lowest acid concentration that can be used as a feed material for commercial scale-up in the continuous annular chromatographic (CAC) unit without formation of the polymer.

  19. Regeneration of basic sorbents used in the recovery of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, M.; King, C.J.

    1988-10-01

    The regeneration of basic sorbents used in the recovery of dilute aqueous acetic acid was explored. The regeneration methods studied were solvent leaching and vaporization. The resins used were weak base anion exchange resins, Dow Chemical Company's Dowex MWA-1 (tertiary amine resin) and Celanese Corporation's Aurorez (polybenzimidazole resin). The equilibrium between the aqueous acetic acid solution and the resins was measured in batch experiments. The composite isotherms calculated from these data wee comparable to those of other researchers. Methanol was used as the solvent to leach acetic acid from the resin. The equilibrium data from the batch experiments were used in the local-equilibrium theory of fixed-bed devices to model the desorption behavior of acetic acid in methanol. Both sorption and desorption equilibrium data were used in chemical complexation models to obtain sorption affinities and capacities of the resin for acetic acid. However, the amount of methanol needed to achieve a high degree of regeneration was too large to be economical. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Maintenance of cold-preserved porcine hepatocyte function with UW solution and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside.

    PubMed

    Takesue, Michihiko; Maruyama, Masanobu; Shibata, Norikuni; Kunieda, Takemi; Okitsu, Teru; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Kosaka, Yoshikazu; Arata, Akira; Ikeda, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Junji; Oyama, Toshie; Kodama, Makoto; Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kurabayashi, Yuzuru; Yamamoto, Itaru; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    Normal human hepatocytes are an ideal source of liver-targeted cell therapies, such as hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers, but availability of human donor livers for liver cell isolation is severely limited. To effectively utilize scarce donor organs for cell therapies, it is of extreme importance to establish an efficient isolation technique and an effective cold preservation solution for transportation of isolated cells. A lateral segment of the liver was surgically resected from pigs weighing 10 kg and a four-step collagenase and dispase digestion was conducted. Isolated hepatocytes were subjected to 8-h cold storage on ice. The following preservation solutions were tested: 1) University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, 2) UW with 100 microg/ml of ascorbic acid-2 glucoside (AA2G), 3) 100% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 4) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 100% FBS. The mean viability of porcine hepatocytes was 95.5 +/- 2.5% when isolated in three independent experiments. Viability, plating efficiency, membrane stability, and ammonia metabolic capacity of cold-preserved hepatocytes were significantly better maintained by the use of UW solution. When AA2G (100 microg/ml) was combined with UW solution, such parameters were further improved. It was explained by inhibition of caspase-3 activation and retention of ATP at high levels of hepatocytes preserved with UW solution containing AA2G. The present work demonstrates that a combination of UW solution with AA2G (100 microg/ml) would be a useful cold preservation means for the development of cell therapies.

  1. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, Allen J.; Conner, Cliff; Quigley, Kevin; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  2. The solute carrier family 10 (SLC10): beyond bile acid transport

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tatiana Claro; Polli, James E.; Swaan, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier (SLC) family 10 (SLC10) comprises influx transporters of bile acids, steroidal hormones, various drugs, and several other substrates. Because the seminal transporters of this family, namely, sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP; SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2), were primarily bile acid transporters, the term “sodium bile salt cotransporting family” was used for the SLC10 family. However, this notion became obsolete with the finding of other SLC10 members that do not transport bile acids. For example, the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT; SLC10A6) transports primarily sulfated steroids. Moreover, NTCP was shown to also transport steroids and xenobiotics, including HMG-CoA inhibitors (statins). The SLC10 family contains four additional members, namely, P3 (SLC10A3; SLC10A3), P4 (SLC10A4; SLC10A4), P5 (SLC10A5; SLC10A5) and SLC10A7 (SLC10A7), several of which were unknown or considered hypothetical until approximately a decade ago. While their substrate specificity remains undetermined, great progress has been made towards their characterization in recent years. SLC10A4 may participate in vesicular storage or exocytosis of neurotransmitters or mastocyte mediators, whereas SLC10A5 and SLC10A7 may be involved in solute transport and SLC10A3 may have a role as a housekeeping protein. Finally, the newly found role of bile acids in glucose and energy homeostasis, via the TGR5 receptor, sheds new light on the clinical relevance of ASBT and NTCP. The present mini-review provides a brief summary of recent progress on members of the SLC10 family. PMID:23506869

  3. Equilibrium Speciation of Select Lanthanides in the Presence of Acidic Ligands in Homo- and Heterogeneous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Troy A

    2011-08-01

    This dissertation explores lanthanide speciation in liquid solution systems related to separation schemes involving the acidic ligands: bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), lactate, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Equilibrium speciation of neodymium (Nd3+), sodium (Na+), HDEHP, water, and lactate in the TALSPEAK liquid-liquid extraction system was explored under varied Nd3+ loading of HDEHP in the organic phase and through extraction from aqueous HCl and lactate media. System speciation was probed through vapor pressure osmometry, visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 22Na and 13C labeled lactate radiotracer distribution measurements, Karl Fischer titrations, and equilibrium pH measurements. Distribution of Nd3+, Na+, lactate, and equilibrium pH were modeled using the SXLSQI software to obtain logKNd and logKNa extraction constants under selected conditions. Results showed that high Nd3+ loading of the HDEHP led to Nd3+ speciation that departs from the ion exchange mechanism and includes formation of highly aggregated, polynuclear [NdLactate(DEHP)2]x; (with x > 1). By substituting lanthanum (La3+) for Nd3+ in this system, NMR scoping experiments using 23Na, 31P nuclei and 13C labeled lactate were performed. Results indicated that this technique is sensitive to changes in system speciation, and that further experiments are warranted. In a homogeneous system representing the TALSPEAK aqueous phase, Lactate protonation behavior at various temperatures was characterized using a combination of potentiometric titration and modeling with the Hyperquad computer program. The temperature dependent deprotonation behavior of lactate showed little change with temperature at 2.0 M NaCl ionic strength. Cloud point extraction is a non-traditional separation technique that starts with a homogeneous

  4. Corrosion property of 9Cr-ODS steel in nitric acid solution for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, M.; Koizumi, T.; Inoue, M.; Koyama, S.I.

    2013-07-01

    Corrosion tests of oxide dispersion strengthened with 9% Cr (9Cr-ODS) steel, which is one of the desirable materials for cladding tube of sodium-cooled fast reactors, in pure nitric acid solution, spent FBR fuel solution, and its simulated solution were performed to understand the corrosion behavior in a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, the 9Cr-ODS steel with lower effective chromium content was evaluated to understand the corrosion behavior conservatively. As results, the tube-type specimens of the 9Cr-ODS steels suffered severe weight loss owing to active dissolution at the beginning of the immersion test in pure nitric acid solution in the range from 1 to 3.5 M. In contrast, the weight loss was decreased and they showed a stable corrosion in the higher nitric acid concentration, the dissolved FBR fuel solution, and its simulated solution by passivation. The corrosion rates of the 9Cr-ODS steel in the dissolved FBR fuel solution and its simulated solution were 1-2 mm/y and showed good agreement with each other. The passivation was caused by the shift of corrosion potential to noble side owing to increase in nitric acid concentration or oxidative ions in the dissolved FBR fuel solution and the simulated spent fuel solution. (authors)

  5. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuhua; Lai, Hong; Shi, Zhongliang

    2012-12-05

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  6. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment. PMID:23369295

  7. Effect of initial solution pH on photo-induced reductive decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Zhang, Chao-Jie; Chen, Pei; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2014-07-01

    The effects of initial solution pH on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with hydrated electrons as reductant were investigated. The reductive decomposition of PFOA depends strongly on the solution pH. In the pH range of 5.0-10.0, the decomposition and defluorination rates of PFOA increased with the increase of the initial solution pH. The rate constant was 0.0295 min(-1) at pH 10.0, which was more than 49.0 times higher than that at pH 5.0. Higher pH also inhibits the generation of toxic intermediates during the PFOA decomposition. For example, the short-chain PFCAs reached a lower maximum concentration in shorter reaction time as pH increasing. The peak areas of accumulated fluorinated and iodinated hydrocarbons detected by GC/MS under acidic conditions were nearly 10-100 times more than those under alkaline conditions. In short, alkaline conditions were more favorable for photo-induced reduction of PFOA as high pH promoted the decomposition of PFOA and inhibited the accumulation of intermediate products. The concentration of hydrated electron, detected by laser flash photolysis, increased with the increase of the initial pH. This was the main reason why the decomposition of PFOA in the UV-KI system depended strongly on the initial pH.

  8. Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by a poly(acrylic acid)/bentonite nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiei, H. R.; Shirvani, M.; Ogunseitan, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    We synthesized a novel poly acrylic acid-organobentonite (PAA-Bent) nanocomposite by successive intercalation of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) surfactant and polyacrylic acid (PAA) into the bentonite (Bent) interlayer spaces. The surfactant-modified clay (CTA-Bent) and PAA-Bent nanocomposite were characterized by XRD and FT-IR techniques and used for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The XRD results confirmed the intercalation of CTA and PAA into the interlayer spaces of the bentonite increasing the d 001 spacing of the clay from 12.2 up to 38.9 Å. FT-IR analysis of the modified clay samples revealed the functional groups of CTA and PAA constituents alighted on the bentonite surfaces. Maximum Pb sorption capacity of the Bent and PAA-Bent predicted by Langmuir model were 52.3 and 93.0 mg g-1, respectively, showing that the synthesized nanocomposite superiorly adsorbed Pb from the solution as compared to the Bent. The maximum Pb removal efficiency of 99.6 % was achieved by the nanocomposite at 25 °C with <30 min contact time for a 7.5 g L-1 solid-to-liquid ratio and an initial metal concentration of 400 mg L-1. The results indicated that PAA-Bent nanocomposite can be efficiently used as a superadsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

  9. Influence of Acidity on Uranyl Nitrate Association in Aqueous Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin; Ye, Xianggui; Smith, Rodney Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Uranyl ion complexation with water and nitrate is a key aspect of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation study to investigate this complexation process, including the molecular composition of the various complex species, the corresponding structure, and the equilibrium distribution of the complexes. The observed structures of the complexes suggest that in aqueous solution, uranyls are generally hydrated by 5 water molecules in the equatorial plane. When associating with nitrate ions, a water molecule is replaced by a nitrate ion, preserving the five-fold coordination and planar symmetry. Analysis of the pair correlation function between uranyl and nitrate suggests that nitrates bind to uranyl in aqueous solution mainly in a monodentate mode, although a small portion of bidentates occur. Dynamic association and dissociation between uranyls and nitrates take place in aqueous solution with a substantial amount of fluctuation in the number of various uranyl nitrate species. The average number of the uranyl mononitrate complexes shows a dependence on acid concentration consistent with equilibrium-constant analysis, namely, the concentration of [UO2NO3]+ increases with nitric acid concentration.

  10. Recovery of H2SO4 from an acid leach solution by diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chang; Li, Xingbin; Deng, Zhigan; Fan, Gang; Li, Minting; Li, Cunxiong

    2010-04-15

    Diffusion dialysis with a series of anion exchange membranes was used to recover H(2)SO(4) from an acid leach solution produced during the vanadium manufacturing process. The effects of sulfuric acid, FeSO(4) and VOSO(4) concentration, flow rate and flow rate ratio on the recovery of H(2)SO(4) were investigated. The results showed that sulfuric acid permeated well through the membranes used, while metal ions were efficiently rejected. The recovery of H(2)SO(4) increased as the sulfate concentration of the feed increased and the flow rate ratio of water to feed increased. More than 80% of the H(2)SO(4) could be recovered from the leach solution which contained 61.7 g/L free H(2)SO(4), 11.2 g/L Fe and 4.60 g/L V at a flow rate of 0.19x10(-3) m(3)/h m(2). V and Fe ion rejection were within 93-95 and 92-94%, respectively. A preliminary economic evaluation revealed that an investment in this process could be recovered within 27 months.

  11. Comparison of water solubility enhancements of organic solutes by aquatic humic materials and commercial humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Brinton, T.I.; Malcolm, R.L.; Leenheer, J.A.; MacCarthy, P.

    1987-12-01

    Water solubility enhancements of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5,2',5'-PCB), and 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4,4'-PCB) by dissolved organic matter have been studied with the following samples: (1) acidic water samples from the Suwannee River, Georgia, and the Sopchoppy River, Florida; (2) a humic extract of a nearly neutral pH water from the Calcasieu River, Louisiana; (3) commercial humic acids from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and Fluka-Tridom Chemical Corp. The calculated partition coefficients on a dissolved organic carbon basis (K/sub doc/) for organic solutes with water samples and aquatic humic extracts from this and earlier studies indicate that the enhancement effect varies with the molecular composition of the aquatic humic materials, The K/sub doc/ values with water and aquatic humic samples are, however, far less than the observed K/sub doc/ values obtained with the two commercial samples, by factors of about 4-20. In view of this finding, one should be cautious in interpreting the effects of the dissolved organic matter on solubility enhancement of organic solutes on the basis of the use of commercial humic acids. 14 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic-acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kusoglu, A; Cho, KT; Prato, RA; Weber, AZ

    2013-12-01

    Proton-exchange membranes are key solid-state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries, fuel cells, and solar-fuel generators. In many of these systems, the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions. In this paper, we focus on the impact of different HBr, a flow-battery and exemplary acid electrolyte, external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion, a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy-related applications. The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane. In addition, small-angle x-ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to correlate how the interactions of the bromide ion with the fixed sulfonic-acid sites impact conductivity and hydrophilic domain distance. It is also shown that membrane pretreatment has a large impact on the underlying structure/function relationship. The obtained data and results are useful for delineation of optimal operating regimes for flow batteries and similar technologies as well as in understanding underlying structure/function relationships of ionomers in electrolyte solutions. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electric conductance of dispersions of metal oxides in solutions of weak acids in mixed dioxane-water solvents.

    PubMed

    Kosmulski, Marek; Mączka, Edward

    2012-08-15

    The electric conductance of solutions of sulfuric, oxalic, benzoic, and salicylic acid (up to 0.02 M) in dioxane-water mixed solvents (90% and 93% dioxane by mass) has been studied in the presence and absence of TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) (0.5-5% by mass). TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) enhanced the conductance of solutions of organic acids in aqueous dioxane. The conductance is interpreted in terms of adsorption of acid in molecular form, dissolution of ceramic oxides in form of anionic complexes, and leaching of acidic impurities from ceramic oxides.

  14. Complexes Formed in Solution Between Vanadium(IV)/(V) and the Cyclic Dihydroxamic Acid Putrebactin or Linear Suberodihydroxamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An aerobic solution prepared from V(IV) and the cyclic dihydroxamic acid putrebactin (pbH2) in 1:1 H2O/CH3OH at pH = 2 turned from blue to orange and gave a signal in the positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) at m/zobs 437.0 attributed to the monooxoV(V) species [VVO(pb)]+ ([C16H26N4O7V]+, m/zcalc 437.3). A solution prepared as above gave a signal in the 51V NMR spectrum at δV = −443.3 ppm (VOCl3, δV = 0 ppm) and was electron paramagnetic resonance silent, consistent with the presence of [VVO(pb)]+. The formation of [VVO(pb)]+ was invariant of [V(IV)]:[pbH2] and of pH values over pH = 2–7. In contrast, an aerobic solution prepared from V(IV) and the linear dihydroxamic acid suberodihydroxamic acid (sbhaH4) in 1:1 H2O/CH3OH at pH values of 2, 5, or 7 gave multiple signals in the positive and negative ion ESI-MS, which were assigned to monomeric or dimeric V(V)– or V(IV)–sbhaH4 complexes or mixed-valence V(V)/(IV)–sbhaH4 complexes. The complexity of the V-sbhaH4 system has been attributed to dimerization (2[VVO(sbhaH2)]+ ↔ [(VVO)2(sbhaH2)2]2+), deprotonation ([VVO(sbhaH2)]+ – H+ ↔ [VVO(sbhaH)]0), and oxidation ([VIVO(sbhaH2)]0 –e– ↔ [VVO(sbhaH2)]+) phenomena and could be described as the sum of two pH-dependent vectors, the first comprising the deprotonation of hydroxamate (low pH) to hydroximate (high pH) and the second comprising the oxidation of V(IV) (low pH) to V(V) (high pH). Macrocyclic pbH2 was preorganized to form [VVO(pb)]+, which would provide an entropy-based increase in its thermodynamic stability compared to V(V)–sbhaH4 complexes. The half-wave potentials from solutions of [V(IV)]:[pbH2] (1:1) or [V(IV)]:[sbhaH4] (1:2) at pH = 2 were E1/2 −335 or −352 mV, respectively, which differed from the expected trend (E1/2 [VO(pb)]+/0 < VV/IV–sbhaH4). The complex solution speciation of the V(V)/(IV)–sbhaH4 system prevented the determination of half-wave potentials for single species. The characterization

  15. Nonclinical safety evaluation of boric acid and a novel borate-buffered contact lens multi-purpose solution, Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, David M; Cavet, Megan E; Richardson, Mary E

    2010-12-01

    Multipurpose solutions (MPS) often contain low concentrations of boric acid as a buffering agent. Limited published literature has suggested that boric acid and borate-buffered MPS may alter the corneal epithelium; an effect attributed to cytotoxicity induced by boric acid. However, this claim has not been substantiated. We investigated the effect of treating cells with relevant concentrations of boric acid using two cytotoxicity assays, and also assessed the impact of boric acid on corneal epithelial barrier function by measuring TEER and immunostaining for tight junction protein ZO-1 in human corneal epithelial cells. Boric acid was also assessed in an in vivo ocular model when administered for 28 days. Additionally, we evaluated Biotrue multi-purpose solution, a novel borate-buffered MPS, alone and with contact lenses for ocular compatibility in vitro and in vivo. Boric acid passed both cytotoxicity assays and did not alter ZO-1 distribution or corneal TEER. Furthermore, boric acid was well-tolerated on-eye following repeated administration in a rabbit model. Finally, Biotrue multi-purpose solution demonstrated good ocular biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. This MPS was not cytotoxic and was compatible with the eye when administered alone and when evaluated with contact lenses. We demonstrate that boric acid and a borate-buffered MPS is compatible with the ocular environment. Our findings provide evidence that ocular effects reported for some borate-buffered MPS may be incorrectly attributed to boric acid and are more likely a function of the unique combination of ingredients in the MPS formulation tested.

  16. Real-time investigations of Pt(111) surface transformations in sulfuric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Björn; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Dlott, Dana D; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2010-10-13

    We present the first broadband sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of adlayers from sulfuric acid solutions on Pt(111) surfaces and reveal surface transformations of (bi)sulfate anions in unprecedented detail. SFG amplitudes, bandwidth, and electrochemical Stark tuning of (bi)sulfate vibrational bands centered at 1250-1290 cm(-1) strongly depend on the applied potential and are correlated with prominent voltammetric features. (Bi)sulfate adlayers on Pt(111) are important model systems for weak, specific adsorption of anions on catalytically active surfaces. Although the existence of surface transformations on Pt(111) in dilute H(2)SO(4) solutions has been established by previous studies, so far they have not been observed with surface vibrational spectroscopy. Our results confirm previous reports of a surface transformation at 0.21 V and provide new information on a second transformation at 0.5 V due to surface hydroxyl formation and rearrangement of the electric double layer.

  17. NEXAFS Chemical State and Bond Lengths of p-Aminobenzoic Acid in Solution and Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. S.; Gainar, A.; Suljoti, E.; Xiao, J.; Golnak, R.; Aziz, E. F.; Schroeder, S. L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Solid-state and solution pH-dependent NEXAFS studies allow direct observation of the electronic state of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a function of its chemical environment, revealing the chemical state and bonding of the chemical species. Variations in the ionization potential (IP) and 1s→π* resonances unequivocally identify the chemical species (neutral, cationic, or anionic) present and the varying local environment. Shifts in σ* shape resonances relative to the IP in the NEXAFS spectra vary with C-N bond length, and the important effect of minor alterations in bond length is confirmed with nitrogen FEFF calculations, leading to the possibility of bond length determination in solution.

  18. Determination of hydroxyl radicals with salicylic acid in aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhan, Man-jun; Kong, Ling-ren; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species are essential to determine their steady-state concentration and related reaction mechanisms in environmental aquatic systems. In this study, salicylic acid was employed as an innovative molecular probe of hydroxyl radical(OH) generated in aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions through photochemical reactions. Kinetic studies showed that the steady-state concentrations of OH in aqueous NO3- (10 mmol/L, pH = 5) and NO2- (10 mmol/L, pH = 5) solutions under ultraviolet irradiation were at a same magnitude, 10(-15) mol/L. Apparent quantum yields of OH at 313 nm were measured as 0.011 and 0.07 for NO3- and NO2- respectively, all comparable to the results of previous studies.

  19. Terahertz microfluidic chips for detection of amino acids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Zhang, Cong; Fan, Ning; Zhang, Cunlin

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidic technology can control the fluidic thickness accurately in less than 100 micrometers. So the combination of terahertz (THz) and microfluidic technology becomes one of the most interesting directions towards biological detection. We designed microfluidic chips for terahertz spectroscopy of biological samples in aqueous solutions. Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system, we experimentally measured the transmittance of the chips and the THz absorption spectra of L-threonine and L-arginine, respectively. The results indicated the feasibility of performing high sensitivity THz spectroscopy of amino acids solutions. Therefore, the microfluidic chips can realize real-time and label-free measurement for biochemistry samples in THz-TDS system.

