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Sample records for acid stimulates glucose

  1. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  2. Cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and by stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Shukrana, Mishkat; Raza, Sayed Ali; Chishti, Sidra; Kabir, Nurul; Siddiqui, Rehan A

    2015-02-15

    Although the anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid, a pure compound from cinnamon, has been reported but its mechanism(s) is not yet clear. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism(s) of anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid in in vitro and in vivo non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. Non-obese type 2 diabetes was developed by injecting 90 mg/kg streptozotocin in 2-day-old Wistar pups. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde were administered orally to diabetic rats for assessing acute blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of glucose tolerance. Additionally, insulin secretory activity of cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in isolated mice islets. Cinnamic acid, but not cinnamaldehyde, decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of cinnamic acid with 5 and 10 mg/kg doses to diabetic rats improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. The improvement by 10 mg/kg cinnamic acid was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Further in vitro studies showed that cinnamaldehyde has little or no effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, cinnamic acid significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. In conclusion, it can be said that cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.

  3. Glucose supplementation stimulates peripheral branched-chain amino acid catabolism in lactating dairy cows during essential amino acid infusions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, K; Kim, J J M; Carson, M; Metcalf, J A; Cant, J P; Doelman, J

    2016-02-01

    To determine how glucose modulates protein synthesis when essential AA are in abundant supply, 5 early-lactation, rumen-fistulated Holstein dairy cows were fed a diet containing 6.95 MJ/kg of net energy for lactation and 12.4% crude protein and abomasally infused for 5 d with saline, 844 or 1,126 g/d of a complete essential AA mix, with and without the inclusion of 1,000 g/d of glucose, in a 5×5 Latin square design. Infusion of essential AA increased milk yield by 4.1 kg/d, milk protein by 256 g/d, milk fat by 95 g/d, and milk urea nitrogen by 70% compared with saline, with no differences between the level of essential AA infusion. The addition of glucose to essential AA infusate did not stimulate milk protein yield or concentration, but reduced milk urea nitrogen by 17% and decreased milk fat yield. Arterial concentrations of total essential AA increased 3- to 4-fold, mammary clearance decreased 61%, and mammary uptake of essential AA increased 65% in response to essential AA infusion. Arterial branched-chain AA concentrations declined 29% in response to glucose and mammary clearance increased 48%, but mammary AA uptake was unchanged. Essential AA infusion increased plasma 3-methylhistidine by 50% and reduced muscle branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase abundance by 14%, indicating stimulation of muscle protein turnover and branched-chain AA catabolism, respectively. Glucose had no further effect on muscle branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase abundance but decreased mRNA expression of branched chain aminotransferase 1. Lack of further increases in plasma 3-methylhistidine or greater stimulation of muscle branched-chain AA catabolism indicates that muscle protein degradation was unchanged with glucose but that accretion may have been stimulated. The decrease in circulating branched-chain AA concentrations and nitrogen excretion in response to glucose suggests that surplus essential AA were redirected to peripheral, extra-mammary tissues.

  4. The nitric oxide-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid, NCX 4016, stimulates glucose transport and glucose transporters translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaddai, V; Gonzalez, T; Bolla, M; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y; Cormont, M

    2008-07-01

    NCX 4016 is a nitric oxide (NO)-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid. NO and salicylate, in vivo metabolites of NCX 4016, were shown to be potential actors in controlling glucose homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the action of NCX 4016 on the capacity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to transport glucose in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. NCX 4016 induced a twofold increase in glucose uptake in parallel with the translocation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, leaving unaffected their total expression levels. Importantly, NCX 4016 further increased glucose transport induced by a physiological concentration of insulin. The stimulatory effect of NCX 4016 on glucose uptake appears to be mediated by its NO moiety. Indeed, it is inhibited by a NO scavenger and treatment with acetylsalicylic or salicylic acid had no effect. Although NO is involved in the action of NCX 4016, it did not mainly depend on the soluble cGMP cyclase/protein kinase G pathway. Furthermore, NCX 4016-stimulated glucose transport did not involve the insulin-signaling cascade required to stimulate glucose transport. NCX 4016 induces a small activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and no activation of other stress-activated signaling molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, inhibitory factor kappaB, or AMP-activated kinases. Interestingly, NCX 4016 modified the content of S-nitrosylated proteins in adipocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NCX 4016 induced glucose transport in adipocytes through a novel mechanism possibly involving S-nitrosylation. NCX 4016 thus possesses interesting characteristics to be considered as a candidate molecule for the treatment of patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:18492771

  5. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have "anti-obesity properties" by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26167409

  6. Diastereomeric mixture of calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells: involvement of PI-3-kinase- and ERK1/2-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Janki; Maurya, Chandan Kumar; Pandey, Jyotsana; Jaiswal, Natasha; Madhur, Gaurav; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Narender, Tadigoppula; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    The diastereomeric mixture of calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid (F015) isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum was investigated for the metabolic effect on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. In L6 myotubes, F015 dose-dependently stimulated glucose uptake by increasing translocation of glucose transporter4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane without affecting their gene expression. The effects on glucose uptake were additive to insulin. Inhibitors analyses revealed that F015-induced glucose uptake was dependent on the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), while independent to the activation of 5'AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). F015 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT, AS160 and ERK1/2, account for the augmented glucose transport capacity in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, F015 improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistant mice. Our findings demonstrate that F015 activates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells through PI-3-K- and EKR1/2-dependent mechanisms and can be a potential lead for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  7. Ketoisocaproic acid, a metabolite of leucine, suppresses insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells in a BCAT2-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Moghei, Mahshid; Tavajohi-Fini, Pegah; Beatty, Brendan; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J

    2016-09-01

    Although leucine has many positive effects on metabolism in multiple tissues, elevated levels of this amino acid and the other branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their metabolites are implicated in obesity and insulin resistance. While some controversies exist about the direct effect of leucine on insulin action in skeletal muscle, little is known about the direct effect of BCAA metabolites. Here, we first showed that the inhibitory effect of leucine on insulin-stimulated glucose transport in L6 myotubes was dampened when other amino acids were present, due in part to a 140% stimulation of basal glucose transport (P < 0.05). Importantly, we also showed that α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), an obligatory metabolite of leucine, stimulated mTORC1 signaling but suppressed insulin-stimulated glucose transport (-34%, P < 0.05) in an mTORC1-dependent manner. The effect of KIC on insulin-stimulated glucose transport was abrogated in cells depleted of branched-chain aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2), the enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transamination of KIC to leucine. We conclude that although KIC can modulate muscle glucose metabolism, this effect is likely a result of its transamination back to leucine. Therefore, limiting the availability of leucine, rather than those of its metabolites, to skeletal muscle may be more critical in the management of insulin resistance and its sequelae. PMID:27488662

  8. Phenylboronic Acid Appended Pyrene-Based Low-Molecular-Weight Injectable Hydrogel: Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Release.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deep; Mandal, Subhra Kanti; Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2015-08-17

    A pyrene-containing phenylboronic acid (PBA) functionalized low-molecular-weight hydrogelator was synthesized with the aim to develop glucose-sensitive insulin release. The gelator showed the solvent imbibing ability in aqueous buffer solutions of pH values, ranging from 8-12, whereas the sodium salt of the gelator formed a hydrogel at physiological pH 7.4 with a minimum gelation concentration (MGC) of 5 mg mL(-1) . The aggregation behavior of this thermoreversible hydrogel was studied by using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, including transmission electron microscopy, FTIR, UV/Vis, luminescence, and CD spectroscopy. These investigations revealed that hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, and van der Waals interactions are the key factors for the self-assembled gelation. The diol-sensitive PBA part and the pyrene unit in the gelator were judiciously used in fluorimetric sensing of minute amounts of glucose at physiological pH. The morphological change of the gel due to addition of glucose was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, which denoted the glucose-responsive swelling of the hydrogel. A rheological study indicated the loss of the rigidity of the native gel in the presence of glucose. Hence, the glucose-induced swelling of the hydrogel was exploited in the controlled release of insulin from the hydrogel. The insulin-loaded hydrogel showed thixotropic self-recovery property, which hoisted it as an injectable soft composite. Encouragingly, the gelator was found to be compatible with HeLa cells.

  9. Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 Serves as an Integrator of Gibberellin, Abscisic Acid, and Glucose Signaling during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chunmei; Xu, Hao; Ye, Siting; Wang, Shiyi; Li, Lingfei; Zhang, Shengchun; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3-LIKE2 (RGL2) plays an important role in seed germination under different conditions through a number of transcription factors. However, the functions of the structural genes associated with RGL2-regulated germination are less defined. Here, we report the role of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell wall-localized protein, Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 (AtGASA6), in functionally linking RGL2 and a cell wall loosening expansin protein (Arabidopsis expansin A1 [AtEXPA1]), resulting in the control of embryonic axis elongation and seed germination. AtGASA6-overexpressing seeds showed precocious germination, whereas transfer DNA and RNA interference mutant seeds displayed delayed seed germination under abscisic acid, paclobutrazol, and glucose (Glc) stress conditions. The differences in germination rates resulted from corresponding variation in cell elongation in the hypocotyl-radicle transition region of the embryonic axis. AtGASA6 was down-regulated by RGL2, GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE2, and ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 genes, and loss of AtGASA6 expression in the gasa6 mutant reversed the insensitivity shown by the rgl2 mutant to paclobutrazol and the gin2 mutant to Glc-induced stress, suggesting that it is involved in regulating both the gibberellin and Glc signaling pathways. Furthermore, it was found that the promotion of seed germination and length of embryonic axis by AtGASA6 resulted from a promotion of cell elongation at the embryonic axis mediated by AtEXPA1. Taken together, the data indicate that AtGASA6 links RGL2 and AtEXPA1 functions and plays a role as an integrator of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and Glc signaling, resulting in the regulation of seed germination through a promotion of cell elongation. PMID:26400990

  10. Targeting triglyceride/fatty acid cycling in β-cells as a therapy for augmenting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Cantley, James; Biden, Trevor J

    2010-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is triggered by signals arising from the metabolism of glucose and acting through separate initiation and amplification pathways. Despite decades of investigation, crucial details of this mechanism remain poorly understood, especially those relating to the amplifying pathway(s). Advances in this area are vital if we are to understand why insulin secretion fails in type 2 diabetes and to develop strategies to overcome this failure. Indeed, targeting the amplifying pathway(s) would constitute an attractive therapy for augmenting insulin secretion because it would closely link secretory responsiveness to the prevailing glycaemia. It is therefore noteworthy that the possibility of augmenting the amplification pathway(s) has recently been highlighted by studies investigating a metabolic cycle that links the breakdown of triacylglycerol (TAG), release of fatty acid (FA), and subsequent re-incorporation of that FA into TAG. This work reinvigorates and extends the long-standing idea that partitioning of endogenous lipid metabolism towards esterification products promotes the amplification phase of the secretory response. These conceptual advances, and their possible therapeutic application, will be discussed in the following article.

  11. Contraction stimulates muscle glucose uptake independent of atypical PKC.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyan; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Toyoda, Taro; An, Ding; Farese, Robert V; Leitges, Michael; Hirshman, Michael F; Mul, Joram D; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-11-01

    Exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms λ and ζ (PKC-λ/ζ) have been shown to be necessary for insulin-, AICAR-, and metformin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but not for treadmill exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. To investigate if PKC-λ/ζ activity is required for contraction-stimulated muscle glucose uptake, we used mice with tibialis anterior muscle-specific overexpression of an empty vector (WT), wild-type PKC-ζ (PKC-ζ(WT)), or an enzymatically inactive T410A-PKC-ζ mutant (PKC-ζ(T410A)). We also studied skeletal muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout (MλKO) mice. Basal glucose uptake was similar between WT, PKC-ζ(WT), and PKC-ζ(T410A) tibialis anterior muscles. In contrast, in situ contraction-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in PKC-ζ(T410A) tibialis anterior muscles compared to WT or PKC-ζ(WT) tibialis anterior muscles. Furthermore, in vitro contraction-stimulated glucose uptake was greater in soleus muscles of MλKO mice than WT controls. Thus, loss of PKC-λ/ζ activity increases contraction-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. These data clearly demonstrate that PKC-λζ activity is not necessary for contraction-stimulated glucose uptake.

  12. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  13. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-04-01

    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion.

  14. Ghrelin's second life: from appetite stimulator to glucose regulator.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2012-07-01

    Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide hormone produced by the stomach, was the first orexigenic hormone to be discovered from the periphery. The octanoyl modification at Ser³, mediated by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is essential for ghrelin's biological activity. Ghrelin stimulates food intake through binding to its receptor (GRLN-R) on neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is widely expressed throughout the body; accordingly, it is implicated in several other physiological functions, which include growth hormone release, gastric emptying, and body weight regulation. Ghrelin and GRLN-R expression are also found in the pancreas, suggesting a local physiological role. Accordingly, several recent studies now point towards an important role for ghrelin and its receptor in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis, which is the main focus of this review. Several mechanisms of this regulation by ghrelin have been proposed, and one possibility is through the regulation of insulin secretion. Despite some controversy, most studies suggest that ghrelin exerts an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion, resulting in increased circulating glucose levels. Ghrelin may thus be a diabetogenic factor. Obesity-related type 2 diabetes has become an increasingly important health problem, almost reaching epidemic proportions in the world; therefore, antagonists of the ghrelin-GOAT signaling pathway, which will tackle both energy- and glucose homeostasis, may be considered as promising new therapies for this disease. PMID:22783041

  15. N-Acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase expressed in rat adipocytes is localized in the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) intracellular compartments and involved in the insulin-stimulated GLUT4 recruitment.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Y; Ha, Byoung G; Choi, Geum H; Lee, Wan

    2004-04-01

    The GLUT4-containing vesicles purified from rat adipocyte contain many protein species of unknown identity, some of which are likely to play a critical role in the trafficking of GLUT4. Presently, we describe an 85-kDa protein in GLUT4-vesicles of rat adipocytes as a potential GLUT4 traffic regulatory protein. MALDI-TOF MS, RT-PCR, gene cloning, protein sequence analysis, and immunoreactivity assay have identified this protein as N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) expressed in rat adipocytes. NAALADase in rat adipocytes was mostly membrane-associated and colocalized in discrete GLUT4-compartments with enrichment in putative GLUT4-sorting endosomes (G4G(L)). Total cell lysates of adipocytes exhibited NAALADase activity. Next, we treated rat adipocytes with 2-[phosphonomethy]pentanedionic acid (2-PMPA), a potent NAALADase inhibitor, and studied its effect on the distribution of GLUT4 and 3-O-methyl glucose (3OMG) flux. In 2-PMPA-treated adipocytes, there was a significant reduction (by 40%) in the insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. The 3OMG flux in insulin-stimulated adipocytes was also delayed (51% of control) by 2-PMPA treatment, indicating that 2-PMPA impairs insulin-stimulated GLUT4 recruitment and the uptake of glucose. It is suggested that NAALADase may function as a regulator required for the insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle movement and/or its exocytosis, thus may regulate insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment in rat adipocytes.

  16. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose

    DOEpatents

    Tsao, George T.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Bose, Arindam

    1979-01-01

    A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

  17. SREBP-1c regulates glucose-stimulated hepatic clusterin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gukhan; Kim, Geun Hyang; Oh, Gyun-Sik; Yoon, Jin; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Min-Seon; Kim, Seung-Whan

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first report to show nutrient-regulated clusterin expression. {yields} Clusterin expression in hepatocytes was increased by high glucose concentration. {yields} SREBP-1c is directly involved in the transcriptional activation of clusterin by glucose. {yields} This glucose-stimulated activation process is mediated through tandem E-box motifs. -- Abstract: Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport. Its expression is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological states. Clusterin was recently reported to be associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their sequelae. However, the regulation of clusterin expression by metabolic signals was not addressed. In this study we evaluated the effects of glucose on hepatic clusterin expression. Interestingly, high glucose concentrations significantly increased clusterin expression in primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, but the conventional promoter region of the clusterin gene did not respond to glucose stimulation. In contrast, the first intronic region was transcriptionally activated by high glucose concentrations. We then defined a glucose response element (GlRE) of the clusterin gene, showing that it consists of two E-box motifs separated by five nucleotides and resembles carbohydrate response element (ChoRE). Unexpectedly, however, these E-box motifs were not activated by ChoRE binding protein (ChREBP), but were activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Furthermore, we found that glucose induced recruitment of SREBP-1c to the E-box of the clusterin gene intronic region. Taken together, these results suggest that clusterin expression is increased by glucose stimulation, and SREBP-1c plays a crucial role in the metabolic regulation of clusterin.

  18. Ceramide 1-phosphate stimulates glucose uptake in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ouro, Alberto; Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Rivera, Io-Guané; Ordoñez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel; Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic and antiapoptotic, and that it is implicated in the regulation of macrophage migration. These activities require high energy levels to be available in cells. Macrophages obtain most of their energy from glucose. In this work, we demonstrate that C1P enhances glucose uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages. The major glucose transporter involved in this action was found to be GLUT 3, as determined by measuring its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. C1P-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked by selective inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), and by specific siRNAs to silence the genes encoding for these kinases. C1P-stimulated glucose uptake was also inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX) and by the siRNA that inhibited GLUT 3 expression. C1P increased the affinity of the glucose transporter for its substrate, and enhanced glucose metabolism to produce ATP. The latter action was also inhibited by PI3K- and Akt-selective inhibitors, PTX, or by specific siRNAs to inhibit GLUT 3 expression. PMID:23333242

  19. Regulation of exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a Ser/Thr kinase that has been thought to be an important mediator for exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related protein kinases, of which the function in skeletal muscle has not been well documented. Our group and others have generated mice lacking AMPK activity in skeletal muscle, as well as muscle-specific LKB1 knockout mice. In this review, we discuss the potential role of AMPK and LKB1 in regulating exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. We also discuss our recent study, demonstrating the molecular mechanism of obesity-induced development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. PMID:27462580

  20. Short-term mild hyperglycemia enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Lemosquet, Sophie; Debras, Elisabeth; Balage, Michèle; Hocquette, Jean François; Rulquin, Henri; Grizard, Jean

    2002-02-01

    This work was designed to study the effect of a 3-day mild hyperglycemia (5.3 vs. 3.3 mM) on the regulation of glucose metabolism in lactating goats. Glucose was intravenously infused at variable rates simultaneously with a constant potassium-amino acid infusion. Diet plus substrate infusion maintained net energy but not protein supply. Milk yield did not change. Skeletal muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4) was analyzed before and after hyperglycemia. In addition, the acute effect of medium and high insulin doses on glucose turnover was measured in vivo during euglycemic and hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps under potassium and amino acid replacement. Hyperglycemia reduced the endogenous glucose appearance but increased glucose disposal. It decreased the total membrane-associated GLUT-4 protein in skeletal muscle. In contrast, it improved the acute insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Both the level and duration (3 days) of hyperglycemia contributed to this improvement. We conclude that short-term mild hyperglycemia has similar effects in lactating goats as those already observed in nonlactating rodents or humans.

  1. Glucose Controls Morphodynamics of LPS-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Gerda; Oerlemans, Frank T. J. J.; Wijers, Mietske; Willemse, Marieke; Fransen, Jack A. M.; Wieringa, Bé

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages constantly undergo morphological changes when quiescently surveying the tissue milieu for signs of microbial infection or damage, or after activation when they are phagocytosing cellular debris or foreign material. These morphofunctional alterations require active actin cytoskeleton remodeling and metabolic adaptation. Here we analyzed RAW 264.7 and Maf-DKO macrophages as models to study whether there is a specific association between aspects of carbohydrate metabolism and actin-based processes in LPS-stimulated macrophages. We demonstrate that the capacity to undergo LPS-induced cell shape changes and to phagocytose complement-opsonized zymosan (COZ) particles does not depend on oxidative phosphorylation activity but is fueled by glycolysis. Different macrophage activities like spreading, formation of cell protrusions, as well as phagocytosis of COZ, were thereby strongly reliant on the presence of low levels of extracellular glucose. Since global ATP production was not affected by rewiring of glucose catabolism and inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose and glucose deprivation had differential effects, our observations suggest a non-metabolic role for glucose in actin cytoskeletal remodeling in macrophages, e.g. via posttranslational modification of receptors or signaling molecules, or other effects on the machinery that drives actin cytoskeletal changes. Our findings impute a decisive role for the nutrient state of the tissue microenvironment in macrophage morphodynamics. PMID:24796786

  2. Molecular mechanisms of glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion from perfused rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kuhre, Rune E; Frost, Charlotte R; Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens J

    2015-02-01

    Glucose is an important stimulus for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, but the mechanisms of secretion have not been investigated in integrated physiological models. We studied glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion from isolated perfused rat small intestine. Luminal glucose (5% and 20% w/v) stimulated the secretion dose dependently, but vascular glucose was without significant effect at 5, 10, 15, and 25 mmol/L. GLP-1 stimulation by luminal glucose (20%) secretion was blocked by the voltage-gated Ca channel inhibitor, nifedipine, or by hyperpolarization with diazoxide. Luminal administration (20%) of the nonmetabolizable sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) substrate, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (α-MGP), stimulated release, whereas the SGLT1 inhibitor phloridzin (luminally) abolished responses to α-MGP and glucose. Furthermore, in the absence of luminal NaCl, luminal glucose (20%) did not stimulate a response. Luminal glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion was also sensitive to luminal GLUT2 inhibition (phloretin), but in contrast to SGLT1 inhibition, phloretin did not eliminate the response, and luminal glucose (20%) stimulated larger GLP-1 responses than luminal α-MGP in matched concentrations. Glucose transported by GLUT2 may act after metabolization, closing KATP channels similar to sulfonylureas, which also stimulated secretion. Our data indicate that SGLT1 activity is the driving force for glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion and that KATP-channel closure is required to stimulate a full-blown glucose-induced response.

  3. GnRH increases glucose transporter-1 expression and stimulates glucose uptake in the gonadotroph.

    PubMed

    Harris, Valerie M; Bendre, Sachin V; Gonzalez De Los Santos, Francina; Fite, Alemu; El-Yaman El-Dandachli, Ahmad; Kurenbekova, Lyazat; Abou-Samra, Abdul B; Buggs-Saxton, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    GnRH is the main regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gonadotroph to synthesize and secrete gonadotrophins (LH and FSH), and this effect of GnRH is dependent on the availability of glucose and other nutrients. Little is known about whether GnRH regulates glucose metabolism in the gonadotroph. This study examined the regulation of glucose transporters (Gluts) by GnRH in the LβT2 gonadotroph cell line. Using real-time PCR analysis, the expression of Glut1, -2, -4, and -8 was detected, but Glut1 mRNA expression level was more abundant than the mRNA expression levels of Glut2, -4, and -8. After the treatment of LβT2 cells with GnRH, Glut1 mRNA expression was markedly induced, but there was no GnRH-induction of Glut2, -4, or -8 mRNA expression in LβT2 cells. The effect of GnRH on Glut1 mRNA expression is partly mediated by ERK activation. GnRH increased GLUT1 protein and stimulated GLUT1 translocation to the cell surface of LβT2 cells. Glucose uptake assays were performed in LβT2 cells and showed that GnRH stimulates glucose uptake in the gonadotroph. Finally, exogenous treatment of mice with GnRH increased the expression of Glut1 but not the expression of Glut2, -4, or -8 in the pituitary. Therefore, regulation of glucose metabolism by GnRH via changes in Gluts expression and subcellular location in the pituitary gonadotroph reveals a novel response of the gonadotroph to GnRH.

  4. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. PMID:27511839

  5. Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Cell Wall Synthesis in Avena Stem Segments by Gibberellic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Michael J.; Ikuma, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA) stimulated both the elongation of Avena sativa stem segments and increased synthesis of cell wall material. The effects of GA on glucose metabolism, as related to cell wall synthesis, have been investigated in order to find specific events regulated by GA. GA caused a decline in the levels of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, and fructose 6-phosphate if exogenous sugar was not supplied to the segments, whereas the hormone caused no change in the levels of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, UDP-glucose, or the adenylate energy charge if the segments were incubated in 0.1 m glucose. No GA-induced change could be demonstrated in the activities of hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, or polysaccharide synthetases using UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-xylose, and UDP-arabinose as substrates. GA stimulated the activity of GDP-glucose-dependent β-glucan synthetase by 2- to 4-fold over the control. When glucan synthetase was assayed using UDP-glucose as substrate, only β-1,3-linked glucan was synthesized in vitro, whereas with GDP-glucose, only β-1,4-linked glucan was synthesized. These results suggest that one part of the mechanism by which GA stimulates cell wall synthesis concurrently with elongation in Avena stem segments may be through a stimulation of cell wall polysaccharide synthetase activity. PMID:16660524

  6. Generalized sensory stimulation of conscious rats increases labeling of oxidative pathways of glucose metabolism when the brain glucose-oxygen uptake ratio rises.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Wang, Robert Y; Cruz, Nancy F

    2002-12-01

    Interpretation of functional metabolic brain images requires understanding of metabolic shifts in working brain. Because the disproportionately higher uptake of glucose compared with oxygen ("aerobic glycolysis") during sensory stimulation is not fully explained by changes in levels of lactate or glycogen, metabolic labeling by [6-14C]glucose was used to evaluate utilization of glucose during brief brain activation. Increased labeling of tricarboxylic acid cycle-derived amino acids, mainly glutamate but also gamma-aminobutyric acid, reflects a rise in oxidative metabolism during aerobic glycolysis. The size of the glutamate, lactate, alanine, and aspartate pools changed during stimulation. Brain lactate was derived from blood-borne glucose and its specific activity was twice that of alanine, revealing pyruvate compartmentation. Glycogen labeling doubled during recovery compared with rest and activation; only 4% to 8% of the total 14C was recovered in lactate plus glycogen. Restoration of glycogen levels was slow, and diversion of glucose from oxidative pathways to restore its level could cause a prolonged reduction of the global O2/glucose uptake ratio. The rise in the brain glucose-oxygen uptake ratio during activation does not simply reflect an upward shift of glycolysis under aerobic conditions; instead, it involves altered fluxes into various (oxidative and biosynthetic) pathways with different time courses.

  7. Gene expression patterns in glucose-stimulated podocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Hyeok; Yang, Sanghwa; Jung, Dong Sub; Li, Jin Ji; Kim, Jin Ju; Kwak, Seung Jae; Kim, Dong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Han, Dae-Suk; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2008-06-06

    To explore the mechanisms of podocyte injury under diabetic conditions, we performed an expression profile in glucose-stimulated podocytes. Differential gene expression profiles between conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes cultured in medium containing 5.6 and 30 mM glucose were measured with oligonucleotide microarrays. Of the genes identified, heme oxygenase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and thrombospondin-1 showed a consistently increased pattern, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and peroxisomal proliferator activator receptor-{gamma} were down-regulated. These results were validated using real-time PCR and western blotting in podocytes, and with immunohistochemistry on renal tissues from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Not only is this the first report of gene expression profiling of podocyte injury under diabetic conditions, but the identified genes are promising targets for future diabetes research.

  8. Influence of Endogenous Insulin Secretion on Splanchnic Glucose and Amino Acid Metabolism in Man

    PubMed Central

    Felig, Philip; Wahren, John

    1971-01-01

    Splanchnic exchange of glucose, 20 individual amino acids, lactate, and pyruvate was studied in normal subjects in the postabsorptive state and after stimulation of endogenous insulin secretion by infusion of glucose at two dose levels. In the basal state, mean splanchnic glucose production was 3.4 mg/kg per min. A net uptake of lactate, pyruvate, and nine amino acids was observed, with alanine accounting for half of the total splanchnic-amino acid extraction. Infusion of glucose at 25 mg/kg per min for 20 min resulted in a fivefold increase in arterial insulin levels and in reversal of splanchnic glucose balance to a net uptake. Splanchnic uptake of alanine, glycine, phenylalanine, lactate, and pyruvate fell by 30-60% due to a reduction in fractional extraction of these substrates, inasmuch as their arterial concentrations did not decline. Administration of glucose at 2 mg/kg per min for 45 min resulted in a 19 mg/100 ml increase in arterial glucose concentration and a doubling of arterial insulin levels. Despite the small increment in insulin, hepatic glucose production fell by 85%. Splanchnic exchange of amino acids, lactate, and pyruvate was unaltered. Estimated total glucose utilization during the infusion was no greater than in the basal state, indicating lack of stimulation of peripheral glucose uptake. It is concluded that: (a) inhibition of hepatic glucose production associated with glucose infusion and large increments in insulin levels occurs in the absence of a decrease in the concentration of circulating gluconeogenic substrate, suggesting an hepatic rather than peripheral effect; (b) the liver is the primary target organ whereby glucose homeostasis is achieved with small increments in insulin; (c) the relatively greater sensitivity of the liver's response to insulin as compared with an effect of insulin on the peripheral tissues, may be a consequence of the higher levels of endogenous insulin in portal as compared with peripheral blood. PMID:5097575

  9. Catecholamine stimulation, substrate competition, and myocardial glucose uptake in conscious dogs assessed with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Merhige, M E; Ekas, R; Mossberg, K; Taegtmeyer, H; Gould, K L

    1987-11-01

    Uptake of radiolabelled deoxyglucose out of proportion to reduced coronary flow demonstrated by positron emission tomography has been used to identify reversibly ischemic, viable myocardium. For this concept to be applied reliably in the clinical setting, factors that may depress glucose availability independent of tissue viability, such as adrenergic stimulation and substrate competition, must be examined. Accordingly, we studied the effect of catecholamine stimulation by dopamine on myocardial glucose uptake in vivo using chronically instrumented, intact dogs and positron emission tomography. We measured myocardial activity of [2-18F]-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 82Rb in glucose-loaded animals randomly studied during dopamine infusion, during insulin infusion, and then during their combined infusion. Myocardial FDG uptake was significantly decreased when animals were treated with dopamine, compared with treatment in the same animals with insulin. When insulin was added to the dopamine infusion, myocardial FDG uptake was restored. In contrast, myocardial activity of 82Rb, which is taken up in proportion to coronary flow, was similar under all three experimental conditions. Plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and lactate concentrations were determined before and during each infusion. The depression of myocardial FDG activity seen during dopamine infusion and its reversal with addition of insulin can be explained on the basis of effects of these hormones on substrate availability and competition.

  10. Injectable and Glucose-Responsive Hydrogels Based on Boronic Acid-Glucose Complexation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yizhou; Wang, Weiheng; Veiseh, Omid; Appel, Eric A; Xue, Kun; Webber, Matthew J; Tang, Benjamin C; Yang, Xi-Wen; Weir, Gordon C; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2016-08-30

    Injectable hydrogels have been widely used for a number of biomedical applications. Here, we report a new strategy to form an injectable and glucose-responsive hydrogel using the boronic acid-glucose complexation. The ratio of boronic acid and glucose functional groups is critical for hydrogel formation. In our system, polymers with 10-60% boronic acid, with the balance being glucose-modified, are favorable to form hydrogels. These hydrogels are shear-thinning and self-healing, recovering from shear-induced flow to a gel state within seconds. More importantly, these polymers displayed glucose-responsive release of an encapsulated model drug. The hydrogel reported here is an injectable and glucose-responsive hydrogel constructed from the complexation of boronic acid and glucose within a single component polymeric material.

  11. Mitogen-stimulated and rapamycin-sensitive glucose transporter 12 targeting and functional glucose transport in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson-O'Brien, Amy L; Dehaan, Carrie L; Rogers, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    We hypothesized that glucose transporter 12 (GLUT12) is involved in regulation of glucose flux in distal renal tubules in response to elevated glucose. We used the Madin-Darby canine kidney polarized epithelial cell model and neutralizing antibodies to analyze GLUT12 targeting and directional GLUT12-mediated glucose transport. At physiological glucose concentrations, GLUT12 was localized to a perinuclear position. High glucose and serum treatment resulted in GLUT12 localization to the apical membrane. This mitogen-stimulated targeting of GLUT12 was inhibited by rapamycin, the specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The functional role of GLUT12 was also examined. We constructed a GLUT12 cDNA containing a c-Myc epitope tag in the fifth exofacial loop. Assays of glucose transport at the apical membrane were performed using Transwell filters. By comparing transport assays in the presence of neutralizing anti-c-Myc monoclonal antibody, we specifically measured GLUT12-mediated glucose transport at the apical surface. GLUT12-mediated glucose transport was mitogen dependent and rapamycin sensitive. Our results implicate mTOR signaling in a novel pathway of glucose transporter protein targeting and glucose transport. Activity of the mTOR pathway has been associated with diabetic kidney disease. Our results provide evidence for a link between GLUT12 protein trafficking, glucose transport and signaling molecules central to the control of metabolic disease processes. PMID:18039784

  12. Hydroxycitric acid delays intestinal glucose absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Wielinga, Peter Y; Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Bouter, Brenda; van Dijk, Theo H; Stellaard, Frans; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Verkade, Henkjan J; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated in rats if hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reduces the postprandial glucose response by affecting gastric emptying or intestinal glucose absorption. We compared the effect of regulator HCA (310 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) on the glucose response after an intragastric or intraduodenal glucose load to investigate the role of altered gastric emptying. Steele's one-compartment model was used to investigate the effect of HCA on systemic glucose appearance after an intraduodenal glucose load, using [U-(13)C]-labeled glucose and d-[6,6-(2)H(2)]-labeled glucose. Because an effect on postabsorptive glucose clearance could not be excluded, the effect of HCA on the appearance of enterally administered glucose in small intestinal tissue, liver, and portal and systemic circulation was determined by [U-(14)C]glucose infusion. Data show that HCA treatment delays the intestinal absorption of enterally administered glucose at the level of the small intestinal mucosa in rats. HCA strongly attenuated postprandial blood glucose levels after both intragastric (P < 0.01) and intraduodenal (P < 0.001) glucose administration, excluding a major effect of HCA on gastric emptying. HCA delayed the systemic appearance of exogenous glucose but did not affect the total fraction of glucose absorbed over the study period of 150 min. HCA treatment decreased concentrations of [U-(14)C]glucose in small intestinal tissue at 15 min after [U-(14)C]glucose administration (P < 0.05), in accordance with the concept that HCA delays the enteral absorption of glucose. These data support a possible role for HCA as food supplement in lowering postprandial glucose profiles. PMID:15604199

  13. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; O'Leary, Valerie B; Kirwan, John P

    2009-06-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P < 0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (DeltaI(0-30)/DeltaG(0-30)) and GIP (Delta(0-30)) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY(3-36) (Delta(0-30)) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  14. Glucose transport in human skeletal muscle cells in culture. Stimulation by insulin and metformin.

    PubMed Central

    Sarabia, V; Lam, L; Burdett, E; Leiter, L A; Klip, A

    1992-01-01

    Primary human muscle cell cultures were established and the regulation of glucose transport was investigated. Primary cultures were allowed to proceed to the stage of myotubes through fusion of myoblasts or were used for clonal selection based on fusion potential. In clonally selected cultures, hexose (2-deoxy-glucose) uptake into myotubes was linear within the time of study and inhibitable by cytochalasin B (IC50 = 400 nM). Cytochalasin B photolabeled a protein(s) of 45,000-50,000 D in a D-glucose-protectable manner, suggesting identity with the glucose transporters. In the myotube stage, the cells expressed both the GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporter protein isoforms at an average molar ratio of 7:1. Preincubation in media of increasing glucose concentrations (range 5-25 mM) progressively decreased the rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Insulin elevated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner, with half maximal stimulation achieved at 3.5 nM. Insulin also stimulated the transport of the nonmetabolizable hexose 3-O-methylglucose, as well as the activity of glycogen synthase, responsible for nonoxidative glucose metabolism. The oral antihyperglycemic drug metformin stimulated the cytochalasin B-sensitive component of both 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose uptake. Maximal stimulation was observed at 8 h of exposure to 50 microM metformin, and this effect was not prevented by incubation with the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The relative effect of metformin was higher in cells incubated in 25 mM glucose than in 5 mM glucose, consistent with its selective action in hyperglycemic conditions in vivo. Metformin (50 microM for 24 h) was more effective than insulin (1 microM for 1 h) in stimulating hexose uptake and the hormone was effective on top of the stimulation caused by the biguanide, suggesting independent mechanisms of action. Images PMID:1401073

  15. Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas E; Kleinert, Maximilian; Mouatt, Joshua R; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jeppesen, Jacob; Prats, Clara; Chiu, Tim T; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Klip, Amira; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A

    2013-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin. Whether Rac1 is activated by muscle contraction and regulates contraction-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of in vivo exercise and ex vivo muscle contractions on Rac1 signaling and its regulatory role in glucose uptake in mice and humans. Muscle Rac1-GTP binding was increased after exercise in mice (~60-100%) and humans (~40%), and this activation was AMP-activated protein kinase independent. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse muscle by 55% in soleus and by 20-58% in extensor digitorum longus (EDL; P < 0.01). In agreement, the contraction-stimulated increment in glucose uptake was decreased by 27% (P = 0.1) and 40% (P < 0.05) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively, of muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice. Furthermore, depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton decreased contraction-stimulated glucose uptake by 100% and 62% (P < 0.01) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively. These are the first data to show that Rac1 is activated during muscle contraction in murine and human skeletal muscle and suggest that Rac1 and possibly the actin cytoskeleton are novel regulators of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake.

  16. Recent advances in fluorescent arylboronic acids for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Christensen, Jørn Bolstad

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is crucial in order to avoid complications caused by change in blood glucose for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The long-term consequences of high blood glucose levels include damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves and other organs, among others, caused by malign glycation of vital protein structures. Fluorescent monitors based on arylboronic acids are promising candidates for optical CGM, since arylboronic acids are capable of forming arylboronate esters with 1,2-cis-diols or 1,3-diols fast and reversibly, even in aqueous solution. These properties enable arylboronic acid dyes to provide immediate information of glucose concentrations. Thus, the replacement of the commonly applied semi-invasive and non-invasive techniques relying on glucose binding proteins, such as concanavalin A, or enzymes, such as glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase and hexokinases/glucokinases, might be possible. The recent progress in the development of fluorescent arylboronic acid dyes will be emphasized in this review. PMID:25586415

  17. Recent Advances in Fluorescent Arylboronic Acids for Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Christensen, Jørn Bolstad

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is crucial in order to avoid complications caused by change in blood glucose for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The long-term consequences of high blood glucose levels include damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves and other organs, among others, caused by malign glycation of vital protein structures. Fluorescent monitors based on arylboronic acids are promising candidates for optical CGM, since arylboronic acids are capable of forming arylboronate esters with 1,2-cis-diols or 1,3-diols fast and reversibly, even in aqueous solution. These properties enable arylboronic acid dyes to provide immediate information of glucose concentrations. Thus, the replacement of the commonly applied semi-invasive and non-invasive techniques relying on glucose binding proteins, such as concanavalin A, or enzymes, such as glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase and hexokinases/glucokinases, might be possible. The recent progress in the development of fluorescent arylboronic acid dyes will be emphasized in this review. PMID:25586415

  18. Glucose-lowering effects of intestinal bile acid sequestration through enhancement of splanchnic glucose utilization.