  20. Mechanism of electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on copper in acidic sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Karen L; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2007-09-11

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizer component in chemical mechanical planarization slurries, used in the processing of Cu metallization in microelectronics applications. We studied the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on Cu in 0.1 M H2SO4 solutions using methods including cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode experiments, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spectroscopy reveals that the hydrogen peroxide molecule is reduced at negative potentials to form a Cu-OH surface species in acidic solutions, a result consistent with the insight from Tafel slope measurements. DFT calculations support the instability of peroxide relative to the surface-coordinated hydroxide on both Cu(111) and Cu(100) surfaces.

  1. Copper (II) ion adsorption from aqueous solution onto fatty hydroxamic acid - Immobilized zeolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhsinun, Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Purwaningsih, Henny

    2017-01-01

    Separation of Cu (II) ion from a mixture containing Zn (II) ion was conducted by solid-liquid extraction method through column chromatography. The column was filled with FHA-ZEO resin. This resin is the result of immobilized fatty hydroxamic acid (FHA) into activated natural zeolite (ZEO) involving as solid phase. Parameters becoming variable were resin mass to concentration ratio and pH of Cu (II) ion solution. The research result shows that optimum condition of Cu (II) ion adsorption was 1 gram resin mass FHA-ZEO to ion Cu (II) solution concentration of 100 ppm with pH value of 5. This Cu (II) ion separation from its mixture containing Zn (II) ion gives Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity of 162.39 mg/g FHA-ZEO in that optimum condition, 4 times higher than Zn (II) ion adsorption with Cu (II) ion recovery of 93,88%.

  2. Potentiality of uranium biosorption from nitric acid solutions using shrimp shells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S H; El Sheikh, E M; Morsy, A M A

    2014-08-01

    Biosorption has gained important credibility during recent years because of its good performance and low cost. This work is concerned with studying the potentiality of the chitin component of the shrimp shells for uranium biosorption from nitric acid liquid solutions. The structural characteristics of the working chitin have been determined via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity of biomass was investigated experimentally. The influence of contact time, pH, metal ion concentration, solution volume to mass ratio and temperature were evaluated and the results were fitted using adsorption isotherm models. The kinetic of uranium biosorption was also investigated as well as biosorption thermodynamic.

  3. Electrodeposited Films from Aqueous Tungstic Acid-Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions for Electrochromic Display Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazusuke

    1987-11-01

    Electrodeposited tungsten oxide films from aqueous tungstic acid-hydrogen peroxide solutions were investigated for applications to electrochromic devices. These films exhibited electrochromism in aprotic electrolyte solutions containing Li-salts. When the films were heat-treated for an hour at temperatures between 100 and 200°C, the electrochromic reactions were rich in reversibility. The coloring efficiency and response rate for the films were favorable and comparable to those for tungsten trioxide evaporated films. A cell life-test was performed on several clock-size cells by applying a 1.2-V, 1-Hz, continuous square wave. The typical amount of charge required for coloration was about 50 C / m2 and remained unchanged even after 107 coloration-bleaching cycles.

  4. Self-assembling of poly(aspartic acid) with bovine serum albumin in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Nita, L E; Chiriac, A P; Bercea, M; Asandulesa, M; Wolf, Bernhard A

    2017-02-01

    Macromolecular co-assemblies built up in aqueous solutions, by using a linear polypeptide, poly(aspartic acid) (PAS), and a globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been studied. The main interest was to identify the optimum conditions for an interpenetrated complex formation in order to design materials suitable for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems. BSA surface possesses several amino- and carboxylic groups available for covalent modification, and/or bioactive substances attachment. In the present study, mixtures between PAS and BSA were investigated at 37°C in dilute aqueous solution by viscometry, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential determination, as well as in solid state by AFM microscopy and dielectric spectroscopy. The experimental data have shown that the interpolymer complex formation occurs for a PAS/BSA molar ratio around 0.541.

  5. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel by New Thiophene Azo Dye Derivatives in Acidic Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Haddad, Mahmoud N.; Fouda, A. S.; Mostafa, H. A.

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution by thiophene azo dye derivatives were studied using weight loss, electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and atomic absorption techniques. The experimental data suggest that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitors concentration in presence of 103 μM potassium iodide (KI). This is due to synergistic effect. Thus, the experimental results suggested that the presence of these anions in the solution stabilized the adsorption of inhibitors molecules on the metal surface and improved the inhibition efficiency. The results of EFM experiments are a spectrum of current response as a function of frequency. The corrosion rate and Tafel parameters can be obtained with measurement by analyzing the harmonic frequencies. The adsorption of the inhibitors on metal surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The surface of metal examined using Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations were carried out and relations between computed parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency were discussed.

  6. Kinetics of dodecanoic acid adsorption from caustic solution by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Phillip; Wu, Sophie Hua

    2003-10-15

    This study examines the influences of adsorbent porosity and surface chemistry and of carbon dosage on dodecanoic acid adsorption kinetics from aqueous and 2 M NaOH solutions as batch adsorption processes. Both adsorbents are steam-activated carbons prepared from either coconut or coal precursors. Prior to use the adsorbents were washed in deionized water or 2 M NaOH. Mass transfer coefficients and effective overall diffusion coefficients indicate a minor contribution from adsorbent porosity. In contrast, high surface oxygen content impedes transport to and into the adsorbent structure. Carbon dosage shows a proportional increase in transport coefficients with increasing mass; these coefficients are constant when normalized per unit mass. Neither water nor NaOH treatment of the adsorbents has a significant influence on dodecanoic acid adsorption kinetics. Molecular and Knudsen diffusion coefficients are defined to demonstrate that the overall effective diffusion coefficient values and the diffusion process are controlled by surface diffusion.

  7. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Qin, Chunling; Yu, Hui; Xia, Xingchuan; Wang, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yanshan; Hu, Qingfeng; Zhao, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC) and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications. PMID:28347030

  8. Synthesis, Solution, and Structural Characterization of Tetrahydrofuranyl-2,2-Bisphosphonic Acid Disodium Salt

    PubMed Central

    Maltezou, Elena; Stylianou, Marios; Roy, Sudeshna; Drouza, Chryssoula; Keramidas, Anastasios D.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are biologically relevant therapeutics for bone disorders and cancer. Reaction of γ-chlorobutyric acid, phosphorus acid, and phosphorus trichloride without the use of solvent gave the tetrahydrofuranyl-2,2-bisphosphonate sodium salt (Na2H2L). The Na2H2L was isolated, characterized in solution by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy and in solid state by single X-Ray crystallography. The crystal structure showed that the Na2H2L forms in the crystal infinite two-dimensional sheets stacked one parallel to the other. A comparison of the chelating properties of H2L2− with similar hydroxyl bisphosphonate ligands shows that the strength of the Na–O(furanyl/hydroxyl) bond is directly related to the total charge of the ligand anion. PMID:20467558

  9. In vitro biostability evaluation of polyurethane composites in acidic, basic, oxidative, and neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Suping; Schley, James; Loy, Brian; Luo, Lian; Hobot, Chris; Sparer, Randall; Untereker, Darrel; Krzeszak, Jason

    2008-05-01

    New and improved properties can often be achieved by compounding two or more different but compatible materials. But, can failure possibility also be increased by such a compounding strategy? In this article, we compared the in vitro biostability of composites with that of the pure polymer. We tested three model composites in oxidative, acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. We found that oxidation degradation was much more profound in the composites than in the corresponding pure polymer. This degradation seemed to be an intrinsic property of composite materials. We also observed the well documented interfacial debonding between filler and matrix and its effects on the mechanical reinforcement of the hydrated composites. The improvements in acid and base resistance were also observed.

  10. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from simulated flue gas by polyethyleneimine-phosphoric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Bo, Wen; Li, Hongxia; Zhang, Junjie; Song, Xiangjia; Hu, Jinshan; Liu, Ce

    2016-12-01

    Clean fuel technologies have been widely developed in current society because fuel combustion can directly bring about the emission of hazardous gasses such as SO2. Flue gas desulfurization by polyethyleneimine (PEI)-phosphoric acid solution is an efficient desulfurization method. In this research, the PEI and the additive H3PO4 were used as absorption solution. SO2 was absorbed by the system and desorbed from the loaded solution. The cycle operation was also analyzed. Some technology conditions such as the concentration of PEI, the temperature, the gas flow rate, the concentration of SO2 and the pH value were experimentally researched. With the optimized process, the absorption efficiency of this system could reach 98% and the desorption efficiency was over 60%, showing good absorption/desorption capability. With this efficient approach, the present study may open a new window for developing high-performance absorbents which can make SO2 be well desorbed from the loaded solution and better reused in the flue gas desulfurization.

  11. Synergistic Growth of Giant Wormlike Micelles in Ternary Mixed Surfactant Solutions: Effect of Octanoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Gergana S; Anachkov, Svetoslav E; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Koynov, Kaloian; Kralchevsky, Peter A

    2016-12-06

    The synergistic growth of giant wormlike micelles in ternary mixed solutions composed of an anionic surfactant (sodium laurylethersulfate, SLES), a zwitterionic surfactant (cocamidopropyl betaine, CAPB), and octanoic acid (HC8) is studied. Rheological data and their analysis in terms of Cole-Cole plots and micellar characteristic times are presented, and the micellar structures behind the observed rheological behavior are revealed by cryo-TEM micrographs. The surfactant composition is fixed near the maximal micelle size of the binary SLES + CAPB system, whereas the concentration of HC8 is varied. At a given HC8 concentration, the viscosity of the ternary micellar solutions exhibits a very high and sharp peak. Polarized-light optical microscopy indicates that all investigated solutions are isotropic rather than liquid-crystalline. The cryo-TEM imaging shows complex phase behavior: wormlike micelles to the left of the peak, giant entangled wormlike micelles at the peak, and long wormlike micelles coexisting with multiconnected micellar aggregates to the right of the peak. The formation of multiconnected micelles leads to a drop in viscosity at the higher concentrations. The results contribute to a better understanding of the structure-rheology relations in micellar surfactant solutions and could be useful for controlling the properties of formulations in personal-care and house-hold detergency.

  12. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid solution in MALDI-MS: ageing and use for mass calibration.

    PubMed

    Teearu, Anu; Vahur, Signe; Haljasorg, Uku; Leito, Ivo; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Toom, Lauri

    2014-10-01

    2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) is one of the most widely used and studied matrix compounds in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. However, the influence of ageing of the DHB solution on the MALDI mass spectra has not been yet systematically studied. In this work, the possible changes occurring in the acidified acetonitrile/water solution of the MALDI matrix compound DHB during 1-year usage period have been monitored with MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (MALDI-FT-ICR-MS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy. No significant ageing products have been detected. The ability of the aged DHB solution to act as a MALDI matrix was tested with two materials widely used in art and conservation - bone glue (a proteinaceous material) and shellac resin (a resinous material) - and good results were obtained. A number of peaks in the mass spectra measured from the DHB solution were identified, which can be used for internal calibration of the mass axis.

  13. Photochemistry of nucleic acid bases and their thio- and aza-analogues in solution.

    PubMed

    Pollum, Marvin; Martínez-Fernández, Lara; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photochemistry of the natural nucleic acid bases and their sulfur- and nitrogen-substituted analogues in solution is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the experimental studies performed over the last 3-5 years that showcase topical areas of scientific inquiry and those that require further scrutiny. Significant progress has been made toward mapping the radiative and nonradiative decay pathways of nucleic acid bases. There is a consensus that ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state is the primary relaxation pathway in the nucleic acid bases, whereas the mechanism of this relaxation and the level of participation of the (1)πσ*, (1) nπ*, and (3)ππ* states are still matters of debate. Although impressive research has been performed in recent years, the microscopic mechanism(s) by which the nucleic acid bases dissipate excess vibrational energy to their environment, and the role of the N-glycosidic group in this and in other nonradiative decay pathways, are still poorly understood. The simple replacement of a single atom in a nucleobase with a sulfur or nitrogen atom severely restricts access to the conical intersections responsible for the intrinsic internal conversion pathways to the ground state in the nucleic acid bases. It also enhances access to ultrafast and efficient inter-system crossing pathways that populate the triplet manifold in yields close to unity. Determining the coupled nuclear and electronic pathways responsible for the significantly different photochemistry in these nucleic acid base analogues serves as a convenient platform to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the photodynamic properties of the DNA and RNA bases from both experimental and computational perspectives. Further investigations should also aid in forecasting the prospective use of sulfur- and nitrogen-substituted base analogues in photochemotherapeutic applications.

  14. Interaction of some metals between marine-origin humic acids and aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Huljev, D.J.

    1986-08-01

    The interaction of metal ions (carrier-free form) in aquatic medium with humic acids is a complicated process depending on the properties of humic acids (elementary, chemical, and trace element composition), metals studied (valence, charge, chemical form, concentration), and medium used (pH, ionic strength). The use of radionuclides was found to be very suitable for a rapid and precise determination of the distribution coefficient K/sub d/ (ratio of the concentration of a certain trace metal association with a gram of humic acid over the concentration of the same trace metal per milliliter of solution) of the investigated system. Isolated humic acids from offshore sediments from the North Adriatic (Lim channel, near Rovinj, Yugoslavia) were characterized according to their elementary composition, the amount of products of hydrolysis, and the trace elements bound. All experiments were carried out between pH 3 and 5. It was found that conditions usually present at the site where humic acid interacts with metal ions (anaerobic conditions, H/sub 2/S) in brackish (21% S) and standard seawater (38% S) are determined in the pH range 3 to 5. The results of the pick-up (uptake) and replacement (release) experiments are presented as a distribution coefficient (K/sub d/), as a function of contact time. Processes of pick-up and replacement of a number of metals under various physicochemical conditions were investigated and special attention was paid to the influence of salinity. With the increase in NaCl concentration and pH in the system, the fixation of ruthenium, zinc, cobalt, and mercury by humic acids decreased.

  15. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  16. Corrosion behavior of niobium and Nb-25 wt% Ta alloy in sulfuric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.; Nunes, C.A. ); de Almeida, M.E. )

    1991-06-01

    In this paper the corrosion behavior of niobium and Nb-25 wt% Ta alloy in H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} solutions has been studied. Using mass-loss techniques, the influences of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, temperature, and exposure time have been examined. The Nb-Ta alloy is more corrosion resistant than pure niobium. The obtained corrosion data allowed the construction of iso-corrosion curves of both materials in sulfuric acid below and above the boiling point.

  17. The Kinetics and Mechanism of the Decomposition of Murexide in Acid Solution: An Experiment for Teaching Principles of Chemical Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoche, Wilhelm; Rees, Norman H.

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results are provided for an experiment on the decomposition of murexide in acid solution. The experiment, suitable for advanced courses, can be easily performed in a 6-hour laboratory period. (JN)

  18. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  19. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    PubMed

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO₃-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO₃- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO₃- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy.

  20. Extractive separation and determination of arsenic at different valences in industrial solutions and sulfuric acid production waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Minasyan, K.V.; Vrtanesyan, S.G.; Badalyan, M.A.

    1986-12-01

    Wash towers of sulfuric acid production divisions of non-ferrous metallurgy plants contain sulfated solutions and waste waters with arsenic contents over a wide range of concentrations (1-20 g/liter). These solutions also contain large amounts of iron, copper, zinc, selenium, tellurium, and other impurities. Monitoring arsenic removal from the solutions requires rapid and accurate methods of determining not only the total arsenic content but also its valence state. In this paper, the authors report the quantitative extractive separation of arsenic(III) from sulfuric acid solutions with toluene (or benzene) in the presence of chlorides. The technique is intended to be a preliminary step in developing a method for separately determining tri- and pentavalent arsenic in complex sulfuric acid solutions.

  1. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution.

  2. Sorption of REE and TPE from HNO{sub 3} solutions on strong-acid sulfonated cation exchanger KU-2

    SciTech Connect

    Chuveleva, E.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.

    1995-05-01

    Sorption of rare earths (REE) on the strong-acid sulfonated cation exchanger KU-2 is studied as a function of the solution acidity (0.1-2.0 M HNO{sub 3}) and REE concentration. In concentrated nitrate solutions where M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} and M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} can form and be sorbed by the cation exchanger, the capacity of the exchanger seems to increase by 20%.

  3. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  4. Solubility of acetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid in low-temperature (207-245 k) sulfuric acid solutions: implications for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads P Sulbaek; Axson, Jessica L; Michelsen, Rebecca R H; Nielsen, Ole John; Iraci, Laura T

    2011-05-05

    The solubility of gas-phase acetic acid (CH(3)COOH, HAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (CF(3)COOH, TFA) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (207-245 K) and acid composition (40-75 wt %, H(2)SO(4)). For both HAc and TFA, the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, is inversely dependent on temperature. Measured values of H* for TFA range from 1.7 × 10(3) M atm(-1) in 75.0 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 242.5 K to 3.6 × 10(8) M atm(-1) in 40.7 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 207.8 K. Measured values of H* for HAc range from 2.2 × 10(5) M atm(-1) in 57.8 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 245.0 K to 3.8 × 10(8) M atm(-1) in 74.4 wt % H(2)SO(4) at 219.6 K. The solubility of HAc increases with increasing H(2)SO(4) concentration and is higher in strong sulfuric acid than in water. In contrast, the solubility of TFA decreases with increasing sulfuric acid concentration. The equilibrium concentration of HAc in UT/LS aerosol particles is estimated from our measurements and is found to be up to several orders of magnitude higher than those determined for common alcohols and small carbonyl compounds. On the basis of our measured solubility, we determine that HAc in the upper troposphere undergoes aerosol partitioning, though the role of H(2)SO(4) aerosol particles as a sink for HAc in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will only be discernible under high atmospheric sulfate perturbations.

  5. Oxidation and etching behaviors of the InAs surface in various acidic and basic chemical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Lee, Seunghyo; Lim, Sangwoo

    2017-04-01

    Indium arsenide (InAs) is the candidate of choice as a new channel material for application in future technologies beyond the Si-based electronic devices because it has a much higher electron mobility than silicon. In this study, the oxidation and etching behaviors of InAs (100) in various acidic and basic solutions, such as HF, HCl, H2SO4, NaOH, KOH, and NH4OH, were investigated. In addition, the effect of pH on the oxidation and etching reactions taking place on the InAs surface was studied using solutions with a pH ranging from 1 to 13. It was observed that the oxidation of the InAs surface was hindered in acidic solutions, which was attributed to the dissolution of the oxidized surface layer. In particular, the treatment of the InAs surface using a strongly acidic solution with a pH of less than 3 produced an oxide-free surface due to the predominant etching of the InAs surface. The addition of H2O2 to the acidic solutions greatly increased the etching rate of the InAs surface, which suggests that the oxidation process is the rate-limiting step in the sequence of reactions that occur during the etching of the InAs surface in acidic solutions. The etching of InAs was suppressed in neutral solutions, which resulted in the formation of a relatively thicker oxide layer on the surface, and mild etching of the InAs surface took place in basic solutions. However, in basic solutions, the addition of H2O2 did not significantly contribute to the increase of the oxidation state of the InAs surface; thus, its effect on the etching rate of InAs was smaller than in acidic solutions.

  6. Representing dispositions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them. PMID:21995952

  7. Investigation of influence of alpha irradiation on valence states of actinides. VIII. Reduction of berkelium (IV) in perchloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Frolova, L.M.; Vasilev, V.Y.; Vitynutnev, V.M.

    1986-09-01

    A spectrophotometric method has been used in studying the radiation-chemical behavior of berkelium (IV) in perchloric acid solutions with intense internal alpha-irradiation by curium244. It has been shown that the reduction of berkelium (IV) in perchloric acid solutions with a concentration up to 3 M follows a zero-order reaction rate law relative to the berkelium (IV) concentration. In more concentrated solutions of perchloric acid, the equation for the rate of the berkelium (IV) reduction reaction has the form d (Bk(IV))/dt=k/sub 0/ + k/sub 1/(BK(IV)). In all of the perchloric acid solutions that were investigate (1-7 M), K /SUP '/ /sub 0/ is weakly dependent on the acid concentration; k'/sub 1/ depends on the acid concentration to a greater degree. Both k'/sub 0/ and k'/sub 1/ depend on the dose rate in irradiation of the solution. With high concentrations of perchloric acid, products of radiolytic decomposition of perchlorate ions play a major role.

  8. Analyses of mitochondrial amino acid sequence datasets support the proposal that specimens of Hypodontus macropi from three species of macropodid hosts represent distinct species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypodontus macropi is a common intestinal nematode of a range of kangaroos and wallabies (macropodid marsupials). Based on previous multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence data sets, H. macropi has been proposed to be complex of species. To test this proposal using independent molecular data, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial (mt) genomes of individuals of H. macropi from three different species of hosts (Macropus robustus robustus, Thylogale billardierii and Macropus [Wallabia] bicolor) as well as that of Macropicola ocydromi (a related nematode), and undertook a comparative analysis of the amino acid sequence datasets derived from these genomes. Results The mt genomes sequenced by next-generation (454) technology from H. macropi from the three host species varied from 13,634 bp to 13,699 bp in size. Pairwise comparisons of the amino acid sequences predicted from these three mt genomes revealed differences of 5.8% to 18%. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence data sets using Bayesian Inference (BI) showed that H. macropi from the three different host species formed distinct, well-supported clades. In addition, sliding window analysis of the mt genomes defined variable regions for future population genetic studies of H. macropi in different macropodid hosts and geographical regions around Australia. Conclusions The present analyses of inferred mt protein sequence datasets clearly supported the hypothesis that H. macropi from M. robustus robustus, M. bicolor and T. billardierii represent distinct species. PMID:24261823

  9. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters by dipping in hops beta acids solutions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cangliang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Sofos, John N

    2009-04-01

    Hops beta acids (HBA) are parts of hops flowers used in beer brewing and have shown antilisterial activity in bacteriological broth. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has approved HBA for use to control Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat products. This study evaluated the effects of HBA as dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes during storage of frankfurters. Frankfurters (two replicates and three samples each) were inoculated (1.9 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm2) with L. monocytogenes (10-strain mixture), dipped (2 min, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) in HBA solutions (0.03, 0.06, and 0.10%) or distilled water, and then vacuum packaged and stored at 4 or 10 degrees C for up to 90 and 48 days, respectively. Samples were periodically analyzed for microbial survival and growth on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and PALCAM agar. Dipping in HBA solutions caused immediate L. monocytogenes reductions (P < 0.05) of 1.3 to 1.6 log CFU/cm2, whereas distilled water reduced counts by 1.0 log CFU/cm2. Pathogen growth was completely suppressed (P < 0.05) for 30 to 50 (4 degrees C) or 20 to 28 (10 degrees C) days on frankfurters dipped in HBA solutions, with antilisterial effects increasing with higher concentrations (0.03 to 0.10%). Fitting the data with the Baranyi model confirmed that the lag-phase duration of the pathogen was extended, and the growth rate was decreased on samples dipped in HBA solutions. Therefore, HBA may be considered for use to improve the microbial safety of ready-to-eat meat products, provided that future studies show no adverse effects on sensory qualities and that their use is economically feasible.

  10. Mechanical and electrochemical properties of an IPMC actuator with palladium electrodes in acid and alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Wataru; Omiya, Masaki

    2013-05-01

    An ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator, which consists of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane and electrodes plated on both surfaces, undergoes a large bending motion when a low electric field is applied across its thickness. IPMC actuators are lightweight and soft and can operate in solutions. They are thus promising for a wide range of applications including MEMS sensors, artificial muscles, biomimetic systems, and medical devices. The deformation behavior of IPMC actuators depends on the pH of the working solution. However, their basic mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, this study investigates the deformation mechanism of an IPMC actuator with palladium electrodes in various pH solutions. The tip displacements of IPMC actuators were measured under a step voltage in various pH solutions. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and alternating-current (AC) impedance measurements were then performed to investigate the effects of pH on the electrochemical properties of IPMC actuators. The responses to a step voltage indicate that the deformation behavior of an IPMC actuator depends on the pH: a lower pH gives a larger maximum tip displacement and more pronounced relaxation. In CV measurements, a lower pH results in more active reduction on the palladium electrode. In AC impedance measurements, a lower pH leads to a greater charge transfer resistance and a smaller double layer capacitance in an acid solution. Based on these mechanical and electrochemical measurements, we conclude that the maximum tip displacement and relaxation are governed by reduction on the palladium electrode and that the residual tip displacement is related to the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance. These results are helpful for the use and control of IPMC actuators.

  11. Modeling methylene blue aggregation in acidic solution to the limits of factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Golz, Emily K; Vander Griend, Douglas A

    2013-01-15

    Methylene blue (MB(+)), a common cationic thiazine dye, aggregates in acidic solutions. Absorbance data for equilibrated solutions of the chloride salt were analyzed over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-3) to 2.6 × 10(-5) M, in both 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M HNO(3). Factor analyses of the raw absorbance data sets (categorically a better choice than effective absorbance) definitively show there are at least three distinct molecular absorbers regardless of acid type. A model with monomer, dimer, and trimer works well, but extensive testing has resulted in several other good models, some with higher order aggregates and some with chloride anions. Good models were frequently indistinguishable from each other by quality of fit or reasonability of molar absorptivity curves. The modeling of simulated data sets demonstrates the cases and degrees to which signal noise in the original data obscure the true model. In particular, the more mathematically similar (less orthogonal) the molar absorptivity curves of the chemical species in a model are, the less signal noise it takes to obscure the true model from other potentially good models. Unfortunately, the molar absorptivity curves in dye aggregation systems like that of methylene blue tend to be sufficiently similar so as to lead to the obscuration of models even at the noise levels (0.0001 ABS) of typical benchtop spectrophotometers.

  12. Removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by cetylpyridinium bromide modified zeolite.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yanhui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Lin, Jianwei; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu

    2010-01-01

    Natural zeolite was modified by loading cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) to create more efficient sites for humic acid (HA) adsorption. The natural and CPB modified zeolites were characterized with X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial HA concentration, solution pH and coexistent Ca2+, upon HA adsorption onto CPB modified zeolites were evaluated. The results showed that natural zeolite had negligible affinity for HA in aqueous solutions, but CPB modified zeolites exhibited high adsorption efficiency for HA. A higher CPB loading on natural zeolites exhibited a larger HA adsorption capacity. Acidic pH and coexistent Ca2+ were proved to be favorable for HA adsorption onto CPB modified zeolite. The kinetic process was well described by pseudo second-order model. The experimental isotherm data fitted well to Langmuir and Sips models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of CPB modified zeolite with surfactant bilayer coverage was found to be 92.0 mg/g.

  13. Experimental study on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of AISI347 in acid chloride ion solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yanpeng; Wang, Runkun; Wang, Chao; Chen, Songying

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of AISI347 austenitic stainless steel exposed to acid solution containing chloride ion at different temperature and pressure is studied through slow strain rate testing (SSRT) at different test condition. The result of SSRT shows, with the pressure increasing, the SCC resistance is getting worse and the trend of brittle fracture presented by the fracture surface is more obvious. With the temperature rising, the mechanical properties of AISI347 getting worse first and then getting better, it gets to be the worst when the temperature is 260 °C. The result of significance effect analysis of temperature and pressure on SCC shows that the temperature has a greater effect on the resistance to SCC of AISI347 austenitic stainless steel than the pressure. The main component of passive film is analyzed and the mechanism of SCC is discussed. Chromium oxides soluble in the acidic chloride solution results in the forming of corrosion pits and the cracking of the passive film under stress.

  14. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Byung Chul Lee

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  15. Removal of Se(IV) from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid-treated peanut shell.

    PubMed

    El-Shafey, E I

    2007-09-01

    A carbonaceous sorbent was prepared from peanut shell via sulphuric acid treatment. Se(IV) removal from aqueous solution on the sorbent was studied varying time, pH, Se(IV) concentration, temperature and sorbent status (wet and dry). Se(IV) removal was faster using the wet sorbent than the dry sorbent following a pseudo-first-order model. Se(IV) removal increases at low pH values, and decreases as pH increases until pH 7. Sorption was found to fit the Langmuir equation and sorption capacity for the wet sorbent was higher than that for the dry one. Both sorbents showed an increased selenium sorption by rising the temperature. Redox processes between Se(IV) and the carbon sorbent are involved. Analysis by scanning electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction for the sorbent after the reaction with acidified Se(IV) confirmed the availability of elemental selenium as particles on the sorbent surface as a result of Se(IV) reduction. Physicochemical tests showed an increase in sorbent acidity, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and surface functionality after the reaction with acidified Se(IV), indicating the oxidation processes occurring on the sorbent surface. Due to its reduction properties, the sorbent seems efficient for Se(IV) removal from aqueous solution.

  16. Recovery of H2SO4 from waste acid solution by a diffusion dialysis method.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinki; Kim, Min-Seuk; Kim, Byung-Su; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Won-Baek; Lee, Jae-Chun

    2005-09-30

    A diffusion dialysis method using anion exchange membrane was used to recover H2SO4 from waste sulfuric acid solution produced at the diamond manufacturing process. Effects of flow rate, operation temperature, and metal ion concentration on the recovery of H2SO4 were investigated. The recovery of H2SO4 increased with the concentration of H2SO4 and operation temperature. It also increased with the flow rate ratio of water/H2SO4 solution up to 1, above which no further increase was observed. The flow rate did not affect the rejection of Fe and Ni ions. About 80% of H2SO4 could be recovered from waste sulfuric acid which contained 4.5M free-H2SO4 at the flow rate of 0.26x10(-3) m3/hm3. The concentration of recovered H2SO4 was 4.3M and the total impurity was 2000 ppm. Preliminary economic evaluation has revealed that the dialysis system is highly attractive one that has payback period of only few months.

  17. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF

  18. Ab initio studies of aspartic acid conformers in gas phase and in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingliang; Lin, Zijing

    2007-10-01

    Systematic and extensive conformational searches of aspartic acid in gas phase and in solution have been performed. For the gaseous aspartic acid, a total of 1296 trial canonical structures and 216 trial zwitterionic structures were generated by allowing for all combinations of internal single-bond rotamers. All the trial structures were optimized at the B3LYP /6-311G* level and then subjected to further optimization at the B3LYP /6-311++G** level. A total of 139 canonical conformers were found, but no stable zwitterionic structure was found. The rotational constants, dipole moments, zero-point vibrational energies, harmonic frequencies, and vertical ionization energies of the canonical conformers were determined. Single-point energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311++G** and CCSD /6-311++G** levels. The equilibrium distributions of the gaseous conformers at various temperatures were calculated. The proton affinity and gas phase basicity were calculated and the results are in excellent agreement with the experiments. The conformations in the solution were studied with different solvation models. The 216 trial zwitterionic structures were first optimized at the B3LYP /6-311G* level using the Onsager self-consistent reaction field model (SCRF) and then optimized at the B3LYP /6-311++G** level using the conductorlike polarized continuum model (CPCM) SCRF theory. A total of 22 zwitterions conformers were found. The gaseous canonical conformers were combined with the CPCM model and optimized at the B3LYP /6-311++G** level. The solvated zwitterionic and canonical structures were further examined by the discrete/SCRF model with one and two water molecules. The incremental solvation of the canonical and zwitterionic structures with up to six water molecules in gas phase was systematically examined. The studies show that combining aspartic acid with at least six water molecules in the gas phase or two water molecules and a SCRF solution model is required to provide

  19. Freezing of sulfuric and nitric acid solutions: Implications for polar stratospheric cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo Gonzalez, Dara

    2000-12-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) play an important role in ozone chemistry during the polar winter. The magnitude of their effect depends on their phase, composition and formation mechanism, which are not fully understood yet. In order to understand how liquid PSCs freeze, two apparatus were designed to study the freezing behavior of small drops using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and an optical microscope. Sulfuric acid aqueous drops with composition of 10 to 50 wt % were studied with the FTIR apparatus. The surface on which the drops stand caused heterogeneous nucleation of ice, but not of the sulfuric acid hydrates. The more concentrated solutions (>40 wt %) supercooled to 130 K without freezing. Below 150 K these solutions formed an amorphous solid, which liquefied upon warming. Drops with composition of 40 to 64 wt % HNO3 were prepared and their phase transitions were detected with the optical microscope apparatus. Freezing temperatures of the drops were determined and homogeneous nucleation rates of nitric acid dihydrate (JNAD) and nitric acid trihydrate (JNAT) between 170 and 190 K were calculated. JNAT and JNAD depend predominantly on the saturation of the solid in the liquid solution: higher saturation ratios correspond to higher nucleation rates. Classical nucleation theory was used to parameterize this relation. Since the saturation ratios of NAD and NAT vary with temperature and composition in different ways, NAT or NAD can form preferentially under different conditions. Evidence was found that NAD catalyzes the nucleation of NAT below ~183 K. Mullite, cristobalite and alumina were tested as possible heterogeneous nuclei of volcanic origin for PSCs. They catalyze freezing of NAD and NAT at temperatures below 179 K, which are too low to be stratospherically important. The results suggest that the largest drops in a PSC will freeze homogeneously if the stratospheric temperature remains below the NAT condensation temperature for more

  20. Ultrafast formation of the benzoic acid triplet upon ultraviolet photolysis and its sequential photodissociation in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chunfan; Su Hongmei; Sun Xuezhong; George, Michael W.

    2012-05-28

    Time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) absorption spectroscopy in both the femtosecond and nanosecond time domain has been applied to examine the photolysis of benzoic acid in acetonitrile solution following either 267 nm or 193 nm excitation. By combining the ultrafast and nanosecond TR-IR measurements, both the excited states and the photofragments have been detected and key mechanistic insights were obtained. We show that the solvent interaction modifies the excited state relaxation pathways and thus the population dynamics, leading to different photolysis behavior in solution from that observed in the gas phase. Vibrational energy transfer to solvents dissipates excitation energy efficiently, suppressing the photodissociation and depopulating the excited S{sub 2} or S{sub 3} state molecules to the lowest T{sub 1} state with a rate of {approx}2.5 ps after a delayed onset of {approx}3.7 ps. Photolysis of benzoic acid using 267 nm excitation is dominated by the formation of the T{sub 1} excited state and no photofragments could be detected. The results from TR-IR experiments using higher energy of 193 nm indicate that photodissociation proceeds more rapidly than the vibrational energy transfer to solvents and C-C bond fission becomes the dominant relaxation pathway in these experiments as featured by the prominent observation of the COOH photofragments and negligible yield of the T{sub 1} excited state. The measured ultrafast formation of T{sub 1} excited state supports the existence of the surface intersections of S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}, S{sub 2}/T{sub 2}, and S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}/T{sub 2}, and the large T{sub 1} quantum yield of {approx}0.65 indicates the importance of the excited state depopulation to triplet manifold as the key factor affecting the photophysical and photochemical behavior of the monomeric benzoic acid.

  1. Adsorption of chloridazon from aqueous solution on heat and acid treated sepiolites.

    PubMed

    González-Pradas, E; Socías-Viciana, M; Ureña-Amate, M D; Cantos-Molina, A; Villafranca-Sánchez, M

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of chloridazon on heat treated sepiolite samples at 110 degrees C (S-110), 200 degrees C (S-200), 400 degrees C (S-400), 600 degrees C (S-600) and acid treated samples with H2SO4 solutions of two different concentrations (0.25 and 1.0M) (S-0.25 and S-1.0, respectively) from pure water at 25 degrees C has been studied by using batch experiments. In addition, column experiments were carried out with the natural (S-110) and 600 degrees C (S-600) heat treated samples, using a 10.30 mg l-1 aqueous solution of chloridazon. The adsorption experimental data points have been fitted to the Freundlich equation in order to calculate the adsorption capacities (Kf) of the samples; Kf values range from 2.89 mg kg-1 for the S-1.0 sample up to 164 mg kg-1 for the S-600 sample; so, the heat treatment given to the sepiolite greatly increases its adsorption capacity for the herbicide chloridazon whereas the acid treatment produces a clear decrease in the amount of chloridazon adsorbed. The removal efficiency (R) has also been calculated; R values ranging from 5.08% for S-1.0 up to 60.9% for S-600. The batch experiments showed that the strongest heat treatment is more effective than the natural and acid treated sepiolite in relation to adsorption of chloridazon. The column experiments also showed that 600 degrees C heat treated sepiolite might be reasonably used in removing chloridazon from water. Thus, as this type of clay is relatively plentiful, these activated samples might be reasonably used in order to remove chloridazon from water.

  2. Prediction of solute kinetics, acid-base status, and blood volume changes during profiled hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ursino, M; Colí, L; Brighenti, C; Chiari, L; de Pascalis, A; Avanzolini, G

    2000-02-01

    A mathematical model of solute kinetics oriented to the simulation of hemodialysis is presented. It includes a three-compartment model of body fluids (plasma, interstitial and intracellular), a two-compartment description of the main solutes (K+, Na+, Cl-, urea, HCO3-, H+), and acid-base equilibrium through two buffer systems (bicarbonate and noncarbonic buffers). Tentative values for the main model parameters can be given a priori, on the basis of body weight and plasma concentration values measured before beginning the session. The model allows computation of the amount of sodium removed during hemodialysis, and may enable the prediction of plasma volume and osmolarity changes induced by a given sodium concentration profile in the dialysate and by a given ultrafiltration profile. Model predictions are compared with clinical data obtained during 11 different profiled hemodialysis sessions, both with all parameters assigned a priori, and after individual estimation of dialysances and mass-transfer coefficients. In most cases, the agreement between the time pattern of model solute concentrations in plasma and clinical data was satisfactory. In two sessions, blood volume changes were directly measured in the patient, and in both cases the agreement with model predictions was acceptable. The present model can be used to improve the dialysis session taking some characteristics of individual patients into account, in order to minimize intradialytic unbalances (such as hypotension or disequilibrium syndrome).

  3. Covalent triazine-based framework: A promising adsorbent for removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingyu; Lee, Linda S; Wei, Chenhui; Fu, Heyun; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable, persistent, and ubiquitous in the environment with significant concerns growing with regards to both human and ecosystem health. Due to the high stability to both biological and chemical attack, the only currently feasible approach for their removal from water is adsorbent technology. The main objective of this study was to assess a covalent triazine-based framework (CTF) adsorbent for removal from aqueous solutions of perfluoro C4, C6, and C8 carboxylates and sulfonates including the two C8s most commonly monitored, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Adsorption affinity and capacity were quantified and compared to three commonly used sorbents: pulverized microporous activated carbon, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and Amberlite IRA-400 anion-exchange resin. CTF adsorbent exhibited pronouncedly higher adsorption affinity and capacity of PFAAs than other test sorbents. The remarkably strong adsorption to CTF can be attributed to the favored electrostatic interaction between the protonated triazine groups on the inner wall of the hydrophobic CTF pore and the negatively charged head groups of the PFAAs intercalated between the CTF layers. The homogeneous, nanosized pores (1.2 nm) of CTF hindered adsorption of a large-sized dissolved humic acid, thus minimizing the suppression of PFAA adsorption. Additionally, regeneration of CTF was easily accomplished by simply raising pH > 11, which inhibited the electrostatic adsorptive interaction of PFAAs.

  4. Hydrogen assisted cracking and inhibition of spring alloys in acidizing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, W.R.; Chitwood, G.B.; Rice, P.W.; Walker, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    Several experiments were conducted to investigate and compare the hydrogen assisted cracking resistance of high strength, corrosion resistant spring alloys to acidizing fluids. Two cobalt-based alloys, UNS R30035 and UNS R30003, and one nickel-based alloy, UNS N07750, were evaluated. The tests involved exposing stressed spring segments of all alloys and C-rings of R30035 to uninhibited 28% HCl, 28% HCl with two different inhibitors, and the NACE TM0177 solution. Failures of N07750 spring segments in the uninhibited acid parallel field performance of this alloy. There were no failures of the R30035 or R30003 spring segments in the environments tested. Springs made from N07750 are more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than either R30035 or R30003. The C-ring tests of R30035 revealed the benefit of corrosion inhibition as a means of elevating the threshold cracking stress and increasing the time to failure in corrosive media. A strong beneficial effect of elevated-temperature thermal processing was observed for UNS R30035. High performance acidizing inhibitors are required in order to provide effective protection to high alloy spring materials.

  5. The adsorption of cationic dye from aqueous solution onto acid-activated andesite.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Su, Ting-Yi; Lin, Keng-Yu; Lin, Chien-Ming; Dai, Tzong-Hung

    2007-08-25

    The adsorption of cationic dye (i.e., methylene blue) onto acid-activated andesite in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to its kinetics as a function of agitation speed, initial adsorbate concentration, pH, and adsorbent mass. It was found that the resulting acid-activated adsorbent possessed a mesoporous structure with BET surface areas at around 60m(2)/g. The surface characterization of acid-activated andesite was also performed using the zeta-potential measurements, indicating that the charge sign on the surface of the andesite should be negative in a wide pH range (i.e., 3-11). Furthermore, a simplified kinetic model, pseudo-second-order, was tested to investigate the adsorption behaviors of methylene blue onto the clay samples treated under different process conditions. It was found that the adsorption process could be well described with the model. The adsorption capacity parameter of the model obtained in the present work was significantly in line with the process parameters.

  6. Effects of ultrasonic processing on degradation of salvianolic acid B in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y X; Zhang, L; Lu, L; Liu, E H; Shi, C Z

    2016-09-10

    To evaluate the stability of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) under ultrasound-assisted extraction in the pharmaceutical industry, degradation of Sal B under ultrasonic irradiation was investigated as the function of buffer concentration, pH, and temperature. With regard to Sal-B concentration, a first-order degradation process was determined, with 10% change in assay from its initial concentration as t90=4.81h, under maximum stability acidic conditions (pH 2.0) and at 25°C. The logkpH-pH profile described by specific acid-base catalysis and water molecules supported the experimental results. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses revealed 7 major degradation products whose structures were characterized by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. A primary degradation pathway involved cleavage of the ester bond and ring-opening of benzofuran in Sal B was proposed. The complete degradation pathway of Sal B was also proposed. Results showed that ultrasonic irradiation leads to degradation of Sal B in aqueous solution.

  7. Comparison of acidic polymers for the removal of cobalt from water solutions by polymer assisted ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Dambies, Laurent; Jaworska, Agnieszka; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Sartowska, Bozena

    2010-06-15

    In this study, three sulfonated water-soluble polymers based on poly(vinyl alcohol) of different molecular weights (10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 Da) were prepared and tested against commercially available poly(acrylic acid) for the removal of cobalt using polymer assisted ultrafiltration. High rejection rates were obtained between pH 3 and 6 with sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA 10,000 and 50,000 Da) whereas poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) of similar molecular weights performed rather poorly in this pH range. Sulfonation improved significantly sorption capability of PVA. Sulfonated PVA 10,000 was the best complexing agent with rejection rate above 95% between pH 3 and 6. For unmodified PVA the rejection rate was only 30-45% at pH 6 and there was no rejection at pH 3 at all. PAA rejection rate was above 90% at pH 6 and only about 10% at pH 3. Large scale experiment in cross-flow, continuous apparatus conducted by using PVA-SO(3)H 10,000 Da to remove (60)Co radioisotope from water solutions showed excellent results demonstrating the potential of this polymer to purify acidic radioactive wastes containing cobalt radioisotopes.