    PubMed

    Prawitt, Janne; Caron, Sandrine; Staels, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal bile acid (BA) sequestration efficiently lowers plasma glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Because BAs act as signaling molecules via receptors, including the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 and the nuclear receptor FXR (farnesoid X receptor), to regulate glucose homeostasis, BA sequestration, which interrupts the entero-hepatic circulation of BAs, constitutes a plausible action mechanism of BA sequestrants. An increase of intestinal L-cell glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion upon TGR5 activation is the most commonly proposed mechanism, but recent studies also argue for a direct entero-hepatic action to enhance glucose utilization. We discuss here recent findings on the mechanisms of sequestrant-mediated glucose lowering via an increase of splanchnic glucose utilization through entero-hepatic FXR signaling.

  19. Venlafaxine and atenolol disrupt epinephrine-stimulated glucose production in rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ings, J S; George, N; Peter, M C S; Servos, M R; Vijayan, M M

    2012-01-15

    The beta-blocker atenolol (ATEN), and the selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine (VEN) are found in municipal wastewater effluents, but little is known about the effect of these pharmaceuticals on aquatic animals. We tested the hypothesis that VEN and ATEN disrupt acute stress mediated glucose production in fish liver. To this end, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes were exposed in vitro to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 10, 1000 nM) of VEN or ATEN and glucose production in response to either cortisol or epinephrine (two key stress hormones) was ascertained. Both VEN and ATEN did not affect either the unstimulated or cortisol (100 ng/mL)-stimulated glucose release over a 24 h period. The acute (3 h) unstimulated glucose production by isolated hepatocytes in suspension was also not modified by ATEN, while VEN (100 and 1000 nM) reduced basal glucose release. However, ATEN, even at concentration as low as 0.01 nM completely abolished epinephrine (1 μM)-induced glucose production in trout hepatocytes. Interestingly, VEN also suppressed epinephrine-induced glucose production but only at higher concentrations (100 and 1000 nM). Neither VEN nor ATEN significantly impacted the glucose production in response to either 8-bromo-cAMP (cAMP analogue) or glucagon (a metabolic hormone that increases glucose production) stimulation. ATEN but not VEN attenuated the epinephrine-induced increase in glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA abundance in trout hepatocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that the impact of ATEN and VEN on glucose production involves inhibition of β-adrenoceptor signaling in trout hepatocytes. Overall, VEN and ATEN are beta-blockers and may disrupt the adaptive acute glucose response to a secondary stressor in rainbow trout. PMID:22057255

  20. Preparation of Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on 4-Mercaptobenzoic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by a combination of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Because of the catalysis of Prussian Blue contained in the LB film layers, the prepared amperometric biosensor worked at a very low potential range around 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimum operating conditions for glucose biosensor were investigated by varying the glucose oxidase immobilization time, the applied potential and the pH of buffer solution. The steady-state current responses of the glucose biosensor showed a good linear relationship to glucose concentrations from 0.1 mM to 154 mM.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Epinephrine on Insulin-stimulated Glucose Uptake by Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Shikama, Hisataka; Chu, David T. W.; Exton, John H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of epinephrine on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in perfused hindlimbs of fed rats was studied. Insulin increased glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner from a basal value of 1.5±0.3 up to a maximum value of 5.3±0.9 μmol/min per 100 g with 6 nM (1 m U/ml). Epinephrine at 10 nM and 0.1 μM also increased glucose uptake to 2.6±0.1 and 3.1±0.1 μmol/min per 100 g, respectively. These same concentrations of epinephrine, however, suppressed the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to 3.2±0.3 μmol/min per 100 g. Both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of epinephrine on glucose uptake were completely reversed by propranolol, but were not significantly altered by phentolamine. Uptake of 3-O-methylglucose and 2-deoxyglucose into thigh muscles of the perfused hindlimbs was stimulated fivefold by insulin, but was unaffected by epinephrine. Epinephrine also did not inhibit the stimulation of uptake by insulin. Epinephrine decreased the phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose, however, and caused the intracellular accumulation of free glucose. These last two effects were more prominent in the presence of insulin. Whereas epinephrine caused large rises in glucose-6-P and fructose-6-P, insulin did not alter the concentration of these metabolites either in the absence or presence of epinephrine. These data indicate that: (a) epinephrine has a stimulatory effect on glucose uptake by perfused rat hindlimbs that does not appear to be exerted on skeletal muscle; (b) epinephrine does not affect hexose transport in skeletal muscle; (c) epinephrine inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by inhibiting glucose phosphorylation. It is hypothesized that the inhibition of glucose phosphorylation is due to the stimulation of glycogenolysis, which leads to the accumulation of hexose phosphates, which inhibit hexokinase. PMID:6115864

  2. The Effect of Gastrin on Basal- and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Man

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Jens F.; Stadil, Flemming

    1973-01-01

    The effect of gastrin on basal- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was studied in 32 normal, young subjects. The concentration of gastrin and insulin in serum was measured radioimmunochemically. Maximal physiologic limit for the concentration of gastrin in serum was of the order of 160 pmol per liter as observed during a protein-rich meal. Oral ingestion of 50 g glucose produced a small gastrin response from 28±3 to 39±5 pmol per liter (mean ±SEM, P < 0.01). Intravenous injection or prolonged infusion of gastrin increased the concentration of insulin in peripheral venous blood to a maximum within 2 min followed by a decline to basal levels after a further 10 min. The minimum dose required to induce a significant insulin response (31.2 ng gastrin per kg) increased the gastrin level in serum above the physiologic range. Maximum effect was obtained with 500 ng gastrin per kg. When 15.6 ng (7.1 pmol) gastrin per kg body weight and 25 g glucose were injected simultaneously, the glucose-induced insulin response was potentiated (from 2.32±0.33 to 4.33±0.98 nmol per liter per 20 min, P < 0.02), even though gastrin concentrations only increased to 71.2±6.6 pmol per liter. No effect, however, was noted on glucose disposal. 15.6 ng gastrin per kg given i.v. 30 min before an i.v. glucose tolerance test was without significant effect on the insulin response. The results indicate that gastrin can stimulate a rapid and short-lived release of insulin. In physiologic concentrations gastrin potentiates the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is without effect on basal insulin secretion. A small release of gastrin during oral glucose ingestion may to a limited extent contribute to the nonglycemic insulin secretion. During protein ingestion, gastrin probably stimulates insulin secretion significantly. Images PMID:4703228

  3. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24814481

  4. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion.

  5. Dietary Sugars Stimulate Fatty Acid Synthesis in Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Elizabeth J.; Skokan, Lauren E.; Timlin, Maureen T.; Dingfelder, Carlus S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the magnitude by which acute consumption of fructose in a morning bolus would stimulate lipogenesis (measured by infusion of 13C1-acetate and analysis by GC-MS) immediately and after a subsequent meal. Six healthy subjects [4 men and 2 women; aged (mean ± SD) 28 ± 8 y; BMI, 24.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; and serum triacylglycerols (TG), 1.03 ± 0.32 mmol/L] consumed carbohydrate boluses of sugars (85 g each) in a random and blinded order, followed by a standardized lunch 4 h later. Subjects completed a control test of glucose (100:0) and a mixture of 50:50 glucose:fructose and one of 25:75 (wt:wt). Following the morning boluses, serum glucose and insulin after 100:0 were greater than both other treatments (P < 0.05) and this pattern occurred again after lunch. In the morning, fractional lipogenesis was stimulated when subjects ingested fructose and peaked at 15.9 ± 5.4% after the 50:50 treatment and at 16.9 ± 5.2% after the 25:75 treatment, values that were greater than after the 100:0 treatment (7.8 ± 5.7%; P < 0.02). When fructose was consumed, absolute lipogenesis was 2-fold greater than when it was absent (100:0). Postlunch, serum TG were 11–29% greater than 100:0 and TG-rich lipoprotein-TG concentrations were 76–200% greater after 50:50 and 25:75 were consumed (P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that an early stimulation of lipogenesis after fructose, consumed in a mixture of sugars, augments subsequent postprandial lipemia. The postlunch blood TG elevation was only partially due to carry-over from the morning. Acute intake of fructose stimulates lipogenesis and may create a metabolic milieu that enhances subsequent esterification of fatty acids flowing to the liver to elevate TG synthesis postprandially. PMID:18492831

  6. Biosynthesis of pyruvic acid from glucose by Blastobotrys adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-09-01

    The ability of taxonomically different yeasts to synthesize pyruvic acid (PA) from glucose was studied. The study showed that many yeasts are able to produce PA from glucose under the condition of growth limitation by thiamine. This ability was found in the yeast Blastobotrys adeninivorans for the first time. The production (oversynthesis) of PA in this yeast can be explained by disturbance in the function of thiamine-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase. Namely, the partial inhibition of this enzyme brings about the excretion of PA from the yeast cells. Due to incomplete inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the formation of acetyl-CoA continues, although at a lower level, maintaining the synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. KGA is no longer oxidized in the TCA cycle, because thiamine limitation inhibits α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. As a result, KGA is excreted from the yeast cells as a byproduct of PA oversynthesis. Furthermore, the increased level of KGA in the yeast cells inhibits NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle and enhances the production and excretion of citric acid, another byproduct of PA oversynthesis. During cultivation in a fermentor, the strain Blastobotrys adeninivorans VKM Y-2677 produced 43.2 g l(-1) PA from glucose with a product yield (YPA) of 0.77 g PA/g glucose. The proportion of PA to byproducts was 18:1 for KGA and 8:1 for citric acid.

  7. Ursolic Acid Increases Glucose Uptake through the PI3K Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghan; Li, Wen; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuocheng; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Background Ursolic acid (UA), a triterpenoid compound, is reported to have a glucose-lowering effect. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is one of peripheral tissues that collectively control the circulating glucose levels. Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the effect and further the mechanism of action of UA in adipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate and treated with different concentrations of UA. NBD-fluorescent glucose was used as the tracer to measure glucose uptake and Western blotting used to determine the expression and activity of proteins involved in glucose transport. It was found that 2.5, 5 and 10 µM of UA promoted glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner (17%, 29% and 35%, respectively). 10 µM UA-induced glucose uptake with insulin stimulation was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (1 µM), but not by SB203580 (10 µM), the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or compound C (2.5 µM), the inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Furthmore, the downstream protein activities of the PI3K pathway, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) and phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threoninekinase (AKT) were increased by 10 µM of UA in the presence of insulin. Interestingly, the activity of AS160 and protein kinase C (PKC) and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were stimulated by 10 µM of UA under either the basal or insulin-stimulated status. Moreover, the translocation of GLUT4 from cytoplasm to cell membrane was increased by UA but decreased when the PI3K inhibitor was applied. Conclusions Our results suggest that UA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the PI3K pathway, providing important information regarding the mechanism of action of UA for its anti-diabetic effect. PMID:25329874

  8. Inhibition by forskolin of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in L6 muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Klip, A; Ramlal, T; Douen, A G; Bilan, P J; Skorecki, K L

    1988-01-01

    The cardioactive diterpene forskolin is a known activator of adenylate cyclase, but recently a specific interaction of this compound with the glucose transporter has been identified that results in the inhibition of glucose transport in several human and rat cell types. We have compared the sensitivity of basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport to inhibition by forskolin in skeletal muscle cells of the L6 line. Forskolin completely inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport when present during the transport assay. The inhibition of basal transport was completely reversible upon removal of the diterpene. In contrast, insulin-stimulated hexose transport did not recover, and basal transport levels were attained instead. This effect of inhibiting (or reversing) the insulin-stimulated fraction of transport is a novel effect of the diterpene. Forskolin treatment also inhibited the stimulated fraction of transport when the stimulus was by 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, reversing back to basal levels. Half-maximal inhibition of the above-basal insulin-stimulated transport was achieved with 35-50 microM-forskolin, and maximal inhibition with 100 microM. Forskolin did not inhibit 125I-insulin binding under conditions where it caused significant inhibition of insulin-stimulated hexose transport. Forskolin significantly elevated the cyclic AMP levels in the cells; however its inhibitory effect on the above basal, insulin-stimulated fraction of hexose transport was not mediated by cyclic AMP since: (i) 8-bromo cyclic AMP and cholera toxin did not mimic this effect of the diterpene, (ii) significant decreases in cyclic AMP levels caused by 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine in the presence of forskolin did not prevent inhibition of insulin-stimulated hexose transport, (iii) isobutylmethylxanthine did not potentiate forskolin effects on glucose transport but did potentiate the elevation in cyclic AMP, and (iv) 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, which does not activate adenylate

  9. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness. PMID:22745735

  10. Interleukin-1 beta stimulates glucose uptake of human peritoneal mesothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kruse, M; Mahiout, A; Kliem, V; Kurz, P; Koch, K M; Brunkhorst, R

    1996-01-01

    To investigate whether the glucose uptake (GU) of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) is mediated by glucose transporters and whether this uptake is influenced by interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), we measured 2-deoxy-(3H)-GU of HPMC in vitro, after exposing the cells for different times (two and 12 hours) to increasing concentrations (0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 ng/mL) of IL-1 beta. To exclude a noncarrier-mediated transport, GU was also tested in the presence of cytochalasin B. All experiments were performed in triplicate in the cells of two donors. Cytochalasin B inhibits GU of HPMC almost completely. GU of HPMC is not stimulated by insulin. GU is stimulated by IL-1 beta in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate a GU of HPMC, which is mediated by a glucose transporter and stimulated by IL-1 beta. The increased uptake of glucose from the dialysate in patients with peritonitis may be mediated by a (cytokine-induced) increased activity of HPMC glucose transporters.

  11. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake via the 67-kilodalton laminin receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Fen; Tsuei, Yi-Wei; Liu, Chi-Wei; Kao, Chung-Cheng; Shih, Li-Jane; Ho, Low-Tone; Wu, Liang-Yi; Wu, Chi-Peng; Tsai, Pei-Hua; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Ku, Hui-Chen; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2010-10-01

    Insulin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are reported to regulate obesity and fat accumulation, respectively. This study investigated the pathways involved in EGCG modulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 adipocytes. EGCG inhibited insulin stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The concentration of EGCG that decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 50-60% was approximately 5-10 µM for a period of 2 h. At 10 µM, EGCG and gallic acid were more effective than (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate. We identified the EGCG receptor [also known as the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)] in fat cells and extended the findings for this study to clarify whether EGCG-induced changes in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes could be mediated through the 67LR. Pretreatment of adipocytes with a 67LR antibody, but not normal rabbit immunoglobulin, prevented the effects of EGCG on insulin-increased glucose uptake. This suggests that the 67LR mediates the effect of EGCG on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Moreover, pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, such as compound C, but not with a glutathione (GSH) activator, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), blocked the antiinsulin effect of EGCG on adipocyte glucose uptake. These data suggest that EGCG exerts its anti-insulin action on adipocyte glucose uptake via the AMPK, but not the GSH, pathway. The results of this study possibly support that EGCG mediates fat content.

  12. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Natarelli, Lucia; Ranaldi, Giulia; Leoni, Guido; Roselli, Marianna; Guantario, Barbara; Comitato, Raffaella; Ambra, Roberto; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio; Virgili, Fabio; Canali, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG). In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9) and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3) and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins. PMID:26544184

  13. D-Psicose inhibits the expression of MCP-1 induced by high-glucose stimulation in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Murao, Koji; Yu, Xiao; Cao, Wen M; Imachi, Hitomi; Chen, Ke; Muraoka, Tomie; Kitanaka, Noriko; Li, Junhun; Ahmed, Rania A M; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2007-07-26

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a 76-amino-acid chemokine thought to be the major chemotactic factor for monocytes. MCP-1 is found in macrophage-rich areas of atherosclerotic lesions. Recent report indicates that MCP-1 is induced by glucose-stimulation, raising the important link between diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. One of the rare sugars, d-psicose (d-ribo-2-hexulose) is present in small quantities in commercial carbohydrate complexes, however the physiological functions of d-psicose have not been evaluated. In this study, we examined the effects of d-psicose on MCP-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that MCP-1 mRNA and protein were stimulated following exposure to 22.4 mM glucose. Transcriptional activity of MCP-1 promoter paralleled endogenous expression of the gene and this activity was dependent on the dose of d-glucose. d-Psicose inhibited these effects. Next we used inhibitors of selected signal transduction pathways to show that high-glucose (HG) stimulated MCP-1 promoter activity was sensitive to p38-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (p38-MAPK) pathway inhibitor. As expected, a dominant-negative p38-MAPK abolished the stimulatory effect of HG on the promoter activity. To incubate the cells with HG and d-psicose reduced the activation of p38-MAPK. Together, these results indicate that the d-psicose suppression of HG induced MCP-1 expression is mediated in part by inhibition of the p38-MAPK pathway and raise the possibility that d-psicose may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  14. Stimulation of monokine production by lipoteichoic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Bhakdi, S; Klonisch, T; Nuber, P; Fischer, W

    1991-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) isolated from bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes A, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes, were tested for their ability to stimulate the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cultured human monocytes. LTAs from S. aureus and S. pneumoniae failed to induce monokine production when applied in the concentration range of 0.05 to 5.0 micrograms/ml. However, LTAs from several enterococcal species (0.5 to 5 micrograms/ml) induced the release of all three monokines at levels similar to those observed after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The kinetics of IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha release elicited by LTAs closely resembled those observed following lipopolysaccharide application. Cytokine production occurred in the presence of both fetal calf serum and autologous human serum. Hence, it was not dependent on complement activation and could not be suppressed by naturally occurring human antibodies. Deacylation caused the total loss of monocyte stimulatory capacity. Deacylated LTAs were unable to prevent monocyte activation by intact LTAs, so primary binding of these molecules probably does not involve a simple interaction of a membrane receptor with the hydrophilic portion of the molecule. The results identify some species of LTAs as inducers of monokine production in human monocytes. PMID:1937822

  15. Postprandial insulin action relies on meal composition and hepatic parasympathetics: dependency on glucose and amino acids: Meal, parasympathetics & insulin action.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Ricardo A; Gaspar, Joana M; Lamarão, Iva; Lautt, W Wayne; Macedo, M Paula

    2016-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) increases following a meal. Meal composition affects postprandial glucose disposal but still remains unclear which nutrients and mechanisms are involved. We hypothesized that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids stimulate hepatic parasympathetic nerves, potentiating insulin action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 h fasted and anesthetized. Two series of experiments were performed. (A) IS was assessed before and after liquid test meal administration (10 ml.kg(-1), intraenteric): glucose + amino acids + lipids (GAL, n=6); glucose (n=5); amino acids (n=5); lipids (n=3); glucose + amino acids (GA, n=9); amino acids + lipids (n=3); and glucose + lipids (n=4). (B) Separately, fasted animals were submitted to hepatic parasympathetic denervation (DEN); IS was assessed before and after GAL (n=4) or GA administration (n=4). (A) Both GAL and GA induced significant insulin sensitization. GAL increased IS from 97.9±6.2 mg glucose/kg bw (fasting) to 225.4±18.3 mg glucose/kg bw (P<0.001; 143.6±26.0% potentiation of IS); GA increased IS from 109.0±6.6 to 240.4±18.0 mg glucose/kg bw (P<0.001; 123.1±13.4% potentiation). None of the other meals potentiated IS. (B) GAL and GA did not induce a significant insulin sensitization in DEN animal. To achieve maximal insulin sensitization following a meal, it is required that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids trigger a vagal reflex that involves hepatic parasympathetic nerves.

  16. Different alterations in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the athlete's heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Nuutila, P; Knuuti, M J; Heinonen, O J; Ruotsalainen, U; Teräs, M; Bergman, J; Solin, O; Yki-Järvinen, H; Voipio-Pulkki, L M; Wegelius, U

    1994-01-01

    Physical training increases skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since training also causes functional and structural changes in the myocardium, we compared glucose uptake rates in the heart and skeletal muscles of trained and untrained individuals. Seven male endurance athletes (VO2max 72 +/- 2 ml/kg/min) and seven sedentary subjects matched for characteristics other than VO2max (43 +/- 2 ml/kg/min) were studied. Whole body glucose uptake was determined with a 2-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and regional glucose uptake in femoral and arm muscles, and myocardium using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose uptake in the athletes was increased by 68% in whole body (P < 0.0001), by 99% in the femoral muscles (P < 0.01), and by 62% in arm muscles (P = 0.06), but it was decreased by 33% in the heart muscle (P < 0.05) as compared with the sedentary subjects. The total glucose uptake rate in the heart was similar in the athletes and control subjects. Left ventricular mass in the athletes was 79% greater (P < 0.001) and the meridional wall stress smaller (P < 0.001) as estimated by echocardiography. VO2max correlated directly with left ventricular mass (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and inversely with left ventricular wall stress (r = -0.86, P < 0.001). Myocardial glucose uptake correlated directly with the rate-pressure product (r = 0.75, P < 0.02) and inversely with left ventricular mass (r = -0.60, P < 0.05) or with the whole body glucose disposal (r = -0.68, P < 0.01). Thus, in athletes, (a) insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is enhanced in the whole body and skeletal muscles, (b) whereas myocardial glucose uptake per muscle mass is reduced possibly due to decreased wall stress and energy requirements or the use of alternative fuels, or both. Images PMID:8182160

  17. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Mark K.; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M.; Ebbesen, Lene H.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Jessen, Niels; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is seen with obesity and is suggested to be a mediator of insulin resistance. The eliciting factor of low-grade inflammation is unknown but increased permeability of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulting in endotoxemia could be a candidate. Here we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was increased despite similar plasma glucose level resulting in an increase in the insulinogenic index (IGI; delta0-15insulin / delta0-15glucose) from 13.73 to 22.40 pmol/mmol (P < 0.001). This aberration in insulin and glucose homeostasis was normalized by resveratrol. In conclusion: Low-dose LPS enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without affecting the blood glucose suggesting increased insulin resistance. Resveratrol restored LPS-induced alteration of the insulin secretion and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects specifically in epididymal adipose tissue possibly due to preferential accumulation of resveratrol metabolites pointing towards a possible important involvement of this tissue for the effects on insulin resistance and insulin

  18. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p < 0.05). Despite this, no differences in plasma insulin or nonesterified fatty acids were observed, and gastric emptying was not altered. Plasma GIP response was blunted in rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p < 0.05). There were no changes in GLP-1 secretion in either the in vivo or in vitro study. In conclusion, CGA treatment resulted in beneficial effects on blood glucose response, with alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D. PMID:21977912

  19. An inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-IP3 receptor pathway is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 translocation and glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ferrat, A E; Toro, B; Bravo, R; Parra, V; Vásquez, C; Ibarra, C; Mears, D; Chiong, M; Jaimovich, E; Klip, A; Lavandero, S

    2010-10-01

    Intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) and glucose uptake are central to cardiomyocyte physiology, yet connections between them have not been studied. We investigated whether insulin regulates [Ca2+]i in cultured cardiomyocytes, the participating mechanisms, and their influence on glucose uptake via SLC2 family of facilitative glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were preloaded with the Ca2+ fluorescent dye fluo3-acetoxymethyl ester compound (AM) and visualized by confocal microscopy. Ca2+ transport pathways were selectively targeted by chemical and molecular inhibition. Glucose uptake was assessed using [3H]2-deoxyglucose, and surface GLUT4 levels were quantified in nonpermeabilized cardiomyocytes transfected with GLUT4-myc-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Insulin elicited a fast, two-component, transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Nifedipine and ryanodine prevented only the first component. The second one was reduced by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-receptor-selective inhibitors (xestospongin C, 2 amino-ethoxydiphenylborate), by type 2 IP3 receptor knockdown via small interfering RNA or by transfected Gβγ peptidic inhibitor βARKct. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was prevented by bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid-AM, 2-amino-ethoxydiphenylborate, and βARK-ct but not by nifedipine or ryanodine. Similarly, insulin-dependent exofacial exposure of GLUT4-myc-enhanced green fluorescent protein was inhibited by bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid-AM and xestospongin C but not by nifedipine. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt were also required for the second phase of Ca2+ release and GLUT4 translocation. Transfected dominant-negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ inhibited the latter. In conclusion, in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes, insulin induces an important component of Ca2+ release via IP3 receptor. This component signals to glucose uptake via GLUT4, revealing a so-far unrealized

  20. An inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-IP3 receptor pathway is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 translocation and glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ferrat, A E; Toro, B; Bravo, R; Parra, V; Vásquez, C; Ibarra, C; Mears, D; Chiong, M; Jaimovich, E; Klip, A; Lavandero, S

    2010-10-01

    Intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) and glucose uptake are central to cardiomyocyte physiology, yet connections between them have not been studied. We investigated whether insulin regulates [Ca2+]i in cultured cardiomyocytes, the participating mechanisms, and their influence on glucose uptake via SLC2 family of facilitative glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were preloaded with the Ca2+ fluorescent dye fluo3-acetoxymethyl ester compound (AM) and visualized by confocal microscopy. Ca2+ transport pathways were selectively targeted by chemical and molecular inhibition. Glucose uptake was assessed using [3H]2-deoxyglucose, and surface GLUT4 levels were quantified in nonpermeabilized cardiomyocytes transfected with GLUT4-myc-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Insulin elicited a fast, two-component, transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Nifedipine and ryanodine prevented only the first component. The second one was reduced by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-receptor-selective inhibitors (xestospongin C, 2 amino-ethoxydiphenylborate), by type 2 IP3 receptor knockdown via small interfering RNA or by transfected Gβγ peptidic inhibitor βARKct. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was prevented by bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid-AM, 2-amino-ethoxydiphenylborate, and βARK-ct but not by nifedipine or ryanodine. Similarly, insulin-dependent exofacial exposure of GLUT4-myc-enhanced green fluorescent protein was inhibited by bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid-AM and xestospongin C but not by nifedipine. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt were also required for the second phase of Ca2+ release and GLUT4 translocation. Transfected dominant-negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ inhibited the latter. In conclusion, in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes, insulin induces an important component of Ca2+ release via IP3 receptor. This component signals to glucose uptake via GLUT4, revealing a so-far unrealized

  1. Effects of insulin, glucose, and amino acids on protein turnover in rat diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Fulks, R M; Li, J B; Goldberg, A L

    1975-01-10

    A simple method is described for measuring rates of protein synthesis and degradation in isolated rat diaphragm. Muscles incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer showed a linear rate of synthesis for 3 hours. At the same time, the muscle released tyrosine and ninhydrin-positive material, primarily amino acids, at a linear rate. This release was not a nonspecific leakage of material from the intracellular pools, but reflected net protein degradation. Tyrosine was chosen for studies of protein turnover, since it rapidly equilibrates between intracellular pools and the medium, it can be measured fluorometrically, and it is neither synthesized nor degraded by this tissue. To follow protein degradation independently of synthesis, muscles were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide. Under these conditions, the amount of tyrosine in the intracellular pools was constant, while the muscle released tyrosine at a linear rate. This tyrosine release was used as a measure of degradation. This preparation was used to study the influence of various factors known to be important for muscle growth on protein synthesis and degradation. Similar effects were obtained with diaphragms of normal and fasted rats although the latter showed decreased synthesis and increased protein degradation. Insulin by itself not only stimulated synthesis but also inhibited protein degradation (even in the presence of cycloheximide). These two effects served to reduce the net release of tyrosine from muscle protein to comparable extents. Effects of insulin on synthesis and degradation were greater when glucose was also present in the medium. Glucose by itself inhibited protein degradation but in the absence of insulin glucose had no significant effect on synthesis. Nevertheless, glucose stimulated incorporation of radioactivive tyrosine into protein, but this effect was due to an increased intracellular specific activity. Unlike glucose neither beta-hydroxybutyrate or octanoic acid had any

  2. Green tea modulates alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulated glucose transport in cultured rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Cristina; Maraldi, Tullia; Ghelli, Anna; Rugolo, Michela; Leoncini, Emanuela; Hakim, Gabriele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2007-09-01

    alpha1-Adrenergic stimulation triggers glucose transport in the heart through the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT4 to plasma membranes, mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. Evidence is emerging that dietary polyphenolic compounds may act not only as antioxidants but also by modulating PKC-mediated signaling. This study evaluated the ability of a green tea extract (GTE) to modulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated glucose transport in rat cardiomyocytes. GTE supplementation decreased phenylephrine (PhE)-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 recruitment. PhE stimulation activated PKC alpha, beta, delta, and epsilon, while GTE supplementation decreased the translocation of beta and delta isoforms, but not alpha and epsilon, supporting the notion that GTE directly affects PKC activation and is a beta and delta isoform-selective PKC inhibitor. Due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement in pathological heart alterations, the observation that GTE is able to both inhibit effects originated by some PKC isoforms and counteract ROS deleterious effects could be important in the prevention/counteraction of these diseases.

  3. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Revealed Glucose-Stimulated Responses of Islet Associated with Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Li, Qingrun; Tang, Jiashu; Xia, Fangying; Wu, Jiarui; Zeng, Rong

    2015-11-01

    As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, islet has been an important focus of diabetes research. Phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in islet function, especially in islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A systematic view on how phosphorylation networks were coordinately regulated in this process remains lacking, partially due to the limited amount of islets from an individual for a phosphoproteomic analysis. Here we optimized the in-tip and best-ratio phosphopeptide enrichment strategy and a SILAC-based workflow for processing rat islet samples. With limited islet lysates from each individual rat (20-47 μg), we identified 8539 phosphosites on 2487 proteins. Subsequent quantitative analyses uncovered that short-term (30 min) high glucose stimulation induced coordinate responses of islet phosphoproteome on multiple biological levels, including insulin secretion related pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein processing in ER and Golgi, transcription and translation, and so on. Furthermore, three glucose-responsive phosphosites (Prkar1a pT75pS77 and Tagln2 pS163) from the data set were proved to be correlated with insulin secretion. Overall, we initially gave an in-depth map of islet phosphoproteome regulated by glucose on individual rat level. This was a significant addition to our knowledge about how phosphorylation networks responded in insulin secretion. Also, the list of changed phosphosites was a valuable resource for molecular researchers in diabetes field. PMID:26437020

  4. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  5. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  6. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Revealed Glucose-Stimulated Responses of Islet Associated with Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Li, Qingrun; Tang, Jiashu; Xia, Fangying; Wu, Jiarui; Zeng, Rong

    2015-11-01

    As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, islet has been an important focus of diabetes research. Phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in islet function, especially in islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A systematic view on how phosphorylation networks were coordinately regulated in this process remains lacking, partially due to the limited amount of islets from an individual for a phosphoproteomic analysis. Here we optimized the in-tip and best-ratio phosphopeptide enrichment strategy and a SILAC-based workflow for processing rat islet samples. With limited islet lysates from each individual rat (20-47 μg), we identified 8539 phosphosites on 2487 proteins. Subsequent quantitative analyses uncovered that short-term (30 min) high glucose stimulation induced coordinate responses of islet phosphoproteome on multiple biological levels, including insulin secretion related pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein processing in ER and Golgi, transcription and translation, and so on. Furthermore, three glucose-responsive phosphosites (Prkar1a pT75pS77 and Tagln2 pS163) from the data set were proved to be correlated with insulin secretion. Overall, we initially gave an in-depth map of islet phosphoproteome regulated by glucose on individual rat level. This was a significant addition to our knowledge about how phosphorylation networks responded in insulin secretion. Also, the list of changed phosphosites was a valuable resource for molecular researchers in diabetes field.

  7. cAMP mediators of pulsatile insulin secretion from glucose-stimulated single beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Barg, Sebastian; Gylfe, Erik; Tengholm, Anders

    2010-07-23

    Pulsatile insulin release from glucose-stimulated beta-cells is driven by oscillations of the Ca(2+) and cAMP concentrations in the subplasma membrane space ([Ca(2+)](pm) and [cAMP](pm)). To clarify mechanisms by which cAMP regulates insulin secretion, we performed parallel evanescent wave fluorescence imaging of [cAMP](pm), [Ca(2+)](pm), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) in the plasma membrane. This lipid is formed by autocrine insulin receptor activation and was used to monitor insulin release kinetics from single MIN6 beta-cells. Elevation of the glucose concentration from 3 to 11 mm induced, after a 2.7-min delay, coordinated oscillations of [Ca(2+)](pm), [cAMP](pm), and PIP(3). Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly diminished the PIP(3) response when applied before glucose stimulation, but did not affect already manifested PIP(3) oscillations. The reduced PIP(3) response could be attributed to accelerated depolarization causing early rise of [Ca(2+)](pm) that preceded the elevation of [cAMP](pm). However, the amplitude of the PIP(3) response after PKA inhibition was restored by a specific agonist to the cAMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. Suppression of cAMP formation with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors reduced already established PIP(3) oscillations in glucose-stimulated cells, and this effect was almost completely counteracted by the Epac agonist. In cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting Epac2, the amplitudes of the glucose-induced PIP(3) oscillations were reduced, and the Epac agonist was without effect. The data indicate that temporal coordination of the triggering [Ca(2+)](pm) and amplifying [cAMP](pm) signals is important for glucose-induced pulsatile insulin release. Although both PKA and Epac2 partake in initiating insulin secretion, the cAMP dependence of established pulsatility is mediated by Epac2.

  8. Glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet in rats effects of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Miura, Yoshikazu; Kaneko, Takashi; Li, Jue; Qin, Li-Qiang; Wang, Pei-Yu; Matsui, Hisao; Sato, Akio

    2002-04-01

    We examined the time course of effects of a high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) diet on the impairment of glucose tolerance in rats, clarified whether insulin secretion and sensitivity were impaired by the HF/LC diet, and investigated the relationship between the increased nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) after HF/LC diet feeding and insulin secretion and sensitivity. We found that glucose tolerance and the postglucose-loading insulin secretion were impaired after 3 and 7 d on the HF/LC diet. The glucose intolerance was accompanied by a rise in the fasting plasma NEFA level. When stimulated with 15 mmol/L of glucose, the insulin secretion was impaired in pancreatic islets from rats fed the HF/LC diet. Rats fed the HF/LC diet showed insulin resistance in vivo. The glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited in the islets following 24-h culture with palmitic acid. The 24-h infusion of palmitic acid decreased whole-body insulin sensitivity. In summary, at least 3 d on a HF/LC diet is needed to induce glucose intolerance in rats, and the impairment may be induced by decreased insulin secretion and sensitivity, which is related to the increase in the plasma NEFA level. PMID:12108518

  9. Neuronostatin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via direct action on the pancreatic α-cell

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Alison S.; Elrick, Mollisa M.; Samson, Willis K.; Corbett, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronostatin is a recently described peptide hormone encoded by the somatostatin gene. We previously showed that intraperitoneal injection of neuronostatin into mice resulted in c-Jun accumulation in pancreatic islets in a pattern consistent with the activation of glucagon-producing α-cells. We therefore hypothesized that neuronostatin could influence glucose homeostasis via a direct effect on the α-cell. Neuronostatin enhanced low-glucose-induced glucagon release in isolated rat islets and in the immortalized α-cell line αTC1-9. Furthermore, incubation with neuronostatin led to an increase in transcription of glucagon mRNA, as determined by RT-PCR. Neuronostatin also inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets. However, neuronostatin did not alter insulin release from the β-cell line INS 832/13, indicating that the effect of neuronostatin on insulin secretion may be secondary to a direct action on the α-cell. In agreement with our in vitro data, intra-arterial infusion of neuronostatin in male rats delayed glucose disposal and inhibited insulin release during a glucose challenge. These studies suggest that neuronostatin participates in maintaining glucose homeostasis through cell-cell interactions between α-cells and β-cells in the endocrine pancreas, leading to attenuation in insulin secretion. PMID:24735892

  10. The inability of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation to stimulate GLUT4 translocation indicates additional signaling pathways are required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Isakoff, S J; Taha, C; Rose, E; Marcusohn, J; Klip, A; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-10-24

    Recent experimental evidence has focused attention to the role of two molecules, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), in linking the insulin receptor to glucose uptake; IRS-1 knockout mice are insulin resistant, and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To investigate the role of PI3-kinase and IRS-1 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake we examined whether stimulation of insulin-sensitive cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or with interleukin 4 (IL-4) stimulates glucose uptake; the activated PDGF receptor (PDGFR) directly binds and activates PI3-kinase, whereas the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) activates PI3-kinase via IRS-1 or the IRS-1-related molecule 4PS. We found that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PDGF resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR and activation of PI3-kinase in these cells. To examine whether IL-4 stimulates glucose uptake, L6 myoblasts were engineered to overexpress GLUT4 as well as both chains of the IL-4R (L6/IL-4R/GLUT4); when these L6/IL-4R/GLUT4 myoblasts were stimulated with IL-4, IRS-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with PI3-kinase. Although PDGF and IL-4 can activate PI3-kinase in the respective cell lines, they do not possess insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that activation of PI3-kinase is not sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We postulate that activation of a second signaling pathway by insulin, distinct from PI3-kinase, is necessary for the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells.

  11. Aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum Sweet inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents.