  8. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using magnetic carbon nanotube improved with tartaric acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Boron removal capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with tartaric acid was investigated in this study. Modification of MWCNTs with tartaric acid was confirmed by Boehm surface chemistry method and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed to determine the adsorption isotherm and adsorption thermodynamic parameters of boron adsorption on tartaric acid modified MWCNTs (TA-MWCNTs). The effect of variables including initial pH, dosage of adsorbent, contact time and temperature was investigated. Analysis of data showed that adsorption equilibrium could be better described by Freundlich isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities obtained at the pH of 6.0 was 1.97 mg/g. The estimated thermodynamic values of free energy (ΔG°), entropy (ΔS°) and enthalpy (ΔH°) indicated a spontaneous and an endothermic process. Furthermore, the TA-MWCNTs was magnetized for separation of boron-contaminated adsorbent from aqueous solution by applying magnetic field. The results showed that magnetic TA-MWCNTs particles were separated effectively after adsorption from contaminated water. PMID:24393401

  9. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type glass ceramics in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Y.; Zhang, T.; Johnson, P.; Imanishi, N.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Sammes, N.

    The stability of a NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LTAP), in acetic acid and formic acid solutions was examined. XRD patterns of the LTAP powders immersed in 100% acetic acid and formic acid at 50 °C for 4 months showed no change as compared to the pristine LTAP. However, the electrical conductivity of LTAP drastically decreased. On the other hand, no significant electrical conductivity change of LTAP immersed in lithium formate saturated formic acid-water solution was observed, and the electrical conductivity of LTAP immersed in lithium acetate saturated acetic acid-water increased. Cyclic voltammogram tests suggested that acetic acid was stable up to a high potential, but formic acid decomposed under the decomposition potential of water. The acetic acid solution was considered to be a candidate for the active material in the air electrode of lithium-air rechargeable batteries. The cell reaction was considered as 2Li + 2 CH 3COOH + 1/2O 2 = 2CH 3COOLi + H 2O. The energy density of this lithium-air system is calculated to be 1477 Wh kg -1 from the weights of Li and CH 3COOH, and an observed open-circuit voltage of 3.69 V.

  10. Spectrophotometric Study of the Interaction Np(VI) with Orthosilicic Acid and Polymeric Silicic Acids in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yusov, A. B.; Shilov, V. P.; Fedoseev, A. M.; Astafurova, L. N.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2005-07-15

    Spectrophotometric methods were used to investigate the interaction of the NpO22+ ion with orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4, and polymeric silicic acids (PSA) in aqueous solutions. At рН ≤ 4.5, the interaction is described by the reaction NpO22+ + Si(OH)4 = NpO2OSi(OH)3+ + H+ with an equilibrium constant of lg K = -2.88 ± 0.12 (ionic strength I = 0.1-0.2). Recalculation to I = 0 gives lg K0 =-2.61 ± 0.12; the stability constant of the complex NpO2OSi(OH)3+ is lg β0 = 7.20 ± 0.12. Polymerization of Si(OH)4 does not lead to an apparent increase in the constant K. In solutions with рН higher than 5, and with silicate concentration more than 0.02 mole/l, leads to formation of a second complex, whose structure probably is described by the formula NpO2(≡SiO)2(≡SiOH)m-2, where (≡SiOH)m designates the PSA molecule with superficial Si-OH groups. The factors influencing the apparent equilibrium constants in forming of complexes NpO2OSi(OH)3+ and NpO2(≡SiO)2(≡SiOH)m-2 are considered upon polymerization of Si(OH)4. Absorption spectra of complexes NpO2OSi(OH)3+ and NpO2(≡SiO)2(≡SiOH)m-2 were obtained. Molar extinction coefficients at the maxima (500-600 nanometers) are much higher than those of the Np(VI) aquo ion and are about 25-30 l/mol∙cm. The stabilities of silicate complexes of all types - MO2OSi(OH)3+, MO2(≡SiO)2(≡SiOH)m-2, or MO2SiO3 (M = U, Np, or Pu) - decrease in order U> Np> Pu with the greatest difference occurring between Np and Pu.

  11. Morphological changes of olivine grains reacted with amino acid solutions by impact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Yuhei; Takase, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Nao; Sekine, Toshimori; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    Early oceans on Earth might have contained certain amounts of biomolecules such as amino acids, and they were subjected to meteorite impacts, especially during the late heavy bombardment. We performed shock recovery experiments by using a propellant gun in order to simulate shock reactions among olivine as a representative meteorite component, water and biomolecules in oceans in the process of marine meteorite impacts. In the present study, recovered solid samples were analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The analytical results on shocked products in the recovered sample showed (1) morphological changes of olivine to fiber- and bamboo shoot-like crystals, and to pulverized grains; and features of lumpy surfaces affected by hot water, (2) the formation of carbon-rich substances derived from amino acids, and (3) the incorporation of metals from container into samples. According to the present results, fine-grained olivine in meteorites might have morphologically changed and shock-induced chemical reactions might have been enhanced so that amino acids related to the origin of life may have transformed to carbon-rich substances by impacts.

  12. Morphological changes of olivine grains reacted with amino acid solutions by impact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Yuhei; Takase, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Nao; Sekine, Toshimori; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Early oceans on Earth might have contained certain amounts of biomolecules such as amino acids, and they were subjected to meteorite impacts, especially during the late heavy bombardment. We performed shock recovery experiments by using a propellant gun in order to simulate shock reactions among olivine as a representative meteorite component, water and biomolecules in oceans in the process of marine meteorite impacts. In the present study, recovered solid samples were analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The analytical results on shocked products in the recovered sample showed (1) morphological changes of olivine to fiber- and bamboo shoot-like crystals, and to pulverized grains; and features of lumpy surfaces affected by hot water, (2) the formation of carbon-rich substances derived from amino acids, and (3) the incorporation of metals from container into samples. According to the present results, fine-grained olivine in meteorites might have morphologically changed and shock-induced chemical reactions might have been enhanced so that amino acids related to the origin of life may have transformed to carbon-rich substances by impacts.

  13. Quantitative extraction and concentration of synthetic water-soluble acid dyes from aqueous media using a quinine-chloroform solution

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ozawa, N.; Hanai, J.; Isobe, M.; Watabe, T.

    1986-12-01

    Twenty-one water-soluble acid dyes, including eleven azo, five triphenylmethane four xanthene, one naphthol derivatives, used at practical concentrations for food coloration, were quantitatively extracted from water and various carbonated beverages into a 0.1 M quinine-chloroform solution in the presence of 0.5 M boric acid by brief shaking. Quantitative extraction of these dyes was also accomplished by the 0.1 M quinine-chloroform solution made conveniently from chloroform, quinine hydrochloride, and sodium hydroxide added successively to water or beverages containing boric acid. Quinine acted as a countercation on the dyes having sulfonic and/or carboxylic acid group(s) to form chloroform-soluble ion-pair complexes. The diacidic base alkaloid interacted with each acid group of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasulfonic acid dyes approximately in the ratio 0.8-0.9 to 1. The dyes in the chloroform solution were quantitatively concentrated into a small volume of sodium hydroxide solution also by brief shaking. The convenient quinine-chloroform method was applicable to the quantitative extraction of a mixture of 12 dyes from carbonated beverages, which are all currently used for food coloration. A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method is also presented for the systematic separation and determination of these 12 dyes following their concentration into the aqueous alkaline solution. The chromatogram was monitored by double-wavelength absorptiometry in the visible and ultraviolet ray regions.

  14. Reactivity of Tannic Acid with Common Corrosion Products and Its Influence on the Hydrolysis of Iron in Alkaline Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; Araúz, E. Y.; Iglesias, J.; Delgado, Y.

    2003-06-01

    To ascertain the role of tannic acid in the anticorrosive protection of steels, the reaction between 5% tannic acid aqueous solutions with lepidocrocite, goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, akaganeite, poorly crystalline maghemite, magnetite and hematite was studied using color changes, infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. After three months of interaction with lepidocrocite, the formation of an iron tannate complex was detected by its dark blue color and confirmed by infrared and Mössbauer analysis. Evidence for the chemical transformation was obtained for goethite in nanoparticles and poorly crystalline maghemite after reaction for six months. The other iron compounds do not transform to another oxide or phase upon treatment with the tannic acid solution. These results showed that lepidocrocite is the most reactive phase and that the size and degree of crystallinity have strong influence on the formation of the tannate complexes. The precipitation of iron phases from alkaline solutions of iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate containing different amount of tannic acid and potassium nitrate as oxidative agent was also studied. Mössbauer and infrared results show that in the absence of tannic acid some common rust components are obtained (viz. goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, maghemite and non-stoichiometric magnetite). The presence of 0.1% tannic acid in a low alkalinity solution results in the precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides and some iron tannates. Concentrations of 1% tannic acid are required for the formation of the tannates complexes as main reaction product.

  15. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutral conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and

  16. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; ...

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutralmore » conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and processes that have a significant effect and/or control U mobility.« less

  17. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution.

  18. Preferential intracellular pH regulation represents a general pattern of pH homeostasis during acid-base disturbances in the armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis.

    PubMed

    Harter, T S; Shartau, R B; Baker, D W; Jackson, D C; Val, A L; Brauner, C J

    2014-08-01

    Preferential intracellular pH (pHi) regulation, where pHi is tightly regulated in the face of a blood acidosis, has been observed in a few species of fish, but only during elevated blood PCO2. To determine whether preferential pHi regulation may represent a general pattern for acid-base regulation during other pH disturbances we challenged the armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis, with anoxia and exhaustive exercise, to induce a metabolic acidosis, and bicarbonate injections to induce a metabolic alkalosis. Fish were terminally sampled 2-3 h following the respective treatments and extracellular blood pH, pHi of red blood cells (RBC), brain, heart, liver and white muscle, and plasma lactate and total CO2 were measured. All treatments resulted in significant changes in extracellular pH and RBC pHi that likely cover a large portion of the pH tolerance limits of this species (pH 7.15-7.86). In all tissues other than RBC, pHi remained tightly regulated and did not differ significantly from control values, with the exception of a decrease in white muscle pHi after anoxia and an increase in liver pHi following a metabolic alkalosis. Thus preferential pHi regulation appears to be a general pattern for acid-base homeostasis in the armoured catfish and may be a common response in Amazonian fishes.

  19. Consumer Benefits of Today's Digital Rights Management (DRM) Solutions. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property of the Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (June 5, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    The Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property, Committee on the Judiciary met, pursuant to call, at 2:15 p.m., in Room 2141, Rayburn House Office Building, to review the consumer benefits of today's digital rights management (DRM) solutions. The Honorable Howard Coble, a Representative in Congress from North Carolina and…

  20. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxic acid and their relationship to plasma homocysteine in a representative sample of British men and women aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Bates, C J; Pentieva, K D; Prentice, A; Mansoor, M A; Finch, S

    1999-03-01

    Concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxic acid were measured in fasting plasma samples from British men and women aged 65 years and over, participating in a National Diet and Nutrition Survey during 1994-5, selected to be representative of the population of mainland Britain. In this population, the concentration of pyridoxal phosphate declined, whereas pyridoxic acid rose, with increasing age and frailty; however, both status indicators were strongly and directly (with a positive coefficient) correlated with estimates of vitamin B6 intake. This was little affected by the inclusion of food energy and protein intakes in the model. Forty-eight percent of the participants living in the community and 75% of those living in institutions had plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations below a range considered normal from other studies. In a univariate regression model, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations were inversely correlated with plasma homocysteine concentrations, consistent with the hypothesis that vitamin B6 status may influence plasma homocysteine levels, and hence vascular disease risk. However, this relationship was partly attenuated in a multiple regression model including age, sex, domicile and biochemical status indices, including those of folate and vitamin B12. There was evidence that plasma pyridoxal phosphate was sensitive to metabolic conditions associated with inflammation and the acute-phase reaction, and that plasma pyridoxic acid was sensitive to renal function. Thus, neither index is an ideal predictor of vitamin B6 status in older people, unless these confounding factors are allowed for. Since poor vitamin B6 status may have health implications, e.g. for immune function, cognition, and for essential intermediary metabolic pathways in older people, it needs to be investigated as a possible public health problem.

  1. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty acids in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Danov, Krassimir D; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2012-03-01

    The limiting solubility of fatty acids in micellar solutions of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is experimentally determined. Saturated straight-chain fatty acids with n=10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 carbon atoms were investigated at working temperatures of 25, 30, 35, and 40°C. The rise of the fatty acid molar fraction in the micelles is accompanied by an increase in the equilibrium concentration of acid monomers in the aqueous phase. Theoretically, the solubility limit is explained with the precipitation of fatty acid crystallites when the monomer concentration reaches the solubility limit of the acid in pure water. In agreement with theory, the experiment shows that the solubility limit is proportional to the surfactant concentration. For ideal mixtures, the plot of the log of solubility limit vs. the chainlength, n, must be a straight line, which is fulfilled for n=14, 16, and 18. For the fatty acids of shorter chains, n=10 and 12, a deviation from linearity is observed, which is interpreted as non-ideal mixing due to a mismatch between the chainlengths of the surfactant and acid. The data analysis yields the solubilization energy and the interaction parameter for the fatty acid molecules in surfactant micelles. By using the determined parameter values, phase diagrams of the investigated mixed solutions are constructed. The four inter-domain boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, whose coordinates have been determined. The results can be applied for the interpretation and prediction of the solubility, and phase behavior of medium- and long-chain fatty acids and other amphiphiles that are solubilizable in micellar surfactant solutions, as well as for determining the critical micellization concentration (CMC) of the respective mixed solution.

  2. Stability of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the presence and absence of metal ions in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Hubicka, Urszula; Krzek, Jan; Walczak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic-densitometric method was used to determine the stability of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the presence and absence of metal ions in acidic solutions at 22 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 90 degrees C. The degradation of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin followed first order reaction kinetics in presence of metal ions. The extent of this degradation however depended on the type of metal ion and temperature. Product structures of ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-7-(piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-4(1H)-one) and norfloxacin (1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-4(1H)-one) were determined by analysis of UV spectra and using LC-MS method.

  3. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ileana; Varvara, Simona; Gaina, Luiza; Muresan, Liana Maria

    2014-12-01

    The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies EHOMO and ELUMO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

  4. Liquid extraction of rhenium(VII) and molybdenum(VI) with trialkylphosphine oxide from acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkin, V. F.; Palant, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid extraction of rhenium(VII) and molybdenum(VI) ions from sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid media is studied in the temperature range from 20 to 40°C using trialkylphosphine oxide in kerosene as an extracting agent. The maximum separation of these metals is attained when they are extracted from solutions of 1.0-2.0 M H2SO4 (the duration of intense phase mixing was 3-5 min). The enthalpy of the studied process is estimated to be Δ H = -32.32 kJ/mol for molybdenum and -51.52 kJ/mol for rhenium. The chemical aspects of the extraction process studied are discussed.

  5. Corrosion behavior of Ti-Ag alloys used in dentistry in lactic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of experimental Ti-Ag alloys used as dental materials. An elution test and a rest-potential measurement of alloys with 5-30 mass.% Ag were performed in a 1 % lactic acid solution. The amount of Ti ions released from the α phase of the Ti-Ag alloys decreased as the Ag concentration increased. TiAg present in the alloys dissolved preferentially, but Ti2Ag did not. The rest potentials of the Ti-Ag alloys were significantly higher than that of pure titanium. The elution test and the rest-potential measurement revealed that the Ti-Ag alloys, which formed a single α-titanium structure or contained a titanium and Ti2Ag, had excellent corrosion resistance that was comparable or superior to that of pure titanium.

  6. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, J. Uma; Krishnan, C.; Kalyanaraman, S.; Selvarajan, P.

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  7. Fabrication of Alumina Nanowires from Porous Alumina Membranes by Etching in Phosphoric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehua; Li, Chengyong; Ma, Lianjiao; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Baohua

    Alumina nanowires (ANWs) with high aspect ratios were synthesized by the chemical etching of porous alumina membranes (PAMs) in phosphoric acid solution. The morphology and structure of ANWs were analyzed by SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the typical features of ANWs are around 35 nm in diameter and around 20 μm in length, the crystalline structure of the ANWs was amorphous, which was in accordance with that of the PAMs. Furthermore, the morphology of the PAMs was characterized by AFM and SEM in detail. On the basis of AFM and SEM observations, a possible formation mechanism of ANWs was discussed, and the inhomogeneous of the dissolution between the triple points and the side walls was considered to be the essential factor deciding the formation of ANWs.

  8. Removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid activated materials.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model. Boyd plot indicates that the dye adsorption onto CS and TS is controlled by film diffusion. The adsorbents were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The materials used in this study were economical waste products and hence can be an attractive alternative to costlier adsorbents for dye removal in industrial wastewater treatment processes.

  9. A weakly acidic solution containing deoxycholic acid induces esophageal epithelial apoptosis and impairs integrity in an in vivo perfusion rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Pardon, Nicolas A.; Vicario, Maria; Vanheel, Hanne; Vanuytsel, Tim; Ceulemans, Laurens J.; Vieth, Michael; Jimenez, Marcel; Tack, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired esophageal mucosal integrity may be an important contributor in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Nevertheless, the effect of potentially harmful agents on epithelial integrity is mainly evaluated in vitro for a short period of time and the possible induction of epithelial apoptosis has been neglected. Our objective was to assess the effect of an acidic and weakly acidic solution containing deoxycholic acid (DCA) on the esophageal epithelium in an in vivo rabbit model of esophageal perfusion and to evaluate the role of the epithelial apoptosis. The esophagus of 55 anesthetized rabbits was perfused for 30 min with different solutions at pH 7.2, pH 5.0, pH 1.0, and pH 5.0 containing 200 and 500 μM DCA. Thereafter, animals were euthanized immediately or at 24 or 48 h after the perfusion. Transepithelial electrical resistance, epithelial dilated intercellular spaces, and apoptosis were assessed in Ussing chambers, by transmission electron microscopy, and by TUNEL staining, respectively. No macroscopic or major microscopic alterations were observed after the esophageal perfusions. The acidic and weakly acidic solution containing DCA induced similar long-lasting functional impairment of the epithelial integrity but different ultrastructural morphological changes. Only the solution containing DCA induced epithelial apoptosis in vivo and in vitro in rabbit and human tissue. In contrast to acid, a weakly acidic solution containing DCA induces epithelial apoptosis and a long-lasting impaired mucosal integrity. The presence of apoptotic cells in the esophageal epithelium may be used as a marker of impaired integrity and/or bile reflux exposure. PMID:26797397

  10. Experimental and theoretical study for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by some new hydrazine carbodithioic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, K. F.

    2006-04-01

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solutions by some new hydrazine carbodithioic acid derivatives namely N'-furan-2-yl-methylene-hydrazine carbodithioic acid (A), N'-(4-dimethylamino-benzylidene)-hydrazine carbodithioic acid (B) and N'-(3-nitro-benzylidene)-hydrazine carbodithioic (C) was studied using chemical (weight loss) and electrochemical (potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS) measurements. These measurements show that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these compounds increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follow the order C > B > A. Polarization studies show that these compounds act as mixed type inhibitors in 0.5 M HCl solutions. These inhibitors function through adsorption following Langmuir isotherm. The electronic properties of these inhibitors, obtained using PM3 semi-empirical self-consistence field method, have been correlated with their experimental efficiencies using non-linear regression method.

  11. Chemical composition and acid-base properties of the surface of GaAs-CdS solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Zemtsov, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition and acid-base properties of the surfaces of GaAs-CdS solid solutions and the constituent binary compounds exposed to air, vacuum, CO, and NH3 were analyzed using mass spectrometry, IR spectrometry, isoelectric-point pH (pHiso) analysis, and mechanochemical methods. Powders and films were prepared from the solid solutions by isothermal diffusion and discrete vacuum evaporation, respectively. XRD and Raman analysis revealed that a solid solution has a sphalerite or wurtzite structure, depending on its composition. The initial surface of all the systems studied exhibited acidic properties: the pH value ranged from 4.9 to 6.45. The surfaces contained Lewis (electron accepting) and Brönsted (adsorbed H2O and CO2 molecules, OH- groups) sites. The acidity of the surface increased upon treatment with CO and decreased upon treatment with NH3. For all types of treatment, the concentration dependence of the acid-base properties of the surface exhibited an extremum. The strongest acidic sites were revealed on the surface of the (GaAs)0.95 (CdS)0.05 solid solution. The adsorption activity of this solution, a promising material for manufacturing gas sensors, was evaluated.

  12. Raman spectra and structures of 1-methyl-4-(4-diethylaminophenylazo)-pyridinium iodide in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Akitaka; Ueda, Atsushi; Kuwae, Akio; Hanai, Kazuhiko; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki

    2013-09-01

    Fourier transform (FT) and resonance Raman spectra of 1-methyl-4-(4-diethylaminophenylazo)-pyridinium iodide (MDP) and its four deuterated and three 15N stable isotopic compounds have been measured in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions, and the molecular structures have been discussed on the basis of detailed vibrational assignments using the isotope shifts. No Raman band due to the azo Ndbnd N group is observed in a neutral aqueous solution and also in the solid state of MDP; therefore, this finding suggests that double bond character of the azo group becomes weak and, consequently, the structures of both benzene and pyridinium rings are close to that of a quinoid. The Raman and the 15N NMR spectra indicate that the Nβ of the azo group is protonated in an acidic solution of MDP. Comparison of the spectra of the two solutions suggests that the benzene ring has more quinoid character in the acidic than in the neutral solution. The chromophore structures have been revealed in each of the neutral (purple) and the acidic (yellow) solution.

  13. Peroxy Pyruvic Acid-Containing Topical Anti-Infective: A Potential Candidate for a Wound Instillation Solution

    PubMed Central

    Neas, Edwin D.; Dunn, Julie A.; Silva, Evelyn Dimaano; Chambers, A. Morgan; Luckasen, Gary J.; Jaskowiak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the therapeutic properties of a peroxy pyruvic acid (PPA)-containing topical anti-infective in a human ex-vivo model that replicates the natural conditions of a human chronic wound. Approach: Wound material was extracted from patients with nonhealing diabetic ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, and arterial wounds. Microbial species were identified, and wound colonization was quantified. Extracted samples were then exposed to a PPA-containing topical anti-infective as an instillation solution with negative pressure wound therapy NPWT at concentrations of 1,000, 1,500, or 2,500 ppm for a period of 1, 5, or 10 min to determine the effect of exposure on isolated pathogens, including effect on proteins. Results: A total of 32 samples were collected from patients. Samples presented with a range of bacteria and fungi representing 14 genera and 22 species, many of which are or are evolving to be resistant to many, if not most, current systemic antibiotics. Thirteen of twenty-three samples (57%) from chronic wounds had bacteria counts ≥105 and most were 6 logs or more. Seven of 10 samples (70%) from acute wounds had bacteria counts ≤105 and most were much lower. Exposure to PPA-containing topical anti-infective at 1,000 ppm killed all bacteria and fungi in all samples within 1 min of exposure. Innovation: PPA-containing topical anti-infective is a potentially valuable clinical option for NPWT. Conclusion: PPA-containing topical anti-infective is a potential candidate for use as an NPWT instillation solution for the treatment of wound infections caused by susceptible pathogens. PMID:27785377

  14. A decade of monitoring at Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) sites: can we observe trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity?

    PubMed

    Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Thimonier, Anne; Schmitt, Maria; Walthert, Lorenz; Waldner, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity from 1995 or later until 2007 were investigated at several forest sites throughout Switzerland to assess the effects of air pollution abatements on deposition and the response of the soil solution chemistry. Deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements at nine sites of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research network (LWF) since 1995 or later. Soil solution was measured at seven plots at four soil depths since 1998 or later. Trends in the molar ratio of base cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in soil solutions and in concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N (NO(3)-N + NH(4)-N), sulfate (SO(4)-S), and base cations (BC) were used to detect changes in soil solution chemistry. Acid deposition significantly decreased at three out of the nine study sites due to a decrease in total N deposition. Total SO(4)-S deposition decreased at the nine sites, but due to the relatively low amount of SO(4)-S load compared to N deposition, it did not contribute to decrease acid deposition significantly. No trend in total BC deposition was detected. In the soil solution, no trend in concentrations and fluxes of BC, SO(4)-S, and inorganic N were found at most soil depths at five out of the seven sites. This suggests that the soil solution reacted very little to the changes in atmospheric deposition. A stronger reduction in base cations compared to aluminum was detected at two sites, which might indicate that acidification of the soil solution was proceeding faster at these sites.

  15. Administration of balanced or BCAA-enriched amino acid solution in septic rats. Effects on protein synthesis in the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, P; Li, S J; Hasselgren, P O; LaFrance, R; Fischer, J E

    1988-01-01

    Total hepatic protein synthesis was measured in vivo with a flooding-dose technique, and the production of total secreted proteins, albumin, complement component C3, and seromucoid fraction was measured in perfused livers of septic rats that received one of three different solutions infused intravenously; Group 1 received 16.4% dextrose; Group 2 received Aminosyn (25% BCAA) in 10.6% dextrose, and Group 3 received Freamine HBC (45% BCAA) in 10.6% dextrose. All solutions were isocaloric, and the amino acid solutions were isonitrogenous. The solutions were administered for 18 or 48 hours after the induction of sepsis. There were no significant differences in mortality rates in the three treatment groups. The negative nitrogen balance seen in the dextrose-infused animals was reversed to the same degree by the two different amino acid solutions. There were no significant differences in hepatic protein synthesis rates in vivo between the three groups of rats. Synthesis rates of secreted proteins in perfused liver were similar in the different treatment groups in the 18-hour experiments, whereas in the 48-hour experiments, synthesis rates of total secreted proteins, C3, and the serumucoid fraction were higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3. The results suggest that administration of an amino acid solution improves nitrogen balance in sepsis, but that this effect is not caused by stimulated hepatic protein synthesis. The nitrogen-sparing effect during sepsis of a branched chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched solution does not seem to be superior to that of a balanced amino acid solution. PMID:3143320

  16. Au-supported Pt-Au mixed atomic monolayer electrocatalyst with ultrahigh specific activity for oxidation of formic acid in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Xie, Fangyun; Fu, Yingchun; He, Yong; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2012-12-25

    Au-supported Pt-Au mixed atomic monolayer electrocatalyst was prepared by underpotential deposition of Cu on Au and then redox replacement with noble metal atoms, which shows an ultrahigh Pt-mass (or Pt-area) normalized specific electrocatalytic activity of 102 mA μg(Pt)(-1) (124 mA cm(Pt)(-2)) for oxidation of formic acid in acidic aqueous solution.

  17. Effect of acidic solutions on the microhardness of dentin and set OrthoMTA and their cytotoxicity on murine macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of three acids on the microhardness of set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and root dentin, and cytotoxicity on murine macrophage. Materials and Methods OrthoMTA (BioMTA) was mixed and packed into the human root dentin blocks of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm height. Four groups, each of ten roots, were exposed to 10% citric acid (CA), 5% glycolic acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and saline for five minutes after setting of the OrthoMTA. Vickers surface microhardness of set MTA and dentin was measured before and after exposure to solutions, and compared between groups using one-way ANOVA with Tukey test. The microhardness value of each group was analyzed using student t test. Acid-treated OrthoMTA and dentin was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell viability of tested solutions was assessed using WST-8 assay and murine macrophage. Results Three test solutions reduced microhardness of dentin. 17% EDTA demonstrated severe dentinal erosion, significantly reduced the dentinal microhardness compared to 10% CA (p = 0.034) or 5% GA (p = 0.006). 10% CA or 5% GA significantly reduced the surface microhardness of set MTA compared to 17% EDTA and saline (p < 0.001). Acid-treated OrthoMTA demonstrated microporous structure with destruction of globular crystal. EDTA exhibited significantly more cellular toxicity than the other acidic solutions at diluted concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0%). Conclusions Tested acidic solutions reduced microhardness of root dentin. Five minute's application of 10% CA and 5% GA significantly reduced the microhardness of set OrthoMTA with lower cellular cytotoxicity compared to 17% EDTA. PMID:26877986

  18. Adsorption of copper ions from aqueous solution by citric acid modified soybean straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to convert soybean straw to a metal ion adsorbent and further to investigate the potential of using the adsorbent for the removal of Cu(2+) from aqueous solution. The soybean straw was water or base washed and citric acid (CA) modified to enhance its nature adsorption capacity. The morphological and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent were evaluated by spectroscopy and N(2)-adsorption techniques. The porous structure, as well as high amounts of introduced free carboxyl groups of CA modified soybean straw makes the adsorbent be good to retain Cu(2+). The adsorption capacities increased when the solution pH increased from 2 to 6 and reached the maximum value at pH 6 (0.64 mmol g(-1) for the base washed, CA modified soybean straw (CA-BWSS)). The Cu(2+) uptake increased and percentage adsorption of the Cu(2+) decreased with the increase in initial Cu(2+) concentration from 1 mM to 20 mM. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were tested, and the Freundlich model fited much better than the Langmuir model. It was found that CA-BWSS have the highest adsorption capacity of the four kinds of pretreated soybean straw.

  19. Antimicrobial Poly(lactic acid)-Based Nanofibres Developed by Solution Blow Spinning.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, Marta; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Du, Wen-Xian; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Williams, Tina G; Wood, Delilah F; Imam, Syed H; Orts, William J; Lopez-Rubio, Amparo; Lagaron, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the development of hybrid poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibres loaded with highly crystalline bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers (BCNW) by the novel solution blow spinning method. Furthermore, fibres with antimicrobial properties were generated by incorporating carvacrol and THC as antimicrobial agents and the biocide effect against Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Initially, PLA blow spun fibres containing BCNW were optimized in terms of morphology and thermal properties. The addition of BCNW was seen to significantly increase the viscosity and surface tension of solutions, restricting the capacity to form fibres for concentrations greater than 30 wt.-% BCNW. 15 wt.-% BCNW was selected as the optimum nanofiller loading as it led to the most uniform fibres morphology, with BCNW homogeneously distributed along the fibres' axis. Subsequently, carvacrol and THC were incorporated into the fibres to confer them with antimicrobial properties, although the hydrophobic PLA matrix did not provide an efficient release of the antimicrobials. Thus, hydrophilic substances were added in order to trigger the antimicrobials release through water sorption mechanisms. The addition of the BCNW filler was not seen to significantly increase the antimicrobial capacity of the fibres by itself and, hence, gelatin was added to help promoting further the hydrophylicity and biocide performance of the fibres. Nevertheless, for the more hydrophilic THC, the biocide capacity of the fibres with gelatin was accentuated further by the presence of the BCNW.

  20. Reduction of an azo dye acid black 24 solution using synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron particles.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Yu, Hsing-Hung; Chen, Wang-Hung

    2007-10-01

    The strong color and high total organic carbon (TOC) of laboratory-synthesized azo dye, C.I. Acid Black 24 (AB24), solution was substantially reduced with particles of chemically synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) under varied conditions of experimental variables such as NZVI dosage, initial dye concentration, and pH. From the results, the synthesized NZVI particles can effectively remove color and TOC of AB24 dye solution under certain conditions. The best removal efficiencies for color and TOC were obtained as 98.9 and 53.8%, respectively, with an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1) and an NZVI dosage of 0.3348 g L(-1). Additionally, the removal rates followed an empirical rate equation with respect to the initial dye concentration as well as the NZVI dosage. The NZVI dosage addition exponentially increments the removal efficiency, with observed empirical reaction rate constants (k) of 0.046-0.603 min(-1) for added NZVI of 0.0335-0.3348 g L(-1). Moreover, the largest unit removal capacity was 609.4 mg of AB24 uptake for each gram of NZVI (i.e., 609.4 mg AB24/g NZVI). Ultimately, the ideal operation conditions were 0.1674-0.3348 g L(-1) of NZVI dosage, 15-30 min of reaction time, and pH 4-9 for 25-100 mg L(-1) of initial dye concentration.

  1. Adsorption removal of tannic acid from aqueous solution by polyaniline: Analysis of operating parameters and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chencheng; Xiong, Bowen; Pan, Yang; Cui, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) prepared by chemical oxidation was studied for adsorption removal of tannic acid (TA) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out under different adsorbent dosages, pH, ionic strength, initial TA concentration and coexisting anions. Solution pH had an important impact on TA adsorption onto PANI with optimal removal in the pH range of 8-11. TA adsorption on PANI at three ionic strength levels (0.02, 0.2 and 2molL(-1) NaCl) could be well described by Langmuir model (monolayer adsorption process) and the maximum adsorption capacity was 230, 223 and 1023mgg(-1), respectively. Kinetic data showed that TA adsorption on PANI fitted well with pseudo-second-order model (controlled by chemical process). Among the coexisting anions tested, PO4(3-) significantly inhibited TA adsorption due to the enhancement of repulsive interaction. Continuous flow adsorption studies indicated good flexibility and adaptability of the PANI adsorbent under different flow rates and influent TA concentrations. The mechanism controlling TA adsorption onto PANI under different operating conditions was analyzed with the combination of electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions and Van der Waals interactions.

  2. Translocation of single stranded DNA through the α-hemolysin protein nanopore in acidic solutions

    PubMed Central

    de Zoysa, Ranulu Samanthi S.; Krishantha, D.M. Milan; Zhao, Qitao; Gupta, Jyoti; Guan, Xiyun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acidic pH on the translocation of single-stranded DNA through the α-hemolysin pore is investigated. Two significantly different types of events, i.e., deep blockades and shallow blockades, are observed at low pH. The residence times of the shallow blockades are not significantly different from those of the DNA translocation events obtained at or near physiological pH, while the deep blockades have much larger residence times and blockage amplitudes. With a decrease in the pH of the electrolyte solution, the percentage of the deep blockades in the total events increases. Furthermore, the mean residence time of these long-lived events is dependent on the length of DNA, and also varies with the nucleotide base, suggesting that they are appropriate for use in DNA analysis. In addition to be used as an effective approach to affect DNA translocation in the nanopore, manipulation of the pH of the electrolyte solution provides a potential means to greatly enhance the sensitivity of nanopore stochastic sensing. PMID:21997574

  3. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from hydriodic acid using methylammonium lead iodide in dynamic equilibrium with aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghak; Chang, Woo Je; Lee, Chan Woo; Park, Sangbaek; Ahn, Hyo-Yong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2017-01-01

    The solar-driven splitting of hydrohalic acids (HX) is an important and fast growing research direction for H2 production. In addition to the hydrogen, the resulting chemicals (X2/X3-) can be used to propagate a continuous process in a closed cycle and are themselves useful products. Here we present a strategy for photocatalytic hydrogen iodide (HI) splitting using methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) in an effort to develop a cost-effective and easily scalable process. Considering that MAPbI3 is a water-soluble ionic compound, we exploit the dynamic equilibrium of the dissolution and precipitation of MAPbI3 in saturated aqueous solutions. The I- and H+ concentrations of the aqueous solution are determined to be the critical parameters for the stabilization of the tetragonal MAPbI3 phase. Stable and efficient H2 production under visible light irradiation was demonstrated. The solar HI splitting efficiency of MAPbI3 was 0.81% when using Pt as a cocatalyst.

  4. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity. PMID:27682094

  5. Spray scrubbing of the nitrogen oxides into NaClO2 solution under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chien, T W; Chu, H; Hsueh, H T

    2001-01-01

    The operating conditions of this study were closed to the typical operating conditions of flue gas desulfurization system in the coal-fired power plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the absorption performance of lean NO in an aqueous solution of acidic sodium chlorite using a bench-scale spraying column. The NO conversion and NOx removal efficiency were increasing with the increasing NO concentration, retention time, sodium chlorite concentration, operating temperature, and decreasing initial pH of solution. As the sodium chlorite concentration were higher than 0.4 M, the NO conversion and NOx removal efficiency were 100% and 80%, respectively. The NO conversion and NOx removal efficiency under initial pH 4-7 were higher than that of initial pH > 7. It meant that this process might be suitable to combining with traditional wet flue gas desulfurization system. As the NO2/NOx ratio in the effluent gas was closed to 0.5, it might be suitable to be absorbed in the second scrubbing column operated under alkaline condition.

  6. Changes in aggregation behavior of collagen molecules in solution with varying concentrations of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Xu, Songcheng; Shen, Lirui; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2016-11-01

    A critical aggregation concentration of 0.30-0.50mg/mL was previously obtained for type I collagen at 0.1M acetic acid (AA). In the present study, the aggregation behavior of collagen in solution (0.5mg/mL) in the presence of 0.1-2.0M AA was investigated. Circular dichroism showed that the three helix structure was maintained across the whole AA concentration range. However, the ratio of positive peak intensity over negative peak intensity varied depending on the conformational state of collagen aggregates. Ultra-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry revealed that transition temperatures Tm1 and Tm2 decreased by 8.35°C and 7.80°C, respectively, between 0.1M and 2.0M, indicating a possible relationship between the aggregation state and the thermal effect. The surrounding polarity of collagen molecules in solution containing pyrene was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, which demonstrated that disaggregation of collagen aggregates was enhanced with increasing AA concentration. This observation was correlated with changes in collagen fiber size observed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, collagen tyrosine residues were blue-shifted in an intrinsic fluorescence spectra, further indicating changes in aggregation behavior with increasing AA concentration. Finally, the dynamic response of collagen molecules to AA was analyzed by two-dimensional correlation fluorescence spectra.

  7. Chemical Corrosion of Liquid-Phase Sintered SiC in Acidic/Alkaline Solutions Part 1. Corrosion in HNO3 Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ming; He, Xinnong; Tang, Wenming

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion behavior of the liquid-phase sintered SiC (LPS-SiC) was studied by dipping in 3.53 mol/L HNO3 aqueous solution at room temperature and 70 °C, respectively. The weight loss, strength reduction and morphology evolution of the SiC specimens during corroding were revealed and also the chemical corrosion process and mechanism of the SiC specimens in the acidic solution were clarified. The results show that the corrosion of the LPS-SiC specimens in the HNO3 solution is selective. The SiC particles are almost free from corrosion, but the secondary phases of BaAl2Si2O8 (BAS) and Y2Si2O7 are corroded via an acid-alkali neutralization reaction. BAS has a higher corrosion rate than Y2Si2O7, resulting in the formation of the bamboo-leaf-like corrosion pits. As the SiC specimens etched in the HNO3 solution at room temperature for 75 days, about 80 μm thickness corrosion layer forms. The weight loss and bending strength reduction of the etched SiC specimens are 2.6 mg/cm2 and 52%, respectively. The corrosion of the SiC specimens is accelerated in the 70 °C HNO3 solution with a rate about five times bigger than that in the same corrosion medium at room temperature.

  8. Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M

    2014-04-24

    The adsorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) composite was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) composite such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) composite could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from textile effluents.

  9. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma-Solution System (Gliding Discharge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NI, Mingjiang; YANG, Huan; CHEN, Tong; ZHANG, Hao; WU, Angjian; DU, Changming; LI, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a plasma-solution system was applied to the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7). The effects of initial concentration and type of feed gases (air, oxygen, nitrogen or argon) were studied. As the initial concentration increased from 100 mg/L to 160 mg/L, the discolouration rate of AO7 decreased from 99.3% to 95.9%, whereas the COD removal rate decreased from 37.9% to 22.6%. Air provided the best discolouration and COD removal rates (99.3% and 37.9%, respectively). In the presence of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) catalyst, the AO7 COD removal rate increased to 76.4%. The degradation products were analysed by a GC-MS, revealing that the degradation of the dye molecule was initiated through the cleavage of the -N=N- bond before finally being converted to organic acids. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 50908237, 51076142) and the Open Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of China (No. ZJUCEU2009008)

  10. Chain-length heterogeneity allows for the assembly of fatty acid vesicles in dilute solutions.

    PubMed

    Budin, Itay; Prwyes, Noam; Zhang, Na; Szostak, Jack W

    2014-10-07

    A requirement for concentrated and chemically homogeneous pools of molecular building blocks would severely restrict plausible scenarios for the origin of life. In the case of membrane self-assembly, models of prebiotic lipid synthesis yield primarily short, single-chain amphiphiles that can form bilayer vesicles only at very high concentrations. These high critical aggregation concentrations (cacs) pose significant obstacles for the self-assembly of single-chain lipid membranes. Here, we examine membrane self-assembly in mixtures of fatty acids with varying chain lengths, an expected feature of any abiotic lipid synthesis. We derive theoretical predictions for the cac of mixtures by adapting thermodynamic models developed for the analogous phenomenon of mixed micelle self-assembly. We then use several complementary methods to characterize aggregation experimentally, and find cac values in close agreement with our theoretical predictions. These measurements establish that the cac of fatty acid mixtures is dramatically lowered by minor fractions of long-chain species, thereby providing a plausible route for protocell membrane assembly. Using an NMR-based approach to monitor aggregation of isotopically labeled samples, we demonstrate the incorporation of individual components into mixed vesicles. These experiments suggest that vesicles assembled in dilute, mixed solutions are depleted of the shorter-chain-length lipid species, a finding that carries implications for the composition of primitive cell membranes.

  11. Methanol oxidation and hydrogen reactions on NiZr in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, C. C.; Manoharan, R.; Goodenough, J. B.

    The electrochemical properties of a Ni 50Zr 50 (at.%) alloy have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and steady-state polarization measurements. The alloy forms a passivating oxyhydroxide film that makes it electrochemically stable in an acid solution. The oxyhydroxide film is shown to be an electrocatalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The reaction proceeds at surface O 2- ions neighboring a Ni 3+ ion of a thicker passivating film; electron transfer from the surface to the electrode occurs diffusively by the nickel atoms of the film. A reaction pathway is presented that accounts for the observation of an optimum thickness for the passivating film. The NiZr alloy was also found to catalyze both hydrogen-oxidation and proton-reduction reactions (HOR and PRR) if it has a thinner surface oxyhydroxide film. The alloy appears to form mixed NiZrH and NiZrH 3- x hydrides on cycling negative of the normal hydrogen potential. The activity of the hydrogen-oxidation reaction on a hydride surface was found to increase in the presence of streaming hydrogen gas and also with increasing negative initial potential. Although the hydride is unstable in acid, it may be an attractive candidate for use as a rechargeable negative electrode in an alkaline metal/air or nickel-metal hydride secondary battery.

  12. Porous aluminum room temperature anodizing process in a fluorinated-oxalic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, S.; Fazio, E.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-08-01

    Anodizing of aluminum is used for producing porous insulating films suitable for different applications in electronics and microelectronics. Porous-type aluminum films are most simply realized by galvanostatic anodizing in aqueous acidic solutions. The improvement in application of anodizing technique is associated with a substantial reduction of the anodizing voltage at appropriate current densities as well as to the possibility to carry out the synthesis process at room temperature in order to obtain a self-planarizing dielectric material incorporated in array of super-narrow metal lines. In this work, the anodizing of aluminum to obtain porous oxide was carried out, at room temperature, on three different substrates (glass, stainless steel and aluminum), using an oxalic acid-based electrolyte with the addition of a relatively low amount of 0.4 % of HF. Different surface morphologies, from nearly spherical to larger porous nanostructures with smooth edges, were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. These evidences are explained by considering the formation, transport and adsorption of the fluorine species which react with the Al3+ ions. The behavior is also influenced by the nature of the original substrate.