    PubMed

    Krisanapun, Chutwadee; Peungvicha, Penchom; Temsiririrkkul, Rungravi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract derived from the Thai Abutilon indicum Sweet plant and to explore its effects on intestinal glucose absorption and insulin secretion. The authors hypothesized that the plasma glucose level could be reduced through the inhibition of glucose absorption and/or the enhancement of insulin secretion. Administration of the extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) in an oral glucose tolerance test led to a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in 30 minutes after the administration in moderately diabetic rats, as compared with untreated rats (P < .05), and this was at a faster rate than the use of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. The inhibition of glucose absorption through the small intestine was investigated using an everted intestinal sac. The results showed that the extract at concentrations of 0.156 to 5 mg/mL caused a reduction of glucose absorption in a dose response manner. The maximum response was noted at a dose of 2.5 mg/mL. The promotion of the extract on insulin secretion was confirmed by incubating beta cell of pancreatic islets and INS-1E insulinoma cells with the extract at 1 to 1000 microg/mL. These observations suggest that the aqueous extract from the A indicum plant has antidiabetic properties, which inhibited glucose absorption and stimulated insulin secretion. Phytochemical screening also revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins that could account for the observed pharmacologic effects of the plant extract. PMID:19761892

  12. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  13. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  14. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  15. Mulberry leaf extract stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Prawan, Auemduan; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf tea is promoted for its health benefits and the control of diabetes in Asian nations. The blood glucose lowering activity of mulberry leaf extract (MA) has been proven; however, the molecular basis underlying this effect remains unclear. The aim of the present work is to elucidate its mechanism of the antihyperglycemic action, by examining the effect of MA on glucose uptake and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 protein (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane of adipocytes isolated from diabetic rats. The incubation of adipocytes with 5-45 μg/ml MA resulted in 31-54% increase of glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. This glucose uptake enhancing effect was inhibited by the phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, wortmannin (100 nM). The GLUT4 protein on the plasma membrane fraction of adipocytes was markedly increased after treatment with 15 μg/ml MA extract. Interestingly, gallic acid, one of the phenolic compounds found in MA extract, increased glucose uptake and enhanced the translocation of GLUT4 at concentrations comparable to the amount of gallic acid in the effective concentration ranges of MA. Thus, it is likely that gallic acid contributes, at least in part, to its antihyperglycemic activity. The present results suggest that the antihyperglycemic action of MA is mediated by increasing glucose uptake via the activation of PI3-K signaling pathway and translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. These findings are the first molecular evidence supporting the mulberry tea as herbal medicine for diabetic patients. PMID:22298456

  16. Process of converting starch to glucose and glucose to lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, TenLin; Sanville, C.Y.; Coleman, R.D.; Schertz, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes a method for converting starch into lactic acid of sufficient purity for use as a substrate for biodegradable plastics. The process is designed to work on industrial food waste streams such as potato wastes or cheese whey permeate. For potato waste, {alpha}-amylase and calcium chloride are added to the starch containing waste and incubated at a pH of 4--7, a temperature of 90--130{degree}C, and a pressure above 15 psi for not less than 15 minutes. At this point, glucoamylase is added and the mixture is incubated at a temperature of 50--70{degree}C and a pH below 6.5 for 4 hours. This results in the conversion of more than 90% of the starch into glucose, which is substantially free of microbial contamination. The hydrolysate is filtered, and introduced with additional nutrients to a fermentor containing a lactose producing microorganism to form a fermentation broth. This results in the fermentation of glucose to lactose, which is filtered and subjected to electrodialysis for purification. Conversion of glucose to lactic acid or lactate occurs with an efficiency of over 95%. 1 fig. (MHB)

  17. Process of converting starch to glucose and glucose to lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, TenLin; Sanville, C.Y.; Coleman, R.D.; Schertz, W.W.

    1990-12-31

    This document describes a method for converting starch into lactic acid of sufficient purity for use as a substrate for biodegradable plastics. The process is designed to work on industrial food waste streams such as potato wastes or cheese whey permeate. For potato waste, {alpha}-amylase and calcium chloride are added to the starch containing waste and incubated at a pH of 4--7, a temperature of 90--130{degree}C, and a pressure above 15 psi for not less than 15 minutes. At this point, glucoamylase is added and the mixture is incubated at a temperature of 50--70{degree}C and a pH below 6.5 for 4 hours. This results in the conversion of more than 90% of the starch into glucose, which is substantially free of microbial contamination. The hydrolysate is filtered, and introduced with additional nutrients to a fermentor containing a lactose producing microorganism to form a fermentation broth. This results in the fermentation of glucose to lactose, which is filtered and subjected to electrodialysis for purification. Conversion of glucose to lactic acid or lactate occurs with an efficiency of over 95%. 1 fig. (MHB)

  18. Glucose deprivation causes oxidative stress and stimulates aggresome formation and autophagy in cultured cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Marambio, Paola; Toro, Barbra; Sanhueza, Carlos; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo; García, Lorena; Quiroga, Clara; Munafo, Daniela; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Bravo, Roberto; González, María-Julieta; Diaz-Araya, Guilermo; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Colombo, María Isabel; Lavandero, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Aggresomes are dynamic structures formed when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is overwhelmed with aggregation-prone proteins. In this process, small protein aggregates are actively transported towards the microtubule-organizing center. A functional role for autophagy in the clearance of aggresomes has also been proposed. In the present work we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved on aggresome formation in cultured rat cardiac myocytes exposed to glucose deprivation. Confocal microscopy showed that small aggregates of polyubiquitinated proteins were formed in cells exposed to glucose deprivation for 6 h. However, at longer times (18 h), aggregates formed large perinuclear inclusions (aggresomes) which colocalized with gamma-tubulin (a microtubule-organizing center marker) and Hsp70. The microtubule disrupting agent vinblastine prevented the formation of these inclusions. Both small aggregates and aggresomes colocalized with autophagy markers such as GFP-LC3 and Rab24. Glucose deprivation stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreases intracellular glutathione levels. ROS inhibition by N-acetylcysteine or by the adenoviral overexpression of catalase or superoxide dismutase disrupted aggresome formation and autophagy induced by glucose deprivation. In conclusion, glucose deprivation induces oxidative stress which is associated with aggresome formation and activation of autophagy in cultured cardiac myocytes. PMID:20176105

  19. The five glucose-6-phosphatase paralogous genes are differentially regulated by insulin alone or combined with high level of amino acids and/or glucose in trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lucie, Marandel; Weiwei, Dai; Stéphane, Panserat; Sandrine, Skiba-Cassy

    2016-04-01

    A recent analysis of the newly sequenced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome suggested that duplicated gluconeogenic g6pc paralogues, fixed in this genome after the salmonid-specific 4th whole genome duplication, may have a role in the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in this carnivorous species. This should be due to the sub- or neo-functionalization of their regulation. In the present short communication we thus addressed the question of the regulation of these genes by insulin, hormone involved in the glucose homeostasis, and its interaction with glucose and amino acids in vitro. The stimulation of trout hepatocytes with insulin revealed an atypical up-regulation of g6pcb2 ohnologues and confirmed the sub- or neo-functionalization of the five g6pc genes at least at the regulatory level. Intriguingly, when hepatocytes were cultured with high levels of glucose and/or AAs in presence of insulin, most of the g6pc paralogues were up-regulated. It strongly suggested a cross-talk between insulin and nutrients for the regulation of these genes. Moreover these results strengthened the idea that g6pc duplicated genes may significantly contribute to the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout via their atypical regulation by insulin alone or in interaction with nutrients. These findings open new perspectives to better understand in vivo glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet.

  20. Insulin-stimulated plasma membrane fusion of Glut4 glucose transporter-containing vesicles is regulated by phospholipase D1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Altshuller, Yelena M; Hou, June Chunqiu; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Frohman, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by mobilizing Glut4 glucose transporters from intracellular membrane storage sites to the plasma membrane. This process requires the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles toward the cell periphery, docking at exocytic sites, and plasma membrane fusion. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) production of the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key event in the fusion process. PLD1 is found on Glut4-containing vesicles, is activated by insulin signaling, and traffics with Glut4 to exocytic sites. Increasing PLD1 activity facilitates glucose uptake, whereas decreasing PLD1 activity is inhibitory. Diminished PA production does not substantially hinder trafficking of the vesicles or their docking at the plasma membrane, but it does impede fusion-mediated extracellular exposure of the transporter. The fusion block caused by RNA interference-mediated PLD1 deficiency is rescued by exogenous provision of a lipid that promotes fusion pore formation and expansion, suggesting that the step regulated by PA is late in the process of vesicle fusion. PMID:15772157

  1. The interrelation between aPKC and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle during contraction and insulin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, J M; Benite-Ribeiro, S A; Queiroz, G; Duarte, J A

    2014-12-01

    Contraction and insulin increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. While the insulin pathway, better characterized, requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and atypical protein kinase (aPKC), muscle contraction seems to share insulin-activated components to increase glucose uptake. This study aimed to investigate the interrelation between the pathway involved in glucose uptake evoked by insulin and muscle contraction. Isolated muscle of rats was treated with solvent (control), insulin, wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and the combination of insulin plus wortmannin. After treatment, muscles were electrically stimulated (contracted) or remained at rest. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) localization, glucose uptake and phospho-aPKC (aPKC activated form) were assessed. Muscle contraction and insulin increased glucose uptake in all conditions when compared with controls not stimulating an effect that was accompanied by an increase in GLUT4 and of phospho-aPKC at the muscle membrane. Contracted muscles treated with insulin did not show additive effects on glucose uptake or aPKC activity compared with the response when these stimuli were applied alone. Inhibition of PI3K blocked insulin effect on glucose uptake and aPKC but not in the contractile response. Thus, muscle contraction seems to stimulate aPKC and glucose uptake independently of PI3K. Therefore, aPKC may be a convergence point and a rate limit step in the pathway by which, insulin and contraction, increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

  2. Inhibition of pancreatic β-cell Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II reduces glucose-stimulated calcium influx and insulin secretion, impairing glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Prasanna K; Vierra, Nicholas C; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W; Colbran, Roger J; Jacobson, David A

    2014-05-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is caused by Ca(2+) entry via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. CaMKII is a key mediator and feedback regulator of Ca(2+) signaling in many tissues, but its role in β-cells is poorly understood, especially in vivo. Here, we report that mice with conditional inhibition of CaMKII in β-cells show significantly impaired glucose tolerance due to decreased GSIS. Moreover, β-cell CaMKII inhibition dramatically exacerbates glucose intolerance following exposure to a high fat diet. The impairment of islet GSIS by β-cell CaMKII inhibition is not accompanied by changes in either glucose metabolism or the activities of KATP and voltage-gated potassium channels. However, glucose-stimulated Ca(2+) entry via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels is reduced in islet β-cells with CaMKII inhibition, as well as in primary wild-type β-cells treated with a peptide inhibitor of CaMKII. The levels of basal β-cell cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores are also decreased by CaMKII inhibition. In addition, CaMKII inhibition suppresses glucose-stimulated action potential firing frequency. These results reveal that CaMKII is a Ca(2+) sensor with a key role as a feed-forward stimulator of β-cell Ca(2+) signals that enhance GSIS under physiological and pathological conditions.

  3. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogen breakdown activates glycogen synthase and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in epitrochlearis muscles.

    PubMed

    Kolnes, Anders J; Birk, Jesper B; Eilertsen, Einar; Stuenæs, Jorid T; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Jensen, Jørgen

    2015-02-01

    Epinephrine increases glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation and decreases GS activity but also stimulates glycogen breakdown, and low glycogen content normally activates GS. To test the hypothesis that glycogen content directly regulates GS phosphorylation, glycogen breakdown was stimulated in condition with decreased GS activation. Saline or epinephrine (0.02 mg/100 g rat) was injected subcutaneously in Wistar rats (∼130 g) with low (24-h-fasted), normal (normal diet), and high glycogen content (fasted-refed), and epitrochlearis muscles were removed after 3 h and incubated ex vivo, eliminating epinephrine action. Epinephrine injection reduced glycogen content in epitrochlearis muscles with high (120.7 ± 17.8 vs. 204.6 ± 14.5 mmol/kg, P < 0.01) and normal glycogen (89.5 ± 7.6 vs. 152 ± 8.1 mmol/kg, P < 0.01), but not significantly in muscles with low glycogen (90.0 ± 5.0 vs. 102.8 ± 7.8 mmol/kg, P = 0.17). In saline-injected rats, GS phosphorylation at sites 2+2a, 3a+3b, and 1b was higher and GS activity lower in muscles with high compared with low glycogen. GS sites 2+2a and 3a+3b phosphorylation decreased and GS activity increased in muscles where epinephrine decreased glycogen content; these parameters were unchanged in epitrochlearis from fasted rats where epinephrine injection did not decrease glycogen content. Incubation with insulin decreased GS site 3a+3b phosphorylation independently of glycogen content. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in muscles where epinephrine injection decreased glycogen content. In conclusion, epinephrine stimulates glycogenolysis in epitrochlearis muscles with normal and high, but not low, glycogen content. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis decreased GS phosphorylation and increased GS activity. These data for the first time document direct regulation of GS phosphorylation by glycogen content.

  4. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production.

  5. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  6. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  7. CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Christian A.; Ribon, Vered; Kanzaki, Makoto; Thurmond, Debbie C.; Mora, Silvia; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Bickel, Perry E.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2000-09-01

    Insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells. Although the precise molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain uncertain, insulin initiates its actions by binding to its tyrosine kinase receptor, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular substrates. One such substrate is the Cbl protooncogene product. Cbl is recruited to the insulin receptor by interaction with the adapter protein CAP, through one of three adjacent SH3 domains in the carboxy terminus of CAP. Upon phosphorylation of Cbl, the CAP-Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and moves to a caveolin-enriched, triton-insoluble membrane fraction. Here, to identify a molecular mechanism underlying this subcellular redistribution, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library using the amino-terminal region of CAP and identified the caveolar protein flotillin. Flotillin forms a ternary complex with CAP and Cbl, directing the localization of the CAP-Cbl complex to a lipid raft subdomain of the plasma membrane. Expression of the N-terminal domain of CAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes blocks the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin, without affecting signalling events that depend on phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Thus, localization of the Cbl-CAP complex to lipid rafts generates a pathway that is crucial in the regulation of glucose uptake.

  8. Exercise Intensity Modulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion when Adjusted for Adipose, Liver and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise intensity on compensatory changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) when adjusted for adipose, liver and skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). Fifteen participants (8F, Age: 49.9±3.6yr; BMI: 31.0±1.5kg/m2; VO2peak: 23.2±1.2mg/kg/min) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT and/or HbA1c) underwent a time-course matched Control, and isocaloric (200kcal) exercise at moderate (MIE; at lactate threshold (LT)), and high-intensity (HIE; 75% of difference between LT and VO2peak). A 75g OGTT was conducted 1 hour post-exercise/Control, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (1/Oral Minimal Model; SMIR), hepatic (HOMAIR), and adipose (ADIPOSEIR) IR. Insulin secretion rates were determined by deconvolution modeling for GSIS, and disposition index (DI; GSIS/IR; DISMIR, DIHOMAIR, DIADIPOSEIR) calculations. Compared to Control, exercise lowered SMIR independent of intensity (P<0.05), with HIE raising HOMAIR and ADIPOSEIR compared with Control (P<0.05). GSIS was not reduced following exercise, but DIHOMAIR and DIADIPOSEIR were lowered more following HIE compared with Control (P<0.05). However, DISMIR increased in an intensity based manner relative to Control (P<0.05), which corresponded with lower post-prandial blood glucose levels. Taken together, pancreatic insulin secretion adjusts in an exercise intensity dependent manner to match the level of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Further work is warranted to understand the mechanism by which exercise influences the cross-talk between tissues that regulate blood glucose in people with prediabetes. PMID:27111219

  9. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants.

  10. Oral administration of osteocalcin improves glucose utilization by stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Akiko; Yasutake, Yu; Higashi, Sen; Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoyo; Chishaki, Sakura; Takahashi, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated largely by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine in response to GluOC exposure. We have now examined the effect of oral administration of GluOC on glucose utilization as well as the fate of such administered GluOC in mice. Long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance in mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. It also increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as the β-cell area in the pancreas. A small proportion of orally administered GluOC reached the small intestine and remained there for at least 24h. GluOC also entered the general circulation, and the serum GLP-1 concentration was increased in association with the presence of GluOC in the intestine and systemic circulation. The putative GluOC receptor, GPRC6A was detected in intestinal cells, and was colocalized with GLP-1 in some of these cells. Our results suggest that orally administered GluOC improved glucose handling likely by acting from both the intestinal lumen and the general circulation, with this effect being mediated in part by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Oral administration of GluOC warrants further study as a safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25230237

  11. Potentiation of Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion by the GPR40–PLC–TRPC Pathway in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masashi; Ito, Kiyonori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Yada, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, San-e; Kakei, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) contributes to medium- or long-chain fatty acid-induced amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and GPR40 agonists are promising therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide 1, a ligand of pancreatic GPCR, activates a class of nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) and enhances GSIS. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the GPR40 signal interacts with NSCCs. A GPR40 agonist (fasiglifam) potentiated GSIS at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose but not 2.8 mM glucose. The NSCC current was activated by fasiglifam at 5.6 mM glucose with 100 μM tolbutamide (−70 mV), and this activation was prevented by the presence of pyrazole-3 (transient receptor potential canonical; a TRPC3 channel blocker). Inhibitors of phospholipase C or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibited the increases in GSIS and the NSCC current induced by GPR40 stimulation. The present study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the regulation of insulin secretion by GPR40 agonist in pancreatic beta-cells. The stimulation of the GPR40–PLC/PKC–TRPC3 channel pathway potentiates GSIS by the depolarization of the plasma membrane in pancreatic beta-cell. PMID:27180622

  12. BMP4-BMPR1A signaling in beta cells is required for and augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Goulley, Joan; Dahl, Ulf; Baeza, Nathalie; Mishina, Yuji; Edlund, Helena

    2007-03-01

    Impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and perturbed proinsulin processing are hallmarks of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Signals that can preserve and/or enhance beta cell function are therefore of great therapeutic interest. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and its high-affinity receptor, Bmpr1a, are expressed in beta cells. Mice with attenuated BMPR1A signaling in beta cells show decreased expression of key genes involved in insulin gene expression, proinsulin processing, glucose sensing, secretion stimulus coupling, incretin signaling, and insulin exocytosis and develop diabetes due to impaired insulin secretion. We also show that transgenic expression of Bmp4 in beta cells enhances GSIS and glucose clearance and that systemic administration of BMP4 protein to adult mice significantly stimulates GSIS and ameliorates glucose tolerance in a mouse model of glucose intolerance. Thus, BMP4-BMPR1A signaling in beta cells plays a key role in GSIS.

  13. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulate GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mora, S; Kaliman, P; Chillarón, J; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The heterologous expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in Xenopus oocytes has been shown to cause a differential targeting of these glucose-carrier isoforms to cellular membranes and a distinct induction of glucose transport activity. In this study we have evaluated the effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on glucose uptake and glucose transporter distribution in Xenopus oocytes expressing mammalian GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose carriers. 2. Insulin and IGF-I stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes, but not in GLUT1-expressing oocytes or in water-injected oocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin and IGF-I on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes occurred via activation of the IGF-I receptor. 3. Subcellular-fractionation studies indicated that insulin and IGF-I stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface of the oocyte. 4. Incubation of intact oocytes with insulin stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, an effect that was blocked by the additional presence of wortmannin. Furthermore, wortmannin totally abolished the insulin-induced stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes. 5. In this study, both the insulin-induced GLUT4 carrier translocation and GLUT4-dependent insulin-stimulated glucose transport have been reconstituted in the Xenopus oocyte. These observations, together with the fact that wortmannin, as found in adipocytes, inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport in oocytes, suggest that the heterologous expression of GLUT4 in oocytes is a useful experimental model by which to study the cell biology of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7575481

  14. MicroRNA-29a is up-regulated in beta-cells by glucose and decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge, Annika; Clausen, Trine R.; Larsen, Sylvester; Ladefoged, Mette; Rosenstierne, Maiken W.; Larsen, Louise; Vang, Ole; Nielsen, Jens H.; Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) levels are increased by glucose in human and rat islets and INS-1E cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-29a increases proliferation of INS-1E beta-cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forced expression of miR-29a decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of beta-cell miR-29a improves GSIS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-29a may be a mediator of glucose toxicity in beta-cells. -- Abstract: Chronically elevated levels of glucose impair pancreatic beta-cell function while inducing beta-cell proliferation. MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) levels are increased in several tissues in diabetic animals and mediate decreased insulin-stimulated glucose-transport of adipocytes. The aim was to investigate the impact of glucose on miR-29a levels in INS-1E beta-cells and in human islets of Langerhans and furthermore to evaluate the impact of miR-29a on beta-cell function and proliferation. Increased glucose levels up-regulated miR-29a in beta-cells and human and rat islets of Langerhans. Glucose-stimulated insulin-secretion (GSIS) of INS-1E beta-cells was decreased by forced expression of miR-29a, while depletion of endogenous miR-29a improved GSIS. Over-expression of miR-29a increased INS-1E proliferation. Thus, miR-29a up-regulation is involved in glucose-induced proliferation of beta-cells. Furthermore, as depletion of miR-29a improves beta-cell function, miR-29a is a mediator of glucose-induced beta-cell dysfunction. Glucose-induced up-regulation of miR-29a in beta-cells could be implicated in progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes.

  15. Dual Actions of Apolipoprotein A-I on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Insulin-Independent Peripheral Tissue Glucose Uptake Lead to Increased Heart and Skeletal Muscle Glucose Disposal.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Espín, Joan; Lindahl, Maria; Nilsson-Wolanin, Oktawia; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Lagerstedt, Jens O

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of HDL is central to the transport of cholesterol in circulation. ApoA-I also provides glucose control with described in vitro effects of apoA-I on β-cell insulin secretion and muscle glucose uptake. In addition, apoA-I injections in insulin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice lead to increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and peripheral tissue glucose uptake. However, the relative contribution of apoA-I as an enhancer of GSIS in vivo and as a direct stimulator of insulin-independent glucose uptake is not known. Here, DIO mice with instant and transient blockade of insulin secretion were used in glucose tolerance tests and in positron emission tomography analyses. Data demonstrate that apoA-I to an equal extent enhances GSIS and acts as peripheral tissue activator of insulin-independent glucose uptake and verify skeletal muscle as an apoA-I target tissue. Intriguingly, our analyses also identify the heart as an important target tissue for the apoA-I-stimulated glucose uptake, with potential implications in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Explorations of apoA-I as a novel antidiabetic drug should extend to treatments of diabetic cardiomyopathy and other cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. PMID:27207515

  16. Dual Actions of Apolipoprotein A-I on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Insulin-Independent Peripheral Tissue Glucose Uptake Lead to Increased Heart and Skeletal Muscle Glucose Disposal.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Espín, Joan; Lindahl, Maria; Nilsson-Wolanin, Oktawia; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Lagerstedt, Jens O

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of HDL is central to the transport of cholesterol in circulation. ApoA-I also provides glucose control with described in vitro effects of apoA-I on β-cell insulin secretion and muscle glucose uptake. In addition, apoA-I injections in insulin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice lead to increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and peripheral tissue glucose uptake. However, the relative contribution of apoA-I as an enhancer of GSIS in vivo and as a direct stimulator of insulin-independent glucose uptake is not known. Here, DIO mice with instant and transient blockade of insulin secretion were used in glucose tolerance tests and in positron emission tomography analyses. Data demonstrate that apoA-I to an equal extent enhances GSIS and acts as peripheral tissue activator of insulin-independent glucose uptake and verify skeletal muscle as an apoA-I target tissue. Intriguingly, our analyses also identify the heart as an important target tissue for the apoA-I-stimulated glucose uptake, with potential implications in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Explorations of apoA-I as a novel antidiabetic drug should extend to treatments of diabetic cardiomyopathy and other cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes.

  17. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, stimulates glucose transport through a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Tanno, Satoshi; Motomura, Wataru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2007-08-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is one of lipid-regulating enzymes, catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Because skeletal muscle, a major insulin-target organ for glucose disposal, expresses DGK, we investigated in the present study a role of DGK on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. PCR study showed that C2C12 myotubes expressed DGKalpha, delta, epsilon, zeta, or theta isoform mRNA. R59022, a specific inhibitor of DGK, significantly increased glucose transport, p38 and MKK3/6 activation in C2C12 myotubes. The R59022-induced glucose transport was blocked by SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor. In contrast, R59022 failed to stimulate both possible known mechanisms to enhance glucose transport, an IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway, muscle contraction signaling or GLUT1 and 4 expression. All these results suggest that DGK may play a role in glucose transport in the skeletal muscle cells through modulating a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway. PMID:17588539

  18. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, stimulates glucose transport through a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Tanno, Satoshi; Motomura, Wataru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2007-08-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is one of lipid-regulating enzymes, catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Because skeletal muscle, a major insulin-target organ for glucose disposal, expresses DGK, we investigated in the present study a role of DGK on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. PCR study showed that C2C12 myotubes expressed DGKalpha, delta, epsilon, zeta, or theta isoform mRNA. R59022, a specific inhibitor of DGK, significantly increased glucose transport, p38 and MKK3/6 activation in C2C12 myotubes. The R59022-induced glucose transport was blocked by SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor. In contrast, R59022 failed to stimulate both possible known mechanisms to enhance glucose transport, an IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway, muscle contraction signaling or GLUT1 and 4 expression. All these results suggest that DGK may play a role in glucose transport in the skeletal muscle cells through modulating a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway.

  19. Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jessica N; Cousteils, Katelyn; Lou, Jennifer W; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Joseph, Jamie W

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is critical for insulin secretion; however, we know little about how pyruvate is transported into mitochondria in β-cells. Part of the reason for this lack of knowledge is that the carrier gene was only discovered in 2012. In the current study, we assess the role of the recently identified carrier in the regulation of insulin secretion. Our studies show that β-cells express both mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (Mpc1 and Mpc2). Using both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knockdown of the MPCs we show that this carrier plays a key role in regulating insulin secretion in clonal 832/13 β-cells as well as rat and human islets. We also show that the MPC is an essential regulator of both the ATP-regulated potassium (KATP) channel-dependent and -independent pathways of insulin secretion. Inhibition of the MPC blocks the glucose-stimulated increase in two key signaling molecules involved in regulating insulin secretion, the ATP/ADP ratio and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. The MPC also plays a role in in vivo glucose homeostasis as inhibition of MPC by the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-β-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)-acrylate (UK5099) resulted in impaired glucose tolerance. These studies clearly show that the newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier sits at an important branching point in nutrient metabolism and that it is an essential regulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24675076

  20. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of various mesenchymal stem cells after insulin-producing cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jung; Choi, Yong-Soo; Ko, Eun-Sun; Lim, Sang-Min; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Dong-Il

    2012-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of crossing germinative layer borders and are obtainable in high numbers via in vitro cultures. Therefore, many researchers have searched for diverse sources of MSCs. Recently the generation of glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from MSCs has shown immense potential for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) due to a lack of pancreas donors. In this study, we compared the growth potency of four kinds of MSCs derived from bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, adipose tissue, and the periosteum. In addition, in vitro differentiation of these MSCs into IPCs was also investigated. After 2weeks of IPCs differentiation, we compared the expression of the insulin gene and protein using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining. Only IPCs derived from periosteum-derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) showed a response to glucose concentration. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was conclusive evidence of the potential functionality of IPCs. Therefore, PDPCs are a promising alternative stem cell source for IPCs differentiation.

  1. Block of Kv1.7 potassium currents increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K; Remedi, Maria S; Raasch, Walter; Becker, Stefan; Clark, Robert B; Strüver, Nina; Pavlov, Evgeny; Nichols, Colin G; French, Robert J; Terlau, Heinrich

    2012-05-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) relies on repetitive, electrical spiking activity of the beta cell membrane. Cyclic activation of voltage-gated potassium channels (K(v) ) generates an outward, 'delayed rectifier' potassium current, which drives the repolarizing phase of each spike and modulates insulin release. Although several K(v) channels are expressed in pancreatic islets, their individual contributions to GSIS remain incompletely understood. We take advantage of a naturally occurring cone-snail peptide toxin, Conkunitzin-S1 (Conk-S1), which selectively blocks K(v) 1.7 channels to provide an intrinsically limited, finely graded control of total beta cell delayed rectifier current and hence of GSIS. Conk-S1 increases GSIS in isolated rat islets, likely by reducing K(v) 1.7-mediated delayed rectifier currents in beta cells, which yields increases in action potential firing and cytoplasmic free calcium. In rats, Conk-S1 increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion without decreasing basal glucose. Thus, we conclude that K(v) 1.7 contributes to the membrane-repolarizing current of beta cells during GSIS and that block of this specific component of beta cell K(v) current offers a potential strategy for enhancing GSIS with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia during metabolic disorders such as Type 2 diabetes. PMID:22438204

  2. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications.

  3. Honokiol and magnolol stimulate glucose uptake by activating PI3K-dependent Akt in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Young-Sil; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Honokiol and magnolol, ingredients of Magnolia officinalis, which is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines, have been reported to have antioxidant, anticancer, and antiangiogenic effects. Effects of these compounds on glucose metabolism in adipocytes have also been reported. However, their effects on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the direct effects and signaling pathways activated by honokiol and magnolol in skeletal muscle cells using L6 myotubes. We found that honokiol and magnolol dose-dependently acutely stimulated glucose uptake without synergistic effects of combined administration in L6 myotubes. Treatment with honokiol and magnolol also stimulated glucose transporter-4 translocation to the cell surface. Honokiol- and magnolol-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. Both honokiol and magnolol stimulated Akt phosphorylation, a key element in the insulin signaling pathway, which was completely inhibited by wortmannin. These results suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism by activating the insulin signaling pathway. PMID:22674833

  4. Effect of Low Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Glucose Profile of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Belliveau, Lise; Probizanski, David; Newhouse, Ian; McAuliffe, Jim; Jakobi, Jennifer; Johnson, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on glucose profile in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Eight persons with T2DM (41 to 65 years) completed a glucose tolerance test with and without NMES delivered to the knee extensors for a 1-hour period at 8 Hz. Three blood samples were collected: at rest, and then 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of a glucose load on the NMES and control days. In NMES groups glucose concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01) than in the control conditions. Moreover, a significant positive correlation (r=0.9, P<0.01) was obtained between the intensity of stimulation and changes in blood glucose. Our results suggest that low-frequency stimulation seem suitable to induce enhance glucose uptake in persons with T2DM. Moreover, the intensity of stimulation reflecting the motor contraction should be considered during NMES procedure. PMID:26124997

  5. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) mediates insulin-stimulated proliferation and glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Illario, Maddalena; Monaco, Sara; Cavallo, Anna Lina; Esposito, Iolanda; Formisano, Pietro; D'Andrea, Luca; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Trimarco, Bruno; Fenzi, Gianfranco; Rossi, Guido; Vitale, Mario

    2009-05-01

    Cellular growth and glucose uptake are regulated by multiple signals generated by the insulin receptor. The mechanisms of individual modulation of these signals remain somewhat elusive. We investigated the role of CaMKII in insulin signalling in a rat skeletal muscle cell line, demonstrating that CaMKII modulates the insulin action on DNA synthesis and the negative feedback that down regulates glucose uptake. Insulin stimulation generated partly independent signals leading to the rapid activation of Akt, Erk-1/2 and CaMKII. Akt activation was followed by Glut-4 translocation to the plasma membrane and increase of glucose uptake. Then, IRS-1 was phosphorylated at S612, the IRS-1/p85PI3K complex was disrupted, Akt was no more phosphorylated and both Glut-4 translocation and glucose uptake were reduced. Inhibition of CaMKII abrogated the insulin-induced Erk-1/2 activation, DNA synthesis and phosphorylation of IRS-1 at S612. Inhibition of CaMKII also abrogated the down-regulation of insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, Glut-4 membrane translocation and glucose uptake. These results demonstrate that: 1 - CaMKII modulates the insulin-induced Erk-1/2 activation and cell proliferation; 2 - after the initial stimulation of the IRS-1/Akt pathway, CaMKII mediates the down-regulation of stimulated glucose uptake. This represents a novel mechanism in the selective control of insulin signals, and a possible site for pharmacological intervention.

  6. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takuya; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kitawaki, Jo; Katsuyama, Masato; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.

  7. Coffee polyphenol caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid increases 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Ma, Xiao; Oshima, Rieko; Kurogi, Eriko; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2012-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid is an ester of caffeic and quinic acids, and is one of the most widely consumed polyphenols because it is abundant in foods, especially coffee. We explored whether chlorogenic acid and its metabolite, caffeic acid, act directly on skeletal muscle to stimulate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with Krebs buffer containing caffeic acid (≥0.1 mM, ≥30 min) but not chlorogenic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPKα Thr(172), an essential step for kinase activation, and acetyl CoA carboxylase Ser(79), a downstream target of AMPK, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of isoform-specific AMPK activity revealed that AMPKα2 activity increased significantly, whereas AMPKα1 activity did not change. This enzyme activation was associated with a reduction in phosphocreatine content and an increased rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport activity in the absence of insulin. These results suggest that caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid acutely stimulates skeletal muscle AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport with a reduction of the intracellular energy status. PMID:22227267

  8. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  9. Increased fetal myocardial sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during ovine fetal growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Barry, James S; Rozance, Paul J; Brown, Laura D; Anthony, Russell V; Thornburg, Kent L

    2016-01-01

    Unlike other visceral organs, myocardial weight is maintained in relation to fetal body weight in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetal sheep despite hypoinsulinemia and global nutrient restriction. We designed experiments in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency and restricted growth to determine basal and insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose and oxygen metabolism and test the hypothesis that myocardial insulin sensitivity would be increased in the IUGR heart. IUGR was induced by maternal hyperthermia during gestation. Control (C) and IUGR fetal myocardial metabolism were measured at baseline and under acute hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp conditions at 128–132 days gestation using fluorescent microspheres to determine myocardial blood flow. Fetal body and heart weights were reduced by 33% (P = 0.008) and 30% (P = 0.027), respectively. Heart weight to body weight ratios were not different. Basal left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flow per gram of LV tissue was maintained in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Insulin increased LV myocardial blood flow by ∼38% (P < 0.01), but insulin-stimulated LV myocardial blood flow in IUGR fetuses was 73% greater than controls. Similar to previous reports testing acute hypoxia, LV blood flow was inversely related to arterial oxygen concentration (r2 = 0.71) in both control and IUGR animals. Basal LV myocardial glucose delivery and uptake rates were not different between IUGR and control fetuses. Insulin increased LV myocardial glucose delivery (by 40%) and uptake (by 78%) (P < 0.01), but to a greater extent in the IUGR fetuses compared to controls. During basal and hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp conditions LV myocardial oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction efficiency were not different between groups. These novel results demonstrate that the fetal heart exposed to nutrient and oxygen deprivation from placental insufficiency appears to maintain myocardial energy

  10. Retinoic Acid Stimulates Regeneration of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Malgrange, Brigitte; Staecker, Hinrich; Moonen, Gustave; van de Water, Thomas R.

    1993-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the loss of auditory hair cells is thought to be irreversible in mammals. This study provides evidence that retinoic acid can stimulate the regeneration in vitro of mammalian auditory hair cells in ototoxic-poisoned organ of Corti explants in the rat. In contrast, treatment with retinoic acid does not stimulate the formation of extra hair cells in control cultures of Corti's organ. Retinoic acid-stimulated hair cell regeneration can be blocked by cytosine arabinoside, which suggests that a period of mitosis is required for the regeneration of auditory hair cells in this system. These results provide hope for a recovery of hearing function in mammals after auditory hair cell damage.

  11. Subthreshold α₂-adrenergic activation counteracts glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Minglin; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiuli; Yang, Shao-Nian

    2011-01-01

    The pancreatic β cell harbors α₂-adrenergic and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors on its plasma membrane to sense the corresponding ligands adrenaline/noradrenaline and GLP-1 to govern glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, it is not known whether these two signaling systems interact to gain the adequate and timely control of insulin release in response to glucose. The present work shows that the α₂-adrenergic agonist clonidine concentration-dependently depresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. On the contrary, GLP-1 concentration-dependently potentiates insulin secretory response to glucose. Importantly, the present work reveals that subthreshold α₂-adrenergic activation with clonidine counteracts GLP-1 potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This counteractory process relies on pertussis toxin- (PTX-) sensitive Gi proteins since it no longer occurs following PTX-mediated inactivation of Gi proteins. The counteraction of GLP-1 potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by subthreshold α₂-adrenergic activation is likely to serve as a molecular mechanism for the delicate regulation of insulin release.

  12. Intraportal infusion of ghrelin could inhibit glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion by enteric neural net in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyao; Li, Wensong; Li, Ping; Chang, Manli; Huang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

    2014-01-01

    As a regulator of food intake and energy metabolism, the role of ghrelin in glucose metabolism is still not fully understood. In this study, we determined the in vivo effect of ghrelin on incretin effect. We demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the glucose-stimulated release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) when infused into the portal vein of Wistar rat. Hepatic vagotomy diminished the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In addition, phentolamine, a nonselective α receptor antagonist, could recover the decrease of GLP-1 release induced by ghrelin infusion. Pralmorelin (an artificial growth hormone release peptide) infusion into the portal vein could also inhibit the glucose-stimulated release of GLP-1. And growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonist, [D-lys3]-GHRP-6, infusion showed comparable increases of glucose stimulated GLP-1 release compared to ghrelin infusion into the portal vein. The data showed that intraportal infusion of ghrelin exerted an inhibitory effect on GLP-1 secretion through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHS1α receptor), which indicated that the downregulation of ghrelin secretion after food intake was necessary for incretin effect. Furthermore, our results suggested that the enteric neural net involved hepatic vagal nerve and sympathetic nerve mediated inhibition effect of ghrelin on incretin effect. PMID:25247193

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion inhibition in INS-1 cells is ascribed to a reduction of the glucose-stimulated Ca2+ influx.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Eun; Choi, Sung-E; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Youn-Jung; Kang, Sang Sun; Chun, Jaesun; Kang, Yup

    2008-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine how tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) elicits the inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat insulinoma cells (INS)-1 beta-cells. TNF-alpha pretreatment did not change the expression levels of insulin, PDX-1, glucose transporter 2, glucokinase, K(ATP) channels, Ca(2)(+) channels, and exocytotic molecules and, furthermore, did not reduce the glucose-stimulated ATP level. On the other hand, TNF-alpha reduced the glucose-stimulated influx of Ca(2)(+). The TNF-alpha treatment was thought to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-kappaB inflammatory signals, since TNF-alpha increased phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 and reduced I kappaB levels. Inhibitors of these signaling pathways prevented the TNF-alpha-induced reduction of the Ca(2)(+) influx and GSIS. Overexpression of MEKK3, a possible mediator from the TNF-alpha receptor to the JNK/p38 and NK-kappaB signaling cascade, increased the levels of phospho-JNK, phospho-p38, and NF-kappaB, and reduced the glucose-stimulated Ca(2)(+) influx and GSIS. The reduction of the Ca(2)(+) influx and GSIS in MEKK3-overexpressing INS-1 cells was also prevented by inhibitors of JNK, p38, and NF-kappaB. These data demonstrate that TNF-alpha inhibits GSIS by reducing the glucose-stimulated Ca(2)(+) influx, possibly through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB inflammatory signals. Thus, our findings suggest that the activation of stress and inflammatory signals can contribute to the inhibition of GSIS in the development of diabetes.