  13. Structural investigations of aroylhydrazones derived from nicotinic acid hydrazide in solid state and in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galić, Nives; Brođanac, Ivan; Kontrec, Darko; Miljanić, Snežana

    2013-04-01

    Structural forms of aroylhydrazones derived from nicotinic acid hydrazide have been studied in the solid state by FT-IR spectroscopy and in solution by NMR, UV-Vis and ATR spectroscopy. The studied compounds were N'-benzylidene-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (1), N'-(2,4-dihydroxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (2), N'-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (3), and N'-(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxymethoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (4). The compound 1 adopted the most stable ketoamine form (form I, sbnd COsbnd NHsbnd Ndbnd Csbnd ) in the solid state as well as in various organic solvents. In mixtures of organic solvents with water the UV-Vis and ATR spectra implied intermolecular hydrogen bonding of 1 with water molecules. The presence of both tautomeric forms I and II (form II, sbnd COHdbnd Nsbnd Ndbnd Csbnd ) was proposed for the solid substance and highly concentrated solutions of 2, whereas form I was detected as the predominant one in diluted solutions. For compounds 3 and 4 a coexistence of forms I and III (form III, sbnd COsbnd NHsbnd NHsbnd Cdbnd Csbnd COsbnd ) was noticed in the solid state and in polar protic organic solvents. The conversion to form III was induced by increasing the water content in the solvent mixtures. This process was the most pronounced for compound 4. When exposed to daylight, an appearance of a new band was observed during time in the UV-Vis spectrum of 4 in organic solvent/water 1/1 mixtures, which implied that tautomeric interconversion was most likely followed by E/Z isomerisation.

  14. Acid Catalysis in Basic Solution: A Supramolecular Host PromotesOrthoformate Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-12-12

    Though many enzymes can promote chemical reactions by tuning substrate properties purely through the electrostatic environment of a docking cavity, this strategy has proven challenging to mimic in synthetic host-guest systems. Here we report a highly-charged, water soluble, metal-ligand assembly with a hydrophobic interior cavity that thermodynamically stabilizes protonated substrates and consequently catalyzes the normally acidic hydrolysis of orthoformates in basic solution, with rate accelerations of up to 890-fold. The catalysis reaction obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics, exhibits competitive inhibition, and the substrate scope displays size selectivity consistent with the constrained binding environment of the molecular host. Synthetic chemists have long endeavored to design host molecules capable of selectively binding slow-reacting substrates and catalyzing their chemical reactions. While synthetic catalysts are often site-specific and require certain properties of the substrate to insure catalysis, enzymes are often able to modify basic properties of the bound substrate such as pK{sub a} in order to enhance reactivity. Two common motifs used by nature to activate otherwise unreactive compounds are the precise arrangement of hydrogen-bonding networks and electrostatic interactions between the substrate and adjacent residues of the protein. Precise arrangement of hydrogen bonding networks near the active sites of proteins can lead to well-tuned pK{sub a}-matching, and can result in pK{sub a} shifts of up to eight units, as shown in bacteriorhodopsin. Similarly, purely electrostatic interactions can greatly favor charged states and have been responsible for pK{sub a} shifts of up to five units for acetoacetate decarboxylase. Attempts have been made to isolate the contributions of electrostatic versus covalent interactions to such pK{sub a} shifts; however this remains a difficult challenge experimentally. This challenge emphasizes the importance of synthesizing

  15. Recovery of transplutonium elements from aqueous and water-ethanol solutions of sulfuric acid and their separation from other actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1988-05-01

    The behavior of Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, and other actinides, as well as Zr, on anion and cation exchangers in aqueous and water-ethanol solutions of sulfuric acid as a function of the various components of the solution has been investigated. It has been discovered that the presence of ethanol in sulfuric acid solutions causes an increase in the distribution coefficients both on cation exchangers and on anion exchangers. The possibility of the use of ion exchangers for the preconcentration and separation of transplutonium elements from U, Np, Pu, Zr, and other elements which form strong complexes with sulfate ions over a broad range of concentrations of sulfuric acid has been demonstrated.

  16. Determination of acid ionization constants for weak acids by osmometry and the instrumental analysis self-evaluation feedback approach to student preparation of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakolesha, Nyanguila

    One focus of this work was to develop of an alternative method to conductivity for determining the acid ionization constants. Computer-controlled osmometry is one of the emerging analytical tools in industrial research and clinical laboratories. It is slowly finding its way into chemistry laboratories. The instrument's microprocessor control ensures shortened data collection time, repeatability, accuracy, and automatic calibration. The equilibrium constants of acetic acid, chloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, cyanoacetic acid, and iodoacetic acid have been measured using osmometry and their values compared with the existing literature values obtained, usually, from conductometric measurements. Ionization constant determined by osmometry for the moderately strong weak acids were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. The results showed that two factors, the ionic strength and the osmotic coefficient, exert opposite effects in solutions of such weak acids. Another focus of the work was analytical chemistry students solution preparation skills. The prevailing teacher-structured experiments leave little room for students' ingenuity in quantitative volumetric analysis. The purpose of this part of the study was to improve students' skills in making solutions using instrument feedback in a constructivist-learning model. After making some solutions by weighing and dissolving solutes or by serial dilution, students used the spectrophotometer and the osmometer to compare their solutions with standard solutions. Students perceived the instrument feedback as a nonthreatening approach to monitoring the development of their skill levels and liked to clarify their understanding through interacting with an instructor-observer. An assessment of the instrument feedback and the constructivist model indicated that students would assume responsibility for their own learning if given the opportunity. This study involved 167 students enrolled in Quantitative Chemical

  17. Radiation- and photo-induced formation of salicylic acid from phenol and CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Krapfenbauer, K.; Getoff, N.

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is steady increasing because of the combustion of fossil fuels and the industrial pollution. As a result, global warming has occurred. In the present study the formation of the salicylic acid and other products, originating from the carboxylation of phenol is investigated. It has been found that the formation of salicylic acid strongly depend on several experimental conditions: pH of the solution, concentration of phenol and CO{sub 2}, and absorbed dose. The formation of salicylic acid was also studied in the presence of catalysts. Photo-induced carboxylation of phenol to salicylic acid will be also reported. Probable reaction mechanisms for the salicylic acid formation are suggested. Finally, a comparison is made between the well known industrial Kolbe-Schmitt process for salicylic acid production and the aspects of the present new method for CO{sub 2} utilization.

  18. Interaction of model aryl- and alkyl-boronic acids and 1,2-diols in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Marinaro, William A; Prankerd, Richard; Kinnari, Kaisa; Stella, Valentino J

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this work was to quantitate ester formation between alkyl and aryl boronic acids and vicinal-diols or 1,2-diols in aqueous solution. As used here, 1,2-diols includes polyols with one or more 1,2-diol pairs. Multiple techniques were used including apparent pKa shifts of the boronic acids using UV spectrophotometry (for aryl acids) and titration (for aryl and alkyl acids). Isothermal microcalorimetry was also used, with all reactions being enthalpically favored. For all the acids and 1,2-diols and the conditions studied, evidence only supported 1:1 ester formation. All the esters formed were found to be significantly more acidic, as Lewis acids, by 3-3.5 pKa units than the corresponding nonesterified boronic acid. The equilibrium constants for ester formation increased with increasing number of 1,2-diol pairs but stereochemistry may also play a role as sorbitol with five possible 1,2-diol pairs and five isomers (taking into account the stereochemistry of the alcohol groups) was twice as efficient at ester formation compared with mannitol, also with five possible 1,2-diol pairs but only three isomers. Alkyl boronic acids formed esters to a greater extent than aryl acids. Although some quantitative differences were seen between the various techniques used, rank ordering of the structure/reactivity was consistent. Formulation implications of ester formation between boronic acids and 1,2-diols are discussed.

  19. Partial molar volumes of some alpha-amino acids in aqueous sodium acetate solutions at 308.15 K.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yan, Z; Zhuo, K; Lu, J

    1999-08-30

    The apparent molar volumes V(2,phi) have been determined for glycine, DL-alpha-alanine, DL-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid, DL-valine and DL-leucine in aqueous solutions of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol kg(-1) sodium acetate by density measurements at 308.15 K. These data have been used to derive the infinite dilution apparent molar volumes V(0)(2,phi) for the amino acids in aqueous sodium acetate solutions and the standard volumes of transfer, Delta(t)V(0), of the amino acids from water to aqueous sodium acetate solutions. It has been observed that both V(0)(2,phi) and Delta(t)V(0) vary linearly with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids. These linear correlations have been utilized to estimate the contributions of the charged end groups (NH(3)(+), COO(-)), CH(2) group and other alkyl chains of the amino acids to V(0)(2,phi) and Delta(t)V(0). The results show that V(0)(2,phi) values for (NH(3)(+), COO(-)) groups increase with sodium acetate concentration, and those for CH(2) are almost constant over the studied sodium acetate concentration range. The transfer volume increases and the hydration number of the amino acids decreases with increasing electrolyte concentrations. These facts indicate that strong interactions occur between the ions of sodium acetate and the charged centers of the amino acids. The volumetric interaction parameters of the amino acids with sodium acetate were calculated in water. The pair interaction parameters are found to be positive and decreased with increasing alkyl chain length of the amino acids, suggesting that sodium acetate has a stronger dehydration effect on amino acids which have longer hydrophobic alkyl chains. These phenomena are discussed by means of the co-sphere overlap model.

  20. Studies on equilibrium of anthranilic acid in aqueous solutions and in two-phase systems: aromatic solvent-water.

    PubMed

    Zapała, Lidia; Kalembkiewicz, Jan; Sitarz-Palczak, Elzbieta

    2009-03-01

    The acid-base equilibria of anthranilic acid have been characterized in terms of macro- and microdissociation constants (dissociation constants K(a1), K(a2) and tautomeric constant K(z)). On the basis of spectrophotometric investigations the values of the distribution ratio D of anthranilic acid in the two-phase systems: aromatic solvent (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene)-aqueous solution were obtained. Employing the results of potentiometric titration in the two-phase systems: aromatic solvent-aqueous solution the distribution constant K(D) and dimerization constant K(dim) values were calculated. The influence of organic solvent polarity and pH of the aqueous phase on the contents of the particular forms of the acid in the two-phase systems were analyzed.

  1. Oxidation of Co(II) by ozone and reactions of Co(III) in solutions of sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, A. V.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    Reactions of the oxidation of bivalent cobalt ions by ozone, of the spontaneous decomposition of trivalent cobalt, and of interactions between Co(III) and chloride ions in solutions of sulfuric acid are studied. The order and rate constant of the process of decomposition of Co(III) are determined. Information on the kinetics of the interaction between Co(III) and Cl- is obtained. Kinetic patterns of the accumulation of Co(III) during the ozonation of solutions of CoSO4 in sulfuric acid are explained. Molar absorption coefficients of Co(III) and Co2+ ions in the visible range of wavelengths are determined.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and adsorption properties of diethylenetriamine-modified hypercrosslinked resins for efficient removal of salicylic acid from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhan; Jin, Xiaoying; Mao, Jinglin; Yuan, Bin; Deng, Rujie; Deng, Shuguang

    2012-05-30

    We report an effective approach for tailoring the pore textural properties and surface polarity of a hypercrosslinked resin to enhance its adsorption capacity and selectivity for removing salicylic acid from aqueous solution. Four hypercrosslinked resins were synthesized by controlling the reaction time of the self Friedel-Crafts reaction of chloromethylated polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene, and then modified with diethylenetriamine to adjust their surface polarity. The resins were characterized with N(2) adsorption for pore textural properties, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for surface functional groups, chemical analysis for residual chlorine content and weak basic exchange capacity. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough performance were determined for the removal of salicylic acid from aqueous solution on a selected resin HJ-M01. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of salicylic acid on HJ-M01 is significantly higher than that on its precursor HJ-11 and a few commercial adsorbents including AB-8, XAD-4 and XAD-7. The dynamic adsorption capacity of salicylic acid on HJ-M01 was found to be 456.4 mg/L at a feed concentration of 1000 mg/L and 294 K. The used resin could be fully regenerated with 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The hypercrosslinked resins being developed were promising alternatives to commercial adsorbents for removing salicylic acid and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solution.

  3. ZrB2-HfB2 solid solutions as electrode materials for hydrogen reaction in acidic and basic solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Sitler, Steven J.; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-11-09

    Spark plasma sintered transition metal diborides such as HfB2, ZrB2 and their solid solutions were investigated as electrode materials for electrochemical hydrogen evolutions reactions (HER) in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M NaOH electrolytes. HfB2 and ZrB2 formed complete solid solutions when mixed in 1:1, 1:4, and 4:1 ratios and they were stable in both electrolytes. The HER kinetics of the diborides were slower in the basic solution than in the acidic solutions. The Tafel slopes in 1 M H2SO4 were in the range of 0.15 - 0.18 V/decade except for pure HfB2 which showed a Tafel slope of 0.38more » V/decade. In 1 M NaOH the Tafel slopes were in the range of 0.12 - 0.27 V/decade. The composition of HfxZr1-xB2 solid solutions with x = 0.2 - 0.8, influenced the exchange current densities, overpotentials and Tafel slopes of the HER. As a result, the EIS data were fitted with a porous film equivalent circuit model in order to better understand the HER behavior. In addition, modeling calculations, using density functional theory approach, were carried out to estimate the density of states and band structure of the boride solid solutions.« less

  4. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  5. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  6. UV – INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS STERILIZED SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM FORMATE AND AMMONIA UNDER HETROGENEOUS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, G.; Bisht, L. S.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation of sterilized aqueous solution of ammonium formate and ammonia with UV light in the presence and or absence of certain inorganic sensitizers for 25 hrs. gave six ninhydrin positive products in appreciable amounts. Out of the six products observed fiver were characterized as lysine, serine, glutemic acid, n-amino butyric acid and leucine. The sensitizing effect of additives on ammonium formate was observed in the order; uranium oxide > ammonium formate > ferric oxide > arsenic oxide. PMID:22556511

  7. Solution conformation of a peptide fragment representing a proposed RNA-binding site of a viral coat protein studied by two-dimensional NMR

    SciTech Connect

    van der Graaf, M.; van Mierlo, C.P.M.; Hemminga, M.A. )

    1991-06-11

    The first 25 amino acids of the coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus are essential for binding the encapsidated RNA. Although an {alpha}-helical conformation has been predicted for this highly positively charged N-terminal region. No experimental evidence for this conformation has been presented so far. In this study, two-dimensional proton NMR experiments were performed on a chemically synthesized pentacosapeptide containing the first 25 amino acids of this coat protein. All resonances could be assigned by a combined use of two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy carried out at four different temperatures. Various NMR parameters indicate the presence of a conformational ensemble consisting of helical structures rapidly converting into more extended states. Differences in chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser effects indicate that lowering the temperature induces a shift of the dynamic equilibrium toward more helical structures. At 10{degrees}C, a perceptible fraction of the conformational ensemble consists of structures with an {alpha}-helical conformation between residues 9 and 17, likely starting with a turnlike structure around Thr9 and Arg10. Both the conformation and the position of this helical region agree well with the secondary structure predictions mentioned above.

  8. Formation of Amino Acids on the Sonolysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Acetic Acid, Methane, or Carbon Dioxide, in the Presence of Nitrogen Gas.

    PubMed

    Dharmarathne, Leena; Grieser, Franz

    2016-01-21

    The sonolysis of aqueous solutions containing acetic acid, methane, or carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen gas was found to produce a number of different amino acids at a rate of ∼1 to 100 nM/min, using ultrasound at an operating power of 70 W and 355 kHz. Gas-phase elementary reactions are suggested, and discussed, to account for the formation of the complex biomolecules from the low molar mass solutes used. On the basis of the results, a new hypothesis is presented to explain the formation of amino acids under primitive atmospheric conditions and how their formation may be linked to the eventual abiotic genesis of life on Earth.

  9. The RS685012 Polymorphism of ACCN2, the Human Ortholog of Murine Acid-Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC1) Gene, is Highly Represented in Patients with Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gugliandolo, Agnese; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Currò, Monica; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Quattrone, Diego; Crucitti, Manuela; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Bruno, Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2016-03-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling anxiety disorder that is characterized by unexpected, recurrent panic attacks, associated with fear of dying and worrying about possible future attacks or other behavioral changes as a consequence of the attacks. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of proton-sensing channels expressed throughout the nervous system. Their activity is linked to a variety of behaviors including fear, anxiety, pain, depression, learning, and memory. The human analog of ASIC1a is the amiloride-sensitive cation channel 2 (ACCN2). Adenosine A2A receptors are suggested to play an important role in different brain circuits and pathways involved in anxiety reactions. In this work we aimed to evaluate the distribution of ACCN2 rs685012 and ADORA2A rs2298383 polymorphisms in PD patients compared with healthy subjects. We found no association between ADORA2A polymorphism and PD. Instead, the C mutated allele for ACCN2 rs685012 polymorphism was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls. On the contrary, the TT homozygous wild-type genotype and also the ACCN2 TT/ADORA2A CT diplotype were significantly more represented in controls. These results are suggestive for a role of ACCN2 rs685012 polymorphism in PD development in Caucasian people.

  10. Dynamics of organic and inorganic arsenic in the solution phase of an acidic fen in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-H.; Matzner, E.

    2006-04-01

    Wetland soils play a key role for the transformation of heavy metals in forested watersheds, influencing their mobility, and ecotoxicity. Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of release from solid to solution phase, the mobility, and the transformation of arsenic species in a fen soil. In methanol-water extracts, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenobetaine, and two unknown organic arsenic species were found with concentrations up to 14 ng As g -1 at the surface horizon. Arsenate is the dominant species at the 0-30 cm depth, whereas arsenite predominated at the 30-70 cm depth. Only up to 2.2% of total arsenic in fen was extractable with methanol-water. In porewaters, depth gradient spatial variation of arsenic species, pH, redox potentials, and the other chemical parameters along the profile was observed in June together with high proportion of organic arsenic species (up to 1.2 μg As L -1, 70% of total arsenic). Tetramethylarsonium ion and an unknown organic arsenic species were additionally detected in porewaters at deeper horizons. In comparison, the arsenic speciation in porewaters in April was homogeneous with depth and no organic arsenic species were found. Thus, the occurrence of microbial methylation of arsenic in fen was demonstrated for the first time. The 10 times elevated total arsenic concentrations in porewaters in June compared to April were accompanied by elevated concentrations of total iron, lower concentrations of sulfate and the presence of ammonium and phosphate. The low proportion of methanol-water extractable total arsenic suggests a generally low mobility of arsenic in fen soils. The release of arsenic from solid to solution phases in fen is dominantly controlled by dissolution of iron oxides, redox transformation, and methylation of arsenic, driven by microbial activity in the growing season. As a result, increased concentrations of total arsenic and potentially toxic arsenic species in fen

  11. Oxidation of hydroxyurea with oxovanadium(V) ions in acidic aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gabricević, Mario; Besić, Erim; Birus, Mladen; Zahl, Achim; Eldik, Rudi van

    2006-10-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) effectively reduces vanadium(V) into vanadium(IV) species (hereafter V(V) and V(IV) species, respectively) in acidic aqueous solution via the formation of a transient complex followed by an electron transfer process that includes the formation and subsequent fading out of a free radical, U* (U* identical with H(2)N-C(=O)N(H)O*). The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of U* in H(2)O/D(2)O solutions suggest that the unpaired electron is located predominantly on the hydroxamate hydroxyl-oxygen atom. Visible and V(IV)-EPR spectroscopic data reveal HU as a two-electron donor, whereas formation of U*, which reduces a second V(V), indicates that electron transfer occurs in two successive one-electron steps. At the molarity ratio [V(V)]/[HU]=2, the studied reaction can be formulated as: 2 V(V)+HU-->2 V(IV)+0.98 CO(2)+0.44 N(2)O+1.1 NH(3)+0.1 NH(2)OH. Lack of evidence for the formation of NO is suggested to be a consequence of the slow oxidation of HNO due to the too low reduction potential of the V(V)/V(IV) couple under the experimental conditions used. The nuclear magnetic resonance ((51)V-NMR) spectral data indicate protonation of (H(2)O)(4)V(V)O(2)(+), and the protonation equilibrium constant was determined to be K=0.7 M(-1). Spectrophotometric titration data for the V(V)-HU system reveal formation of (H(2)O)(2)V(V)O(OH)U(+) and (H(2)O)(3)V(V)OU(2+). Their stability constants were calculated as K(110)=5 M(-1) and K(111)=22 M(-2), where the subscript digits refer to (H(2)O)(4)V(V)O(2)(+), HU and H(+), respectively.

  12. Preparation of xerogel SiO2 from roasted iron sand under various acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Ismoyo, Y. A.; Pranata, H. P.; Munawaroh, H.

    2016-11-01

    Xerogel SiO2 had been prepared from roasted iron sand through variation of Na2CO3 addition and sol-gel process under various acidic solution. Roasting treatment was carried out on the compositional variation of iron sand:Na2CO3 = 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1 at 1100 °C. While the sol-gel process was conducted at room temperature and neutralized using HCl 0.1 M and 6 M. The color characteristics of roasted iron sand shown light brown, dark brown and dark gray of the compositional variation of iron sand:Na2CO3 = 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. In addition, the levels of thoughness increased by increasing the ratio of sand in the composition of the mixture. The best composition of roasted treatment was at a variety of iron sand:Na2SiO3 = 1:2 with 57.72% had been dissolved in hot water. The addition of Na2CO3 will influence the Na2SiO3 formation, because of the increase of Na2CO3 capable produced the iron sand decomposition product. Na2SiO3 gel had been produced after it was neutralized with certain amount of HCl solution. The neutralization was more effective if using high concentration of HCl because of the formation of gel SiO2 will be easier occurred. The results of SiO2 had been identified by the FTIR spectra, which an absorption spectra of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at 1098.51 cm-1, symmetric stretching of Si-O-Si at 804.35 cm-1 and the bending O-Si-O at 469.69 cm'1. The result of SiO2 content by XRF analysis is about 85.15%.

  13. Homogenous Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Rates Correlate with Reaction Overpotential in Acidic Organic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Improved electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are critical for the advancement of fuel cell technologies. Herein, we report a series of 11 soluble iron porphyrin ORR electrocatalysts that possess turnover frequencies (TOFs) from 3 s–1 to an unprecedented value of 2.2 × 106 s–1. These TOFs correlate with the ORR overpotential, which can be modulated by changing the E1/2 of the catalyst using different ancillary ligands, by changing the solvent and solution acidity, and by changing the catalyst’s protonation state. The overpotential is well-defined for these homogeneous electrocatalysts by the E1/2 of the catalyst and the proton activity of the solution. This is the first such correlation for homogeneous ORR electrocatalysis, and it demonstrates that the remarkably fast TOFs are a consequence of high overpotential. The correlation with overpotential is surprising since the turnover limiting steps involve oxygen binding and protonation, as opposed to turnover limiting electron transfer commonly found in Tafel analysis of heterogeneous ORR materials. Computational studies show that the free energies for oxygen binding to the catalyst and for protonation of the superoxide complex are in general linearly related to the catalyst E1/2, and that this is the origin of the overpotential correlations. This analysis thus provides detailed understanding of the ORR barriers. The best catalysts involve partial decoupling of the influence of the second coordination sphere from the properties of the metal center, which is suggested as new molecular design strategy to avoid the limitations of the traditional scaling relationships for these catalysts. PMID:27924314

  14. Drin pesticides removal from aqueous solutions using acid-treated date stones.

    PubMed

    El Bakouri, H; Usero, J; Morillo, J; Rojas, R; Ouassini, A

    2009-05-01

    This work describes the potential applicability of chemically and thermally treated date stones for removing drin pesticides (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) from aqueous solutions. The effect of several parameters, such as sorbent particle size, adsorbent dose, shaking speed, shaking time, concentration of pesticide solution and temperature, was evaluated by batch experiments. Pesticide determination was carried out using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Maximum removal efficiency (93%) was reached using 0.1 g of acid-treated date stones (ATDS) (63-100 microm) and 100 mL of aldrin (0.5 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiency of drin pesticides decreased in the order of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin, and decreased as the temperature rose. Adsorption data were processed according to various kinetic models. Lagergren and Morris-Weber equations were applied to fit the kinetic results. The second order model was the most suitable on the whole, and intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 3.5h were considered as the equilibrium time for determining adsorption isotherms. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process. In addition, thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaG were calculated. Negative values of DeltaH and DeltaG indicate the exothermic and spontaneous nature of pesticide adsorption on ATDS.

  15. Summation solute hydrogen bonding acidity values for hydroxyl substituted flavones determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Whaley, William L; Okoso-amaa, Ekua M; Womack, Cody L; Vladimirova, Anna; Rogers, Laura B; Risher, Margaret J; Abraham, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    The flavonoids are a structurally diverse class of natural products that exhibit a broad spectrum of biochemical activities. The flavones are one of the most studied flavonoid subclasses due to their presence in dietary plants and their potential to protect human cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several flavone compounds also mediate beneficial actions by direct binding to protein receptors and regulatory enzymes. There is current interest in using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) to guide drug development based on flavone lead structures. This approach is most informative when it involves the use of accurate physical descriptors. The Abraham summation solute hydrogen bonding acidity (A) is a descriptor in the general solvation equation. It defines the tendency of a molecule to act as a hydrogen bond donor, or acid, when surrounded by solvent molecules that are hydrogen bonding acceptors, or bases. As a linear free energy relationship, it is useful for predicting the absorption and uptake of drug molecules. A previously published method, involving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to evaluate A for the monohydroxyflavones (MHFs). Values of A ranged from 0.02, for 5-hydroxyflavone, to 0.69 for 4'-hydroxyflavone. The ability to examine separate NMR signals for individual hydroxyl groups allowed the investigation of intramolecular interactions between functional groups. The value of A for the position 7 hydroxyl group of 7-hydroxyflavone was 0.67. The addition of a position 5 hydroxyl group (in 5,7-dihydroxyflavone) increased the value of A for the position 7 hydroxyl group to 0.76. Values of A for MHFs were also calculated by the program ACD-Absolve and these agreed well with values measured by NMR. These results should facilitate more accurate estimation of the values of A for structurally complex flavones with pharmacological activities.

  16. Survival of Salmonella in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions as affected by acidulant type and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2012-03-01

    Mayonnaise made from contaminated eggs has been linked to outbreaks of Salmonella infections. This study was undertaken to determine the fate of salmonellae in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions with or without chemical preservatives. Egg yolks were inoculated with different levels of a three-serotype (Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Enteritidis [untypeable phage type]) mixture of Salmonella or a three-phage-type (4, 8, and 13) mixture of Salmonella Enteritidis. The inoculated yolks were used to make mayonnaise with 2, 3, or 4 teaspoons of a commercial wine vinegar or lemon juice. The mayonnaise was sampled for salmonellae over a 15-day period at 4°C, and negative samples were tested further by a three-tube most-probable-number assay. The same Salmonella mixtures were respectively inoculated into six acid solutions including wine vinegar, lemon juice, and acetic or citric solutions with or without chemical preservatives. The Salmonella populations of the Salmonella Enteritidis mixture were more persistent than those of the other Salmonella mixture in mayonnaise. Both Salmonella mixtures survived longer in mayonnaise made with vinegar than with lemon juice during storage at 4°C. In the acid solutions, however, the populations of the two Salmonella mixtures were not significantly different. The numbers of the two Salmonella mixtures in acetic or citric acid solutions with the preservatives were significantly lower than those in vinegar, lemon juice, and the solutions without the preservatives. Results suggest that Salmonella in contaminated egg yolks could survive the mayonnaise-making process. The inhibition of Salmonella by vinegar and lemon juice is due to the hurdle effect of organic acids and chemical preservatives.

  17. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    PubMed

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  18. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    PubMed Central

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos® IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L−1 Na2SO3 receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]+ [AuCl4]− H+ [PO2]− where [P]+ and [PO2]− represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO3)2]3− in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry. PMID:26670259

  19. [Behavior of free amino acids in plasma and urine of intensive care patients with multiple injuries during the administration of an amino acid solution with 10% branched-chain amino acids].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J E; Dölp, R; Grünert, A; Ahnefeld, F W

    1981-10-01

    The study was performed on eleven severely injured ventilated intensive care patients. Plasma and urine concentrations of free amino acids, nitrogen balance and energy expenditure were studied for a period of six days following trauma. Most of the free amino acids in plasma, especially the BCAA's return to reference range within a few days after trauma on administering the infusion solution investigated. An amino acid imbalance in the plasma of severely traumatized patients could be avoided by infusion of an amino acid solution containing only 10% branched-chain amino acids. The amino acids infused are utilized to an extent of more than 90%. However, a still markedly increased negative nitrogen balance, as well as a clearly negative energy balance indicate, that further investigations on nitrogen - and carbohydrate supply are necessary.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of acidity constant of some indicators in various micellar media solutions by rank annihilation factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Ali; Zolgharnein, Javad; Davoodabadi, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-01

    Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) was used to the spectrophotometric studies of the acidity constant of methyl orange, methyl red and methyl violet in water and different micellar solutions at 25 °C and an ionic strength of 0.1 M. When the acidity constants (surfactant concentration dependent acidity constant) acts as an optimizing object, and simply combined with the pure spectrum of acidic and basic forms, the rank of original data matrix can be reduced. The residual standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the residual matrix after bi-linearization of the background matrix is regarded as the evaluation function. Results show that the acidity constant of these indicators are influenced as the percentages of neutral, cationic and anionic surfactant such as Triton X-100 (poly(oxyethylene)(9.5) p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl), sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and cethyltrimethylammonium (CTAB), respectively, added to the solution of these reagents. Also, RAFA is an efficient chemometrics algorithm for completely analysis of acid-base equilibrium systems by spectrophotometric method. Effects of surfactant on acidity constant and absorption spectra are also discussed.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of acidity constant of some indicators in various micellar media solutions by rank annihilation factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Ali; Zolgharnein, Javad; Davoodabadi, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-01

    Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) was used to the spectrophotometric studies of the acidity constant of methyl orange, methyl red and methyl violet in water and different micellar solutions at 25 degrees C and an ionic strength of 0.1M. When the acidity constants (surfactant concentration dependent acidity constant) acts as an optimizing object, and simply combined with the pure spectrum of acidic and basic forms, the rank of original data matrix can be reduced. The residual standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the residual matrix after bi-linearization of the background matrix is regarded as the evaluation function. Results show that the acidity constant of these indicators are influenced as the percentages of neutral, cationic and anionic surfactant such as Triton X-100 (poly(oxyethylene)(9.5)p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl), sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and cethyltrimethylammonium (CTAB), respectively, added to the solution of these reagents. Also, RAFA is an efficient chemometrics algorithm for completely analysis of acid-base equilibrium systems by spectrophotometric method. Effects of surfactant on acidity constant and absorption spectra are also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SUGURO, Atsushi; ISHIDA, Yuki; KAWAMURA, Akinobu; TAMURA, Miho; SATOH, Keisuke; TSUJIMURA, Misato; HASEGAWA, Tomomi; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  3. Miscibility of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) solvent polymer blends and nanofibers made by solution blow spinning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miscibility of blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in polymer solutions by dilute solution viscometry and in solution blow spun nanofibers by microscopy (SEM, TEM) and by thermal and spectral analysis. Three blends of PLA and PEO were solution blended in...

  4. Hexavalent uranium diffusion into soils from concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Pena, Jasquelin; Sutton, Stephen R.; Newville, Matthew

    2004-03-29

    Uranium contamination of soils and sediments often originates from acidic or alkaline waste sources, with diffusion being a major transport mechanism. Measurements of U(VI) diffusion from initially pH 2 and pH 11 solutions into a slightly alkaline Altamont soil and a neutral Oak Ridge soil were obtained through monitoring uptake from boundary reservoirs and from U concentration profiles within soil columns. The soils provided pH buffering, resulting in diffusion at nearly constant pH. Micro x-ray absorption near edge structure spectra confirmed that U remained in U(VI) forms in all soils. Time trends of U(VI) depletion from reservoirs, and U(VI) concentration profiles within soil columns yielded K{sub d} values consistent with those determined in batch tests at similar concentrations ({approx} 1 mM), and much lower than values for sorption at much lower concentrations (nM to {mu}M). These results show that U(VI) transport at high concentrations can be relatively fast at non-neutral pH, with negligible surface diffusion, because of weak sorption.

  5. Laccase-mediated transformation of triclosan in aqueous solution with metal cations and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Kang, Fuxing; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Gao, Yanzheng; Huang, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is found extensively in natural aquatic environments. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions (ECOCRs) can be used to remove TCS in aqueous solution, but there is limited information available to indicate how metal cations (MCs) and natural organic matter (NOM) influence the environmental fate of TCS during laccase-mediated ECOCRs. In this study, we demonstrated that the naturally occurring laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus was effective in removing TCS during ECOCRs, and the oligomerization of TCS was identified as the dominant reaction pathway by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The growth inhibition studies of green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus) proved that laccase-mediated ECOCRs could effectively reduce the toxicity of TCS. The presence of dissolved MCs (Mn(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(2+) ions) influenced the removal and transformation of TCS via different mechanisms. Additionally, the transformation of TCS in systems with NOM derived from humic acid (HA) was hindered, and the apparent pseudo first-order kinetics rate constants (k) for TCS decreased as the HA concentration increased, which likely corresponded to the combined effect of both noncovalent (sorption) and covalent binding between TCS and humic molecules. Our results provide a novel insight into the fate and transformation of TCS by laccase-mediated ECOCRs in natural aquatic environments in the presence of MCs and NOM.

  6. Mechanisms of enhanced total organic carbon elimination from oxalic acid solutions by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Yuan, Shi; Zhan, Juhong; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) is a novel electrocatalytic ozonation process that combines ozonation and electrolysis process to enhance pollutant degradation during water and wastewater treatment. This enhancement has been mainly attributed to several mechanisms that increase O3 transformation to ·OH in the E-peroxone system, e.g., electro-generation of H2O2 from O2 at a carbon-based cathode and its subsequent peroxone reaction with O3 to ·OH, electro-reduction of O3 to ·OH at the cathode, and O3 decomposition to ·OH at high local pH near the cathode. To get more insight how these mechanisms contribute respectively to the enhancement, this study investigated total organic carbon (TOC) elimination from oxalic acid (OA) solutions by the E-peroxone process. Results show that the E-peroxone process significantly increased TOC elimination rate by 10.2-12.5 times compared with the linear addition of the individual rates of corresponding ozonation and electrolysis process. Kinetic analyses reveal that the electrochemically-driven peroxone reaction is the most important mechanism for the enhanced TOC elimination rate, while the other mechanisms contribute minor to the enhancement by a factor of 1.6-2.5. The results indicate that proper selection of electrodes that can effectively produce H2O2 at the cathode is critical to maximize TOC elimination in the E-peroxone process.

  7. [Mechanism of action of combined extremely weak magnetic field on aqueous solution of amino acid].

    PubMed

    Zhadin, M N; Bakharev, B V; Bobkova, N V

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental physical mechanisms of resonance action of an extremely weak (40 nT) alternating magnetic field at the cyclotron frequency combined with a weak (40 μT) static magnetic field, on living systems are analyzed in the present work. The experimental effects of such sort of magnetic fields were described in different papers: the very narrow resonant peaks in electrical conductivity of the aqueous solutions in the in vitro experiments and the biomedical in vivo effects on living animals of magnetic fields with frequencies tuned to some amino acids. The existing experimental in vitro data had a good repeatability in different laboratories and countries. Unfortunately, for free ions such sort of effects are absolutely impossible because the dimensions of an ion rotation radius should be measured by meters at room temperature and at very low static magnetic fields used in all the above experiments. Even for bound ions these effects should be also absolutely impossible from the positions of classic physics because of rather high viscosity of biological liquid media (blood plasma, cerebrospinal liquid, cytoplasm). Only modern quantum electrodynamics of condensed media opens the new ways for solving these problems. The proposed article is devoted to analysis of quantum mechanisms of these effects.

  8. Sorption study of an acid dye from an aqueous solutions using modified clays.

    PubMed

    Bouberka, Z; Kacha, S; Kameche, M; Elmaleh, S; Derriche, Z

    2005-03-17

    The removal of the pollutant Supranol Yellow 4GL (S.Y.4GL) was studied by using different clays: clay exchanged with sodium (BNa+) and hydroxyaluminic polycation pillared clays in the presence or absence of non-ionic surfactant. While decomposing the surfactant at 500 degrees C, the surface of the clay changed significantly. The study of the behaviour of the three clays with respect to coloring solutions, allowed to determine the equilibrium time and the rate-determining step of the dye S.Y.4GL adsorption. Two simplified kinetic models, were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in terms of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations. Besides, the adsorption capacity data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equations as well. A better fixation was obtained with an acidic pH. The effect of temperature on the adsorption of dye has been also studied and the thermodynamic parameters DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees were determined.

  9. Quantitative rRNA-targeted solution-based hybridization assay using peptide nucleic acid molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-12-01

    The potential of a solution-based hybridization assay using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) molecular beacon (MB) probes to quantify 16S rRNA of specific populations in RNA extracts of environmental samples was evaluated by designing PNA MB probes for the genera Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma. In a kinetic study with 16S rRNA from pure cultures, the hybridization of PNA MB to target 16S rRNA exhibited a higher final hybridization signal and a lower apparent rate constant than the hybridizations to nontarget 16S rRNAs. A concentration of 10 mM NaCl in the hybridization buffer was found to be optimal for maximizing the difference between final hybridization signals from target and nontarget 16S rRNAs. Hybridization temperatures and formamide concentrations in hybridization buffers were optimized to minimize signals from hybridizations of PNA MB to nontarget 16S rRNAs. The detection limit of the PNA MB hybridization assay was determined to be 1.6 nM of 16S rRNA. To establish proof for the application of PNA MB hybridization assays in complex systems, target 16S rRNA from Dechlorosoma suillum was spiked at different levels to RNA isolated from an environmental (bioreactor) sample, and the PNA MB assay enabled effective quantification of the D. suillum RNA in this complex mixture. For another environmental sample, the quantitative results from the PNA MB hybridization assay were compared with those from clone libraries.

  10. Formation of an 8-hydroxyguanine moiety in deoxyribonucleic acid on gamma-irradiation in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Dizdaroglu, M.

    1985-07-30

    Isolation and characterization of a novel radiation-induced product, i.e., the 8-hydroxyguanine residue, produced in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 2'-deoxyguanosine, and 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate by gamma-irradiation in aqueous solution, are described. For this purpose, gamma-irradiated DNA was first hydrolyzed with a mixture of four enzymes, i.e., DNase I, spleen and snake venom exonucleases, and alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the resulting mixture by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilylation revealed the presence of a product, which was identified as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine on the basis of the typical fragment ions of its trimethylsilyl (Me3Si) derivative. This product was then isolated by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The UV and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra taken from the isolated product confirmed the structure suggested by the mass spectrum of its Me3Si derivative. The yield of 8-hydroxyguanine was also measured. Its mechanism of formation is believed to involve OH radical addition to the C-8 position of guanine followed by oxidation of the radical adduct.

  11. Abscisic acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Creelman, R.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress rather than a chemical stress.

  12. [Electricity generation using high concentration terephthalic acid solution by microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye-Jie; Song, Tian-Shun; Xu, Yuan; Chen, Ying-Wen; Zhu, She-Min; Shen, Shu-Bao

    2009-04-15

    The high concentration terephthalic acid (TA) solution as the substrate of microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied to generate electricity. The open circuit voltage was 0.54 V after inoculating for 210 h with anaerobic activated sludge, which proved that TA can be the substrate of microbial fuel cell to generate electricity. The influence of pH and substrate concentration on generating electricity was studied deeply. The voltage output of external resistance (R = 1,000 Omega) was the highest when pH was 8.0. It increased as the substrate concentration increasing and tended towards a maximum value. The maximum voltage output Umax was 0.5 V and Ks was 785.2 mg/L by Monod equation regression. When the substrate concentration (according to COD) was 4000 mg/L, the maximum power density was 96.3 mW/m2, coulomb efficiency was 2.66% and COD removal rate was 80.3%.

  13. Changes in the bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens washed in solutions of salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the number of bacteria recovered from the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in salicylic acid (SA) solutions was examined. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in distilled water (control), 10% S...

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of solution blow spun poly(lactic acid)/ polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micro and nanofibers mats loaded with copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil were produced by solution blow spinning (SBS). The copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil was characterized by gas chromatography (GC). Neat PLA and four PLA/ PVP blends contain...

  15. Determination of real oxidation potentials of the Bk /SUP IV/ -Bk /SUP III/ pair in phosphoric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, S.A.; Kulyako, Y.M.; Lebedev, I.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-03-01

    The authors measure the oxidation potential of the Bk(IV)-Bk(III) pair in H3PO4 solutions by a direct spectroelectrchemical method. When the phosphoric acid concentration is increased from 3 to 10 M, its value decreases from 1.123 to 1.065 V (with respect to a normal hydrogen electrode).

  16. The role of hydrogen bonds in an aqueous solution of acetylsalicylic acid: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Donnamaria, Maria Cristina; de Xammar Oro, Juan Roberto

    2011-10-01

    This work focuses on the role of the dynamic hydrogen bonds (HB) formed in an aqueous solution of aspirin using molecular dynamics simulation. The statistics reveal the existence of internal HB that inhibit the rotational movements of the acetyl and the carboxylic acid groups, forcing the molecule to adopt a closed conformer structure in water, and playing an important role in stabilizing this conformation.