  14. Myristic Acid Enhances Diacylglycerol Kinase δ-Dependent Glucose Uptake in Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuko; Sakiyama, Shizuka; Sakai, Hiromichi; Sakane, Fumio

    2016-08-01

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles attenuates glucose uptake and is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, up-regulation of DGKδ expression is thought to protect and improve glucose homoeostasis in type 2 diabetes. We recently determined that myristic acid (14:0), but not palmitic (16:0) or stearic (18:0) acid, significantly increased DGKδ2 protein expression in mouse C2C12 myotubes. In the current study, we analyzed whether myristic acid indeed enhances glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. We observed that myristic acid caused ~1.4-fold increase in insulin-independent glucose uptake. However, palmitic and stearic acids failed to enhance glucose uptake. DGKδ-specific siRNA decreased myristic acid-dependent increase of glucose uptake. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 cells in the absence of myristic acid treatment. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that myristic acid enhances basal glucose uptake in myotubes in a DGKδ2 expression-dependent manner.

  15. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin.

  16. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  17. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  18. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  19. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 gene, encoding an aromatic amino acid transaminase, enhances phenylethanol production from glucose.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanol has a characteristic rose-like aroma that makes it a popular ingredient in foods, beverages and cosmetics. Microbial production of phenylethanol currently relies on whole-cell bioconversion of phenylalanine with yeasts that harbour an Ehrlich pathway for phenylalanine catabolism. Complete biosynthesis of phenylethanol from a cheap carbon source, such as glucose, provides an economically attractive alternative for phenylalanine bioconversion. In this study, synthetic genetic array (SGA) screening was applied to identify genes involved in regulation of phenylethanol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen focused on transcriptional regulation of ARO10, which encodes the major decarboxylase involved in conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylethanol. A deletion in ARO8, which encodes an aromatic amino acid transaminase, was found to underlie the transcriptional upregulation of ARO10 during growth, with ammonium sulphate as the sole nitrogen source. Physiological characterization revealed that the aro8Δ mutation led to substantial changes in the absolute and relative intracellular concentrations of amino acids. Moreover, deletion of ARO8 led to de novo production of phenylethanol during growth on a glucose synthetic medium with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. The aro8Δ mutation also stimulated phenylethanol production when combined with other, previously documented, mutations that deregulate aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced >3 mm phenylethanol from glucose during growth on a simple synthetic medium. The strong impact of a transaminase deletion on intracellular amino acid concentrations opens new possibilities for yeast-based production of amino acid-derived products.

  20. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  1. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons. PMID:27430387

  2. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane.

  3. Stimulating effect of phosphatidic acid on autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase.

    PubMed

    Negami, A I; Sasaki, H; Yamamura, H

    1985-09-16

    Autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle was stimulated by acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidyl-serine. PA stimulated an initial velocity of autophosphorylation 3.8-fold. When fully autophosphorylated, about 11 mol of phosphate per tetramer (alpha beta gamma delta) were incorporated in the presence of PA and about 6.5 mol in the absence of PA. In the presence of PA (100 micrograms/ml), there was a concomitant enhancement of its kinase activity about 25-fold at pH 6.8. PA (100 micrograms/ml) sharply decreased an apparent Ka for Ca2+ on autophosphorylation from 4.0 X 10(-5) M to 1.0 X 10(-6) M. Available evidence indicates that the Ca2+-activated, PA-dependent autophosphorylation of phosphorylase kinase shows an ability to stimulate glycogen breakdown.

  4. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. PMID:25112873

  5. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels.

  6. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppresses IGF-I and IGF-II stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte glucose uptake via the glucose transporter 4, but not glucose transporter 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hui-Chen; Tsuei, Yi-Wei; Kao, Chung-Cheng; Weng, Jueng-Tsueng; Shih, Li-Jane; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Liu, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Yow-Chii; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the pathways involved in EGCG modulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. EGCG inhibited IGF-I and IGF-II stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake with dose and time dependencies. EGCG at 20μM for 2h decreased IGF-I- and IGF-II-stimulated glucose uptake by 59% and 64%, respectively. Pretreatment of adipocytes with antibody against the EGCG receptor (also known as the 67-kDa laminin receptor; 67LR), prevented the effects of EGCG on IGF-increased glucose uptake, but pretreatment with normal rabbit immunoglobulin did not. This suggests that the 67LR mediates the anti-IGF effect of EGCG on adipocyte glucose uptake. Further analysis indicated EGCG, IGF-I, and IGF-II did not alter total levels of GLUT1 or GLUT4 protein. However, EGCG prevented the IGF-increased GLUT4 levels in the plasma membrane and blocked the IGF-decreased GLUT4 levels in low-density microsomes. Neither EGCG nor its combination with IGF altered GLUT1 protein levels in the plasma membrane and low-density microsomes. EGCG also suppressed the IGF-stimulated phosphorylation of IGF signaling molecules, PKCζ/λ, but not AKT and ERK1/2, proteins. This study suggests that EGCG suppresses IGF stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte glucose uptake through inhibition of the GLUT4 translocation, but not through alterations of the GLUT1 pathway.

  7. Hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis is more responsive to protein than carbohydrate in rainbow trout during acute stimulations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiwei; Panserat, Stéphane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Terrier, Frédéric; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Seiliez, Iban; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The link between dietary carbohydrate/protein and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) remains debatable in carnivorous fish. We aimed to evaluate and compare the response of hepatic lipogenic gene expression to dietary carbohydrate intake/glucose and dietary protein intake/amino acids (AAs) during acute stimulations using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. For the in vivo trial, three different diets and a controlled-feeding method were employed to supply fixed amount of dietary protein or carbohydrate in a single meal; for the in vitro trial, primary hepatocytes were stimulated with a low or high level of glucose (3 mM or 20 mM) and a low or high level of AAs (one-fold or four-fold concentrated AAs). In vitro data showed that a high level of AAs upregulated the expression of enzymes involved in DNL [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)], lipid bioconversion [elongation of very long chain fatty acids like-5 (Elovl5), Elovl2, Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)], NADPH production [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malic enzyme (ME)], and transcriptional factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-like, while a high level of glucose only elevated the expression of ME. Data in trout liver also showed that high dietary protein intake induced higher lipogenic gene expression (FAS, ACLY, and Elovl2) regardless of dietary carbohydrate intake, while high carbohydrate intake markedly suppressed the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Elovl5. Overall, we conclude that, unlike rodents or humans, hepatic fatty acid biosynthetic gene expression in rainbow trout is more responsive to dietary protein intake/AAs than dietary carbohydrate intake/glucose during acute stimulations. This discrepancy probably represents one important physiological and metabolic difference between carnivores and omnivores. PMID:26491101

  8. Hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis is more responsive to protein than carbohydrate in rainbow trout during acute stimulations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiwei; Panserat, Stéphane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Terrier, Frédéric; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Seiliez, Iban; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The link between dietary carbohydrate/protein and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) remains debatable in carnivorous fish. We aimed to evaluate and compare the response of hepatic lipogenic gene expression to dietary carbohydrate intake/glucose and dietary protein intake/amino acids (AAs) during acute stimulations using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. For the in vivo trial, three different diets and a controlled-feeding method were employed to supply fixed amount of dietary protein or carbohydrate in a single meal; for the in vitro trial, primary hepatocytes were stimulated with a low or high level of glucose (3 mM or 20 mM) and a low or high level of AAs (one-fold or four-fold concentrated AAs). In vitro data showed that a high level of AAs upregulated the expression of enzymes involved in DNL [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)], lipid bioconversion [elongation of very long chain fatty acids like-5 (Elovl5), Elovl2, Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)], NADPH production [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malic enzyme (ME)], and transcriptional factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-like, while a high level of glucose only elevated the expression of ME. Data in trout liver also showed that high dietary protein intake induced higher lipogenic gene expression (FAS, ACLY, and Elovl2) regardless of dietary carbohydrate intake, while high carbohydrate intake markedly suppressed the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Elovl5. Overall, we conclude that, unlike rodents or humans, hepatic fatty acid biosynthetic gene expression in rainbow trout is more responsive to dietary protein intake/AAs than dietary carbohydrate intake/glucose during acute stimulations. This discrepancy probably represents one important physiological and metabolic difference between carnivores and omnivores.

  9. Effects of simulated acid rain on glucose mineralization and some physicochemical properties of forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, R.F.; Alexander, M.

    1981-10-01

    To study the effects of acid rain, samples of forest soils were exposed to a continuous application of 100 cm of simulated acid rain (pH 3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour, or to intermittent 1-hour applications of 5 cm of simulated acid rain three times per week for 7 weeks. The major effects of the simulated acid rain were localized at the top of the soil and included lower pH values and glucose mineralization rates, and higher exchangeable Al and total and exchange acidity. The acidity penetrated further in the more acid soils. The mineralization of /sup 14/C-glucose was measured at concentrations of 1.5-54 ..mu..g glucose/g of soil. Glucose mineralization in the test soils (pH values of 4.4-7.1) was inhibited by the continuous exposure to simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 but not a pH 4.1. The extent of inhibition depended on the soil and the initial glucose concentration. Exposure of one soil to 7 weeks of intermittent applications of simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 reduced the mineralization rate at the three glucose concentrations tested. These data suggest that acid rain may have a significant impact on microbial activity.

  10. Gibberellic acid stimulates acid invertase secretion in pea ovary protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Beltrán, J P

    1991-02-25

    Protoplasts purified from mesocarp of nonpollinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries released acid invertase to the incubation medium. The association of the acid invertase with microsomal fractions, and the sensitivity to energy-metabolism inhibitors and to tunicamycin, indicated the secretory nature of the release process. In the presence of GA3 (10 microM), the protoplasts increased their invertase secretion at about 60 min, this effect being counteracted by tunicamycin but not by cycloheximide. Subcellular fractionation of GA3-treated protoplasts showed that higher invertase secretion was the result of a promotion of invertase transfer from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus. PMID:2001743

  11. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Carlson, H E; Shah, J H

    1989-03-01

    Because large doses of phenylalanine stimulate prolactin secretion in man, we studied the acute effects of oral doses of aspartame (0.534 g, equivalent to the amount of aspartame in approximately 1 L beverage), aspartic acid (0.242 g), and phenylalanine (0.3 and 1.0 g) on serum prolactin and other hormones in normal humans. Prolactin was not stimulated by any of the aspartame meals, aspartic acid, or 0.3 g phenylalanine; a small rise in serum prolactin, similar to that produced by a high-protein mixed meal, followed ingestion of 1.0 g phenylalanine. Serum growth hormone showed no statistically significant changes in response to any of the experimental meals whereas cortisol and insulin fell slightly and glucose rose slightly during each of the meals. We conclude that these doses of aspartame do not alter secretion of prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, or insulin in normal individuals.

  12. PANTOTHENIC ACID AND THE UTILIZATION OF GLUCOSE BY LIVING AND CELL-FREE SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Teague, P C; Williams, R J

    1942-07-20

    1. Added pantothenic acid was found to have no appreciable effect on the fermentation of glucose when used in conjunction with preparations of dialyzed yeast maceration juice or acetone-precipitated yeast maceration juice. 2. Addition of pantothenic acid failed to affect the rate of phosphorylation of glucose or the rate of decarboxylation of pyruvic acid by yeast maceration juice. 3. Pantothenic acid showed no effect on the rate of glycolysis by homogenized deficient chick tissues. 4. The accelerating effect of pantothenic acid on fermentation by deficient yeast cells was found to be accompanied by a "binding" of pantothenic acid by the yeast cells.

  13. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake via a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-linked signaling pathway in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, K; Liu, H-Y; Zhou, M-M; Zhao, F-Q; Liu, J-X

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on glucose uptake in lactating bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). Primary BMEC were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F-12 and treated with different levels of insulin (0, 5, 50, and 500 ng/mL) for 48 h after a 24-h starvation without fetal calf serum. Compared with the control cells (0 ng of insulin/mL), cell proliferation was enhanced by insulin treatment at all tested levels. Insulin significantly increased glucose uptake at a concentration of 500 ng/mL. In addition, the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (0.5mg/mL) counteracted the insulin-elevated glucose uptake, thereby suggesting that newly synthesized transporter protein might take part in the insulin-induced glucose uptake. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, did not influence the insulin-induced glucose uptake, but LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase, significantly reduced the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These results indicated that insulin-induced glucose uptake in BMEC may involve the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase- but not mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathways.

  14. Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sol, E-ri M; Hovsepyan, Meri; Bergsten, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when stimulatory secretion of insulin was reduced or basal secretion was elevated, respectively. Results After culture, cells were protein profiled by SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were discovered and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Complimentary protein profiles were obtained by the two approaches with SELDI-TOF-MS being more efficient in separating proteins in the low molecular range and 2D-PAGE in the high molecular range. Identified proteins included alpha glucosidase, calmodulin, gars, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, lon peptidase, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, proteasome p45, rab2, pyruvate kinase and t-complex protein. The observed glucose-induced differential protein expression pattern indicates enhanced glucose metabolism, defense against reactive oxygen species, enhanced protein translation, folding and degradation and decreased insulin granular formation and trafficking. Palmitate-induced changes could be related to altered exocytosis. Conclusion The identified altered proteins indicate mechanism important for altered β-cell function in T2DM. PMID:19607692

  15. Glucose-Stimulated Calcium Dynamics in Islets of Langerhans in Acute Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices

    PubMed Central

    Stožer, Andraž; Dolenšek, Jurij; Rupnik, Marjan Slak

    2013-01-01

    In endocrine cells within islets of Langerhans calcium ions couple cell stimulation to hormone secretion. Since the advent of modern fluorimetry, numerous in vitro studies employing primarily isolated mouse islets have investigated the effects of various secretagogues on cytoplasmic calcium, predominantly in insulin-secreting beta cells. Due to technical limitations, insights of these studies are inherently limited to a rather small subpopulation of outermost cells. The results also seem to depend on various factors, like culture conditions and duration, and are not always easily reconcilable with findings in vivo. The main controversies regard the types of calcium oscillations, presence of calcium waves, and the level of synchronized activity. Here, we set out to combine the in situ acute mouse pancreas tissue slice preparation with noninvasive fluorescent calcium labeling and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy to shed new light on the existing controversies utilizing an innovative approach enabling the characterization of responses in many cells from all layers of islets. Our experiments reproducibly showed stable fast calcium oscillations on a sustained plateau rather than slow oscillations as the predominant type of response in acute tissue slices, and that calcium waves are the mechanistic substrate for synchronization of oscillations. We also found indirect evidence that even a large amplitude calcium signal was not sufficient and that metabolic activation was necessary to ensure cell synchronization upon stimulation with glucose. Our novel method helped resolve existing controversies and showed the potential to help answer important physiological questions, making it one of the methods of choice for the foreseeable future. PMID:23358454

  16. Interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase on poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuechou; Tan, Bingcan; Zheng, Xinyu; Kong, Dexian; Li, Qinglu

    2015-11-15

    The interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on a poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/GCE) was investigated. The redox peaks measured for GOx and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are similar, and the anodic peak of GOx does not increase in the presence of glucose in a mediator-free solution. These indicate that the electroactivity of GOx is not the direct electron transfer (DET) between GOx and PGA/GCE and that the observed electroactivity of GOx is ascribed to free FAD that is released from GOx. However, efficient electron transfer occurred if an appropriate mediator was placed in solution, suggesting that GOx is active. The PGA/GCE-based biosensor showed wide linear response in the range of 0.5-5.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.12 mM and high sensitivity and selectivity for measuring glucose. PMID:26278169

  17. Interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase on poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuechou; Tan, Bingcan; Zheng, Xinyu; Kong, Dexian; Li, Qinglu

    2015-11-15

    The interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on a poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/GCE) was investigated. The redox peaks measured for GOx and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are similar, and the anodic peak of GOx does not increase in the presence of glucose in a mediator-free solution. These indicate that the electroactivity of GOx is not the direct electron transfer (DET) between GOx and PGA/GCE and that the observed electroactivity of GOx is ascribed to free FAD that is released from GOx. However, efficient electron transfer occurred if an appropriate mediator was placed in solution, suggesting that GOx is active. The PGA/GCE-based biosensor showed wide linear response in the range of 0.5-5.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.12 mM and high sensitivity and selectivity for measuring glucose.

  18. Diacylglycerol kinase θ couples farnesoid X receptor-dependent bile acid signalling to Akt activation and glucose homoeostasis in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Sewer, Marion B

    2013-09-01

    DGKs (diacylglycerol kinases) catalyse the conversion of diacylglycerol into PA (phosphatidic acid), a positive modulator of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). We have found that chenodeoxycholic acid and the synthetic FXR (farnesoid X receptor) ligand GW4064 induce the mRNA and protein expression of DGKθ in the HepG2 cell line and in primary human hepatocytes. Reporter gene studies using 1.5 kB of the DGKθ promoter fused to the luciferase gene revealed that bile acids increase DGKθ transcriptional activity. Mutation of putative FXR-binding sites attenuated the ability of GW4046 to increase DGKθ luciferase activity. Consistent with this finding, ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assays demonstrated that bile acid signalling increased the recruitment of FXR to the DGKθ promoter. Furthermore, GW4064 evoked a time-dependent increase in the cellular concentration of PA. We also found that GW4064 and PA promote the phosphorylation of mTOR, Akt and FoxO1 (forkhead box O1), and that silencing DGKθ expression significantly abrogated the ability of GW4046 to promote the phosphorylation of these PA-regulated targets. DGKθ was also required for bile-acid-dependent decreased glucose production. Taken together, our results establish DGKθ as a key mediator of bile-acid-stimulated modulation of mTORC2 (mTOR complex 2), the Akt pathway and glucose homoeostasis.

  19. Genipin stimulates glucose transport in C2C12 myotubes via an IRS-1 and calcium-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chan-Juan; Nie, Ai-Fang; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Du, Li; Li, Xiao-Ying; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Genipin, a compound derived from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruits, has been used over the years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat symptoms of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular basis for its antidiabetic effect has not been fully revealed. In this study, we investigated the effects of genipin on glucose uptake and signaling pathways in C(2)C(12) myotubes. Our study demonstrates that genipin stimulated glucose uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect was achieved at 2 h with a concentration of 10 μM. In myotubes, genipin promoted glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the cell surface, which was observed by analyzing their distribution in subcellular membrane fraction, and increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), AKT, and GSK3β. Meanwhile, genipin increased ATP levels, closed K(ATP) channels, and then increased the concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm in C(2)C(12) myotubes. Genipin-stimulated glucose uptake could be blocked by both the PI3-K inhibitor wortmannin and calcium chelator EGTA. Moreover, genipin increases the level of reactive oxygen species and ATP in C(2)C(12) myotubes. These results suggest that genipin activates IRS-1, PI3-K, and downstream signaling pathway and increases concentrations of calcium, resulting in GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake increase in C(2)C(12) myotubes. PMID:23257267

  20. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide stimulates thymidine incorporation in endothelial cells: role of endothelin-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Ke-Hong; Zhong, Qing; Isales, Carlos M.; Iscules, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have previously characterized the receptor for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIPR) in vascular endothelial cells (EC). Different EC types were found to contain distinct GIPR splice variants. To determine whether activation of the GIPR splice variants resulted in different cellular responses, we examined GIP effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which contain two GIPR splice variants, and compared them with a spontaneously transformed human umbilical vein EC line, ECV 304, which contains four GIPR splice variants. GIP dose-dependently stimulated HUVEC and ECV 304 proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. GIP increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion from HUVEC but not from ECV 304. Use of the endothelin B receptor blocker BQ-788 resulted in an inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation in HUVEC but not in ECV 304. These findings suggest that, although GIP increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in both HUVEC and ECV 304, this proliferative response is mediated by ET-1 only in HUVEC. These differences in cellular response to GIP may be related to differences in activation of GIPR splice variants.

  1. Stimulation of human neutrophils by soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates. Secretion of granule constituents and increased oxidation of glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Henson, P M; Oades, Z G

    1975-01-01

    Reaction of human neutrophils with aggregated immunoglobulin on nonphagocytosable surfaces results in secretion of granule enzymes (exocytosis of granules) and stimulation of glucose oxidation by the nexose monophosphate pathway (HMP). The role of HMP stimulation in the enzyme secretion and some requirements for the two neutrophil activities have been examined. It was found that (a) HMP stimulation could be selectively inhibited under conditions where release of granule enzymes remained unchanged or was enhanced, for example, by reduced glucose concentration or by 2-deoxyglucose. (b) Removal of Ca++ and addition of agents which increased the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), however, prevented both activities, while colchicine had greater inhibitory activity on HMP stimulation than upon secretion. (c) Neutrophils incubated in suspension with particulate aggregated gamma-globulin phagocytosed the particles and exhibited a stimulated HMP and released granule enzymes. In contrast, incubation in suspension with soluble aggregated gamma-globulin resulted in the stimulated HMP only. Granule evzymes were not liberated. 300-fold less soluble aggregates bound to a surface, however readily induced exocytosis of granules from adherent neutrophils. This demonstrates the importance of surface effects in the induction of secretion from neutrophils. Aggregated immunoglobulin reacting with neutrophil Fc receptors thus induces both degranulation (exocytosis) and increased HMP activity. The pathways leading to these events are separable although apparently sharing some common steps, including the initiating events. Images PMID:51031

  2. Expression of a dominant-negative Ras mutant does not affect stimulation of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis by insulin.

    PubMed

    Dorrestijn, J; Ouwens, D M; Van den Berghe, N; Bos, J L; Maassen, J A

    1996-05-01

    It has previously been shown that insulin-induced stimulation of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis requires activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3kinase). Insulin also induces formation of RasGTP in cells and various studies have yielded inconsistent data with respect to the contribution of signalling pathways activated by RasGTP, to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. We have examined the requirement of RasGTP-mediated signalling for these insulin responses by expression of a dominant negative mutant of Ras (RasN17) in cells by vaccinia virus mediated gene transfer. This Ras-mutant abrogates the signalling pathways mediated by endogenous RasGTP. Subsequently, the ability of insulin to stimulate 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glycogen was examined. We observed that expression of RasN17 in 3T3L1 adipocytes did not affect the stimulation of hexose uptake by insulin. Similarly, expression of RasN17 in A14 cells, an NIH 3T3-derived cell line with high expression of insulin receptors, did not affect insulin-induced stimulation of glycogen synthesis. In both cell lines, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Mapkinase (Erk1,2) was abrogated after expression of RasN17, demonstrating the functional interference by RasN17 with signalling mediated by endogenous RasGTP. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3kinase, abolished dose-dependently the insulin-induced stimulation of hexose uptake and glycogen synthesis without an effect on RasGTP levels in both cell types. We conclude that stimulation of glucose transport and glycogen synthesis by insulin occurs independently of RasGTP-mediated signalling.

  3. Stimulation of protein synthesis by phosphatidic acid in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y J; Yau, L; Yu, L P; Elimban, V; Zahradka, P; Dhalla, N S

    1996-12-13

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) was observed to stimulate protein synthesis in adult cardiomyocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The maximal stimulation in protein synthesis (142 +/- 12% vs 100% as the control) was achieved at 10 microM PA within 60 min and was inhibited by actinomycin D (107 +/- 4% of the control) or cycloheximide (105 +/- 6% of the control). The increase in protein synthesis due to PA was attenuated or abolished by preincubation of cardiomyocytes with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (94 +/- 9% of the control), phospholipase C inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenyl carbamate or carbon-odithioic acid O-(octahydro-4,7-methanol-1H-inden-5-yl (101 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 5% of the control, respectively), protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine or polymyxin B (109 +/- 3 and 93 +/- 3% of the control), and chelators of extracellular and intracellular free Ca2+ EGTA or BAPTA/AM (103 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 6% of the control, respectively). PA at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 microM) also caused phosphorylation of a cell surface protein of approximately 24 kDa. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase was stimulated by PA in a concentration-dependent manner; maximal stimulation (217 +/- 6% of the control) was seen at 10 microM PA. These data suggest that PA increases protein synthesis in adult rat cardiomyocytes and thus may play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  4. Selectivity between lactic acid and glucose during recovery of lactic acid with basic extractants and polymeric sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    During recovery of product carboxylic acids from fermentation broths, it is important to maximize the selectivity for the desired acid, as opposed to substrate sugars. In this work uptakes of glucose and competitive uptakes of lactic acid and glucose have been measured for the extractant Alamine 336 in various diluents and three commercially available basic solid polymeric sorbents. The results show that swelling is the main factor governing the selectivity between lactic acid and glucose for the polymeric sorbents. Because of a high uptake capacity and relatively low swelling, Dowex MWA-1 gives a higher selectivity in the pH 5--6 range than do Amberlite IRA-35 and Reillex 425. Extraction with Alamine 336 provides a much higher selectivity, but a lower capacity, than the polymeric sorbents. The extent of water coextraction depends strongly on the diluent used, and larger amounts of water coextracted correspond to larger uptakes of glucose.

  5. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  6. Mechanism of deoxycholic acid stimulation of the rabbit colon.

    PubMed Central

    Shiff, S J; Soloway, R D; Snape, W J

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies showed that deoxycholic acid (DCA) stimulated migrating action potential complexes (MAPC) in the colon. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of DCA-stimulated colonic motility. Myoelectrical and contractile activity were measured in New Zealand White rabbits from a loop constructed in the proximal colon. During the control period, slow waves were present at a frequency of 10.8 +/- 0.5 cycle/min and there were 1.5 +/- 0.5 MAPC/ h. After adding DCA (16 mM) to the loop the slow wave activity was unchanged. However, MAPC increased to 15.1 +/- 2.4 MAPC/h (P less than 0.001). MAPC activity was not stimulated in the colonic smooth muscle outside the loop. The intraluminal addition of procaine or tetrodotoxin to the colonic loop inhibited the DCA-stimulated increase in MAPC activity (0.2 +/- 0.2 MAPC/h) (P less than 0.005). Intravenous administration of atropine or phentolamine also inhibited MAPC activity that had been stimulated by DCA (P less than 0.005). Pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine also inhibited an increase in MAPC activity. Propranolol, trimethaphan camsylate, or hexamethonium had no effect on DCA stimulation of MAPC activity. Although the concentration of bile salt increased in the mesenteric venous outflow from the colonic loop, the intravenous administration of bile salt did not stimulate colonic MAPC activity. These studies suggest: (a) the action of DCA on smooth muscle activity is a local phenomenon, (b) the increase in MAPC activity is dependent on intact cholinergic and alpha adrenergic neurons, and (c) an increase in the concentration of bile salts in the serum is not associated with an increase in colonic MAPC activity. PMID:7076855

  7. Free fatty acid-induced PP2A hyperactivity selectively impairs hepatic insulin action on glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galbo, Thomas; Olsen, Grith Skytte; Quistorff, Bjørn; Nishimura, Erica

    2011-01-01

    In type 2 Diabetes (T2D) free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma are increased and hepatic insulin resistance is "selective", in the sense that the insulin-mediated decrease of glucose production is blunted while insulin's effect on stimulating lipogenesis is maintained. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic paradox. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate for twenty hours. To establish the physiological relevance of the in vitro findings, we also studied insulin-resistant Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. While insulin-receptor phosphorylation was unaffected, activation of Akt and inactivation of the downstream targets Glycogen synthase kinase 3α (Gsk3α and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) was inhibited in palmitate-exposed cells. Accordingly, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated suppression of the FoxO1-induced gluconeogenic genes and for de novo glucose production were right shifted, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis were impaired. In contrast, similar to findings in human T2D, the ability of insulin to induce triglyceride (TG) accumulation and transcription of the enzymes that catalyze de novo lipogenesis and TG assembly was unaffected. Insulin-induction of these genes could, however, be blocked by inhibition of the atypical PKCs (aPKCs). The activity of the Akt-inactivating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was increased in the insulin-resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A by specific inhibitors increased insulin-stimulated activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1 and Gsk3α. Finally, PP2A mRNA levels were increased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, while PP2A activity was increased in liver and muscle tissue in insulin-resistant ZDF rats. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FFAs may cause a selective impairment of insulin action upon hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing PP2A activity. PMID:22087313

  8. Glucose stimulates voltage- and calcium-dependent inositol trisphosphate production and intracellular calcium mobilization in insulin-secreting beta TC3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gromada, J; Frøkjaer-Jensen, J; Dissing, S

    1996-01-01

    The cellular processes leading to a rise in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) after glucose stimulation and K+ depolarization were investigated in insulin-secreting beta TC-3 cells. Stimulation with 11.2mM glucose causes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production and release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. A strong correlation was observed between the changes in Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration and the rise in [Ca2+]i, consistent with the former compound being responsible for release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 production was reduced by 68 +/- 4% when [Ca2+]i was kept low on glucose stimulation by loading cells with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid (BAPTA). The Ins(1,4,5)P3 production was prevented in cells hyperpolarized with diazoxide, an opener of ATP-sensitive K+-channels, consistent with the membrane potential controlling the rate of Ins(1,4,5)P3 synthesis. Depolarizing K+ concentrations evoked changes in [Ca2+]i and Ins(1,4,5)P3 production in both the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+, and from the relation between the extracellular K+ concentration and membrane potential we found a half-maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 production by a 28mV depolarization from a resting potential of -56mV and by a rise in [Ca2+]i of 390nM. We conclude that stimulation-induced changes in membrane potential and [Ca2+]i are important in controlling Ins(1,4,5)P3 production in beta TC-3 cells and that glucose-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores is due to voltage-dependent Ins(1,45)P3 production and depends on the concurrent increase in [Ca2+]i. PMID:8660305

  9. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T.; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPKα2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (∼45%, P < 0.01) but not of AMPK KD mice. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt protein expression or Thr308 and Ser473 phosphorylation was not changed by metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr308/Ser473 and TBC1D4 Thr642/Ser711 phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

  10. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  11. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; McMahon Tobin, Grainne A.; Rouse, Rodney L.

    2012-10-15

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and has become an important target for a growing class of drugs designed to treat type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the effect of the GLP1R agonist, exenatide (Ex4), in “on-target” RIN-5mF (islet) cells as well as in “off-target” AR42J (acinar) and DSL-6A/C1 (ductal) cells in a diabetic environment. Ex4 increased islet cell proliferation but did not affect acinar cells or ductal cells at relevant concentrations. A high caloric, high fat diet is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. An in vitro Oleic acid (OA) model was used to investigate the effect of Ex4 in a high calorie, high fat environment. At 0.1 and 0.4 mM, OA mildly decreased the proliferation of all pancreatic cell types. Ex4 did not potentiate the inhibitory effect of OA on cell proliferation. Akt phosphorylation in response to Ex4 was diminished in OA-treated ductal cells. GLP1R protein detected by western blot was time and concentration dependently decreased after glucose stimulation in OA-treated ductal cells. In ductal cells, OA treatment altered the intracellular localization of GLP1R and its co-localization with early endosome and recycling endosomes. Chloroquine (lysosomal inhibitor), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) and wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor), fully or partially, rescued GLP1R protein in OA-pretreated, glucose-stimulated ductal cells. The impact of altered regulation on phenotype/function is presently unknown. However, these data suggest that GLP1R regulation in ductal cells can be altered by a high fat, high calorie environment. -- Highlights: ► Exenatide did not inhibit islet, acinar or ductal cell proliferation. ► GLP1R protein decreased after glucose stimulation in oleic acid-treated ductal cells. ► Oleic acid treatment altered localization of GLP1R with early and recycling

  12. Catalytic performance of hybrid nanocatalyst for levulinic acid production from glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya'aini, Nazlina; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2012-11-01

    Levulinic acid is one of the potential and versatile biomass-derived chemicals. Product analysis via HPLC revealed that the heterogeneous dehydration of glucose over hybrid nanocatalyst exhibited better performance compared to single catalyst. Hybrid nanocatalyst containing H-Y zeolite and CrCl3 could substitute homogenous acid catalyst for attaining high levulinic acid yield. Different CrC3 and H-Y zeolite weight ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were prepared according to the wetness impregnation method. The hybrid catalyst with a 1:1 weight ratio performed better compared to others with the highest levulinic acid yield reported (93.5%) at 140 °C, 180 min reaction time, 0.1 g catalyst loading and 0.1 g glucose feed. Characterization results revealed that properties such as surface area, mesoporosity and acidic strength of the catalyst have significant effects on glucose dehydration for levulinic acid production.

  13. AMPK activation restores the stimulation of glucose uptake in an in vitro model of insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes via the activation of protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Luc; Ginion, Audrey; Beauloye, Christophe; Hebert, Alexandre D; Guigas, Bruno; Hue, Louis; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

    2006-07-01

    Diabetic hearts are known to be more susceptible to ischemic disease. Biguanides, like metformin, are known antidiabetic drugs that lower blood glucose concentrations by decreasing hepatic glucose production and increasing glucose disposal in muscle. Part of these metabolic effects is thought to be mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this work, we studied the relationship between AMPK activation and glucose uptake stimulation by biguanides and oligomycin, another AMPK activator, in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes. In insulin-sensitive cardiomyocytes, insulin, biguanides and oligomycin were able to stimulate glucose uptake with the same efficiency. Stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin or biguanides was correlated to protein kinase B (PKB) or AMPK activation, respectively, and were additive. In insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes, where insulin stimulation of glucose uptake was greatly reduced, biguanides or oligomycin, in the absence of insulin, induced a higher stimulation of glucose uptake than that obtained in insulin-sensitive cells. This stimulation was correlated with the activation of both AMPK and PKB and was sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/PKB pathway inhibitors. Finally, an adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active form of AMPK increased both PKB phosphorylation and glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes. We concluded that AMPK activators, like biguanides and oligomycin, are able to restore glucose uptake stimulation, in the absence of insulin, in insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes via the additive activation of AMPK and PKB. Our results suggest that AMPK activation could restore normal glucose metabolism in diabetic hearts and could be a potential therapeutic approach to treat insulin resistance.

  14. Stimulation and binding of myocardial phospholipase C by phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Henry, R A; Boyce, S Y; Kurz, T; Wolf, R A

    1995-08-01

    Exposure of adult ventricular myocytes to exogenous natural phosphatidic acid results in the production of inositol phosphates by unknown mechanism(s). We characterized stimulation of myocytic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) by synthetic dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (PA) as a potential mechanism for modulation of inositol phosphate production. Our data demonstrate that exogenous PA, at 10(-8)-10(-5) M, caused a concentration-dependent increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. PA also caused a concentration-dependent increase in in vitro activity of myocytic PLC in the presence or absence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). PLC-delta 1, the predominant isozyme of PLC expressed in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes, bound to liposomes of PA with high affinity in the presence of EGTA. The phosphomonoester group of PA was critical to in vitro stimulation of myocytic PLC activity and high-affinity binding of PLC-delta 1. We propose that binding of PLC-delta 1 to phosphatidic acid may be a novel mechanism for dynamic membrane association and modulation of PLC in adult ventricular myocytes.

  15. Glucose stimulates neurotensin secretion from the rat small intestine by mechanisms involving SGLT1 and GLUT2, leading to cell depolarization and calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Bechmann, Louise Ellegaard; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-06-15

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neurohormone produced in the central nervous system and in the gut epithelium by the enteroendocrine N cell. NT may play a role in appetite regulation and may have potential in obesity treatment. Glucose ingestion stimulates NT secretion in healthy young humans, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Here, we show that rats express NT in the gut and that glucose gavage stimulates secretion similarly to oral glucose in humans. Therefore, we conducted experiments on isolated perfused rat small intestine with a view to characterize the cellular pathways of secretion. Luminal glucose (20% wt/vol) stimulated secretion but vascular glucose (5, 10, or 15 mmol/l) was without effect. The underlying mechanisms depend on membrane depolarization and calcium influx, since the voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine and the KATP channel opener diazoxide, which causes hyperpolarization, eliminated the response. Luminal inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) (by phloridzin) eliminated glucose-stimulated release as well as secretion stimulated by luminal methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (20% wt/vol), a metabolically inactive SGLT1 substrate, suggesting that glucose stimulates secretion by initial uptake by this transporter. However, secretion was also sensitive to GLUT2 inhibition (by phloretin) and blockage of oxidative phosphorylation (2-4-dinitrophenol). Direct KATP channel closure by sulfonylureas stimulated secretion. Therefore, glucose stimulates NT secretion by uptake through SGLT1 and GLUT2, both causing depolarization either as a consequence of sodium-coupled uptake (SGLT1) or by closure of KATP channels (GLUT2 and SGLT1) secondary to the ATP-generating metabolism of glucose.

  16. Branched Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in the Biosynthesis of Lycopersicon pennellii Glucose Esters 1

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Donald S.; Steffens, John C.

    1990-01-01

    Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy) an insect-resistant, wild tomato possesses high densities of glandular trichomes which exude a mixture of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylated glucose esters that function as a physical impediment and feeding deterrent to small arthropod pests. The acyl moieties are branched C4 and C5 acids, and branched and straight chain C10, C11, and C12 acids. The structure of the branched acyl constituents suggests that the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway participates in their biosynthesis. [14C]Valine and deuterated branched chain amino acids (and their oxo-acid derivatives) were incorporated into branched C4 and C5 acid groups of glucose esters by a process of transamination, oxidative decarboxylation and subsequent acylation. C4 and C5 branched acids were elongated by two carbon units to produce the branched C10-C12 groups. Norvaline, norleucine, allylglycine, and methionine also were processed into acyl moieties and secreted from the trichomes as glucose esters. Changes in the acyl composition of the glucose esters following sulfonylurea herbicide administration support the participation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and the other enzymes of branched amino acid biosynthesis in the production of glucose esters. PMID:16667654

  17. It takes acid, rather than ice, to freeze glucose.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, S A A; Thelen, M H M; Salden, L P W; van Thiel, S W; Boonen, K J M

    2015-03-09

    Plasma glucose levels provide the cornerstone of diabetes evaluation. Unfortunately, glucose levels drop in vitro due to glycolysis. Guidelines provide suitable conditions which minimize glycolysis, such as immediate centrifugation or the use of ice/water slurry storage containers. For obvious practical reasons, most laboratories use blood collection tubes containing glycolysis inhibitors. We describe the effect of a variety of commonly used blood collection tubes on in vitro stability of glucose. Furthermore, we looked at the validity of the assumption that glycolytic activity is minimal when blood is kept in an ice/water slurry. Sodium fluoride alone does not reduce in vitro glycolysis in the first 120 minutes after phlebotomy. Addition of citrate almost completely prevented in vitro glycolysis, but showed a positive bias (0.2 mmol/l) compared to control. This is partly due to a small drop in glucose level in control blood, drawn according to the current guidelines. This drop occurs within 15 minutes, in which glycolysis has been described to be minimal and acceptable. NaF-EDTA-citrate based test tubes provide the best pre-analytical condition available. Furthermore, glucose levels are not stable in heparinized blood placed in an ice/water slurry. We strongly advise the use of NaF-EDTA-citrate based test tubes in diabetes research.