  17. Evidence for a Morin Type Intramolecular Cyclization of an Alkene with a Phenylsulfenic Acid Group in Neutral Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Keerthi, Kripa; Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Gates, Kent S.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfenic acids (RSOH) are among the most common sulfur-centered reactive intermediates generated in biological systems. Given the biological occurrence of sulfenic acids, it is important to explore the reactivity of these intermediates under physiological conditions. The Morin rearrangement is a synthetic process developed for the conversion of penicillin derivatives into cephalosporins that proceeds via nucleophilic attack of an alkene on a sulfenic acid intermediate. In its classic form, the Morin reaction involves initial elimination of a sulfenic acid from a cyclic sulfoxide, followed by intramolecular cyclization of the resulting alkene and sulfenic acid groups to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate that undergoes further reaction to yield ring-expanded products. On the basis of the existing literature, it is difficult to assess whether the reaction between an alkene and a sulfenic group can occur under mild conditions because the conditions required to generate the sulfenic acid from the sulfoxide precursor in the Morin reaction typically involve high temperatures and strong acid. In the work described here, β-sulfinylketone precursors were used to generate a “Morin type” sulfenic acid intermediate under mild conditions. This approach made it possible to demonstrate that the intramolecular cyclization of an alkene with a phenylsulfenic acid to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate can occur in neutral aqueous solution at room temperature. PMID:18500784

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  20. Behavior of transplutonium elements on ion-exchange materials in mixed aqueous-organic solutions of mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirov, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1987-03-01

    Systematic studies are reported on the behavior of transplutonium elements (TPE) on cation-exchange and anion-exchange materials in mixed aqueous-organic solutions of mineral acids (HClO/sub 4/, HCl, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) as affected by solution composition, nature of acid, and nature of organic solvent. With all these acids, replacing most of the water by alcohol increases the TPE uptake on the ion exchangers, and the effect occurs for the cation exchangers at lower contents of the organic component. Optimum conditions have been identified for concentrating and separating TPE from numerous elements. The most effective system consists of anion exchanger with HNO/sub 3/ and alcohol.

  1. [The spectral and paramagnetic properties of oxyhemoglobin solutions UV-irradiated in the presence of ascorbic acid].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, V G

    1992-01-01

    Absorption spectra and ESR of aqueous and aqueous/glyceric solutions of oxyhemoglobin exposed to UV radiation (250-400 nm) at 293 and 77 K in the presence of ascorbic acid have been analyzed. Vitamin C (5 x 10(-5) M) has been shown to exert a photoprotective effect with regard to oxyhemoglobin (2 x 10(-6) M) UV-irradiated with a dose of 0.86 x 10(5) J/m2 at 293 K. The photoprotective effect of ascorbic acid is also displayed after UV irradiation of frozen (77 K) aqueous/glyceric oxyhemoglobin solutions (2.53 x 10(-5) M). It is concluded that ascorbic acid can be a scavenger with respect to active UV-induced particles in protein systems, including O2-. and OH. Proposed is a mode of processes leading to UV inactivation of hemoprotein molecules.

  2. Boric acid solution concentration influencing p-type emitter formation in n-type crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Bandana; Singh Solanki, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    Boric acid (BA) is a spin on dopant (BSoD) source which is used to form p+ emitters in n-type c-Si solar cells. High purity boric acid powder (99.99% pure) when mixed with deionized (DI) water can result in high quality p-type emitter with less amount of surface defects. In this work, we have used different concentrations of boric acid solution concentrations to fabricate p-type emitters with sheet resistance values < 90 Ω/□. The corresponding junction depths for the same are less than 500 nm as measured by SIMS analysis. Boron rich layer (BRL), which is considered as detrimental in emitter performance is found to be minimal for BA solution concentration less than 2% and hence useful for p-type emitter formation.

  3. Hematite-Based Solar Water Splitting in Acidic Solutions: Functionalization by Mono- and Multilayers of Iridium Oxygen-Evolution Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sheehan, Stafford W; He, Da; He, Yumin; Yao, Xiahui; Grimm, Ronald L; Brudvig, Gary W; Wang, Dunwei

    2015-09-21

    Solar water splitting in acidic solutions has important technological implications, but has not been demonstrated to date in a dual absorber photoelectrochemical cell. The lack of functionally stable water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs) in acids is a key reason for this slow development. The only WOCs that are stable at low pH are Ir-based systems, which are typically too expensive to be implemented broadly. It is now shown that this deficiency may be corrected by applying an ultra-thin monolayer of a molecular Ir WOC to hematite for solar water splitting in acidic solutions. The turn-on voltage is observed to shift cathodically by 250 mV upon the application of a monolayer of the molecular Ir WOC. When the molecular WOC is replaced by a heterogeneous multilayer derivative, stable solar water splitting for over 5 h is achieved with near-unity Faradaic efficiency.

  4. ''Pulling'' Nanoparticles into Water: Phase Transfer of Oleic Acid Stabilized Monodisperse Nanoparticles into Aqueous Solutions of alpha-Cyclodextrin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Wong, J.F.; Teng, X.; Lin, X.Z.; Yang, H.

    2003-10-18

    (B204)This paper describes a general method to drastically improve the disparity of oleic acid stabilized nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. We use oleic acid stabilized monodisperse nanoparticles of iron oxides and silver as model systems, and have modified the surface properties of these nanoparticles through the formation of an inclusion complex between surface-bound surfactant molecules and alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD). After the modification, the nanoparticles of both iron oxide and Ag can transfer from hydrophobic solvents, such as hexane, to alpha-CD aqueous phase. The efficiency of the phase transfer to the aqueous solutions depend son the initial alpha-CD concentration. The alpha-CD/oleic acid complex stabilized nanoparticles can be stable for long periods of time in aqueous phase under ambient atmospheric conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TME), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and colorimetric methods have been used in the characterization of these nanoparticles.

  5. Simultaneous pollutant removal and electricity generation in denitrifying microbial fuel cell with boric acid-borate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shaohui; Li, Meng; Wei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A double-chamber denitrifying microbial fuel cell (MFC), using boric acid-borate buffer solution as an alternative to phosphate buffer solution, was set up to investigate the influence of buffer solution concentration, temperature and external resistance on electricity generation and pollutant removal efficiency. The result revealed that the denitrifying MFC with boric acid-borate buffer solution was successfully started up in 51 days, with a stable cell voltage of 205.1 ± 1.96 mV at an external resistance of 50 Ω. Higher concentration of buffer solution favored nitrogen removal and electricity generation. The maximum power density of 8.27 W/m(3) net cathodic chamber was obtained at a buffer solution concentration of 100 mmol/L. An increase in temperature benefitted electricity generation and nitrogen removal. A suitable temperature for this denitrifying MFC was suggested to be 25 °C. Decreasing the external resistance favored nitrogen removal and organic matter consumption by exoelectrogens.

  6. A STUDY COMPARING CHEMICAL PEELING USING MODIFIED JESSNER'S SOLUTION AND 15%TRICHLOROACETIC ACID VERSUS 15% TRICHLOROACETIC ACID IN THE TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Safoury, Omar Soliman; Zaki, Nagla Mohamed; El Nabarawy, Eman Ahmad; Farag, Eman Abas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a symmetric progressive hyperpigmentation of the facial skin that occurs in all races but has a predilection for darker skin phenotypes. Depigmenting agents, laser and chemical peeling as classic Jessner's solution, modified Jessner's solution and trichloroacetic acid have been used alone and in combination in the treatment of melasma. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the therapeutic effect of combined 15% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and modified Jessner's solution with 15% TCA on melasma. Materials and Methods: Twenty married females with melasma (epidermal type), with a mean age of 38.25 years, were included in this study. All were of skin type III or IV. Fifteen percent TCA was applied to the whole face, with the exception of the left malar area to which combined TCA 15% and modified Jessner's solution was applied. Results: Our results revealed statistically highly significant difference between MASI Score (Melasma Area and Severity Index) between the right malar area and the left malar area. Conclusion: Modified Jessner's solution proved to be useful as an adjuvant treatment with TCA in the treatment of melasma, improving the results and minimizing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. PMID:20049268

  7. Viscosity-Lowering Effect of Amino Acids and Salts on Highly Concentrated Solutions of Two IgG1 Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujing; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Tao; Dai, Weiguo; Feng, Xiuying; Zhang, Xinyi; Qian, Feng

    2015-12-07

    Monoclonal antibodies display complicated solution properties in highly concentrated (>100 mg/mL) formulations, such as high viscosity, high aggregation propensity, and low stability, among others, originating from protein-protein interactions within the colloidal protein solution. These properties severely hinder the successful development of high-concentration mAb solution for subcutaneous injection. We hereby investigated the effects of several small-molecule excipients with diverse biophysical-chemical properties on the viscosity, aggregation propensity, and stability on two model IgG1 (JM1 and JM2) mAb formulations. These excipients include nine amino acids or their salt forms (Ala, Pro, Val, Gly, Ser, HisHCl, LysHCl, ArgHCl, and NaGlu), four representative salts (NaCl, NaAc, Na2SO4, and NH4Cl), and two chaotropic reagents (urea and GdnHCl). With only salts or amino acids in their salt-forms, significant decrease in viscosity was observed for JM1 (by up to 30-40%) and JM2 (by up to 50-80%) formulations, suggesting charge-charge interaction between the mAbs dictates the high viscosity of these mAbs formulations. Most of these viscosity-lowering excipients did not induce substantial protein aggregation or changes in the secondary structure of the mAbs, as evidenced by HPLC-SEC, DSC, and FT-IR analysis, even in the absence of common protein stabilizers such as sugars and surfactants. Therefore, amino acids in their salt-forms and several common salts, such as ArgHCl, HisHCl, LysHCl, NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaAc, could potentially serve as viscosity-lowering excipients during high-concentration mAb formulation development.

  8. ZrB2-HfB2 solid solutions as electrode materials for hydrogen reaction in acidic and basic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sitler, Steven J.; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-11-09

    Spark plasma sintered transition metal diborides such as HfB2, ZrB2 and their solid solutions were investigated as electrode materials for electrochemical hydrogen evolutions reactions (HER) in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M NaOH electrolytes. HfB2 and ZrB2 formed complete solid solutions when mixed in 1:1, 1:4, and 4:1 ratios and they were stable in both electrolytes. The HER kinetics of the diborides were slower in the basic solution than in the acidic solutions. The Tafel slopes in 1 M H2SO4 were in the range of 0.15 - 0.18 V/decade except for pure HfB2 which showed a Tafel slope of 0.38 V/decade. In 1 M NaOH the Tafel slopes were in the range of 0.12 - 0.27 V/decade. The composition of HfxZr1-xB2 solid solutions with x = 0.2 - 0.8, influenced the exchange current densities, overpotentials and Tafel slopes of the HER. As a result, the EIS data were fitted with a porous film equivalent circuit model in order to better understand the HER behavior. In addition, modeling calculations, using density functional theory approach, were carried out to estimate the density of states and band structure of the boride solid solutions.

  9. Solution structure of the squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) and mutational analysis of pepsin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Headey, Stephen J; Macaskill, Ursula K; Wright, Michele A; Claridge, Jolyon K; Edwards, Patrick J B; Farley, Peter C; Christeller, John T; Laing, William A; Pascal, Steven M

    2010-08-27

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel beta-sheet gripping an alpha-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting beta-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S' side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp(32)-Asp(215) diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin.

  10. Effect of weak acid hypochlorous solution on selected viruses and bacteria of laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Taharaguchi, Motoko; Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Yamada, Yasuko K

    2014-01-01

    Weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) is known to have efficacy for inactivating pathogens and to be relatively safe with respect to the live body. Based on these advantages, many animal facilities have recently been introducing WAHS for daily cleaning of animal houses. In this study, we determined the effect of WAHS in inactivating specific pathogens of laboratory rodents and pathogens of opportunistic infection. WAHS with an actual chloride concentration of 60 ppm and a pH value of 6.0 was generated using purpose-built equipment. One volume of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with 9 or 99 volumes of WAHS (×10 and ×100 reaction) for various periods (0.5, 1, and 5 min) at 25°C. After incubation, the remaining infectious viruses and live bacteria were determined by plaque assay or culture. In the ×100 reaction mixture, infectious viruses and live bacteria could not be detected for any of the pathogens examined even with the 0.5-min incubation. However, the effects for MHV, B. bronchiseptica, and P. aeruginosa were variable in the ×10 reaction mixture with the 0.5- and 1-min incubations. Sufficient effects were obtained by elongation of the reaction time to 5 min. In the case of MHV, reducing organic substances in the virus stock resulted in the WAHS being completely effective. WAHS is recommended for daily cleaning in animal facilities but should be used properly in order to obtain a sufficient effect, which includes such things as using a large enough volume to reduce effects of organic substances.

  11. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Ozer, A

    2007-03-22

    Sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran (STWB) was used as an adsorbent to remove Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. It was observed that the adsorption yield of Pb(II) ions was found to be pH dependent. The equilibrium time for the process was determined as 2h. STWB gave the highest adsorption yield at around pH 6.0. At this pH, adsorption percentage for an initial Pb(II) ions concentration of 100mg/L was found to be 82.8 at 25 degrees C for contact time of 2h. The equilibrium data obtained at different temperatures fitted to the non-linear form of Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson and linear form of Langmuir and Freundlich models. Isotherm constants were calculated and compared for the models used. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) which was obtained linear form of Langmuir model increased from 55.56 to 79.37mg/g with increasing temperature from 25 to 60 degrees C. Similar trend was observed for other isotherm constants related to the adsorption capacity. Linear form of Langmuir isotherm data was evaluated to determine the thermodynamic parameters for the process. Thermodynamic parameters show that adsorption process of Pb(II) ions is an endothermic and more effective process at high temperatures. The pseudo nth order kinetic model was successfully applied to the kinetic data and the order (n) of adsorption reaction was calculated at the range from 1.711 to 1.929. The values of k(ad) were found to be 5.82x10(-4) and 21.81x10(-4)(min(-1))(mg/g)(1-n) at 25 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Activation energy was determined as 29.65kJ/mol for the process. This suggest that the adsorption Pb(II) ions by STWB is chemically controlled.

  12. p-Aminophenylacetic acid-mediated synthesis of monodispersed titanium oxide hybrid microspheres in ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongye; Xie, Yun; Liu, Zhimin; Tao, Ranting; Sun, Zhenyu; Ding, Kunlun; An, Guimin

    2009-10-15

    Monodispersed TiO2 hybrid microspheres were prepared via the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) in ethanol solution containing p-aminophenylacetic acid (APA). The effects of the APA:TTIP molar ratio, water content, reaction time and reaction temperature on the morphology of the resultant spheres were investigated. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. It was demonstrated that the diameters of the resultant TiO2 spheres could be tuned in the range of 380-800 nm by changing the APA:TTIP molar ratio (1:3 to 3:1) and water content (1-3 v/v%) in the reaction medium, and that increasing the APA:TTIP molar ratio led to larger TiO2 hybrid spheres while increasing the water content decreased their size. The loading content of APA in the hybrid spheres could reach 20 wt.% as they were prepared with the APA:TTIP ratio of 3:1. The possible formation mechanism of the hybrid spheres was also investigated. It was found that APA slowed down the hydrolysis rate of the titanium precursor so that resulted in the formation of the TiO2 spheres. In addition, the APA present in TiO2 spheres acted as a reducing agent to in situ convert HAuCl4 into metallic Au on the surface of the TiO2 spheres. The catalytic activity of the resultant Au/APA-TiO2 composite was examined using transfer hydrogenation of phenylacetone with 2-propanol, and it was indicated that the catalyst displayed high efficiency for this reaction.

  13. Electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide from dissolved oxygen in acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Chang, Jih-Hsing; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was electro-generated in a parallel-plate electrolyzer by reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) in acidic solutions containing dilute supporting electrolyte. Operational parameters such as cathodic potential, oxygen purity and mass flow rate, cathode surface area. pH, temperature, and inert supporting electrolyte concentration were systematically investigated as to improve the Faradic current efficiency of H2O2 generation. Results indicate that significant self-decomposition of H2O2 only occurs at high pH (> 9) and elevated temperatures (> 23 degrees C). Results also indicate that the optimal conditions for H2O2 generation are cathodic potential of -0.5 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), oxygen mass flow rate of 8.2 x 10(-2) mol/min, and pH 2. Under the optimal conditions, the average current density and average current efficiency are 6.4A/m2 and 81%, respectively. However, when air is applied at the optimal flow rate of oxygen, the average current density markedly decreases to 2.1 A/m2, while the average current efficiency slightly increases to 90%. The limiting current density is 6.4 A/m2, which is independent of cathode geometry and surface area. H2O2 generation is favored at low temperatures. In the concentration range studied (0.01-0.25 M), the inert supporting electrolyte (NaClO4) affects the total potential drop of the electrolyzer, but does not affect the net generation rate of H2O2.

  14. Abscisic Acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). About equal amounts of ABA were found both in the leaf slices and in detached leaves, whereas 2 to 4 times more ABA accumulated in the medium than in the slices. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Ethylene glycol was not inhibitory with respect to ABA accumulation. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. Aquacide III causes cytorrhysis, a situation similar to that found in wilted leaves. Thus, it appears that loss of turgor is essential for ABA accumulation.When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity (KHSO(3), 2-propanol, or KCl) no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress (loss of turgor) rather than a chemical stress (membrane damage).

  15. Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Stephen J.; MacAskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel β-sheet gripping an α-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting β-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S′ side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp32–Asp215 diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

  16. Dissolution of powdered human enamel suspended in acid solutions at a high solid/solution ratio under a 5% CO2 atmosphere at 20 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M J; Pearce, E I; Ravnholt, G

    1997-09-01

    The aim was to examine the nature of enamel dissolution in aqueous suspensions with a high solid/solution ratio and in a CO2-rich atmosphere. Before experimentation, a water-saturated mixture of 95% N2-5% CO2 was passed through the acid solutions for 24 hr. Samples of 2 g of powdered enamel were suspended in 7 ml of either 5 or 10 mmol/l HClO4, with or without 2 parts/10(6) fluoride and kept gently agitated for 24 hr in the above atmosphere. The same enamel samples were repeatedly exposed to fresh acid for 26 runs. All experiments were duplicated. The aqueous phase was analysed after 20 min and 24 hr for calcium, phosphate, fluoride, chloride, sodium and magnesium. It was found that after 20 min the fluoride was invariably taken up in the enamel and the solution was supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite with pH ranging 6.7-5.6. During the following 24 hr pH increased further, the supersaturation remained unchanged and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in solution decreased. In contrast, sodium, magnesium and chloride were released from enamel during the entire period. In the later runs, the supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite was only modest and the decrease of calcium and phosphate concentrations limited, as were the release of sodium, magnesium and chloride. It is concluded that despite a CO2-rich atmosphere, calcium, phosphate and carbonate were released from enamel and quickly established a supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite with a secondary reprecipitation of mineral. It indicates that within the dental caries lesion in vivo, lesion fluid cannot exist undersaturated with respect to enamel apatite.

  17. Removal of anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution by raw pine and acid-treated pine cone powder as adsorbent: equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetics, mechanism and process design.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Sara; Sen, Tushar Kanti

    2012-04-15

    Pine cone a natural, low-cost agricultural by-product in Australia has been studied for its potential application as an adsorbent in its raw and hydrochloric acid modified form. Surface study of pine cone and treated pine cone was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modification process leads to increases in the specific surface area and decreases mean particle sizes of acid-treated pine cone when compared to raw pine cone biomass. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to remove anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution. It was found that the extent of Congo red adsorption by both raw pine cone biomass and acid-treated biomass increased with initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature but decreased with increasing solution pH and amount of adsorbent of the system. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The different kinetic parameters including rate constant, half-adsorption time, and diffusion coefficient were determined at different physico-chemical conditions. Equilibrium data were best represented by Freundlich isotherm model among Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. It was observed that the adsorption was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption of 32.65 mg/g occurred at pH of 3.55 for an initial dye concentration of 20 ppm by raw pine cone, whereas for acid-treated pine cone the maximum adsorption of 40.19 mg/g for the same experimental conditions. Freundlich constant 'n' also indicated favourable adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G(0), ∆H(0), and ∆S(0) were calculated. A single-stage batch absorber design for the Congo red adsorption onto pine cone biomass also presented based on the Freundlich isotherm model equation.

  18. Gamma irradiation of isocitric and citric acid in aqueous solution: Relevance in prebiotic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2015-07-01

    The radiation chemistry of hydroxy acids like citric and isocitric acids is rather scarce, even though they are crucial compounds in biological systems and for food irradiation. The aim of this work is to study the radiolytic behavior of these acids focused on the interconversion induced by radiation of citric and isocitric acid into other members of the Krebs cycle. The results showed that among the products formed were succinic, malonic, malic and other acids related to metabolic pathways, and these results are correlated with its possible role in chemical evolution processes.

  19. Gamma irradiation of isocitric and citric acid in aqueous solution: Relevance in prebiotic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Negrón-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2015-07-23

    The radiation chemistry of hydroxy acids like citric and isocitric acids is rather scarce, even though they are crucial compounds in biological systems and for food irradiation. The aim of this work is to study the radiolytic behavior of these acids focused on the interconversion induced by radiation of citric and isocitric acid into other members of the Krebs cycle. The results showed that among the products formed were succinic, malonic, malic and other acids related to metabolic pathways, and these results are correlated with its possible role in chemical evolution processes.

  20. Comparative Studies on Effects of Acid Solutions on Aquatic Plants by Beam Deflection and Absorbance Spectroscopy Methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Nie, Liangjiao; Inoue, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    The beam deflection method and absorbance spectroscopy were applied to study effects of acid solutions on aquatic plants, and their results were compared. Aquatic plants Egeria densa and Ceratophyllum demersum L were used as model plants. In absorbance experiments, a piece of the plants was put in a beaker with 20 mL HCl solution, and absorbance of the HCl solution was measured every 30 min. In beam deflection experiments, a probe beam from a He-Ne laser was focused to a vicinity of the plants in a culture dish with HCl solution by an objective lens, and deflection signals of the probe beam were monitored by a position sensor. Absorbance spectra of the HCl solutions with immersing of the plants showed absorbance below 410 nm, suggesting that some compounds leaked from the plants into the HCl solutions. Changes of absorbance and deflection signals with immersion time were examined for different pH levels. The changing trends of the absorbance and deflection signals with time were similar, but the absorbance changes were delayed for about 2 - 3 h. The absorbance method could not detect the effect of the pH 5.0 HCl solutions on the aquatic plants, while the deflection method could.