  18. Role for AMP-activated protein kinase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and preproinsulin gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Leclerc, Isabelle; Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Moule, S Kelly; Rutter, Guy A

    2003-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in the control of preproinsulin gene expression in pancreatic islet beta-cells [da Silva Xavier, Leclerc, Salt, Doiron, Hardie, Kahn and Rutter (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4023-4028]. Using pharmacological and molecular strategies to regulate AMPK activity in rat islets and clonal MIN6 beta-cells, we show here that the effects of AMPK are exerted largely upstream of insulin release. Thus forced increases in AMPK activity achieved pharmacologically with 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAR), or by adenoviral overexpression of a truncated, constitutively active form of the enzyme (AMPK alpha 1.T(172)D), blocked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In MIN6 cells, activation of AMPK suppressed glucose metabolism, as assessed by changes in total, cytosolic or mitochondrial [ATP] and NAD(P)H, and reduced increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] caused by either glucose or tolbutamide. By contrast, inactivation of AMPK by expression of a dominant-negative form of the enzyme mutated in the catalytic site (AMPK alpha 1.D(157)A) did not affect glucose-stimulated increases in [ATP], NAD(P)H or intracellular [Ca(2+)], but led to the unregulated release of insulin. These results indicate that inhibition of AMPK by glucose is essential for the activation of insulin secretion by the sugar, and may contribute to the transcriptional stimulation of the preproinsulin gene. Modulation of AMPK activity in the beta-cell may thus represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:12589707

  19. A Rab10:RalA G protein cascade regulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Karunanithi, Sheelarani; Xiong, Tingting; Uhm, Maeran; Leto, Dara; Sun, Jingxia; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fat and muscle is mediated by the major facilitative glucose transporter Glut4. Insulin controls the trafficking of Glut4 to the plasma membrane via regulation of a series of small G proteins, including RalA and Rab10. We demonstrate here that Rab10 is a bona fide target of the GTPase-activating protein AS160, which is inhibited after phosphorylation by the protein kinase Akt. Once activated, Rab10 can increase the GTP binding of RalA by recruiting the Ral guanyl nucleotide exchange factor, Rlf/Rgl2. Rab10 and RalA reside in the same pool of Glut4-storage vesicles in untreated cells, and, together with Rlf, they ensure maximal glucose transport. Overexpression of membrane-tethered Rlf compensates for the loss of Rab10 in Glut4 translocation, suggesting that Rab10 recruits Rlf to membrane compartments for RalA activation and that RalA is downstream of Rab10. Together these studies identify a new G protein cascade in the regulation of insulin-stimulated Glut4 trafficking and glucose uptake. PMID:25103239

  20. Involvement of conventional kinesin in glucose-stimulated secretory granule movements and exocytosis in clonal pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Varadi, Aniko; Ainscow, Edward K; Allan, Victoria J; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-11-01

    Recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface is essential for the sustained secretion of insulin in response to glucose. At present, the molecular motors involved in this movement, and the mechanisms whereby they may be regulated, are undefined. To investigate the role of kinesin family members, we labelled densecore vesicles in clonal beta-cells using an adenovirally expressed, vesicle-targeted green fluorescent protein (phogrin.EGFP), and employed immunoadsorption to obtain highly purified insulin-containing vesicles. Whereas several kinesin family members were expressed in this cell type, only conventional kinesin heavy chain (KHC) was detected in vesicle preparations. Expression of a dominant-negative KHC motor domain (KHC(mut)) blocked all vesicular movements with velocity >0.4 micro m second(-1), which demonstrates that kinesin activity was essential for vesicle motility in live beta-cells. Moreover, expression of KHC(mut) strongly inhibited the sustained, but not acute, stimulation of secretion by glucose. Finally, vesicle movement was stimulated by ATP dose-dependently in permeabilized cells, which suggests that glucose-induced increases in cytosolic [ATP] mediate the effects of the sugar in vivo, by enhancing kinesin activity. These data therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism whereby glucose may enhance insulin release.

  1. Efficient production of glucose by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binzhe; Duan, Lian; Peng, Gege; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    To improve the production of glucose from cellulose, a simple and effective route was developed. This process uses a combination of a step of cellulose dissolution in aqueous NaOH/urea solution and then regeneration with water, followed by an acid hydrolysis step under microwave irradiation. The method is effective to obtain glucose from α-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, ramie fiber and absorbent cotton. Increased with the acid concentration the glucose yield from hydrogel hydrolysis increased from 0.42% to 44.6% at 160 °C for 10 min. Moreover, the ozone treatment of cellulose in NaOH/urea solution before regeneration significantly enhanced the hydrolysis efficiency with a glucose yield of 59.1%. It is believed that the chains in cellulose hydrogel are relatively free approached, making that the acids easily access the β-glycosidic bonds.

  2. Mechanism of bile acid-regulated glucose and lipid metabolism in duodenal-jejunal bypass

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jie; Zou, Lei; Li, Xirui; Han, Dali; Wang, Shan; Hu, Sanyuan; Guan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid plays an important role in regulating blood glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. The present study was implemented to determine the effect of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on FXR, TGR-5expression in terminal ileum and its bile acid-related mechanism on glucose and lipid metabolism. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect relative gene or protein expression in liver and intestine. Firstly, we found that expression of FXR in liver and terminal ileum of DJB group was significantly higher than that in S-DJB group (P<0.05). In addition, DJB dramatically increased the activation of TGR-5 in the liver of rats. Furthermore, PEPCK, G6Pase, FBPase 1 and GLP-1 were up-regulated by DJB. In conclusion, these results showed that bile acid ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism through bile acid-FXR and bile acid- TGR-5 signaling pathway. PMID:26884847

  3. Regulation of myosin IIA and filamentous actin during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Kent Fulcher, F.; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2014-03-10

    Insulin stimulated glucose uptake requires the colocalization of myosin IIA (MyoIIA) and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) at the plasma membrane for proper GLUT4 fusion. MyoIIA facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) reorganization in various cell types. In adipocytes F-actin reorganization is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. What is not known is whether MyoIIA interacts with F-actin to regulate insulin-induced GLUT4 fusion at the plasma membrane. To elucidate the relationship between MyoIIA and F-actin, we examined the colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation as well as the regulation of this interaction. Our findings demonstrated that MyoIIA and F-actin colocalized at the site of GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of MyoII with blebbistatin impaired F-actin localization at the plasma membrane. Next we examined the regulatory role of calcium in MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization. Reduced calcium or calmodulin levels decreased colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane. While calcium alone can translocate MyoIIA it did not stimulate F-actin accumulation at the plasma membrane. Taken together, we established that while MyoIIA activity is required for F-actin localization at the plasma membrane, it alone is insufficient to localize F-actin to the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Insulin induces colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the cortex in adipocytes. • MyoIIA is necessary but not sufficient to localize F-actin at the cell cortex. • MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization is regulated by calcium and calmodulin.

  4. Regulation of primary metabolic pathways in oyster mushroom mycelia induced by blue light stimulation: accumulation of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masanobu; Kimura, Ninako; Miura, Ryuhei

    2015-02-27

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino acid pathway as well as an important starting material for the synthesis of Tamiflu, a potent and selective inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of influenza viruses A and B. Here we report that in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelia cultivated in the dark, stimulation with blue light-emitting diodes induces the accumulation of shikimic acid. An integrated analysis of primary metabolites, gene expression and protein expression suggests that the accumulation of shikimic acid caused by blue light stimulation is due to an increase in 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, EC2.5.1.54), the rate-determining enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, as well as phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC2.7.1.11) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC1.1.1.49), the rate-determining enzymes in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. This stimulation results in increased levels of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), the starting materials of shikimic acid biosynthesis.

  5. Regulation of primary metabolic pathways in oyster mushroom mycelia induced by blue light stimulation: accumulation of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masanobu; Kimura, Ninako; Miura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino acid pathway as well as an important starting material for the synthesis of Tamiflu, a potent and selective inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of influenza viruses A and B. Here we report that in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelia cultivated in the dark, stimulation with blue light-emitting diodes induces the accumulation of shikimic acid. An integrated analysis of primary metabolites, gene expression and protein expression suggests that the accumulation of shikimic acid caused by blue light stimulation is due to an increase in 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, EC2.5.1.54), the rate-determining enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, as well as phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC2.7.1.11) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC1.1.1.49), the rate-determining enzymes in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. This stimulation results in increased levels of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), the starting materials of shikimic acid biosynthesis. PMID:25721093

  6. Regulation of Primary Metabolic Pathways in Oyster Mushroom Mycelia Induced by Blue Light Stimulation: Accumulation of Shikimic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Masanobu; Kimura, Ninako; Miura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate in the aromatic amino acid pathway as well as an important starting material for the synthesis of Tamiflu, a potent and selective inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of influenza viruses A and B. Here we report that in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelia cultivated in the dark, stimulation with blue light-emitting diodes induces the accumulation of shikimic acid. An integrated analysis of primary metabolites, gene expression and protein expression suggests that the accumulation of shikimic acid caused by blue light stimulation is due to an increase in 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, EC2.5.1.54), the rate-determining enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway, as well as phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC2.7.1.11) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC1.1.1.49), the rate-determining enzymes in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. This stimulation results in increased levels of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), the starting materials of shikimic acid biosynthesis. PMID:25721093

  7. Circulating irisin and glucose metabolism in overweight/obese women: effects of α-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Huerta, A E; Prieto-Hontoria, P L; Fernández-Galilea, M; Sáinz, N; Cuervo, M; Martínez, J A; Moreno-Aliaga, M J

    2015-09-01

    Irisin is a myokine/adipokine with potential role in obesity and diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to analyse the relationship between irisin and glucose metabolism at baseline and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or α-lipoic acid treatment on irisin production in cultured human adipocytes and in vivo in healthy overweight/obese women following a weight loss program. Seventy-three overweight/obese women followed a 30% energy-restricted diet supplemented without (control) or with EPA (1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day) or both EPA + α-lipoic acid (1.3 + 0.3 g/day) during 10 weeks. An OGTT was performed at baseline. Moreover, human adipocytes were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) or α-lipoic acid (100-250 μM) during 24 h. At baseline plasma, irisin circulating levels were positively associated with glucose levels; however, serum irisin concentrations were not affected by the increment in blood glucose or insulin during the OGTT. Treatment with α-lipoic acid (250 μM) upregulated Fndc5 messenger RNA (mRNA) and irisin secretion in cultured adipocytes. In overweight/obese women, irisin circulating levels decreased significantly after weight loss in all groups, while no additional differences were induced by EPA or α-lipoic acid supplementation. Moreover, plasma irisin levels were positively associated with higher glucose concentrations at beginning and at endpoint of the study. The data from the OGTT suggest that glucose is not a direct contributing factor of irisin release. The higher irisin levels observed in overweight/obese conditions could be a protective response of organism to early glucose impairments.

  8. Simultaneous production of lactobionic and gluconic acid in cheese whey/glucose co-fermentation by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Substrate versatility of Pseudomonas taetrolens was evaluated for the first time in a co-fermentation system combining cheese whey and glucose, glycerol or lactose as co-substrates. Results showed that P. taetrolens displayed different production patterns depending on the co-substrate supplied. Whereas the presence of glucose led to a simultaneous co-production of lactobionic (78g/L) and gluconic acid (8.8g/L), lactose feeding stimulated the overproduction of lactobionic acid from whey with a high specific productivity (1.4g/gh) and yield (100%). Co-substrate supply of glycerol conversely led to reduced lactobionic acid yield (82%) but higher cell densities (1.8g/L), channelling the carbon source towards cell growth and maintenance. Higher carbon availability impaired the metabolic activity as well as membrane integrity, whereas lactose feeding improved the cellular functionality of P. taetrolens. Insights into these mixed carbon source strategies open up the possibility of co-producing lactobionic and gluconic acid into an integrated single-cell biorefinery.

  9. Dapagliflozin stimulates glucagon secretion at high glucose: experiments and mathematical simulations of human A-cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Ahlstedt, Ingela; El Hachmane, Mickaël F.; Göpel, Sven O.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon is one of the main regulators of blood glucose levels and dysfunctional stimulus secretion coupling in pancreatic A-cells is believed to be an important factor during development of diabetes. However, regulation of glucagon secretion is poorly understood. Recently it has been shown that Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors used for the treatment of diabetes increase glucagon levels in man. Here, we show experimentally that the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin increases glucagon secretion at high glucose levels both in human and mouse islets, but has little effect at low glucose concentrations. Because glucagon secretion is regulated by electrical activity we developed a mathematical model of A-cell electrical activity based on published data from human A-cells. With operating SGLT2, simulated glucose application leads to cell depolarization and inactivation of the voltage-gated ion channels carrying the action potential, and hence to reduce action potential height. According to our model, inhibition of SGLT2 reduces glucose-induced depolarization via electrical mechanisms. We suggest that blocking SGLTs partly relieves glucose suppression of glucagon secretion by allowing full-scale action potentials to develop. Based on our simulations we propose that SGLT2 is a glucose sensor and actively contributes to regulation of glucagon levels in humans which has clinical implications. PMID:27535321

  10. Evidence for fatty acids mediating CL 316,243-induced reductions in blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Castellani, Laura; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wright, David C

    2014-10-01

    CL 316,243, a β3-adrenergic agonist, was developed as an antiobesity and diabetes drug and causes rapid decreases in blood glucose levels in mice. The mechanisms mediating this effect have not been fully elucidated; thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of fatty acids and interleukin-6, reputed mediators of insulin secretion, in this process. To address this question, we used physiological and pharmacological approaches in combination with knockout mouse models. CL 316,243 treatment in male C57BL6 mice increased plasma fatty acids, glycerol, interleukin-6, and insulin and reduced blood glucose concentrations 2 h following injections. The ability of CL 316,243 to increase insulin and fatty acids and reduce glucose was preserved in interleukin-6-deficient mice. CL 316,243-induced drops in blood glucose occurred in parallel with increases in circulating fatty acids but prior to increases in plasma interleukin-6. CL 316,243-mediated increases in plasma insulin levels and reductions in blood glucose were attenuated when mice were pretreated with the lipase inhibitor nicotinic acid or in whole body adipose tissue triglyceride lipase knockout mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an important role for fatty acids in mediating the effects of CL 316,243 in mice. Not only do our results provide new insight into the mechanisms of action of CL 316,243, but they also hint at an unappreciated aspect of adipose tissue -pancreas cross-talk. PMID:25096179

  11. Fiber type effects on contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 abundance in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Castorena, Carlos M.; Arias, Edward B.; Sharma, Naveen; Bogan, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    To fully understand skeletal muscle at the cellular level, it is essential to evaluate single muscle fibers. Accordingly, the major goals of this study were to determine if there are fiber type-related differences in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle for: 1) contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and/or 2) the abundance of GLUT4 and other metabolically relevant proteins. Paired epitrochlearis muscles isolated from Wistar rats were either electrically stimulated to contract (E-Stim) or remained resting (No E-Stim). Single fibers isolated from muscles incubated with 2-deoxy-d-[3H]glucose (2-DG) were used to determine fiber type [myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform protein expression], 2-DG uptake, and abundance of metabolically relevant proteins, including the GLUT4 glucose transporter. E-Stim, relative to No E-Stim, fibers had greater (P < 0.05) 2-DG uptake for each of the isolated fiber types (MHC-IIa, MHC-IIax, MHC-IIx, MHC-IIxb, and MHC-IIb). However, 2-DG uptake for E-Stim fibers was not significantly different among these five fiber types. GLUT4, tethering protein containing a UBX domain for GLUT4 (TUG), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), and filamin C protein levels were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in MHC-IIa vs. MHC-IIx, MHC-IIxb, or MHC-IIb fibers. TUG and COX IV in either MHC-IIax or MHC-IIx fibers exceeded values for MHC-IIxb or MHC-IIb fibers. GLUT4 levels for MHC-IIax fibers exceeded MHC-IIxb fibers. GLUT4, COX IV, filamin C, and TUG abundance in single fibers was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with each other. Differences in GLUT4 abundance among the fiber types were not accompanied by significant differences in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:25491725

  12. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  13. Insulin Stimulated-Glucose Transporter Glut 4 Is Expressed in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Peña-Rangel, Ma. Teresa; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan R.; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Salceda, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate retina is a very metabolically active tissue whose energy demands are normally met through the uptake of glucose and oxygen. Glucose metabolism in this tissue relies upon adequate glucose delivery from the systemic circulation. Therefore, glucose transport depends on the expression of glucose transporters. Here, we show retinal expression of the Glut 4 glucose transporter in frog and rat retinas. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies showed Glut 4 expression in the three nuclear layers of the retina: the photoreceptor, inner nuclear and ganglionar cell layers. In the rat retina immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa. 14C-glucose accumulation by isolated rat retinas was significantly enhanced by physiological concentrations of insulin, an effect blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), a key enzyme in the insulin-signaling pathway in other tissues. Also, we observed an increase in 3H-cytochalasin binding sites in the presence of insulin, suggesting an increase in transporter recruitment at the cell surface. Besides, insulin induced phosphorylation of Akt, an effect also blocked by PI3K inhibition. Expression of Glut 4 was not modified in retinas of a type 1 diabetic rat model. To our knowledge, our results provide the first evidence of Glut4 expression in the retina, suggesting it as an insulin- responsive tissue. PMID:23285235

  14. Fabrication of a glucose biosensor based on citric acid assisted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rahul; Titus, Elby; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bardhan, Neel Kanth; Krishna, Rohit; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Gracio, José

    2012-08-01

    A novel and practical glucose biosensor was fabricated with immobilization of Glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on the surface of citric acid (CA) assisted cobalt ferrite (CF) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). This innovative sensor was constructed with glassy carbon electrode which is represented as (GOx)/CA-CF/(GCE). An explicit high negative zeta potential value (-22.4 mV at pH 7.0) was observed on the surface of CA-CF MNPs. Our sensor works on the principle of detection of H2O2 which is produced by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. This sensor has tremendous potential for application in glucose biosensing due to the higher sensitivity 2.5 microA/cm2-mM and substantial increment of the anodic peak current from 0.2 microA to 10.5 microA.

  15. The proteomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose conditions with amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Wright, Phillip C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented S. cerevisiae responds to high osmotic conditions. iTRAQ data revealed that most proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated under high glucose shock. Reactivation of amino acid metabolism was also observed at the end of the lag phase. The relative abundance of most identified proteins, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis proteins, and heat-shock proteins, remained unchanged in the hours immediately following application of glucose shock. However, the expression of these proteins increased significantly at the end of the lag phase. Furthermore, the up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis proteins, first maintaining then latterly increasing glycolysis pathway activity was also observed. This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose). These data combined with relevant metabolite measurements demonstrates that enhanced ethanol fermentation under VHG conditions can be achieved with the aid of amino acid supplementation.

  16. Role for the microtubule cytoskeleton in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking and in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, L M; Welsh, G I; Oatey, P B; Tavaré, J M

    2000-01-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake into adipocytes by promoting the translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes GLUT4 resides both in an endosomal pool, together with transferrin receptors, and in a unique pool termed 'GLUT4 storage vesicles' (GSVs), which excludes endosomal proteins. The trafficking of GLUT4 vesicles was studied in living 3T3-L1 adipocytes by time-lapse confocal microscopy of GLUT4 tagged with green fluorescent protein. GLUT4 vesicles exhibited two types of motion: rapid vibrations around a point and short (generally less than 10 microm) linear movements. The linear movements were completely blocked by incubation of the cells in the presence of microtubule-depolymerizing agents. This suggests that a subpopulation of GLUT4 vesicles can exhibit motor-driven movements along microtubules. Upon further examination, microtubule depolymerization inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by approx. 40%, but had no effect on insulin-induced translocation of the transferrin receptor to the plasma membrane from endosomes. We propose that an intact microtubule cytoskeleton may be required for optimal trafficking of GLUT4 present in the GSV pool, but not that resident in the endosomal pool. PMID:11085918

  17. Mechanism of Glucose Isomerization Using a Solid Lewis Acid Catalyst in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy; Moliner, Manuel; Labinger, J. A.; Davis, Mark E.

    2010-10-20

    1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy on isotopically labeled glucose reveals that in the presence of tin-containing zeolite Sn-Beta, the isomerization reaction of glucose in water proceeds by way of an intramolecular hydride shift rather than proton transfer. This is the first mechanistic demonstration of Sn-Beta acting as a Lewis acid in a purely aqueous environment.

  18. Accumulation of ascorbate by endocrine-regulated and glucose-sensitive transport of dehydroascorbic acid in luteinized rat ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Kodaman, P H; Aten, R F; Behrman, H R

    1998-02-01

    The corpus luteum is notable for very high levels of ascorbic acid. In luteal cells, ascorbic acid depletion occurs as a result of consumption during radical scavenging, inhibition of ascorbic acid uptake, and stimulation of its secretion. Oxidation of ascorbic acid generates dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). Although levels of DHAA in blood are much lower than those of ascorbic acid, DHAA serves as the major transportable form of ascorbate for certain cell types. The aim of the present studies was to investigate whether DHAA transport is a potential mechanism for conserving ascorbic acid in the corpus luteum. DHAA uptake by rat luteal cells precultured for 24 h was linear for up to 30 min. Kinetics studies showed that uptake of DHAA was a concentration-dependent and saturable process with an estimated Michaelis constant (Km) of 830 microM and a maximum velocity (Vmax) of 700 pmol/min per 10(6) cells, a rate 50 times that of ascorbate transport. More than 90% of DHAA was reduced to ascorbic acid within 2 h of cellular uptake. DHAA uptake was energy- and microfilament-dependent, as transport was inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM) and cytochalasin B (10 microM). Menadione (50 microM), an intracellular generator of reactive oxygen species, also markedly reduced DHAA uptake. In contrast to ascorbic acid transport, DHAA uptake was potently inhibited by glucose and phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporters, with IC50s of approximately 5 mM and 10 microM, respectively. DHAA uptake appears to occur via an insulin-insensitive transporter, as insulin (10 nM) had no effect on uptake. However, 24-h preincubation with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I dose-dependently (10-100 ng/ml) stimulated DHAA uptake; similar concentrations of IGF-II had no effect. The secretion of radioactivity by cells preloaded with radiolabeled DHAA was significantly increased by prostaglandin F2alpha (1 microM). The ability of luteal cells to transport DHAA in a regulated manner may serve to

  19. Effect of increased free fatty acid supply on glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in normal man.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Argyraki, M; Thow, J C; Cooper, B G; Fulcher, G; Taylor, R

    1992-02-01

    1. Experimental elevation of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations has been postulated to decrease insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and storage rates. Possible mechanisms were examined by measuring skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity and muscle glycogen content before and during hyperinsulinaemia while fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels were maintained. 2. Fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels were maintained in seven healthy male subjects by infusion of 20% (w/v) Intralipid (1 ml/min) for 120 min before and during a 240 min hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp (100 m-units h-1 kg-1) combined with indirect calorimetry. On the control day, 0.154 mol/l NaCl was infused. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was performed before and at the end of the insulin infusion. 3. On the Intralipid study day serum triacylglycerol (2.24 +/- 0.20 versus 0.67 +/- 0.10 mmol/l), plasma nonesterified fatty acid (395 +/- 13 versus 51 +/- 1 mumol/l), blood glycerol (152 +/- 2 versus 11 +/- 1 mumol/l) and blood 3-hydroxybutyrate clamp levels [mean (95% confidence interval)] [81 (64-104) versus 4 (3-5) mumol/l] were all significantly higher (all P less than 0.001) than on the control study day. Lipid oxidation rates were also elevated (1.07 +/- 0.07 versus 0.27 +/- 0.08 mg min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.001). During the clamp with Intralipid infusion, insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal decreased by 28% (from 8.53 +/- 0.77 to 6.17 +/- 0.71 mg min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. BACE1 activity impairs neuronal glucose oxidation: rescue by beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, John A.; Hamilton, David L.; Ashford, Michael L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial function in neurons have been suggested to play early and perhaps causative roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Activity of the aspartic acid protease, beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), responsible for beta amyloid peptide generation, has recently been demonstrated to modify glucose metabolism. We therefore examined, using a human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line, whether increased BACE1 activity is responsible for a reduction in cellular glucose metabolism. Overexpression of active BACE1, but not a protease-dead mutant BACE1, protein in SH-SY5Y cells reduced glucose oxidation and the basal oxygen consumption rate, which was associated with a compensatory increase in glycolysis. Increased BACE1 activity had no effect on the mitochondrial electron transfer process but was found to diminish substrate delivery to the mitochondria by inhibition of key mitochondrial decarboxylation reaction enzymes. This BACE1 activity-dependent deficit in glucose oxidation was alleviated by the presence of beta hydroxybutyrate or α-lipoic acid. Consequently our data indicate that raised cellular BACE1 activity drives reduced glucose oxidation in a human neuronal cell line through impairments in the activity of specific tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Because this bioenergetic deficit is recoverable by neutraceutical compounds we suggest that such agents, perhaps in conjunction with BACE1 inhibitors, may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the early-stage management or treatment of AD. PMID:26483636

  1. Comparison of Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition with Glucose or Amino Acid Mixtures in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; Qin, Dan-Ping; Tan, Rong-Shao; Zhong, Xiao-Shi; Zhou, Dao-Yuan; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Xuan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term maintenance hemodialysis patients have symptoms of protein-energy wasting caused by malnutrition. Each session of hemodialysis removes about 10 to 12 g of amino acids and 200 to 480 kcal of energy. Patients receiving hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease may be undernourished for energy, protein consumption, or both. Non-diabetic hemodialysis patients were randomized to three treatment groups: oral supplementation, oral supplementation plus high-concentration glucose solution (250 mL containing 50% glucose) and these two interventions plus 8.5% amino acids solution. The post-treatment energy status of the glucose group was significantly higher than its baseline level, whereas the control group's status was significantly lower. The glucose group had significantly higher concentrations of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and lysine after treatment. All treatment groups had significantly increased hemoglobin levels but significantly decreased transferrin levels after treatment compared to baseline. After treatment, the amino acid group had significantly higher albumin level compared to the glucose group (p = 0.001) and significantly higher prealbumin level compared to the control group (p = 0.017). In conclusion, long-term intervention with high-concentration glucose solution at each hemodialysis session is a simple and cheap method that replenished energy stores lost during hemodialysis of non-diabetic patients. PMID:27271658

  2. Comparison of Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition with Glucose or Amino Acid Mixtures in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; Qin, Dan-Ping; Tan, Rong-Shao; Zhong, Xiao-Shi; Zhou, Dao-Yuan; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Xuan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term maintenance hemodialysis patients have symptoms of protein-energy wasting caused by malnutrition. Each session of hemodialysis removes about 10 to 12 g of amino acids and 200 to 480 kcal of energy. Patients receiving hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease may be undernourished for energy, protein consumption, or both. Non-diabetic hemodialysis patients were randomized to three treatment groups: oral supplementation, oral supplementation plus high-concentration glucose solution (250 mL containing 50% glucose) and these two interventions plus 8.5% amino acids solution. The post-treatment energy status of the glucose group was significantly higher than its baseline level, whereas the control group’s status was significantly lower. The glucose group had significantly higher concentrations of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and lysine after treatment. All treatment groups had significantly increased hemoglobin levels but significantly decreased transferrin levels after treatment compared to baseline. After treatment, the amino acid group had significantly higher albumin level compared to the glucose group (p = 0.001) and significantly higher prealbumin level compared to the control group (p = 0.017). In conclusion, long-term intervention with high-concentration glucose solution at each hemodialysis session is a simple and cheap method that replenished energy stores lost during hemodialysis of non-diabetic patients. PMID:27271658

  3. Hypothalamic orexin stimulates feeding-associated glucose utilization in skeletal muscle via sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Haque, Mohammad Shahidul; Okamoto, Shiki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kageyama, Haruaki; Lee, Suni; Toda, Chitoku; Suzuki, Atsushi; Bachman, Eric S; Kim, Young-Bum; Sakurai, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Shioda, Seiji; Imoto, Keiji; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Hypothalamic neurons containing orexin (hypocretin) are activated during motivated behaviors and active waking. We show that injection of orexin-A into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of mice or rats increased glucose uptake and promoted insulin-induced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue, by activating the sympathetic nervous system. These effects of orexin were blunted in mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors but were restored by forced expression of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor in both myocytes and nonmyocyte cells of skeletal muscle. Orexin neurons are activated by conditioned sweet tasting and directly excite VMH neurons, thereby increasing muscle glucose metabolism and its insulin sensitivity. Orexin and its receptor in VMH thus play a key role in the regulation of muscle glucose metabolism associated with highly motivated behavior by activating muscle sympathetic nerves and beta(2)-adrenergic signaling.

  4. Stimulation of butyrate production by gluconic acid in batch culture of pig cecal digesta and identification of butyrate-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Koyama, Hironari; Okada, Masaaki; Ushida, Kazunari

    2002-08-01

    Gluconic acid reaches the large intestine to stimulate lactic acid bacteria. However, the fermentation pattern of gluconic acid has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, we examined the fermentation properties induced by gluconic acid in the pig cecal digesta in vitro. We also tested sorbitol and glucose, substrates for which the fermentation rate and patterns are known. The gluconic acid-utilizing bacteria were further isolated from pig cecal digesta and identified to examine the effect of gluconic acid on hind gut fermentation. Gluconic acid was fermented more slowly than were the other two substrates. Gluconic acid stimulated butyrate production; the butyrate molar percentage reached 26%, which is considered a high butyrate production. The majority of gluconic acid fermenters were identified as lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri and L. mucosae, and acid-utilizing bacteria, such as Megasphaera elsdenii and Mitsuokella multiacida. The gluconic acid fermented by lactic acid bacteria, and the lactate and acetate that were produced were used to form butyrate by acid-utilizing bacteria, such as M. elsdenii. Gluconic acid may be useful as a prebiotic to stimulate butyrate production in the large intestine.

  5. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  6. Exercise-induced translocation of protein kinase C and production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in rat skeletal muscle in vivo. Relationship to changes in glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Cleland, P J; Appleby, G J; Rattigan, S; Clark, M G

    1989-10-25

    Contraction-induced translocation of protein kinase C (Richter E.A., Cleland, P.J.F., Rattigan, S., and Clark, M.G. (1987) FEBS Lett. 217, 232-236) implies a role for this enzyme in muscle contraction or the associated metabolic adjustments. In the present study, this role is further examined particularly in relation to changes in glucose transport. Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve of the anesthetized rat in vivo led to a time-dependent translocation of protein kinase C and a 2-fold increase in the concentrations of both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. Maximum values for the latter were reached at 2 min and preceded the maximum translocation of protein kinase C (10 min). Stimulation of muscles in vitro increased the rate of glucose transport, but this required 20 min to reach maximum. There was no reversal of translocation or decrease in the concentrations of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid even after 30 min of rest following a 5-min period of stimulation in vivo. Translocation was not influenced by variations in applied load at maximal fiber recruitment but was dependent on the frequency of nontetanic stimuli, reaching a maximum at 4 Hz. The relationship between protein kinase C and glucose transport was also explored by varying the number of tetanic stimuli. Whereas only one train of stimuli (200 ms, 100 Hz) was required for maximal effects on protein kinase C, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid, more than 35 trains of stimuli were required to activate glucose transport. It is concluded that the production of diacylglycerol and the translocation of protein kinase C may be causally related. However, if the translocated protein kinase C is involved in the activation of glucose transport during muscle contractions, an accumulated exposure to Ca2+, resulting from multiple contractions, would appear to be necessary.

  7. Simultaneous production of catalase, glucose oxidase and gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger mutant.

    PubMed

    Fiedurek, J; Gromada, A; Pielecki, J

    1998-01-01

    The production of gluconic acid, extracellular glucose oxidase and catalase in submerged culture by a number of biochemical mutants has been evaluated. Optimization of stirrer speed, time cultivation and buffering action of some chemicals on glucose oxidase, catalase and gluconic acid production by the most active mutant, AM-11, grown in a 3-L glass bioreactor was investigated. Three hundred rpm appeared to be optimum to ensure good growth and best glucose oxidase production, but gluconic acid or catalase activity obtained maximal value at 500 or 900 rpm, respectively. Significant increase of dissolved oxygen concentration in culture (16-21%) and extracellular catalase activity were obtained when the traditional aeration was employed together with automatic dosed hydrogen peroxide.

  8. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO

  9. Regulation of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis from glucose in sheep adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, James P.; Faulkner, Anne; Vernon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    1. The following were measured in adipose-tissue pieces, obtained from 7–9 month-old sheep, before or after the tissue pieces had been maintained in tissue culture for 24 h: the rates of synthesis from glucose of fatty acids, acylglycerol glycerol, pyruvate and lactate; the rate of glucose oxidation to CO2; the rate of glucose oxidation via the pentose phosphate pathway; the activities of hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and ATP citrate lyase; the intra- and extra-cellular water content; the concentration of various metabolites and ATP, ADP and AMP. 2. The proportion of glucose carbon converted into the various products in sheep adipose tissue differs markedly from that observed in rat adipose tissue. 3. There was a general increase in the rate of glucose utilization by the adipose-tissue pieces after maintenance in tissue culture; largest changes were seen in the rates of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis from glucose. These increases are paralleled by an increase in pyruvate kinase activity. There was no change in the activities of the other enzymes as measured, although the net flux through all the enzymes increased. 4. Incubation of fresh adipose-tissue pieces for 2–6h led to an increase in the affinity of pyruvate kinase for phosphoenolpyruvate. 5. The rate of pyruvate production by glycolysis was greater than the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase of the tissue. 6. The results suggest that both pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase have important roles in restricting the utilization of glucose carbon for fatty acid synthesis in sheep adipose tissue. PMID:7150263

  10. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Gijs H.; Moors, Chantalle C. M.; Jocken, Johan W. E.; van der Zijl, Nynke J.; Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Diamant, Michaela; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. PMID:26985905

  11. The effect of nicardipine on glucose and drug-stimulated insulin secretion in normal volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dow, R. J.; Baty, J.; Isles, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    1 The effect of nicardipine on insulin secretion was examined in two double-blind, randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled studies in normal volunteers. 2 In the first study, the effect of acute dosing (via an intravenous infusion of 5 mg h-1 for 3 h) on the glucose, insulin, hormonal, and intermediary metabolite responses to an intravenous glucose tolerance test was determined in six healthy male volunteers. 3 In the second study, the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses to intravenous tolbutamide (200 mg) was determined in another six male volunteers after oral dosing with nicardipine 30 mg three times daily for 1 week. 4 A relative increase in insulin secretion was the principal finding of the first study. No other response was affected significantly. 5 No significant differences between the nicardipine- and placebo-treated groups were noted in the insulin, glucose, and C-peptide measurements of the second study. 6 In conclusion, treatment with nicardipine does not appear to impair insulin secretion in response either to an intravenous glucose load or intravenously administered tolbutamide. PMID:3896283

  12. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the actin network are not required for the stimulation of glucose transport caused by mitochondrial uncoupling: comparison with insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, T; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1995-01-01

    In L6 myotubes insulin stimulates glucose transport through the translocation of glucose transporters GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. An intact actin network and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are required for this process. Glucose transport is also stimulated by the mitochondrial ATP-production uncoupler dinitrophenol. We show here that, in serum-depleted myotubes, dinitrophenol induced translocation of GLUT1 and GLUT4, but not GLUT3. This response was not affected by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or disassembling the actin network. Insulin, but not dinitrophenol, caused tyrosine phosphorylation of several polypeptides, including the insulin-receptor substrate-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Similarly, insulin, but not dinitrophenol, caused actin reorganization, which was inhibited by wortmannin. We conclude that insulin and dinitrophenol stimulate glucose transport by different mechanisms. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7619042

  14. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of 6-aminonicotinamide on the levels of brain amino acids and glucose, and their labeling with 14C after injection of (U-14C) glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, M.K.; Lewis, L.P.; Evans, G.; Clapp, A.

    1981-10-01

    The brains of rats paralysed at 4 hr after the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide were found to contain decreased levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyrate. The glucose content of the brain of the treated rats was several fold higher than in controls. The incorporation of 14C into brain amino acids at 30 min after the injection of (U-14C)glucose was decreased by 16%: this was attributed to mainly decreased labeling of glutamate and associated amino acids. The results are discussed in the light of previous findings that the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide resulted in the blockade of the direct oxidation of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway.

  16. Phenylboronic acid modified silver nanoparticles for colorimetric dynamic analysis of glucose.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke; Jiang, Xiaomei; Yan, Suting; Zhang, Laiying; Wu, Weitai

    2014-02-15

    The development of advanced nanostructures that allow dynamic quantification of glucose level can contribute to tight glucose control in diabetes management and other medical/biological fields. In this paper, we demonstrated that the assemblies of the 5-amino-2-fluorophenylboronic acid modified silver nanoparticles (FPBA-AgNPs) can be employed for highly modulating, sensitive, and selective colorimetric sensing of glucose over a physiologically important concentration range of 0-20mM at a physiological pH of 7.4. The glucose-modulated assembly of the FPBA-AgNPs occurred by the regulable formation of interparticle linkages via the bridged binding of 1,2-cis-diols and 5,6-cis-diols (for furanose form; or 4,6-cis-diols for pyranose form), respectively, of a glucose molecule to two FPBA-AgNPs. The detection limit was 89.0 μM. The mean error of glucose detection in a macro-bio-system, blood serum of adult, was smaller than 10%. Furthermore, we show that the glucose level variations associated with a model biological reaction process can be monitored by using the FPBA-AgNPs, whilst with the reaction mechanism remaining nearly unchanged. PMID:24055932

  17. Post-Bariatric Surgery Changes in Quinolinic and Xanthurenic Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Verkindt, Hélène; Leloire, Audrey; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Yengo, Loïc; Allorge, Delphine; Froguel, Philippe; Pattou, François

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase of plasma kynurenine concentrations, potentially bioactive metabolites of tryptophan, was found in subjects with obesity, resulting from low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery decreases low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and improves glucose control. Objective Our goal was to determine the concentrations of all kynurenine metabolites after bariatric surgery and whether they were correlated with glucose control improvement. Design Kynurenine metabolite concentrations, analysed by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, circulating inflammatory markers, metabolic traits, and BMI were measured before and one year after bariatric surgery in 44 normoglycemic and 47 diabetic women with obesity. Associations between changes in kynurenine metabolites concentrations and in glucose control and metabolic traits were analysed between baseline and twelve months after surgery. Results Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolite concentrations were significantly decreased one year after bariatric surgery and were correlated with the decrease of the usCRP in both groups. Among all the kynurenine metabolites evaluated, only quinolinic acid and xanthurenic acid were significantly associated with glucose control improvement. The one year delta of quinolinic acid concentrations was negatively associated with the delta of fasting glucose (p = 0.019) and HbA1c (p = 0.014), whereas the delta of xanthurenic acid was positively associated with the delta of insulin sensitivity index (p = 0.0018). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has induced a global down-regulation of kynurenine metabolites, associated with weight loss. Our results suggest that, since kynurenine monoxygenase diverts the kynurenine pathway toward the synthesis of xanthurenic acid, its inhibition may also contribute to glucose homeostasis. PMID:27327770

  18. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate. PMID:25274086

  19. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  20. Mechanisms and energetics for acid catalyzed β-D-glucose conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfurl.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xianghong

    2011-10-27

    Car-Parrinello based ab initio molecular dynamics (CPMD) coupled with metadynamics (MTD) simulations were carried out to investigate the mechanism and energetics for acid-catalyzed β-d-glucose conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfurl (HMF) in water. HMF is a critical intermediate for biomass conversion to biofuels. It was found that protonation of the C2-OH on glucose, the breakage of the C2-O2 bond, and the formation of the C2-O5 bond is the critical rate-limiting step for the direct glucose conversion to HMF without converting to fructose first, contrary to the wide-spread assumption in literature that fructose is the main intermediate for glucose conversion to HMF. The calculated reaction barrier of 30-35 kcal/mol appears to be solvent-induced and is in excellent agreement with experimental observations. PMID:21916465

  1. Signaling of the p21-activated kinase (PAK1) coordinates insulin-stimulated actin remodeling and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Chiu, Tim T; Ramalingam, Latha; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S; Klip, Amira; Thurmond, Debbie C

    2014-11-15

    Skeletal muscle accounts for ∼ 80% of postprandial glucose clearance, and skeletal muscle glucose clearance is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated glucose clearance/uptake entails recruitment of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM) in a process that requires cortical F-actin remodeling; this process is dysregulated in Type 2 Diabetes. Recent studies have implicated PAK1 as a required element in GLUT4 recruitment in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo, although its underlying mechanism of action and requirement in glucose uptake remains undetermined. Toward this, we have employed the PAK1 inhibitor, IPA3, in studies using L6-GLUT4-myc muscle cells. IPA3 fully ablated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the PM, corroborating the observation of ablated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 accumulation in the PM of skeletal muscle from PAK1(-/-) knockout mice. IPA3-treatment also abolished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal myotubes. Mechanistically, live-cell imaging of myoblasts expressing the F-actin biosensor LifeAct-GFP treated with IPA3 showed blunting of the normal insulin-induced cortical actin remodeling. This blunting was underpinned by a loss of normal insulin-stimulated cofilin dephosphorylation in IPA3-treated myoblasts. These findings expand upon the existing model of actin remodeling in glucose uptake, by placing insulin-stimulated PAK1 signaling as a required upstream step to facilitate actin remodeling and subsequent cofilin dephosphorylation. Active, dephosphorylated cofilin then provides the G-actin substrate for continued F-actin remodeling to facilitate GLUT4 vesicle translocation for glucose uptake into the skeletal muscle cell.

  2. Different sources of acidity in glucose-elicited extracellular acidification in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lapathitis, G; Kotyk, A

    1998-12-01

    Three wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, viz. K, Y55 and sigma 1278b, two mutants lacking one or both of the putative K+ transporters, trk1 delta and trk1 delta trk2 delta, and a mutant in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, viz. pma1-105, were compared in their extracellular acidification following addition of glucose and subsequent addition of KCl; in ATPase activity in purified plasma membranes; and in respiration on glucose. The glucose-induced acidification was the greater the higher the respiratory quotient, i.e. the higher the anaerobic metabolism. A markedly lower acidification was found in the ATPase-deficient pma1-105 strain but also in the TRK-deficient double mutant. The acidification pattern after addition of KCl corresponds to expectations in the TRK mutants; however, a similarly decreased acid production was found in the ATPase-deficient mutant pma1-105. The highest rate of ATP hydrolysis in vitro was found with the trk1 delta trk2 delta mutant where glucose-, as well as KCl-induced acidification were lowest. Likewise, the pma1-105 mutant with extremely low acidification showed only a minutely lower ATP hydrolysis than did its parent Y55 strain. Apparently, several different sources of acidity are involved in the glucose-induced acidification (including extrusion of organic acids); in fact, contrary to the general belief, the H(+)-ATPase may play a minor role in this process in some strains.

  3. Characterization of the intracellular signalling pathways that underlie growth-factor-stimulated glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes: evidence for ras- and rho-dependent pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, F J; Jess, T J; Moyes, C; Plevin, R; Gould, G W

    1997-01-01

    The stimulation of glucose transport is one of the early cellular responses to growth factors and is essential for cell proliferation, yet the molecular processes that underlie this response are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the low-molecular-mass G-proteins, Ras and Rho, and their downstream targets, Raf protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, in the regulation of glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes by two distinct growth-factor receptors: the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tyrosine kinase receptor and the heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. Microinjection of a neutralizing anti-Ras antibody partially blocked IGF-I-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake but was without effect on LPA-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, microinjection of the C3 coenzyme of botulinum toxin, which selectively ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho, inhibited LPA-stimulated, but not IGF-I-stimulated, deoxyglucose uptake. Similarly, LPA- but not IGF-I-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake was attenuated in oocytes expressing a dominant negative rho construct. Cells expressing a dominant negative mutant of Raf protein kinase exhibited markedly reduced sensitivity to both LPA and IGF-I, consistent with a role for endogenous Raf in glucose uptake by both growth factors. Furthermore, expression of a constitutively activated form of raf-1 resulted in a growth-factor-independent increase in deoxyglucose uptake. Measurements of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in microinjected cells support the hypothesis that the IGF-I receptor stimulates glucose transport by a Ras-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, whereas the G-protein-coupled LPA receptor controls this response by a pathway that involves Rho-dependent activation of a distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus we provide evidence for clear differences in the signalling pathways that control glucose transport by G

  4. Synthesis of some glucose-fatty acid esters by lipase from Candida antarctica and their emulsion functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangzi; Lamsal, Buddhi P

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters' pelleted surface increased as the hydrophobicity increased. Glucose esters' and commercial sucrose esters' functionality as emulsifiers were compared. Glucose esters delayed, but did not prevent coalescence, because the oil droplets diameter doubled during 7days. Sucrose esters prevented coalescence during 7days since the droplets diameter did not have significant change. PMID:27507510

  5. Chronic Exposure to Excess Nutrients Left-shifts the Concentration Dependence of Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Erion, Karel A.; Berdan, Charles A.; Burritt, Nathan E.; Corkey, Barbara E.; Deeney, Jude T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia (HI) is elevated plasma insulin at basal glucose. Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with HI, although the exact cause and effect relationship remains poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that HI can result from an intrinsic response of the β-cell to chronic exposure to excess nutrients, involving a shift in the concentration dependence of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. INS-1 (832/13) cells were cultured in either a physiological (4 mm) or high (11 mm) glucose concentration with or without concomitant exposure to oleate. Isolated rat islets were also cultured with or without oleate. A clear hypersensitivity to submaximal glucose concentrations was evident in INS-1 cells cultured in excess nutrients such that the 25% of maximal (S0.25) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly reduced in cells cultured in 11 mm glucose (S0.25 = 3.5 mm) and 4 mm glucose with oleate (S0.25 = 4.5 mm) compared with 4 mm glucose alone (S0.25 = 5.7 mm). The magnitude of the left shift was linearly correlated with intracellular lipid stores in INS-1 cells (r2 = 0.97). We observed no significant differences in the dose responses for glucose stimulation of respiration, NAD(P)H autofluorescence, or Ca2+ responses between left- and right-shifted β-cells. However, a left shift in the sensitivity of exocytosis to Ca2+ was documented in permeabilized INS-1 cells cultured in 11 versus 4 mm glucose (S0.25 = 1.1 and 1.7 μm, respectively). Our results suggest that the sensitivity of exocytosis to triggering is modulated by a lipid component, the levels of which are influenced by the culture nutrient environment. PMID:25934392

  6. Hydrolysis of organosolv wheat pulp in formic acid at high temperature for glucose production.

    PubMed

    Kupiainen, Laura; Ahola, Juha; Tanskanen, Juha

    2012-07-01

    Organosolv methods can be used to delignify lignocellulosic crop residues for pulp production or to pretreat them prior to enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. In this study, organic solvent was used as an acidic hydrolysis catalyst to produce glucose. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out in 5-20% formic acid at 180-220 °C. Wheat straw pulp delignified with a formicodeli™ method was used as a raw material. It was found that glucose yields from pulp are significantly higher than yields from microcrystalline cellulose, a model component for cellulose hydrolysis. The results indicate that cellulose hydrolysis of real fibers takes place more selectively to glucose than hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose particles does. The effect of the particle size on pulp hydrolysis was investigated, the crystallinity of hydrolyzed pulp was measured by XRD analysis, and the product distribution and its influence on the process was discussed. PMID:22609651

  7. Chronic levodopa treatment alters basal and dopamine agonist-stimulated cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Engber, T.M.; Susel, Z.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of chronic levodopa administration on the functional activity of the basal ganglia and its output regions was evaluated by means of the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiographic technique in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The rates of local cerebral glucose utilization were studied under basal conditions as well as in response to challenge with a selective D1 or D2 dopamine-receptor agonist. Levodopa (100 mg/kg/d, i.p.) was administered for 19 d either continuously via infusion with an osmotic pump or intermittently by twice-daily injections. Following a 3-d washout, glucose utilization was found to be decreased by both levodopa regimens in the nucleus accumbens; intermittent levodopa also decreased glucose utilization in the entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, ventrolateral thalamus, ventromedial thalamus, ventroposterolateral thalamus, and lateral habenula. In control (lesioned and treated chronically with saline) rats, the D1 agonist SKF 38393 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) increased 2-DG uptake in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and entopeduncular nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion by 84% and 56%, respectively. Both continuous and intermittent levodopa blunted the SKF 38393-induced elevation in glucose metabolism in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, while intermittent levodopa also attenuated the increase in the entopeduncular nucleus. The D2 agonist quinpirole (0.4 mg/kg, i.v.) did not increase glucose utilization in any brain region in control animals; following intermittent levodopa treatment, however, quinpirole increased 2-DG uptake by 64% in the subthalamic nucleus and by 39% in the deep layers of the superior colliculus on the ipsilateral side.

  8. The caffeoylquinic acid-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract increases insulin sensitivity and regulates hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongming; Zhang, Xiaopo; Zhang, Xue; Luan, Hong; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiaoliang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Xudong

    2014-04-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are widely distributed in various foods. While some CQAs have been shown to possess antihyperglycemic activities, whether it is beneficial for diabetes patients to ingest CQA-rich foods has still to be known. In this work, the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of CQA-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract (PTF) was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Treatment with PTF (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased body weight and fasting glucose level, alleviated hyperinsulinism and hyperlipidemia and declined glucose area under the curve in oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test. The elevated levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines and islet hypertrophy in db/db mice were remarkably attenuated by PTF treatment. Biochemical analysis showed that administration of PTF significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt substract of 160 kDa (AS160), and enhanced the expression and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. It also increased the activity of hexokinase, decreased the expression of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and switched the transcription of several key lipid metabolic genes in the liver, which, in turn, improved hepatic glucose and lipid profiles as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. Overall, the CQA-rich PTF is beneficial for the treatment of diabetes. It may alleviate hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia via activation of AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway in skeletal muscles and inhibition of gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in the liver.

  9. Isolation of INS-1-derived cell lines with robust ATP-sensitive K+ channel-dependent and -independent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Hohmeier, H E; Mulder, H; Chen, G; Henkel-Rieger, R; Prentki, M; Newgard, C B

    2000-03-01

    The biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of insulin secretion are not completely understood. The rat INS-1 cell line has been used to gain insight in this area because it secretes insulin in response to glucose concentrations in the physiological range. However, the magnitude of the response is far less than that seen in freshly isolated rat islets. In the current study, we have stably transfected INS-1 cells with a plasmid containing the human proinsulin gene. After antibiotic selection and clonal expansion, 67% of the resultant clones were found to be poorly responsive to glucose in terms of insulin secretion (< or =2-fold stimulation by 15 mmol/l compared with 3 mmol/l glucose), 17% of the clones were moderately responsive (2- to 5-fold stimulation), and 16% were strongly responsive (5- to 13-fold stimulation). The differences in responsiveness could not be ascribed to differences in insulin content. Detailed analysis of one of the strongly responsive lines (832/13) revealed that its potent response to glucose (average of 10-fold) was stable over 66 population doublings (approximately 7.5 months of tissue culture) with half-maximal stimulation at 6 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, in the presence of 15 mmol/l glucose, insulin secretion was potentiated significantly by 100 pmol/l isobutylmethylxanthine (320%), 1 mmol/l oleate/palmitate (77%), and 50 nmol/l glucagon-like peptide 1 (60%), whereas carbachol had no effect. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was also potentiated by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (threefold at 3 mmol/l glucose and 50% at 15 mmol/l glucose) and was abolished by diazoxide, which demonstrates the operation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) in 832/13 cells. Moreover, when the K(ATP) channel was bypassed by incubation of cells in depolarizing K+ (35 mmol/l), insulin secretion was more effectively stimulated by glucose in 832/13 cells than in parental INS-1 cells, which demonstrates the presence of a K(ATP) channel

  10. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dangardt, Frida; Chen, Yun; Gronowitz, Eva; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Friberg, Peter; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 months each with a six-week washout period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipids were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed, and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 PUFA in muscle phospholipids increased in both sexes. In the females, omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation improved glucose tolerance by 39% (P = 0.04) and restored insulin concentration by 34% (P = 0.02) during IVGTT. Insulin sensitivity improved 17% (P = 0.07). In males, none of these parameters was influenced by omega-3 supplementation. Thus, three months of supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA improved glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese girls without influencing body weight. PMID:22523671

  11. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyan; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB). Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL), white rice (WR) and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26184292

  12. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyan; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB). Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL), white rice (WR) and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  13. Microbial phenolic metabolites improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protect pancreatic beta cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity via ERKs and PKC pathways.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Ramos, Sonia; Alvarez, Carmen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Ángeles

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress is accepted as one of the causes of beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identification of natural antioxidant agents that preserve beta cell mass and function is considered an interesting strategy to prevent or treat diabetes. Recent evidences indicated that colonic metabolites derived from flavonoids could possess beneficial effects on various tissues. The aim of this work was to establish the potential anti-diabetic properties of the microbial-derived flavonoid metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA). To this end, we tested their ability to influence beta cell function and to protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced beta cell toxicity. DHPAA and HPPA were able to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a beta cell line INS-1E and in rat pancreatic islets. Moreover, pre-treatment of cells with both compounds protected against beta cell dysfunction and death induced by the pro-oxidant. Finally, experiments with pharmacological inhibitors indicate that these effects were mediated by the activation of protein kinase C and the extracellular regulated kinases pathways. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that the microbial-derived flavonoid metabolites DHPAA and HPPA may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta cells. PMID:24491264

  14. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The 13C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid–liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe3+ during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe3+ addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe3+ (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe3+ also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l−1, an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn2+ showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. PMID:23489617

  15. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution.

  16. Stimulants

    MedlinePlus

    Stimulants are drugs that increase your heart rate, breathing rate, and brain function. Some stimulants affect only a specific organ, such as the heart, lungs, brain, or nervous system. Epinephrine is a stimulant. It ...

  17. Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Activity Decreases Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in INS-1 (832/13) Cells and Rat Islets.

    PubMed

    Berdan, Charles A; Erion, Karel A; Burritt, Nathan E; Corkey, Barbara E; Deeney, Jude T

    2016-01-01

    Lipid signals derived from lipolysis and membrane phospholipids play an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), though the exact secondary signals remain unclear. Previous reports have documented a stimulatory role of exogenously added mono-acyl-glycerol (MAG) on insulin secretion from cultured β-cells and islets. In this report we have determined effects of increasing intracellular MAG in the β-cell by inhibiting mono-acyl-glycerol lipase (MGL) activity, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol breakdown, namely the hydrolysis of MAG to glycerol and free fatty acid (FA). To determine the role of MGL in GSIS, we used three different pharmacological agents (JZL184, MJN110 and URB602). All three inhibited GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 (832/13). JZL184 significantly inhibited both GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in rat islets. JZL184 significantly decreased lipolysis and increased both mono- and diacyglycerol species in INS-1 cells. Analysis of the kinetics of GSIS showed that inhibition was greater during the sustained phase of secretion. A similar pattern was observed in the response of Ca2+ to glucose and depolarization but to a lesser degree suggesting that altered Ca2+ handling alone could not explain the reduction in insulin secretion. In addition, a significant reduction in long chain-CoA (LC-CoA) was observed in INS-1 cells at both basal and stimulatory glucose following inhibition of MGL. Our data implicate an important role for MGL in insulin secretion.

  18. Use of Glucose Oxidase in a Membrane Reactor for Gluconic Acid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; Vitolo, Michele

    This article aims at the evaluation of the catalytic performance of glucose oxidase (GO) (EC.1.1.3.4) for the glucose/gluconic acid conversion in the ultrafiltration cell type membrane reactor (MB-CSTR). The reactor was coupled with a Millipore ultrafiltration-membrane (cutoff of 100 kDa) and operated for 24 h under agitation of 100 rpm, pH 5.5, and 30°C. The experimental conditions varied were the glucose concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mM), the feeding rate (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0/h), dissolved oxygen (8.0 and 16.0 mg/L), GO concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 UGO/mL), and the glucose oxidase/catalase activity ratio (UGO/UCAT)(1∶0, 1∶10, 1∶20, and 1∶30). A conversion yield of 80% and specific reaction rate of 40×10-4 mmol/h·UGO were attained when the process was carried out under the following conditions: D=3.0/h, dissolved oxygen=16.0 mg/L, [G]=40 mM, and (UGO/UCAT)=1∶20. A simplified model for explaining the inhibition of GO activity by hydrogen peroxide, formed during the glucose/gluconic acid conversion, was presented.

  19. Ca2+ controls slow NAD(P)H oscillations in glucose-stimulated mouse pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Dan S; Misler, Stanley; Polonsky, Kenneth S

    2006-01-01

    Exposure of pancreatic islets of Langerhans to physiological concentrations of glucose leads to secretion of insulin in an oscillatory pattern. The oscillations in insulin secretion are associated with oscillations in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c). Evidence suggests that the oscillations in [Ca2+]c and secretion are driven by oscillations in metabolism, but it is unclear whether metabolic oscillations are intrinsic to metabolism or require Ca2+ feedback. To address this question we explored the interaction of Ca2+ concentration and islet metabolism using simultaneous recordings of NAD(P)H autofluorescence and [Ca2+]c, in parallel with measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). All three parameters responded to 10 mm glucose with multiphasic dynamics culminating in slow oscillations with a period of ∼5 min. This was observed in ∼90% of islets examined from various mouse strains. NAD(P)H oscillations preceded those of [Ca2+]c, but their upstroke was often accelerated during the increase in [Ca2+]c, and Ca2+ influx was a prerequisite for their generation. Prolonged elevations of [Ca2+]c augmented NAD(P)H autofluorescence of islets in the presence of 3 mm glucose, but often lowered NAD(P)H autofluorescence of islets exposed to 10 mm glucose. Comparable rises in [Ca2+]c depolarized ΔΨm. The NAD(P)H lowering effect of an elevation of [Ca2+]c was reversed during inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport. These findings reveal the existence of slow oscillations in NAD(P)H autofluorescence in intact pancreatic islets, and suggest that they are shaped by Ca2+ concentration in a dynamic balance between activation of NADH-generating mitochondrial dehydrogenases and a Ca2+-induced decrease in NADH. We propose that a component of the latter reflects mitochondrial depolarization by Ca2+, which reduces respiratory control and consequently accelerates oxidation of NADH. PMID:16455690

  20. Correlating Physicochemical Properties of Boronic Acid-Chitosan Conjugates to Glucose Adsorption Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Asantewaa, Yaa; Aylott, Jonathan; Burley, Jonathan C.; Billa, Nashiru; Roberts, Clive J.

    2012-01-01

    Phenyl boronic acid (PBA), which is known to interact with glucose, was covalently bonded to chitosan by direct reductive N-alkylation of chitosan with 4-formylphenylboronic acid (4-FPBA). Evidence of PBA bonding on chitosan was assessed by FTIR, ToF-SIMS, SEM, DSC and glucose adsorption sensitivity measurements. FTIR spectra showed strong signals at 1560 and 630 cm−1 indicating the formation of p-substituted benzene. Similarly, ToF-SIMS analyses on the conjugates registered fragments of boron ion (B−) at 11.0 m/z whose intensity increased in proportion to 4-FPBA loading. The degree to which PBA was bonded to chitosan was related to the 4-FPBA load used in the reaction (termed F1 through to F6 with increasing 4-FPBA load). Glucose adsorption sensitivity to PBA-bonded chitosan was directly related to the amount of PBA functionality within the conjugates and the physical nature of the matrices (porous or crystalline). Topographic analysis by SEM revealed that PBA-chitosan conjugates F1, F2 and F3 have porous matrices and their sensitivity to glucose adsorption was directly proportional to the degree of PBA substitution onto chitosan. Conversely, conjugates F4, F5 and F6 appeared crystalline under SEM and glucose adsorption sensitivity decreased in proportion to amount of PBA bonded to chitosan. The crystalline nature of the conjugates was confirmed by DSC, where the exothermic event related to the melting of the bonded PBA moiety, occurred at 338 °C. Thus, decreased sensitivity to glucose adsorption by the conjugates can be ascribed to the crystallinity imparted by increased content of the bonded PBA moiety, providing an optimal loading of PBA in terms of maximizing response to glucose. PMID:24300397

  1. Chronic activation of central AMPK attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of chronic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation in the hypothalamus on energy and glucose metabolism in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic rats. Diabetic rats fed a high fat diet were divided into 3 groups and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administered with one of the following: 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR, AMPK activator; 80 μg/day), AICAR+compound C (AMPK inhibitor; 6.2 μg/day), or an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) by means of osmotic pumps for 4 weeks. In the hypothalamus, central AICAR activated the phosphorylation of AMPK whereas adding compound C suppressed the activation. AICAR increased body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat mass by increasing energy intake for the first 2 weeks and decreasing energy expenditure, whereas compound C reversed the AICAR effect on energy metabolism. Indirect calorimetry revealed that ICV-AICAR decreased carbohydrate oxidation, but not fat oxidation, compared to the control. During euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, central AICAR increased hepatic glucose output at hyperinsulinemic states. ICV-AICAR increased expressions of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and decreased expression of hepatic genes related to thermogenesis whereas compound C nullified the AICAR effect. Insulin secretion in the first and second phases decreased in AICAR-treated rats at hyperglycemic clamp, but compound C nullified the decrease. However, central AICAR did not alter β-cell mass via its proliferation or apoptosis. In conclusion, chronic hypothalamic AMPK activation impaired energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis by increasing food intake, increasing hepatic glucose output and decreasing insulin secretion in diabetic rats. The impairment of energy and glucose homeostasis by AMPK activation was nullified by an AMPK inhibitor.

  2. Roles of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose transport of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cartee, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on two paralogue Rab GTPase activating proteins known as TBC1D1 Tre-2/BUB2/cdc 1 domain family (TBC1D) 1 and TBC1D4 (also called Akt Substrate of 160 kDa, AS160) and their roles in controlling skeletal muscle glucose transport in response to the independent and combined effects of insulin and exercise. Convincing evidence implicates Akt2-dependent TBC1D4 phosphorylation on T642 as a key part of the mechanism for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. TBC1D1 phosphorylation on several insulin-responsive sites (including T596, a site corresponding to T642 in TBC1D4) does not appear to be essential for in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. In vivo exercise or ex vivo contraction of muscle result in greater TBC1D1 phosphorylation on S237 that is likely to be secondary to increased AMP-activated protein kinase activity and potentially important for contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Several studies that evaluated both normal and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle stimulated with a physiological insulin concentration after a single exercise session found that greater post-exercise insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was accompanied by greater TBC1D4 phosphorylation on several sites. In contrast, enhanced post-exercise insulin sensitivity was not accompanied by greater insulin-stimulated TBC1D1 phosphorylation. The mechanism for greater TBC1D4 phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated muscles after acute exercise is uncertain, and a causal link between enhanced TBC1D4 phosphorylation and increased post-exercise insulin sensitivity has yet to be established. In summary, TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 have important, but distinct roles in regulating muscle glucose transport in response to insulin and exercise. PMID:25280670

  3. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Eggels, Leslie; Rijnsburger, Merel; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Kalsbeek, Andries; Denys, Damiaan; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc) influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of 1 h. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity- dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients. PMID:24339800

  4. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin inhibits high glucose-induced ROS production and stimulates osteoblastic differentiation by preventing the activation of PI3K/Akt in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingli; Yang, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, an osteoblast-derived protein, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. It has previously been demonstrated that high glucose levels inhibit osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. However, the mechanisms through which uncarboxylated osteocalcin regulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of uncarboxylated osteocalcin on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under high glucose conditions. We demonstrated that high glucose levels induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MC3T3-E1 cells, and this production was inhibited by treatment with uncarboxylated osteocalcin and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. In addition, we found that uncarboxylated osteocalcin reduced high glucose‑induced oxidative stress and increased the mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix and osteocalcin, as well as the formation of mineralized nodules; it also inhibited adipogenic differentiation, as shown by a decrease in the mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (adipocyte protein 2; aP2) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), and reduced lipid drop accumulation. Furthermore, we found that uncarboxylated osteocalcin inhibited PI3K/Akt signaling which was induced by ROS and facilitated the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under high glucose conditions. Taken together and to the best of ou knowledge, our results demonstrate for the first time that uncarboxylated osteocalcin inhibits high glucose-induced ROS production and stimulates osteoblastic differentiation by inhibiting the activation of PI3K/Akt in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, we suggest that uncarboxylated osteocalcin may be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes

  5. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates. PMID:26852864

  6. MiR-126 Suppresses the Glucose-Stimulated Proliferation via IRS-2 in INS-1 β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man; Zhang, Shao-ping; Wang, Chun-hui; Yuan, Wen-jun; Sun, Tao; He, Lan-jie; Hu, Qi-kuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that miR-126 participates in the glucose homeostasis through its target molecules. Although bioinformatics analysis predicts that miR-126 can bind with the insulin receptor substrate-2(IRS-2) mRNA at the “seed sequence”, but there are still no definitely reports to support it. In this study, we provided evidences that IRS-2 was one of the target genes of miR-126. And miR-126 has a proliferation inhibiting effects in INS-1 β cells, mainly through the suppression of IRS-2. Methods The 3’-UTR of IRS-2 regulated by miR-126 was analyzed by the luciferase assay and western blot. Furthermore, proliferation of INS-1 β cells stimulated by glucose was tested, and the association between IRS-2 and miR-126 were analyzed. Results We found that mutation of only three of the 6 “seed sequences” can eliminate the inhibition effect of miR-126. In INS-1 β cells, administration of miR-126 suppresses the proliferation, together with the unbalanced down-regulation of IRS-2 and IRS-1. Over-expression of IRS-2 can reverse the proliferation effect of miR-126, while not of IRS-1. These results suggested that miR-126 inhibited the β-cell proliferation via the inhibition of IRS-2 instead of IRS-1.Additionally, we also found that high glucose and insulin could stimulate the rapid production of endogenous miR-126 within 6 hours, together with the short term suppression of IRS-1 and IRS-2 expression, and intensify the unbalanced expression of IRS-1 and IRS-2. Conclusions IRS-2 was one of the targets of miR-126. MiR-126 inhibited the β-cell proliferation through IRS-2 instead of IRS-1. MiR-126 may take part in the glucose homeostasis both through its target IRS-2 and IRS-1. The unbalance between IRS-1 and IRS-2 caused by miR-126 may play an important role in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26919700

  7. Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Insulin Resistant Humans Normalises Insulin Signalling but Not Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, David A. R.; May, Margaret T.; Hers, Ingeborg; Dayan, Colin M.; Andrews, Robert C.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Weight-loss after bariatric surgery improves insulin sensitivity, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. To ascertain the effect of bariatric surgery on insulin signalling, we examined glucose disposal and Akt activation in morbidly obese volunteers before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and compared this to lean volunteers. Materials and Methods The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, at five infusion rates, was used to determine glucose disposal rates (GDR) in eight morbidly obese (body mass index, BMI=47.3±2.2 kg/m2) patients, before and after RYGB, and in eight lean volunteers (BMI=20.7±0.7 kg/m2). Biopsies of brachioradialis muscle, taken at fasting and insulin concentrations that induced half-maximal (GDR50) and maximal (GDR100) GDR in each subject, were used to examine the phosphorylation of Akt-Thr308, Akt-473, and pras40, in vivo biomarkers for Akt activity. Results Pre-operatively, insulin-stimulated GDR was lower in the obese compared to the lean individuals (P<0.001). Weight-loss of 29.9±4 kg after surgery significantly improved GDR50 (P=0.004) but not GDR100 (P=0.3). These subjects still remained significantly more insulin resistant than the lean individuals (p<0.001). Weight loss increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle Akt-Thr308 and Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, P=0.02 and P=0.03 respectively (MANCOVA), and Akt activity towards the substrate PRAS40 (P=0.003, MANCOVA), and in contrast to GDR, were fully normalised after the surgery (obese vs lean, P=0.6, P=0.35, P=0.46, respectively). Conclusions Our data show that although Akt activity substantially improved after surgery, it did not lead to a full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. This suggests that a major defect downstream of, or parallel to, Akt signalling remains after significant weight-loss. PMID:25876175

  8. Transcription factors involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Shiying; Fang, Zhong; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Muxun

    2009-07-10

    GSIS, the most important function of pancreatic beta cell, is essential for maintaining the glucose homeostasis. Transcription factors are known to control different biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In pancreas, some transcription factors are involved in regulating the function of beta cells. In this review, the role of these transcription factors including Pdx-1, FoxO1, SREBP-1c, and MafA in GSIS is highlighted. The related molecular mechanisms are analyzed as well. Furthermore, the association between the role of transcription factors in GSIS and the development of T2DM is discussed.

  9. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    DOE PAGES

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared tomore » placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.« less

  10. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-(18)FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  11. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  12. Alcohol Decreases Baseline Brain Glucose Metabolism More in Heavy Drinkers Than Controls But Has No Effect on Stimulation-Induced Metabolic Increases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S.; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-01-01

    During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-18FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. PMID:25698759

  13. Neuropeptide Y suppresses glucose utilization in the dorsal optic tectum towards visual stimulation in the toad Bombina orientalis: a [14C]2DG study.

    PubMed

    Funke, Simone; Ewert, Jörg-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) experimentally administered to the surface of the optic tectum in visually stimulated fire bellied toads diminishes local glucose utilization in the retinorecipient tectal laminae. Strong NPY-induced suppression of tectal glucose utilization was found even when visual retinal input to the tectum was boosted pharmacologically under systemic apomorphine treatment. These novel results on the local cerebral energy metabolism contribute to the concept that NPY controls retinotectal visual processing via an inhibitory mechanism.

  14. Differential insulin sensitivities of glucose, amino acid, and albumin metabolism in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Boirie, Y; Gachon, P; Cordat, N; Ritz, P; Beaufrère, B

    2001-02-01

    Regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin is modified during aging, but whether this alteration is associated with changes in protein metabolism is less defined. Insulin dose responses of whole body glucose, leucine, and albumin metabolism have been investigated using isotopic dilution of D-[6, 6-(2)H(2)]glucose and L-[1-(13)C]leucine in 14 young (Y; 24.0 +/- 0.9 yr; mean +/- SEM, 20.5 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) and 12 healthy elderly subjects (E; 69.4 +/- 0.6 yr; 24.6 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2)) using a euglycemic and euaminoacidemic hyperinsulinemic clamp at two insulin infusion rates of 0.2 and 0.5 mU/kg.min (CL1 and CL2, respectively). Despite significantly higher plasma insulin in E than in Y, the glucose disposal rate was lower in E than in Y at both insulin levels, whereas glucose production was normally suppressed. Whole body protein breakdown was less inhibited by insulin in E than in Y at CL1 (-13.5 +/- 1.4% vs. -8.8 +/- 1.3%, Y vs. E, P < 0.05), but not significantly at CL2 (-22.0 +/- 1.4% vs. -18.8 +/- 1.7%, Y vs. E, P = NS). The albumin synthesis rate was identical and stimulated to the same extent by insulin in groups Y and E. Gender affected basal leucine metabolism, but the response to insulin was similar in both groups. In conclusion, decreased insulin action on glucose disposal is associated with a reduced insulin sensitivity for protein breakdown in healthy elderly subjects at low insulin concentrations. Higher insulin levels compensate for a reduced insulin action on protein metabolism in elderly subjects. PMID:11158022

  15. Cascade enzymatic catalysis in poly(acrylic acid) brushes-nanospherical silica for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaobin; Kong, Rongmei; Xia, Lian; Qu, Fengli

    2016-08-01

    The ultrasensitive monitoring of glucose with a fast and accurate method is significant in potential therapeutics and optimizes protein biosynthesis. Incorporation of enzyme into matrix is considered as promising candidates for constructing highly sensitive glucose-responsive systems. In this study, three-dimensional poly(acrylic acid) brushes-nanospherical silica (PAA-nano silica) with high amplification capability and stability were used to covalently immobilize bienzymes for cascade enzymatic catalysis. The major advantages of PAA-nano silica-bienzyme co-incorporation is that the enzymes are proximity distribution, and such close confinement both minimized the diffusion of intermediates among the enzymes in the consecutive reaction and improve the utilization efficiency of enzymes, thereby enhancing the overall reaction efficiency and specificity. Thus, this present bienzymatic biosensor shows robust signal amplification and ultrasensitivity of glucose-responsive properties with a detection limit of 0.04μM. PMID:27216683

  16. INS-1 cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is reduced by the downregulation of the 67 kDa laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Georges; Dubiel, Evan A; Kuehn, Carina; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Vermette, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Understanding β cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions can advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and improve culture methods used in islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes. Laminin is the main constituent of the basement membrane and is involved in pancreatic β cell survival and function, even enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Most of the studies on cell responses towards laminin have focused on integrin-mediated interactions, while much less attention has been paid on non-integrin receptors, such as the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR). The specificity of the receptor-ligand interaction through the adhesion of INS-1 cells (a rat insulinoma cell line) to CDPGYIGSR-, GRGDSPC- or CDPGYIGSR + GRGDSPC-covered surfaces was evaluated. Also, the effects of the 67LR knocking down over glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were investigated. Culture of the INS-1 cells on the bioactive surfaces was improved compared to the low-fouling carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surfaces, while downregulation of the 67LR resulted in reduced cell adhesion to surfaces bearing the CDPGYIGSR peptide. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was hindered by downregulation of the 67LR, regardless of the biological motif available on the biomimetic surfaces on which the cells were cultured. This finding illustrates the importance of the 67LR in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and points to a possible role of the 67LR in the mechanisms of insulin secretion.

  17. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH < pK). Steady states were achieved with different extracellular levels of fumaric acid, obtained by adding different amounts of fumaric acid to the feed medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. PMID:26683700

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits glucose-induced membrane cholesterol crystalline domain formation through a potent antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Lipid oxidation leads to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and foam cell formation during atherogenesis. Glucose also contributes to lipid oxidation and promotes pathologic changes in membrane structural organization, including the development of cholesterol crystalline domains. In this study, we tested the comparative effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid indicated for the treatment of very high triglyceride (TG) levels, and other TG-lowering agents (fenofibrate, niacin, and gemfibrozil) on lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as membrane lipid vesicles prepared in the presence of glucose (200 mg/dL). We also examined the antioxidant effects of EPA in combination with atorvastatin o-hydroxy (active) metabolite (ATM). Glucose-induced changes in membrane structural organization were measured using small angle x-ray scattering approaches and correlated with changes in lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels. EPA was found to inhibit LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner (1.0-10.0 µM) and was distinguished from the other TG-lowering agents, which had no significant effect as compared to vehicle treatment alone. Similar effects were observed in membrane lipid vesicles exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. The antioxidant activity of EPA, as observed in glucose-treated vesicles, was significantly enhanced in combination with ATM. Glucose treatment produced highly-ordered, membrane-restricted, cholesterol crystalline domains, which correlated with increased LOOH levels. Of the agents tested in this study, only EPA inhibited glucose-induced cholesterol domain formation. These data demonstrate that EPA, at pharmacologic levels, inhibits hyperglycemia-induced changes in membrane lipid structural organization through a potent antioxidant mechanism associated with its distinct, physicochemical interactions with the membrane bilayer. PMID:25449996

  19. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lauren K; Restaino, Robert M; Neuringer, Martha; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycaemia leads to a transient impairment in endothelial function; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work in cell culture models demonstrate that high glucose results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and, in animal studies, ER stress has been implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acute oral administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 1500 mg), a chemical chaperone known to alleviate ER stress, would prevent hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In 12 young healthy subjects (seven men, five women), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed at baseline, and at 60 and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Subjects were tested on two separate visits in a single-blind randomized cross-over design: after oral ingestion of TUDCA or placebo capsules. FMD was reduced from baseline during hyperglycaemia under the placebo condition (-32% at 60 min and -28% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P<0.05 from baseline) but not under the TUDCA condition (-4% at 60 min and +0.3% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P>0.05 from baseline). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin were not altered by TUDCA ingestion. Plasma oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) remained unaltered throughout the oral glucose challenge in both conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction can be mitigated by oral administration of TUDCA, thus supporting the hypothesis that ER stress may contribute to endothelial dysfunction during postprandial hyperglycaemia.

  20. Similar increases in extracellular lactic acid in the limbic system during epileptic and/or olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fornai, F; Bassi, L; Gesi, M; Giorgi, F S; Guerrini, R; Bonaccorsi, I; Alessandrì, M G

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that physiological stimulation of brain activity increases anaerobic glucose consumption, both in humans and in experimental animals. To investigate this phenomenon further, we measured extracellular lactate levels within different rat brain regions, using microdialysis. Experiments were performed comparing the effects of natural, physiological olfactory stimulation of the limbic system with experimental limbic seizures. Olfactory stimulation was carried out by using different odors (i.e. both conventional odors: 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, green pepper essence; thymol; and 2-sec-butylthiazoline, a sexual pheromone). Limbic seizures were either induced by systemic injection of pilocarpine (200-400 mg/kg) or focally elicited by microinfusions of chemoconvulsants (bicuculline 118 pmol and cychlothiazide 1.2 nmol) within the anterior piriform cortex. Seizures induced by systemic pilocarpine tripled lactic acid within the hippocampus, whereas limbic seizures elicited by focal microinfusion of chemoconvulsants within the piriform cortex produced a less pronounced increase in extracellular lactic acid. Increases in extracellular lactate occurring during olfactory stimulation with the sexual pheromone (three times the baseline levels) were non-significantly different from those occurring after systemic pilocarpine. Increases in lactic acid following natural olfactory stimulation were abolished both by olfactory bulbectomy and by the focal microinfusion of tetrodotoxin, while they were significantly attenuated by the local application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist AP-5. Increases in hippocampal lactate induced by short-lasting stimuli (olfactory stimulation or microinfusion of subthreshold doses of chemoconvulsants, bicuculline 30 pmol) were reproducible after a short delay (1 h) and cumulated when applied sequentially. In contrast, limbic status epilepticus led to a long-lasting refractoriness to additional lactate-raising stimuli

  1. Cr(VI) reduction by gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide, the reaction products of fungal glucose oxidase: Cooperative interaction with organic acids in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Romo-Rodríguez, Pamela; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Lopez-Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(VI) reducing capability of growing cells of the environmental A. tubingensis Ed8 strain is remarkably efficient compared to reference strains A. niger FGSC322 and A. tubingensis NRRL593. Extracellular glucose oxidase (GOX) activity levels were clearly higher in colonies developed in solid medium and in concentrated extracts of the spent medium of liquid cultures of the Ed8 strain in comparison with the reference strains. In addition, concentrated extracts of the spent medium of A. tubingensis Ed8, but not those of the reference strains, exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI). In line with this observation, it was found that A. niger purified GOX is capable of mediating the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a reaction dependent on the presence of glucose that is stimulated by organic acids. Furthermore, it was found that a decrease in Cr(VI) may occur in the absence of the GOX enzyme, as long as the reaction products gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide are present; this conversion of Cr(VI) is stimulated by organic acids in a reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which may involve the formation of an intermediate peroxichromate(V) complex. These findings indicated that fungal glucose oxidase acts an indirect chromate reductase through the formation of Cr(VI) reducing molecules, which interact cooperatively with other fungal metabolites in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

  2. Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation and Acid Treatment of Well Baca 20; Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1983-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program was initiated in February 1979 to pursue industry interest in geothermal well stimulation work and to develop technical expertise in areas directly related to geothermal well stimulation activities. This report provides an overview of the two experiments conducted in the high-temperature reservoir in Baca, New Mexico. The report discusses resource and reservoir properties, and provides a description of the stimulation experiment, a description of the treatment evaluation, and a summary of the experiment costs. (DJE-2005)

  3. Phasor transform to extract glucose and ascorbic acid data in an amperometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S; Hall, E A

    2000-11-01

    A method for separating the signals from glucose and ascorbic acid on a single recognition surface using an ac immittance technique is presented. It is proposed that each oxidation process can be represented by a unique vector based on psi and YO, and that the concentration of each analyte can be determined by monitoring the change in the admittance magnitude in the direction of the characteristic angle for that particular species. The total Faradaic admittance (YF,total) for all electroactive species present is given by a linear combination of the independent vectors from the different species. In the system tested, the analytes are glucose and ascorbic acid, the former being estimated via the measurand, hydrogen peroxide. Thus, one of the electroactive species (hydrogen peroxide) is not a bulk solution species, but is 'generated' in the enzyme matrix. The admittance measurements from ascorbic acid and the enzyme-generated hydrogen peroxide showed the characteristic phase angles of each oxidation signal, allowing for good spatial resolution. The behaviour of each of these analytes is presented and calibration curves tested. Based on the calibration curves and the basis vectors, samples containing both glucose and ascorbic acid were measured by transforming the measured total admittance from the complex Cartesian space into 'analyte space', where the X-Y axes are given by the basis vectors ŷEGHP,GOD and ŷAA,GOD, respectively. PMID:11193087

  4. Regulation of PDK mRNA by high fatty acid and glucose in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianxiang; Han, Junying; Epstein, Paul N; Liu, Ye Q

    2006-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, links glycolysis to the Krebs cycle, and plays an important role in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. In beta cells from obese and Type 2 diabetic animals, PDH activity is significantly reduced. PDH is negatively regulated by multiple pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isotypes (PDK subtypes 1-4). However, we do not know whether fatty acids or high glucose modulate PDKs in islets. To test this we determined PDH and PDK activities and PDK gene and protein expression in C57BL/6 mouse islets. Both high palmitate and high glucose reduced active PDH activity and increased PDK activity. The gene and protein for PDK3 were not expressed in islets. Palmitate up-regulated mRNA expression of PDK1 (2.9-fold), PDK2 (1.9-fold), and PDK4 (3.1-fold). High glucose increased PDK1 (1.8-fold) and PDK2 (2.7-fold) mRNA expression but reduced PDK4 mRNA expression by 40 percent in cultured islets. Changed PDK expression was confirmed by Western blotting. These results demonstrate that in islet cells both fat and glucose regulate PDK gene and protein expression and indicate that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia contribute to the decline in diabetic islet PDH activity by increasing mRNA and protein expression of PDK. PMID:16631612

  5. Evidence of benzilic rearrangement during the electrochemical oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucaric acid.

    PubMed

    Ibert, Mathias; Fuertès, Patrick; Merbouh, Nabyl; Feasson, Christian; Marsais, Francis

    2011-03-01

    During the course of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy free radical-catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucaric acid a new side-product was observed. This compound was isolated and identified as a tricarboxylic acid of unique structure, which was named maribersonic acid. Its structure was proven by different experiments coupled with several analytical methods, and its appearance during the electrochemical oxidation of D-glucose was rationalized through a thorough study.

  6. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry. PMID:27264958

  7. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry.

  8. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS. PMID:26046640

  9. Cytoprotective mechanism of ferulic acid against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan; Wen, Luona; Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Weibin; Jiao, Rui; Hu, Yunfeng; Peng, Xichun; He, Yong; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid, is a potential therapy for diabetes mellitus. FA has been shown to protect against hepatic and myocardial injury and oxidative stress in obese rats with late-stage diabetes, but the mechanism of the antioxidative activity of FA is still unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate whether FA can prevent damage to cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes caused by high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and whether the protection effects of FA on these cells are related to the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathways. Design Cells were divided into four groups: a control group (cultured with normal medium), an HG group (medium containing 80 mmol/L glucose), an FA+HG group (medium containing 80 mmol/L glucose and 1, 5, or 10 µg/mL FA), and a dimethylbiguanide (DMBG)+HG group (medium containing 80 mmol/L glucose and 50 µg/mL DMBG). Results FA treatment significantly increased cell viability and significantly decreased cell apoptosis compared with the HG-treated group. Moreover, FA down-regulated the expression of Keap1 protein and up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 protein and gene transcription of HO-1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion FA alleviated the HG-induced oxidative stress and decreased cell apoptosis in hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. These effects were associated with the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. PMID:26869273

  10. Effect of enoxacin, felbinac, and sparfloxacin on fatty acid metabolism and glucose concentrations in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miwa, Yasushi; Kazumi, Maya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2011-05-01

    Multiple changes in metabolic levels could be useful for understanding physiological toxicity. To explore further risk factors for the convulsions induced by the interaction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and new quinolone antimicrobial drugs, the effect of sparfloxacin, enoxacin, and felbinac on fatty acid metabolism and glucose concentrations in the liver, brain, and blood of rats was investigated. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoAs (C(18:1) and C(20:4)) in the liver and brain were decreased at the onset of convulsions induced by the coadministration of enoxacin with felbinac. Then, glucose concentrations in the liver and blood were decreased, whereas they were increased in a dose-dependant manner in the brain. However, the formation of acyl-CoAs and glucose levels in the liver, brain, and blood was not significantly influenced by enoxacin, felbinac, and sparfloxacin alone, respectively. The disturbance of both fatty acid metabolism and glucose levels might be associated with the increased susceptibility to convulsions, which may contribute to further understanding of the toxic effects associated with these drugs.

  11. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure for 28 days affects glucose homeostasis and induces insulin hypersensitivity in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shengmin; Zhang, Hongxia; Zheng, Fei; Sheng, Nan; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used in many applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Because of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, concern has arisen about the roles of environmental pollutants in such diseases. Earlier epidemiologic studies showed a potential association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and glucose metabolism, but how PFOA influences glucose homeostasis is still unknown. Here, we report on the modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in the livers of mice after 28 d of exposure to PFOA. Compared with normal mice, PFOA exposure significantly decreased the expression of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein and affected the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in the liver. Tolerance tests further indicated that PFOA exposure induced higher insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that PFOA exposure reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis, which might be attributed to gluconeogenesis inhibition. The levels of several circulating proteins were altered after PFOA exposure, including proteins potentially related to diabetes and liver disease. Our results suggest that PFOA affected glucose metabolism and induced insulin hypersensitivity in mice.

  12. Autocrine/paracrine function of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) for glucose homeostasis in pancreatic β-cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Ju; Shawl, Asif Iqbal; Han, Myung-Kwan; Lee, Hon Cheung; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a second messenger for mobilizing Ca(2+) from intracellular stores in various cell types. Extracellular application of NAADP has been shown to elicit intracellular Ca(2+) signals, indicating that it is readily transported into cells. However, little is known about the functional role of this NAADP uptake system. Here, we show that NAADP is effectively transported into selected cell types involved in glucose homeostasis, such as adipocytes and pancreatic β-cells, but not the acinar cells, in a high glucose-dependent manner. NAADP uptake was inhibitable by Ned-19, a NAADP mimic; dipyridamole, a nucleoside inhibitor; or NaN3, a metabolic inhibitor or under Ca(2+)-free conditions. Furthermore, NAADP was found to be released from pancreatic islets upon stimulation by high glucose. Consistently, administration of NAADP to type 2 diabetic mice improved glucose tolerance. We propose that NAADP is functioning as an autocrine/paracrine hormone important in glucose homeostasis. NAADP is thus a potential antidiabetic agent with therapeutic relevance.

  13. Rab GTPase mediated procollagen trafficking in ascorbic acid stimulated osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Noushin; Pustylnik, Sofia; Harrison, Rene E

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in investigating functional aspects of osteoblast (OB) differentiation, especially studies on how bone proteins are deposited and mineralized, there has been little research on the intracellular trafficking of bone proteins during OB differentiation. Collagen synthesis and secretion is the major function of OBs and is markedly up-regulated upon ascorbic acid (AA) stimulation, significantly more so than in fibroblast cells. Understanding the mechanism by which collagen is mobilized in specialized OB cells is important for both basic cell biology and diseases involving defects in bone protein secretion and deposition. Protein trafficking along the exocytic and endocytic pathways is aided by many molecules, with Rab GTPases being master regulators of vesicle targeting. In this study, we used microarray analysis to identify the Rab GTPases that are up-regulated during a 5-day AA differentiation of OBs, namely Rab1, Rab3d, and Rab27b. Further, we investigated the role of identified Rabs in regulating the trafficking of collagen from the site of synthesis in the ER to the Golgi and ultimately to the plasma membrane utilizing Rab dominant negative (DN) expression. We also observed that experimental halting of biosynthetic trafficking by these mutant Rabs initiated proteasome-mediated degradation of procollagen and ceased global protein translation. Acute expression of Rab1 and Rab3d DN constructs partially alleviated this negative feedback mechanism and resulted in impaired ER to Golgi trafficking of procollagen. Similar expression of Rab27b DN constructs resulted in dispersed collagen vesicles which may represent failed secretory vesicles sequestered in the cytosol. A significant and strong reduction in extracellular collagen levels was also observed implicating the functional importance of Rab1, Rab3d and Rab27b in these major collagen-producing cells.

  14. Glucose starvation stimulates Zn2+ toxicity in cultures of cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Lozier, Ekaterina R; Novikova, Svetlana V; Silachev, Denis N; Zorov, Dmitry B; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc chloride (0.02 mM, 3h) did not have any influence on the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) incubated in balanced salt solution (BSS). However, in the absence of glucose ZnCl(2) caused severe neuronal damage, decreasing cell survival to 12±2%. Either the blockade of ionotropic glutamate NMDA-receptors with MK-801 or APV or supplementation the medium with ruthenium red (mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter blocker) almost entirely protected CGNs from the toxic effect of ZnCl(2) during glucose deprivation (GD). However, NBQX (AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor blocker) did not show protective effect. Measurements of intracellular calcium ions concentration using fluorescent probe (Fluo-4 AM) and zinc ions (FluoZin-3AM) demonstrated that 1.5h-exposure to GD induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 fluorescence and small increase of FluoZin-3 fluorescence in neurons. The supplementation of medium with ZnCl(2) caused equal increase of FluoZin-3 fluorescence at both GD and normoglycemia, whereas the potentiation of Fluo-4 fluorescence by zinc was observed only under GD and could be prevented by MK-801. However, neither MK-801 nor NBQX could influence [Zn(2+)](i) increase caused by zinc addition under GD, while ruthenium red did cause significant increase of [Zn(2+)](i). This data implies that zinc ions during GD induce an additional overload of CGNs with calcium ions that get transported through activated NMDA-channel. Zinc and calcium ions accumulate in mitochondria and amplify individual destructive action on these organelles leading to neuronal death.

  15. Kinetics and reaction engineering of levulinic acid production from aqueous glucose solutions.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Ronen; Cho, Joungmo; Xing, Rong; Conner, William Curtis; Huber, George W

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a kinetic model for aqueous-phase production of levulinic acid from glucose using a homogeneous acid catalyst. The proposed model shows a good fit with experimental data collected in this study in a batch reactor. The model was also fitted to steady-state data obtained in a plug flow reactor (PFR) and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The kinetic model consists of four key steps: (1) glucose dehydration to form 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); (2) glucose reversion/degradation reactions to produce humins (highly polymerized insoluble carbonaceous species); (3) HMF rehydration to form levulinic acid and formic acid; and (4) HMF degradation to form humins. We use our model to predict the optimal reactor design and operating conditions for HMF and levulinic acid production in a continuous reactor system. Higher temperatures (180-200 °C) and shorter reaction times (less than 1 min) are essential to maximize the HMF content. In contrast, relatively low temperatures (140-160 °C) and longer residence times (above 100 min) are essential for maximum levulinic acid yield. We estimate that a maximum HMF carbon yield of 14% can be obtained in a PFR at 200 °C and a reaction time of 10 s. Levulinic acid can be produced at 57% carbon yield (68% of the theoretical yield) in a PFR at 149 °C and a residence time of 500 min. A system of two consecutive PFR reactors shows a higher performance than a PFR and CSTR combination. However, compared to a single PFR, there is no distinct advantage to implement a system of two consecutive reactors.

  16. Involvement of Gluconic Acid and Glucose Oxidase in the Pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum in Apples.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Yoav; Goldberg, Israel; Pines, Ophry; Prusky, Dov

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT The contribution of gluconic acid secretion to the colonization of apple tissue by Penicillium expansum was analyzed by modulation (increase or decrease) of gluconic acid accumulation at the infection court. P. expansum isolates that express the most gox2 transcripts and concomitant glucose oxidase (GOX) activity and that secrete the most gluconic acid cause disease of apple at the fastest rate. Cultures grown under reduced oxygen concentration generated fewer gox2 transcripts, produced less gluconic acid, and led to a 15% reduction in disease. Furthermore, the detection of significantly high levels of transcripts of gox2 and GOX activity at the edge of the decaying tissue emphasize the involvement of GOX in tissue acidification of the decaying tissue. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of GOX in the production of the gluconic acid that leads, in turn, to host tissue acidification. This acidification enhanced the expression of pectolytic enzymes and the establishment of conditions for necrotrophic development of P. expansum.

  17. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A.; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Genieser, Hans-G.; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  18. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Genieser, Hans-G; Herberg, Friedrich W; Holz, George G

    2015-07-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  19. Actin filaments participate in the relocalization of phosphatidylinositol3-kinase to glucose transporter-containing compartments and in the stimulation of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Bilan, P J; Tsakiridis, T; Hinek, A; Klip, A

    1998-01-01

    Insulin stimulates the rate of glucose uptake into muscle and adipose cells by translocation of glucose transporters from an intracellular storage pool to the plasma membrane. This event requires the prior activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Here we report that insulin causes an increase in wortmannin-sensitive PI 3-kinase activity and a gain in the enzyme's regulatory and catalytic subunits p85alpha and p110beta (but not p110alpha) in the intracellular compartments containing glucose transporters. The hormone also caused a marked reorganization of actin filaments, which was prevented by cytochalasin D. Cytochalasin D also decreased significantly the insulin-dependent association of PI 3-kinase activity and the levels of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, p85alpha and p110beta with immunopurified GLUT4-containing compartments. In contrast, the drug did not alter the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, the association of PI 3-kinase with IRS-1, or the stimulation of PI 3-kinase by insulin in anti-(IRS-1) or anti-p85 immunoprecipitates from whole cell lysates. Cytochalasin D, and the chemically unrelated latrunculin B, which also inhibits actin filament reassembly, prevented the insulin stimulation of glucose transport by approx. 50%. Cytochalasin D decreased by about one-half the insulin-dependent translocation to the plasma membrane of the GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporters. The results suggest that the existence of intact actin filament is correlated with the full recruitment of glucose transporters by insulin. The underlying function of the actin filaments might be to facilitate the insulin-mediated association of the p85-p110 PI 3-kinase with glucose-transporter-containing compartments. PMID:9560323

  20. Retinoic acid stimulation of human dermal fibroblast proliferation is dependent on suboptimal extracellular Ca2+ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Varani, J.; Shayevitz, J.; Perry, D.; Mitra, R.S.; Nickoloff, B.J.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Human dermal fibroblasts failed to proliferate when cultured in medium containing 0.15 mmol/l (millimolar) Ca2+ (keratinocyte growth medium (KGM)) but did when the external Ca2+ concentration was raised to 1.4 mmol/l. All-trans retinoic acid (retinoic acid) stimulated proliferation in KGM but did not further stimulate growth in Ca2(+)-supplemented KGM. The ability of retinoic acid to stimulate proliferation was inhibited in KGM prepared without Ca2+ or prepared with 0.03 mmol/l Ca2+ and in KGM treated with 1 mmol/l ethylene-glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra acetic acid. Using 45Ca2+ to measure Ca2+ influx and efflux, it was found that retinoic acid minimally increased Ca2+ uptake into fibroblasts. In contrast, retinoic acid treatment of fibroblasts that had been pre-equilibrated for 1 day with 45Ca2+ inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ into the extracellular fluid. Retinoic acid also stimulated 35S-methionine incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material but in contrast to its effect on proliferation, stimulation of 35S-methionine incorporation occurred in both high-Ca2+ and low-Ca2+ medium. These data indicate that retinoic acid stimulation of proliferation, but not protein synthesis, is dependent on the concentration of Ca2+ in the extracellular environment.

  1. Downregulation of Carnitine Acyl-Carnitine Translocase by miRNAs 132 and 212 Amplifies Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Mufaddal S.; Rabaglia, Mary E.; Bhatnagar, Sushant; Shang, Jin; Ilkayeva, Olga; Mynatt, Randall; Zhou, Yun-Ping; Schadt, Eric E.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Keller, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) 132 and 212 are differentially upregulated in response to obesity in two mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes. Here we show the overexpression of miRNAs 132 and 212 enhances insulin secretion (IS) in response to glucose and other secretagogues including nonfuel stimuli. We determined that carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT; Slc25a20) is a direct target of these miRNAs. CACT is responsible for transporting long-chain acyl-carnitines into the mitochondria for β-oxidation. Small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CACT in β-cells led to the accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines and enhanced IS. The addition of long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines promoted IS from rat insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) as well as primary mouse islets. The effect on INS-1 cells was augmented in response to suppression of CACT. A nonhydrolyzable ether analog of palmitoyl-carnitine stimulated IS, showing that β-oxidation of palmitoyl-carnitine is not required for its stimulation of IS. These studies establish a link between miRNA-dependent regulation of CACT and fatty acyl-carnitine–mediated regulation of IS. PMID:24969106

  2. Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation Stimulated By Altered Anabolic Metabolism From Glucose Transporter 2-Transported Glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Hyuk; Iwabuchi, Kumiko; Yang, Zhihong; Loeken, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    The hexose transporter, GLUT2 (SLC2A2), which is expressed by mouse embryos, is important for survival before embryonic day 10.5, but its function in embryos is unknown. GLUT2 can transport the amino sugar glucosamine (GlcN), which could increase substrate for the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBSP) that produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine for O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins. To understand this, we employed a novel murine embryonic stem cell (ESC) line that, like mouse embryos, expresses functional GLUT2 transporters. GlcN stimulated ESC proliferation in a GLUT2-dependent fashion but did not regulate pluripotency. Stimulation of proliferation was not due to increased O-GlcNAcylation. Instead, GlcN decreased dependence of the HBSP on fructose-6-PO4 and glutamine. Consequently, glycolytic- and glutamine-derived intermediates that are needed for anabolic metabolism were increased. Thus, maternally obtained GlcN may increase substrates for biomass accumulation by embryos, as exogenous GlcN does for GLUT2-expressing ESC, and may explain the need for GLUT2 expression by embryos. PMID:27311888

  3. Metal-free dehydration of glucose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in ionic liquids with boric acid as a promoter.

    PubMed

    Ståhlberg, Tim; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Fristrup, Peter; Riisager, Anders

    2011-02-01

    The dehydration of glucose and other hexose carbohydrates to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) was investigated in imidazolium-based ionic liquids with boric acid as a promoter. A yield of up to 42% from glucose and as much as 66% from sucrose was obtained. The yield of HMF decreased as the concentration of boric acid exceeded one equivalent, most likely as a consequence of stronger fructose-borate chelate complexes being formed. Computational modeling with DFT calculations confirmed that the formation of 1:1 glucose-borate complexes facilitated the conversion pathway from glucose to fructose. Deuterium-labeling studies elucidated that the isomerization proceeded via an ene-diol mechanism, which is different to that of the enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of glucose to fructose. The introduced non-metal system containing boric acid provides a new direction in the search for catalyst systems allowing efficient HMF formation from biorenewable sources.

  4. Computational studies of the thermochemistry for conversion of glucose to levulinic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Redfern, P. C.; Hammond, J. R.; Greeley, J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-07-15

    The thermochemistry of the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid through fructofuranosyl intermediates is investigated using the high-level ab initio methods G4 and G4MP2. The calculated gas phase reaction enthalpies indicate that the first two steps involving water molecule elimination are highly endothermic, while the other steps, including additional water elimination and rehydration to form levulinic acid, are exothermic. The calculated gas phase free energies indicate that inclusion of entropic effects makes the dehydration steps more favorable, although the elimination of the first water is still endothermic. Elevated temperatures and aqueous reaction environments are also predicted to make the dehydration reaction steps thermodynamically more favorable. On the basis of these enthalpy and free energy calculations, the first dehydration step in conversion of glucose to levulinic acid is likely a key step in controlling the overall progress of the reaction. An assessment of density functional theories and other theoretical methods for the calculation of the dehydration and hydration reactions in the decomposition of glucose is also presented.

  5. Computational Studies of the Thermochemistry for Conversion of Glucose to Levulinic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Redfern, Paul C.; Hammond, Jeffrey R.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2010-07-15

    The thermochemistry of the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid through fructofuranosyl intermediates is investigated using the high-level ab initio methods G4 and G4MP2. The calculated gas phase reaction enthalpies indicate that the first two steps involving water molecule elimination are highly endothermic, while the other steps, including additional water elimination and rehydration to form levulinic acid, are exothermic. The calculated gas phase free energies indicate that inclusion of entropic effects makes the dehydration steps more favorable, although the elimination of the first water is still endothermic. Elevated temperatures and aqueous reaction environments are also predicted to make the dehydration reaction steps thermodynamically more favorable. On the basis of these enthalpy and free energy calculations, the first dehydration step in conversion of glucose to levulinic acid is likely a key step in controlling the overall progress of the reaction. An assessment of density functional theories and other theoretical methods for the calculation of the dehydration and hydration reactions in the decomposition of glucose is also presented.

  6. Blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate during experimental swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, R; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Jensen-Waern, M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general appearance, changes in white blood cell counts and increased levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyolid A. Blood samples were taken before inoculation, during the incubation period, during clinical signs of dysentery and during recovery. Neither plasma glucose nor lactate concentrations changed during the course of swine dysentery, but the serum concentrations of gluconeogenic non-essential amino acids decreased during dysentery. This was mainly due to decreases in alanine, glutamine, serine and tyrosine. Lysine increased during dysentery and at the beginning of the recovery period, and leucine increased during recovery. Glutamine, alanine and tyrosine levels show negative correlations with the numbers of neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, swine dysentery altered the blood concentrations of amino acids, but not of glucose or lactate.

  7. Computational studies of the thermochemistry for conversion of glucose to levulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Assary, Rajeev S; Redfern, Paul C; Hammond, Jeff R; Greeley, Jeffrey; Curtiss, Larry A

    2010-07-15

    The thermochemistry of the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid through fructofuranosyl intermediates is investigated using the high-level ab initio methods G4 and G4MP2. The calculated gas phase reaction enthalpies indicate that the first two steps involving water molecule elimination are highly endothermic, while the other steps, including additional water elimination and rehydration to form levulinic acid, are exothermic. The calculated gas phase free energies indicate that inclusion of entropic effects makes the dehydration steps more favorable, although the elimination of the first water is still endothermic. Elevated temperatures and aqueous reaction environments are also predicted to make the dehydration reaction steps thermodynamically more favorable. On the basis of these enthalpy and free energy calculations, the first dehydration step in conversion of glucose to levulinic acid is likely a key step in controlling the overall progress of the reaction. An assessment of density functional theories and other theoretical methods for the calculation of the dehydration and hydration reactions in the decomposition of glucose is also presented. PMID:20572641

  8. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  9. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. PMID:23489617

  10. The Fate of Acetic Acid during Glucose Co-Metabolism by the Spoilage Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Ludovico, Paula; Santos, Helena; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2−13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C2, C3 and C4. The incorporation of [U-14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production. PMID:23285028

  11. Use of glucose oxidase in a membrane reactor for gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; Vitolo, Michele

    2007-04-01

    This article aims at the evaluation of the catalytic performance of glucose oxidase (GO) (EC.1.1.3.4) for the glucose/gluconic acid conversion in the ultrafiltration cell type membrane reactor (MB-CSTR). The reactor was coupled with a Millipore ultrafiltration-membrane (cutoff of 100 kDa) and operated for 24 h under agitation of 100 rpm, pH 5.5, and 30 degrees C. The experimental conditions varied were the glucose concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mM), the feeding rate (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0/h), dissolved oxygen (8.0 and 16.0 mg/L), GO concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 U(GO)/mL), and the glucose oxidase/catalase activity ratio (U(GO)/U(CAT))(1:0, 1:10, 1:20, and 1:30). A conversion yield of 80% and specific reaction rate of 40 x 10(-4) mmol/h x U(GO) were attained when the process was carried out under the following conditions: D =3.0/h, dissolved oxygen =16.0 mg/L, [G] =40 mM, and (U(GO)/U(CAT)) =1:20. A simplified model for explaining the inhibition of GO activity by hydrogen peroxide, formed during the glucose/gluconic acid conversion, was presented.

  12. Boehmeria nivea Stimulates Glucose Uptake by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in C2C12 Cells and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hee; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-01-01

    We examined the antidiabetic property of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. Ethanolic extract of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. (EBN) increased the uptake of 2-[N-(nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose in C2C12 myotubes. To examine the mechanisms underlying EBN-mediated increase in glucose uptake, we examined the transcriptional activity and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), a pivotal target for glucose metabolism in C2C12 myotubes. We found that the EBN increased both the transcriptional activity and mRNA expression levels of PPAR-γ. In addition, we measured phosphorylation and expression levels of other targets of glucose metabolism, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB). We found that EBN did not alter the phosphorylation or expression levels of these proteins in a time- or dose-dependent manner, which suggested that EBN stimulates glucose uptake through a PPAR-γ-dependent mechanism. Further, we investigated the antidiabetic property of EBN using mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Administration of 0.5% EBN reduced the HFD-induced increase in body weight, total cholesterol level, and fatty liver and improved the impaired fasting glucose level, blood insulin content, and glucose intolerance. These results suggest that EBN had an antidiabetic effect in cell culture and animal systems and may be useful for preventing diabetes. PMID:23690860

  13. Arachidonic acid stimulates /sup 45/calcium efflux and HPL release in isolated trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitler, P.; Murphy, E.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-13

    Previous investigations from this laboratory have indicated that arachidonic acid stimulates a rapid, dose-dependent and reversible increase in hPL release which is not dependent on cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase metabolism. To investigate further the mechanism by which arachidonic acid stimulates the release of hPL, the effect of arachidonic acid on the release of /sup 45/Ca from perifused cells prelabelled with /sup 45/Ca was examined in an enriched cell culture population of term human syncytiotrophoblast. Arachidonic acid (10-100 ..mu..M) stimulated a dose-dependent, rapid, and reversible increase in the release of both /sup 45/Ca and hPL from the perifused placental cells. On the other hand, palmitic acid had little effect on either hPL release or /sup 45/Ca release even at concentrations as high as 100 ..mu..M. Ionophore A23187 (1-10..mu..M) also stimulated a dose-dependent and reversible increase in hPL release. Since arachidonic acid increases the mobilization of cellular calcium, as reflected by the increased /sup 45/calcium efflux, and since an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration appears to stimulate an increase in hPL release, these results suggest that the stimulation of hPL release by arachidonic acid may be due, at least in part, to the effects of the fatty acid on cellular calcium mobilization. 26 references, 5 figures.

  14. Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid Secretion in Coordination with Ghrelin in Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Chayon; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Makoto; Mondal, Anupom; Oda, Sen-ichi; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Motilin and ghrelin constitute a peptide family, and these hormones are important for the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, we examined the effect of motilin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion in anesthetized suncus (house musk shrew, Suncus murinus), a ghrelin- and motilin-producing mammal. We first established a gastric lumen-perfusion system in the suncus and confirmed that intravenous (i.v.) administration of histamine (1 mg/kg body weight) stimulated acid secretion. Motilin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW) stimulated the acid output in a dose-dependent manner in suncus, whereas ghrelin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW) alone did not induce acid output. Furthermore, in comparison with the vehicle administration, the co-administration of low-dose (1 μg/kg BW) motilin and ghrelin significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion, whereas either motilin (1 μg/kg BW) or ghrelin (1 μg/kg BW) alone did not significantly induce gastric acid secretion. This indicates an additive role of ghrelin in motilin-induced gastric acid secretion. We then investigated the pathways of motilin/motilin and ghrelin-stimulated acid secretion using receptor antagonists. Treatment with YM 022 (a CCK-B receptor antagonist) and atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) had no effect on motilin or motilin-ghrelin co-administration-induced acid output. In contrast, famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist) completely inhibited motilin-stimulated acid secretion and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin induced gastric acid output. This is the first report demonstrating that motilin stimulates gastric secretion in mammals. Our results also suggest that motilin and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin stimulate gastric acid secretion via the histamine-mediated pathway in suncus. PMID:26115342

  15. Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid Secretion in Coordination with Ghrelin in Suncus murinus

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Chayon; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Makoto; Mondal, Anupom; Oda, Sen-ichi; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Motilin and ghrelin constitute a peptide family, and these hormones are important for the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, we examined the effect of motilin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion in anesthetized suncus (house musk shrew, Suncus murinus), a ghrelin- and motilin-producing mammal. We first established a gastric lumen-perfusion system in the suncus and confirmed that intravenous (i.v.) administration of histamine (1 mg/kg body weight) stimulated acid secretion. Motilin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW) stimulated the acid output in a dose-dependent manner in suncus, whereas ghrelin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW) alone did not induce acid output. Furthermore, in comparison with the vehicle administration, the co-administration of low-dose (1 μg/kg BW) motilin and ghrelin significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion, whereas either motilin (1 μg/kg BW) or ghrelin (1 μg/kg BW) alone did not significantly induce gastric acid secretion. This indicates an additive role of ghrelin in motilin-induced gastric acid secretion. We then investigated the pathways of motilin/motilin and ghrelin-stimulated acid secretion using receptor antagonists. Treatment with YM 022 (a CCK-B receptor antagonist) and atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) had no effect on motilin or motilin-ghrelin co-administration-induced acid output. In contrast, famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist) completely inhibited motilin-stimulated acid secretion and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin induced gastric acid output. This is the first report demonstrating that motilin stimulates gastric secretion in mammals. Our results also suggest that motilin and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin stimulate gastric acid secretion via the histamine-mediated pathway in suncus. PMID:26115342

  16. Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

    2009-04-01

    The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

  17. Endocrine control of oleic acid and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Gutiérrez, Joaquím; Navarro, Isabel

    2010-08-01

    The effects of insulin and IGF-I on fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism were examined using oleic acid or glucose as tracers in differentiated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes. Insulin and IGF-I significantly reduced the production of CO(2) from oleic acid with respect to the control values. IGF-I also significantly reduced the production of acid-soluble products (ASP) and the concentration of FA in the medium, while cellular triacylglycerols (TAG) tended to increase. Only insulin produced a significant accumulation of glycogen inside the cells in glucose distribution experiments. Incubation with catecholamines did not affect oleic acid metabolism. Cells treated with rapamycin [a target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor] significantly increased the oxidation of oleic acid to CO(2) and ASP, while the accumulation of TAG diminished. Rosiglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist) and etomoxir (a CPT-1 inhibitor) produced a severe and significant reduction in the production of CO(2) and ASP. Rosiglitazone and etomoxir also produced a significant accumulation of FA outside and inside the cells, respectively. No significant effects of these drugs on glucose distribution were observed. These data indicate that insulin and IGF-I act as anabolic hormones in trout myotubes in both oleic acid and glucose metabolism, although glucose oxidation appears to be less sensitive than FA oxidation to insulin and IGF-I. The use of rapamycin, etomoxir, and rosiglitazone may help us to understand the mechanisms of regulation of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:20484701

  18. The Role of Circulating Amino Acids in the Hypothalamic Regulation of Liver Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A pandemic of diabetes and obesity has been developing worldwide in close association with excessive nutrient intake and a sedentary lifestyle. Variations in the protein content of the diet have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis because amino acids (AAs) are powerful modulators of insulin action. In this work we review our recent findings on how elevations in the concentration of the circulating AAs leucine and proline activate a metabolic mechanism located in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the brain that sends a signal to the liver via the vagus nerve, which curtails glucose output. This neurogenic signal is strictly dependent on the metabolism of leucine and proline to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and the subsequent production of malonyl-CoA; the signal also requires functional neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium channels. The liver then responds by lowering the rate of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, ultimately leading to a net decrease in glucose production and in concentrations of circulating glucose. Furthermore, we review here how our work with proline suggests a new role of astrocytes in the central regulation of glycemia. Last, we outline how factors such as the consumption of fat-rich diets can interfere with glucoregulatory mechanisms and, in the long term, may contribute to the development of hyperglycemia, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27422516

  19. Activation of Short and Long Chain Fatty Acid Sensing Machinery in the Ileum Lowers Glucose Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Duca, Frank A; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Bauer, Paige V; Côté, Clémence D; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2016-04-15

    Evidence continues to emerge detailing the myriad of ways the gut microbiota influences host energy homeostasis. Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis.

  20. Uncoupling of fatty acid and glucose metabolism in malignant lymphoma: a PET study

    PubMed Central

    Nuutinen, J; Minn, H; Bergman, J; Haaparanta, M; Ruotsalainen, U; Laine, H; Knuuti, J

    1999-01-01

    Increased use of glucose through glycolysis is characteristic for neoplastic growth while the significance of serum-free fatty acids for regulation of energy metabolism in cancer is poorly understood. We studied whether serum-free fatty acids (FFA) interfere with glycolytic metabolism of lymphoproliferative neoplasms as assessed with 2-F18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([F18]FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve patients with newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 9) or Hodgkin's disease (n = 3) participated in this study before start of oncologic treatment. Each patient underwent two [F18]FDG PET studies within 1 week after overnight fast: once during high fasting serum FFA concentrations and once after reduction of serum FFA by administration of acipimox. Acipimox is a nicotinic acid derivative that inhibits lipolysis in peripheral tissues and induces a striking reduction in circulating FFA concentration. In all cases, dynamic PET imaging over the tumour area was performed for 60 min after injection of [F18]FDG. Both graphical analysis (rMRFDG) and single scan approach (SUV) were used to compare tumour uptake of [F18]FDG under high fasting FFA concentrations and after pharmacologically decreased FFA concentrations. Serum FFA concentrations were reduced significantly from 0.92 ± 0.42 mmol l−1 at baseline to 0.26 ± 0.31 mmol l−1 after acipimox administration (P = 0.0003). Plasma glucose, serum insulin and lactate concentrations were similar during both approaches. The retention of glucose analogue [F18]FDG in tumour was similar between baseline and acipimox studies. Median rMRFDG of a total of 12 involved lymph nodes in 12 patients was 21.9 μmol 100 g−1 min−1 (range 8.7–82.5) at baseline and 20.1 μmol 100 g−1 min−1 (range 10.7–81.7) after acipimox. The respective values for median SUV were 7.8 (range 3.6–18.6) and 6.0 (range 4.1–20.2). As expected, [F18]FDG uptake in myocardium was clearly enhanced by acipimox due to reduction

  1. Poly(lactic acid)/Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Novel Platforms for Glucose Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fibers obtained via solution-blow spinning onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of nanocomposite-modified ITO electrodes were investigated toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. We investigated the effect of carbon nanotube concentration and the time deposition of fibers on the sensors properties, viz., sensitivity and limit of detection. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the nanocomposite-modified electrodes displayed enhanced activity in the electrochemical reduction of H2O2, which offers a number of attractive features to be explored in development of an amperometric biosensor. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized by drop coating on an optimized ITO electrode covered by poly(lactic acid)/carbon nanotube nanofibrous mats. The optimum biosensor response was linear up to 800 mM of glucose with a sensitivity of 358 nA·mM-1 and a Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 4.3 mM. These results demonstrate that the solution blow spun nanocomposite fibers have great potential for application as amperometric biosensors due to their high surface to volume ratio, high porosity and permeability of the substrate. The latter features may significantly enhance the field of glucose biosensors. PMID:25585633

  2. GSF2 deletion increases lactic acid production by alleviating glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Eunice Y.; Kim, Seon-Young; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Improving lactic acid (LA) tolerance is important for cost-effective microbial production of LA under acidic fermentation conditions. Previously, we generated LA-tolerant D-LA-producing S. cerevisiae strain JHY5310 by laboratory adaptive evolution of JHY5210. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing of JHY5310, identifying four loss-of-function mutations in GSF2, SYN8, STM1, and SIF2 genes, which are responsible for the LA tolerance of JHY5310. Among the mutations, a nonsense mutation in GSF2 was identified as the major contributor to the improved LA tolerance and LA production in JHY5310. Deletion of GSF2 in the parental strain JHY5210 significantly improved glucose uptake and D-LA production levels, while derepressing glucose-repressed genes including genes involved in the respiratory pathway. Therefore, more efficient generation of ATP and NAD+ via respiration might rescue the growth defects of the LA-producing strain, where ATP depletion through extensive export of lactate and proton is one of major reasons for the impaired growth. Accordingly, alleviation of glucose repression by deleting MIG1 or HXK2 in JHY5210 also improved D-LA production. GSF2 deletion could be applied to various bioprocesses where increasing biomass yield or respiratory flux is desirable. PMID:27708428

  3. Poly(lactic acid)/Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Novel Platforms for Glucose Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fibers obtained via solution-blow spinning onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of nanocomposite-modified ITO electrodes were investigated toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. We investigated the effect of carbon nanotube concentration and the time deposition of fibers on the sensors properties, viz., sensitivity and limit of detection. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the nanocomposite-modified electrodes displayed enhanced activity in the electrochemical reduction of H2O2, which offers a number of attractive features to be explored in development of an amperometric biosensor. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized by drop coating on an optimized ITO electrode covered by poly(lactic acid)/carbon nanotube nanofibrous mats. The optimum biosensor response was linear up to 800 mM of glucose with a sensitivity of 358 nA·mM−1 and a Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 4.3 mM. These results demonstrate that the solution blow spun nanocomposite fibers have great potential for application as amperometric biosensors due to their high surface to volume ratio, high porosity and permeability of the substrate. The latter features may significantly enhance the field of glucose biosensors. PMID:25585633

  4. Characterization of an inducible UDP-glucose:salicylic acid O-glucosyltransferase from oat roots

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Schulz, M.; Balke, N.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Phytotoxicity of salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic acid that inhibits ion absorption in plant roots, is reduced in oat roots by the action of a UDP-glucose:SA glucosyltransferase (GTase). GTase activity, extracted from oat roots and assayed with ({sup 14}C)SA, was present at low constitutive levels but increased within 1.5 h of incubation of roots in 0.5 mM SA at pH 6.5. This induction was the result of de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Induction was highly specific towards SA as the inducer. The partially purified, soluble enzyme has a M{sub t} of about 50,000 and high specificity towards UDP-glucose as the sugar donor (K{sub m} = 0.28 mM) and SA as the glucose acceptor (K{sub m} = 0.11 mM). 2-D PAGE of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proteins extracted from induced and uninduced roots revealed a candidate peptide representing the GTase. This peptide was also present on gels of partially purified GTase.

  5. The change in cerebral glucose metabolism after electroacupuncture: a possible marker to predict the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation for refractory anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao-Tao; Hong, Qing-Xiong; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for patients who suffer from intractable anorexia nervosa. However, the nature of DBS may not be viewed as a standard clinical treatment option for anorexia nervosa because of the unpredictable outcome before DBS. Just like DBS in the brain, electroacupuncture at acupoints is also efficient in treating refractory anorexia nervosa. Some neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) had revealed that both DBS and electroacupuncture at acupoints with electrical stimulation are related to the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism after electroacupuncture might be useful to predict the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation for refractory anorexia nervosa. PMID:26770596

  6. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hongbin; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Yu; Niyyati, Mahtab; Wang, Yaohui; Leshin, Jonathan; Levine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs) are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated. PMID:26870799

  7. The effect of a bile acid sequestrant on glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Smushkin, Galina; Sathananthan, Matheni; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Law, Jennie H; Cobelli, Claudio; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Rizza, Robert A; Vella, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    We designed an experiment to examine the effect of bile acid sequestration with Colesevelam on fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. To do so, we tested the hypothesis that Colesevelam increases the disposition index (DI), and this increase is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations. Thirty-eight subjects on metformin monotherapy were studied using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Subjects were studied before and after 12 weeks of Colesevelam or placebo using a labeled triple-tracer mixed meal to measure the rate of meal appearance (Meal Ra), endogenous glucose production (EGP), and glucose disappearance (Rd). Insulin sensitivity and β-cell responsivity indices were estimated using the oral minimal model and then used to calculate DI. Therapy with Colesevelam was associated with a decrease in fasting (7.0 ± 0.2 vs. 6.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L; P = 0.004) and postprandial glucose concentrations (3,145 ± 138 vs. 2,896 ± 127 mmol/6 h; P = 0.01) in the absence of a change in insulin concentrations. Minimal model-derived indices of insulin secretion and action were unchanged. Postprandial GLP-1 concentrations were not altered by Colesevelam. Although EGP and Rd were unchanged, integrated Meal Ra was decreased by Colesevelam (5,191 ± 204 vs. 5,817 ± 204 μmol/kg/6 h; P = 0.04), suggesting increased splanchnic sequestration of meal-derived glucose.

  8. Interactions of glucagon and free fatty acids with insulin in control of glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chambrier, C.; Picard, S.; Vidal, H.; Cohen, R.; Riou, J.P.; Beylot, M. )

    1990-09-01

    To study the interactions of physiological glucagon and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations with insulin in the control of glucose metabolism, we determined in normal subjects the response of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose utilization (Rd) to a progressive and moderate increase of insulinemia in the presence of glucagon and FFA levels either decreased (somatostatin (SRIF) and insulin infusion, C test) or maintained to normal postabsorptive values isolated (SRIF + insulin + glucagon infusion, G test; SRIF + insulin + Intralipid infusion, IL test) or in association (SRIF + insulin + glucagon + Intralipid infusion, IL + G test). Compared with the C test, maintenance of glucagon level had only small and inconsistent effects on glucose Rd, but induced a shift to the right of the dose-response curve to insulin of EGP (apparent ED50: C test, 10.9 mU.L-1; G test, 15.2 mU.L-1). Intralipid infusion resulted, whether glucagon was substituted or not, in a near total suppression of the insulin-induced increase of glucose Rd (Rd at the end of the tests: C test, 6.13 +/- 0.85 mg.kg-1.min-1; G test, 7.29 +/- 0.87 mg.kg-1.min-1; IL test, 3.30 +/- 0.65 mg.kg-1.min-1; IL + G test, 3.57 +/- 0.42 mg.kg-1.min-1). In the absence of glucagon, substitution Intralipid infusion also antagonized the action of insulin on EGP. However, this effect was no longer apparent when glucagon was replaced (dose-response curve to insulin of EGP during the G and the IL + G test were comparable).

  9. Model-Based Quantification of the Systemic Interplay between Glucose and Fatty Acids in the Postprandial State

    PubMed Central

    Sips, Fianne L. P.; Nyman, Elin; Adiels, Martin; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; Strålfors, Peter; van Riel, Natal A. W.; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, the systemic regulation of postprandial metabolite concentrations is disturbed. To understand this dysregulation, a quantitative and temporal understanding of systemic postprandial metabolite handling is needed. Of particular interest is the intertwined regulation of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), due to the association between disturbed NEFA metabolism and insulin resistance. However, postprandial glucose metabolism is characterized by a dynamic interplay of simultaneously responding regulatory mechanisms, which have proven difficult to measure directly. Therefore, we propose a mathematical modelling approach to untangle the systemic interplay between glucose and NEFA in the postprandial period. The developed model integrates data of both the perturbation of glucose metabolism by NEFA as measured under clamp conditions, and postprandial time-series of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. The model can describe independent data not used for fitting, and perturbations of NEFA metabolism result in an increased insulin, but not glucose, response, demonstrating that glucose homeostasis is maintained. Finally, the model is used to show that NEFA may mediate up to 30–45% of the postprandial increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake at two hours after a glucose meal. In conclusion, the presented model can quantify the systemic interactions of glucose and NEFA in the postprandial state, and may therefore provide a new method to evaluate the disturbance of this interplay in metabolic disease. PMID:26356502

  10. Development of a glucose-sensitive drug delivery device: Microencapsulated liposomes and poly(2-ethylacrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada

    The current study is the development a self-regulated, glucose responsive drug delivery system, using dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) liposomes, a pH sensitive polymer, poly (2-ethylacrylic acid)(PEAA), and the feed back reaction of glucose with glucose oxidase enzyme (GO). The thesis investigates the use of PEAR and liposomes to work inside a microcapsule in response to the glucose level of the environment, by following the release of fluorescence probes, 8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, disodium salt/p-xylene-bis-pyridimuim bromide (ANTS/DPX) and a model protein, myoglobin. The continuing studies of PEAR and liposome interaction indicated an evidence of the previous hypothesis of two-mode release at different pHs. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of DOPC and PEAA complexes revealed the possibility of polymer adsorption to the liposomes in the pH range 5.5--7.0 and insertion in the liposome bilayer at pH < 5.2. The rate and extent of ANTS/DPX release from un-encapsulated liposomes were found to be affected by pH, PEAR concentration, presence of cholesterol in the liposomes, Ca 2+, and the concentration of sodium alginate. We have also shown possibilities of anchoring PEAR on to liposome by covalent conjugation although this led to inactivation of the polymer. It is also possible to entrap small molecular weight PEAA in liposomes. The evidence of the pH-induced protein release by the interaction of PEAA and liposomes was first demonstrated in this thesis. Kinetic parameters of GO were estimated to use as a basis for determination optimal concentration in the capsules. The pH reduction inside the capsule due to GO reaction showed positive results for the use of GO in a non-buffered system. The procedure of liquid-core alginate capsules was modified to facilitate the pH-responsive release of ANTS/DPX and myoglobin. The capsules responded to high blood glucose concentration by releasing myoglobin within 30 minutes. Although more studies are

  11. Effect of antibrowning agents on browning and intermediate formation in the glucose-glutamic acid model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Il; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the inhibitory effects of antibrowning agents on browning and the formation of intermediates such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were evaluated with a glucose-glutamic acid model for soybean paste. The initial antibrowning capacity was measured in the following order: pentasodium tripolyphosphate < citric acid and oxalic acid < cysteine and glutathione < sodium sulfite. Our data showed that antibrowning agents, such as pentasodium tripolyphosphate, citric acid, and oxalic acid, were maintained antibrowning capacities during storage at both 4 and 30 °C, respectively. However, both cysteine and glutathione was reduced with storage time, especially in the air. A marked effect of nitrogen treatment was noted for 3 of the antibrowning agents after storage in air at 30 °C in the following order: sodium sulfite < cysteine < glutathione. The formation ratio of 3-DG and HMF was higher after storage at 30 °C than at 4 °C. These compounds were produced most abundantly in the presence of sodium sulfite, and the yields were not related significantly to the degree of browning. Citric acid and oxalic acid were identified as the most effective in inhibitors of browning and intermediates, even during storage in air at 30 °C.

  12. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  13. Metabolic regulation of fatty acid esterification and effects of conjugated linoleic acid on glucose homeostasis in pig hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Conde-Aguilera, J A; Lachica, M; Nieto, R; Fernández-Fígares, I

    2012-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid (LA) that promote growth, alter glucose metabolism and decrease body fat in growing animals, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of CLA on glucose metabolism, triglyceride (TG) synthesis and IGF-1 synthesis in primary culture of porcine hepatocytes. In addition, hormonal regulation of TG and IGF-1 synthesis was addressed. Hepatocytes were isolated from piglets (n = 5, 16.0 ± 1.98 kg average body weight) by collagenase perfusion and seeded into collagen-coated T-25 flasks. Hepatocytes were cultured in William's E containing dexamethasone (10-8 and 10-7 M), insulin (10 and 100 ng/ml), glucagon (0 and 100 ng/ml) and CLA (1 : 1 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, 0.05 and 0.10 mM) or LA (0.05 and 0.10 mM). Addition of CLA decreased gluconeogenesis (P < 0.05), whereas glycogen synthesis and degradation, TG synthesis and IGF-1 synthesis were not affected compared with LA. Increased concentration of fatty acids in the media decreased IGF-1 production (P < 0.001) and glycogen synthesis (P < 0.01), and increased gluconeogenesis (P < 0.001) and TG synthesis (P < 0.001). IGF-1 synthesis increased (P < 0.001) and TG synthesis decreased (P < 0.001) as dexamethasone concentration in the media rose. High insulin/glucagon increased TG synthesis. These results indicate that TG synthesis in porcine hepatocytes is hormonally regulated so that dexamethasone decreases and insulin/glucagon increases it. In addition, CLA decreases hepatic glucose production through decreased gluconeogenesis.

  14. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested. PMID:26102565

  15. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested.

  16. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion does not require activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase: impact of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PDH kinase and PDH phosphate phosphatase in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Linda I; Ainscow, Edward K; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-03-01

    Glucose-stimulated increases in mitochondrial metabolism are generally thought to be important for the activation of insulin secretion. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key regulatory enzyme, believed to govern the rate of pyruvate entry into the citrate cycle. We show here that elevated glucose concentrations (16 or 30 vs 3 mM) cause an increase in PDH activity in both isolated rat islets, and in a clonal beta-cell line (MIN6). However, increases in PDH activity elicited with either dichloroacetate, or by adenoviral expression of the catalytic subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, were without effect on glucose-induced increases in mitochondrial pyridine nucleotide levels, or cytosolic ATP concentration, in MIN6 cells, and insulin secretion from isolated rat islets. Similarly, the above parameters were unaffected by blockade of the glucose-induced increase in PDH activity by adenovirus-mediated over-expression of PDH kinase (PDK). Thus, activation of the PDH complex plays an unexpectedly minor role in stimulating glucose metabolism and in triggering insulin release.

  17. An aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes stimulates insulin release and mimics insulin action on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Sureshkumar; McFarlane, James R

    2011-03-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used widely as a spice, particularly in Asian countries. It is also used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an antiinflammatory and antimicrobial agent and for numerous other curative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AEC) on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis. The extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of ground turmeric in 1 L of water, which was filtered and stored at -20°C prior to use. Pancreas and muscle tissues of adult mice were cultured in DMEM with 5 or 12 mmol/L glucose and varying doses of extract. The AEC stimulated insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic tissues under both basal and hyperglycaemic conditions, although the maximum effect was only 68% of that of tolbutamide. The AEC induced stepwise stimulation of glucose uptake from abdominal muscle tissues in the presence and absence of insulin, and the combination of AEC and insulin significantly potentiated the glucose uptake into abdominal muscle tissue. However, this effect was attenuated by wortmannin, suggesting that AEC possibly acts via the insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathway. In summary, water soluble compounds of turmeric exhibit insulin releasing and mimicking actions within in vitro tissue culture conditions.

  18. Free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva: advantages or disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Masoudi Rad, H; Rabiei, M; Sobhani, A; Sadegh Khanjani, M; Rahbar Taramsar, M; Kazemnezhad Leili, E

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the mean concentrations of free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva in healthy young adults. Standardised salivary amino acids as a substitute for their counterpart in blood, searched for the source of free amino acids in saliva, the probable correlation between particular amino acids with caries experience. Stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva were collected by the draining method in 31 dental students. Saliva was purified, and amino acids were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. DMFT scores were recorded, and the relation of amino acids to caries experience was explored by generalised linear model. Almost all amino acids had higher concentration in unstimulated whole saliva than in stimulated saliva. The normal range of amino acids (95% CI) and their natural logarithm were defined. There was a significant relationship between caries experience and threonine (P < 0·008), citrulline (P < 0·023) and ornithine (P < 0·001) as a detrimental factor, whereas serin (P < 0·026), glutamine (P < 0·015) and phenylalanine (P < 0·014) had an inhibiting effect on caries. However, in comparison, salivary flow rate (P < 0·013) was a more preventive factor than amino acids. Amino acids in saliva contribute as a marker, instead of their counterpart in blood. Unstimulated saliva had higher concentration of amino acids. Amino acids have different impact on caries and may be one of underlying risk factors for caries experience.

  19. Glucose deprivation stimulates Cu(2+) toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons and Cu(2+)-dependent zinc release.

    PubMed

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Genrikhs, Elisaveta E; Aleksandrova, Olga P; Zelenova, Elena A; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2016-05-27

    Copper chloride (0.01mM, 2h) did not have significant influence on the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) incubated in balanced salt solution. However, CuCl2 caused severe neuronal damage by glucose deprivation (GD). The glutamate NMDA-receptors blocker MK-801 partially and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or Zn(2+) chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) almost entirely protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Measurements of intracellular calcium ions using Fluo-4 AM, or zinc ions with FluoZin-3 AM demonstrated that 1 h-exposure to GD induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence in neurons. The supplementation of solution with CuCl2 caused an increase of FluoZin-3, Fluo-4 and CellROX Green (reactive oxygen species probe) fluorescence by GD. The stimulation of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence by copper could be prevented partially by MK-801 and as well as CellROX Green fluorescence by NAC at GD. This data imply that during GD copper ions induce intense displacement zinc ions from intracellular stores, in addition free radical production, glutamate release and Ca(2+) overload of CGNs, that causes death of neurons as a result. PMID:27063646

  20. Weight loss results in a small decrease in follicle stimulating hormone in overweight glucose-intolerant postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Randolph, John F.; Golden, Sherita H.; Labrie, Fernand; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention upon follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in postmenopause. Design and Methods Participants were postmenopausal, overweight, glucose-intolerant women not using exogenous estrogen (n=382) in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Women were randomized to intensive lifestyle change (ILS) with the goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, metformin 850 mg, or placebo administered twice a day. Results Randomization to ILS led to small increases in FSH between baseline and 1-year follow-up vs. placebo (2.3 IU/l vs. -0.81 IU/l, p<0.01). Increases in FSH were correlated with decreases in weight (r=-0.165, p<0.01) and E2 (r=-0.464, p<0.0001) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and randomization arm. Changes in FSH were still significantly associated with changes in weight even after adjustment for E2 levels. Metformin users had reductions in weight but non-significant changes in FSH and E2 levels vs. placebo. Conclusions Weight loss leads to small increases in FSH among overweight, postmenopausal women, potentially through pathways mediated by endogenous estrogen as well as other pathways. PMID:25294746

  1. Fed-batch fermentation for enhanced lactic acid production from glucose/xylose mixture without carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Xiao, Yaotian; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Ying; Zendo, Takeshi; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    There has been tremendous growth in the production of optically pure l-lactic acid from lignocellulose-derived sugars. In this study, Enterococcus mundtii QU 25 was used to ferment a glucose/xylose mixture to l-lactic acid. Maintenance of the xylose concentration at greater than 10 g/L achieved homo-lactic acid fermentation and reduced the formation of byproducts. Furthermore, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) was avoided by maintaining the glucose concentration below 25 g/L; therefore, initial concentrations of 25 g/L glucose and 50 g/L xylose were selected. Supplementation with 5 g/L yeast extract enhanced the maximum xylose consumption rate and consequently increased lactic acid production and productivity. Finally, a 129 g/L lactic acid without byproducts was obtained with a maximum lactic acid productivity of 5.60 g/(L·h) in fed-batch fermentation with feeding a glucose/xylose mixture using ammonium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent. These results indicate a potential for lactic acid production from glucose and xylose as the main components of lignocellulosic biomasses.

  2. Increased Fatty Acid β-Oxidation after Glucose Starvation in Maize Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Dieuaide, Martine; Brouquisse, Renaud; Pradet, Alain; Raymond, Philippe

    1992-01-01

    The effects of glucose starvation on the oxidation of fatty acids were studied in excised maize (Zea mays L.) root tips. After 24 hours of glucose starvation, the rate of oxidation of palmitic acid to CO2 by the root tips was increased 2.5-fold. Different enzyme activities were tested in a crude particulate fraction from nonstarved root tips and those starved for 24 hours. The activities of the β-oxidation enzymes crotonase, hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, and thiolase and those of catalase, malate synthase, and peroxisomal citrate synthase were higher after starvation. However, no isocitrate lyase activity was detected, thus suggesting that the glyoxylate cycle does not operate. The overall β-oxidation activity was assayed as the formation of [14C]acetyl-CoA from [14C]palmitic acid after high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the CoA derivatives. An activity was detected in sugar-fed root tips, and it was increased by two-to fivefold in starved roots. Because the recovery of enzyme activities is only marginally better in starved roots compared with nonstarved roots, these results indicate that the β-oxidation activity in the tissues is increased during sugar starvation. This increase is probably an essential part of the response to a situation in which lipids and proteins replace carbohydrates as the major respiratory substrates. These results are discussed in relation to the metabolic changes observed in senescing plant tissues. PMID:16668928

  3. Stimulation of phosphatidic acid of calcium influx and cyclic GMP synthesis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohsako, S; Deguchi, T

    1981-11-10

    Phosphatidic acid added to the medium markedly elevated intracellular cyclic GMP content in cultured neuroblastoma N1E 115 cells. There was a significant elevation of cyclic GMP with 1 micrograms/ml and a maximum (70-fold) elevation with 100 micrograms/ml of phosphatidic acid. Other natural phospholipids did not increase, or increased only slightly, the cyclic GMP content in the cells. The elevation of cyclic GMP content by phosphatidic acid was absolutely dependent on extracellular calcium. Phosphatidic acid stimulated the influx of calcium into neuroblastoma cells 2- to 5-fold. The pattern of the calcium influx induced by phosphatidic acid was comparable to that of cyclic GMP elevation. The stimulation of calcium influx by phosphatidic acid was also observed in cultured heart cells, indicating that phosphatidic acid acts as a calcium ionophore or opens a specific calcium-gate in a variety of cell membranes. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with phospholipase C increased 32Pi labeling of phosphatidic acid, stimulated the influx of calcium, and elevated the cyclic GMP content in the cells. Thus exogenous as well as endogenous phosphatidic acid stimulates the translocation of calcium across cell membranes and, as a consequence, induces the synthesis of cyclic GMP in the neuroblastoma cells.

  4. [Effects of two UDP-glucose dehydrogenases on hyaluronic acid biotransformation].

    PubMed

    GuoI, Donghui; Han, Jian; Liu, Weifeng; Fu, Zhenzhou; Zhu, Qizhong; Tao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    We amplified genes encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, ecohasB from Escherichia coli and spyhasB from Streptococcus pyogenes. Both ecohasB and spyhasB were inserted into T7 expression vector pRX2 to construct recombinant plasmids pRXEB and pRXSB, and to express in E. coli BL21(DE3). After nickel column purification of UDP-glucose dehydrogenases, the enzymes were characterized. The optimum reaction condition of spyHasB was at 30 °C and pH 10. The specific activity reached 12.2 U/mg under optimum condition. The optimum reaction condition of ecoHasB was at 30 °C and pH 9. Its specific activity reached 5.55 U/mg under optimum condition. The pmuhasA gene encoding hyaluronic acid synthase was amplified from Pasteurella multocida and ligated with ecohasB and spyhasB to construct the coexpression vectors pBPAEB and pBPASB, respectively. The co-expression vectors were transformed into E. coli BW25113. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was produced by biotransformation and the conditions were optimized. When recombinant strains were used to produce hyaluronic acid, the higher the activity of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase was, the better its stability was, and the higher the HA production could reach. Under the optimal conditions, the yields of HA produced by pBPAEB/BW25113 and pBPASB/BW25113 in shake flasks were 1.52 and 1.70 g/L, respectively, and the production increased more than 2-3 folds as previously reported. PMID:25985520

  5. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity in human adipocytes is strongly correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is a target of insulin-induced oxidative inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangdong; Hardy, V Elise; Joseph, Jeffrey I; Jabbour, Serge; Mahadev, Kalyankar; Zhu, Li; Goldstein, Barry J

    2003-06-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), in particular PTP1B, have been shown to modulate insulin signal transduction in liver and skeletal muscle in animal models; however, their role in human adipose tissue remains unclear. The uptake of (14)C-D-glucose in response to 10 or 100 nmol/L insulin was measured in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from subjects with a mean age of 44 years (range, 26 to 58) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 35.6 (range, 29.7 to 45.5). The endogenous activity of total PTPases and specifically of PTP1B in immunoprecipitates was measured in cell lysates under an inert atmosphere with and without added reducing agents. Using nonlinear regression analysis, higher BMI was significantly correlated with lower adipocyte glucose uptake (r = 0.73, P =.01) and with increased endogenous total PTPase activity (r = 0.64, P =.04). Correlation with waist circumference gave similar results. The endogenous total PTPase activity also strongly correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (R =.89, P <.0001); however, the activity of PTP1B was unrelated to the level of glucose uptake. Consistent with the insulin-stimulated oxidative inhibition of thiol-dependent PTPases reported for 3T3-L1 adipocytes and hepatoma cells, treatment of human adipocytes with 100 nmol/L insulin for 5 minutes lowered endogenous PTPase activity to 37% of control (P <.001), which was increased 25% by subsequent treatment with dithiothreitol in vitro. Cellular treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor that blocks the cellular generation of H(2)O(2) and reduces the insulin-induced reduction of cellular PTPase activity, also diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 82% (P =.001). These data suggest that total cellular PTPase activity, but not the activity of PTP1B, is higher in more obese subjects and is negatively associated with insulin-stimulated glucose transport. The insulin-stimulated oxidative inhibition of PTPases may also have an important

  6. An amperometric enzyme electrode and its biofuel cell based on a glucose oxidase-poly(3-anilineboronic acid)-Pd nanoparticles bionanocomposite for glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingen; Ma, Yixuan; Zhang, Pei; Chao, Long; Huang, Ting; Xie, Qingji; Chen, Chao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-01

    A new amperometric enzyme electrode and its biofuel cell were fabricated based on a glucose oxidase (GOx)-poly(3-anilineboronic acid) (PABA)-Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) bionanocomposite for biosensing of glucose. Briefly, Pd was electroplated on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-modified Au electrode, and the GOx-PABA-PdNPs bionanocomposite was prepared on the Pd(plate)/MWCNTs/Au electrode through the chemical oxidation of a GOx-3-anilineboronic acid adduct by Na2PdCl4, followed by electrode-modification with an outer-layer chitosan (CS) film. The thus-prepared CS/GOx-PABA-PdNPs/Pd(plate)/MWCNTs/Au electrode exhibited a linear amperometric response to glucose concentration from 2.0 μM to 4.5 mM with a sensitivity of 160 μA/mM/cm(2), sub-μM detection limit, and excellent operation/storage stability in the first-generation biosensing mode, as well as excellent analytical performance in the second-generation biosensing mode. The good recoveries of glucose obtained from spiked urine samples revealed the application potential of our amperometric enzyme electrode. In addition, a glucose/O2 biofuel cell was constructed using this enzyme electrode as the anode and a Pt/MWCNTs/Au electrode as the cathode, and this biofuel cell as a self-powered biosensing device showed a linear voltage response to glucose concentration from 100 μM to 13.5 mM with a sensitivity of 43.5 mV/mM/cm(2) and excellent operation/storage stability. PMID:25863377

  7. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were −11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  8. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m(2), respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were -11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  9. Glucose-stimulated oscillations in free cytosolic ATP concentration imaged in single islet beta-cells: evidence for a Ca2+-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ainscow, Edward K; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-02-01

    Normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is pulsatile, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this pulsatility are poorly understood. Oscillations in the intracellular free [ATP]/[ADP] ratio represent one possible mechanism because they would be expected to cause fluctuations in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel activity and hence oscillatory Ca(2+) influx. After imaging recombinant firefly luciferase, expressed via an adenoviral vector in single human or mouse islet beta-cells, we report here that cytosolic free ATP concentrations oscillate and that these oscillations are affected by glucose. In human beta-cells, oscillations were observed at both 3 and 15 mmol/l glucose, but the oscillations were of a longer wavelength at the higher glucose concentration (167 vs. 66 s). Mouse beta-cells displayed oscillations in both cytosolic free [Ca(2+)] and [ATP] only at elevated glucose concentrations, both with a period of 120 s. To explore the causal relationship between [Ca(2+)] and [ATP] oscillations, the regulation of each was further investigated in populations of MIN6 beta-cells. Incubation in Ca(2+)-free medium lowered cytosolic [Ca(2+)] but increased [ATP] in MIN6 cells at both 3 and 30 mmol/l glucose. Removal of external Ca(2+) increased [ATP], possibly by decreasing ATP consumption by endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases. These results allow a model to be constructed of the beta-cell metabolic oscillator that drives nutrient-induced insulin secretion.

  10. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  11. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  12. Gold electrode modified with a self-assembled glucose oxidase and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as novel glucose bioanode for biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Fransaer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we have constructed a gold electrode modified with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane/2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid/glucose oxidase (abbreviated as, Au/ATS/PDA/GOx) by sequential chemical adsorption. Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The data from FT-IR illustrated deposition of ATS, PDA and GOx on the surface of gold electrode. The latter has been confirmed by EIS which showed that the electron transfer resistance of the electrode increases after adsorption of each supplementary layer. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in phosphate buffer solution containing 5 mM glucose displayed that compared to Au/ATS/GOx, oxidation of glucose at Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode starts 461 mV earlier. This gain in potential is attributed to presence of PDA in the constructed Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode, which plays some sort of electron mediator for glucose oxidation. The Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode was stabilized by an outer layer of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and was connected to a Pt electrode as cathode and the non-compartmentalized cell was studied under air in phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4 containing 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, the maximum power density reaches 0.25 μW mm-2 (25 μW cm-2) for the deposited GOx layer that has an estimated surface coverage of ∼70% of a monolayer.

  13. Impact of L-FABP and glucose on polyunsaturated fatty acid induction of PPARα-regulated β-oxidative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Anca D; Huang, Huan; Martin, Gregory G; McIntosh, Avery L; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-02-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the major soluble protein that binds very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in hepatocytes. However, nothing is known about L-FABP's role in n-3 PUFA-mediated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcription of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) β-oxidation. This issue was addressed in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type, L-FABP-null, and PPARα-null mice with these major findings: 1) PUFA-mediated increase in the expression of PPARα-regulated LCFA β-oxidative enzymes, LCFA/LCFA-CoA binding proteins (L-FABP, ACBP), and PPARα itself was L-FABP dependent; 2) PPARα transcription, robustly potentiated by high glucose but not maltose, a sugar not taken up, correlated with higher protein levels of these LCFA β-oxidative enzymes and with increased LCFA β-oxidation; and 3) high glucose altered the potency of n-3 relative to n-6 PUFA. This was not due to a direct effect of glucose on PPARα transcriptional activity nor indirectly through de novo fatty acid synthesis from glucose. Synergism was also not due to glucose impacting other signaling pathways, since it was observed only in hepatocytes expressing both L-FABP and PPARα. Ablation of L-FABP or PPARα as well as treatment with MK886 (PPARα inhibitor) abolished/reduced PUFA-mediated PPARα transcription of these genes, especially at high glucose. Finally, the PUFA-enhanced L-FABP distribution into nuclei with high glucose augmentation of the L-FABP/PPARα interaction reveals not only the importance of L-FABP for PUFA induction of PPARα target genes in fatty acid β-oxidation but also the significance of a high glucose enhancement effect in diabetes.

  14. Acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid decrease tumor cell viability and glucose metabolism modulating 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Guilherme A; Furtado, Cristiane M; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Zancan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The common observation that cancer cells present higher glycolytic rates when compared to control cells leads to the proposal of glycolysis as a potential target for the development of anti-tumoral agents. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA), present anti-tumoral properties, inducing apoptosis and altering tumor glucose utilization. The present work aims at evaluating whether ASA could directly decrease cell glycolysis through inhibition of the major regulatory enzyme within this pathway, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK). We show that ASA and SA inhibit purified PFK in a dose-dependent manner, and that this inhibition occurs due to the modulation of the enzyme quaternary structure. ASA and SA promote the dissociation of the enzyme active tetramers into quite inactive dimers, a common regulatory mechanism of this enzyme. The inhibitory effects of ASA and SA on PFK are fully reversible and can be prevented or reverted by the binding of the enzyme to the actin filaments. Both drugs are also able to decrease glucose consumption by human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, as well as its viability, which decrease parallelly to the inhibition of PFK on these cells. In the end, we demonstrate the ability of ASA and SA to directly modulate an important regulatory intracellular enzyme, and propose that this is one of their mechanisms promoting anti-tumoral effects.

  15. Acute Effects of Decaffeinated Coffee and the Major Coffee Components Chlorogenic Acid and Trigonelline on Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; Olthof, Margreet R.; Meeuse, Joke C.; Seebus, Elin; Heine, Rob J.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized crossover trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo (1 g mannitol) on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 15 overweight men. RESULTS Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline ingestion significantly reduced glucose (−0.7 mmol/l, P = 0.007, and −0.5 mmol/l, P = 0.024, respectively) and insulin (−73 pmol/l, P = 0.038, and −117 pmol/l, P = 0.007) concentrations 15 min following an OGTT compared with placebo. None of the treatments affected insulin or glucose area under the curve values during the OGTT compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline reduced early glucose and insulin responses during an OGTT. PMID:19324944

  16. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons of Cladosporium resinae Cultured on Glucose, Glutamic Acid, and Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. D.; Cooney, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon source markedly influenced the qualitative and quantitative composition of cellular hydrocarbons in Cladosporium resinae. Total lipid and hydrocarbon content was greater in cells grown on n-alkanes than in cells grown on glucose or glutamic acid. Glucose-grown cells contained a spectrum of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C7 to C36; pristane and n-hexadecane comprised 98% of the total. Cells grown on glutamic acid contained C7 to C23 hydrocarbons; n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, and pristane made up 74% of the total. n-Decane-grown cells yielded C8 to C32 compounds, and n-hexadecane (96%) was the major hydrocarbon. Cells grown on individual n-alkanes from C11 to C15 all contained C11 to C28 hydrocarbons, and cells grown on n-hexadecane contained C11 to C32 hydrocarbons. In n-undecane-grown cells, n-hexadecane and pristane made up 92% of the total, but in cells grown on C12 to C16 n-alkanes the major cellular hydrocarbon was the one on which the cells were grown. This suggests that cells cultured on n-alkanes of C12 or longer accumulate n-alkanes prior to oxidizing them. PMID:4762391

  17. Enterovirus infection of human islets of Langerhans affects β-cell function resulting in disintegrated islets, decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion and loss of Golgi structure

    PubMed Central

    Hodik, M; Skog, O; Lukinius, A; Isaza-Correa, J M; Kuipers, J; Giepmans, B N G; Frisk, G

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In type 1 diabetes (T1D), most insulin-producing β cells are destroyed, but the trigger is unknown. One of the possible triggers is a virus infection and the aim of this study was to test if enterovirus infection affects glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the effect of virus replication on cellular macromolecules and organelles involved in insulin secretion. Methods Isolated human islets were infected with different strains of coxsackievirus B (CVB) virus and the glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIS) was measured in a dynamic perifusion system. Classical morphological electron microscopy, large-scale electron microscopy, so-called nanotomy, and immunohistochemistry were used to study to what extent virus-infected β cells contained insulin, and real-time PCR was used to analyze virus induced changes of islet specific genes. Results In islets infected with CVB, GSIS was reduced in correlation with the degree of virus-induced islet disintegration. The expression of the gene encoding insulin was decreased in infected islets, whereas the expression of glucagon was not affected. Also, in islets that were somewhat disintegrated, there were uninfected β cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that virus particles and virus replication complexes were only present in β cells. There was a significant number of insulin granules remaining in the virus-infected β cells, despite decreased expression of insulin mRNA. In addition, no typical Golgi apparatus was detected in these cells. Exposure of islets to synthetic dsRNA potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions/interpretation Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; organelles involved in insulin secretion and gene expression were all affected by CVB replication in β cells. PMID:27547409

  18. A novel PKB/Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, effectively inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and protein synthesis in isolated rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Liu, Yang; Jacobs, Roxane; Rider, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    PKB (protein kinase B), also known as Akt, is a key component of insulin signalling. Defects in PKB activation lead to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, whereas PKB overactivation has been linked to tumour growth. Small-molecule PKB inhibitors have thus been developed for cancer treatment, but also represent useful tools to probe the roles of PKB in insulin action. In the present study, we examined the acute effects of two allosteric PKB inhibitors, MK-2206 and Akti 1/2 (Akti) on PKB signalling in incubated rat soleus muscles. We also assessed the effects of the compounds on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen and protein synthesis. MK-2206 dose-dependently inhibited insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation, PKBβ activity and phosphorylation of PKB downstream targets (including glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa and Akt substrate of 160 kDa). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activity were also decreased by MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with high doses of MK-2206 (10 μM) inhibited insulin-induced p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1) phosphorylation associated with increased eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) phosphorylation. In contrast, Akti only modestly inhibited insulin-induced PKB and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling, with little or no effect on glucose uptake and protein synthesis. MK-2206, rather than Akti, would thus be the tool of choice for studying the role of PKB in insulin action in skeletal muscle. The results point to a key role for PKB in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

  19. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation. PMID:27282931

  20. Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extract corrects glycaemia in diabetic rats and acts on beta-cells by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Makom Ndifossap, Ivonne Gisèle; Frigerio, Francesca; Casimir, Marina; Ngueguim Tsofack, Florence; Dongo, Etienne; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile; Maechler, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Sclerocarya birrea is a plant widely used as traditional medication for the treatment of diabetes in sub-Saharan regions. However, the mechanism of action is unknown and only hypoglycaemic effects of S. birrea extract (SBE) in diabetic rats have been reported to date. Here, we tested aqueous extracts of S. birrea on insulin-secreting INS-1E cells and isolated rat islets. Following 24 h of treatment at 5 microg/ml, the extract markedly potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Neither basal insulin release nor non-nutrient stimulation was affected. The potentiation of the secretory response at stimulatory glucose appeared after 12 h of treatment. No acute effects were observed and, at the effective concentration, SBE was safe regarding cell integrity and differentiation. The mechanism of action of the SBE was related to glucose metabolism as both ATP generation and glucose oxidation were enhanced following the 24-h treatment. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, SBE administration corrected glycaemia and restored plasma insulin levels after 2 weeks of treatment. These data show direct action of S. birrea on insulin-secreting cells and favour further delineation for use of the plant in the management of diabetes.

  1. Effect of Oral Sebacic Acid on Postprandial Glycemia, Insulinemia, and Glucose Rate of Appearance in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iaconelli, Amerigo; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Chiellini, Chiara; Gniuli, Donatella; Favuzzi, Angela; Binnert, Christophe; Macé, Katherine; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dicarboxylic acids are natural products with the potential of being an alternate dietary source of energy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sebacic acid (a 10-carbon dicarboxylic acid; C10) ingestion on postprandial glycemia and glucose rate of appearance (Ra) in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Furthermore, the effect of C10 on insulin-mediated glucose uptake and on GLUT4 expression was assessed in L6 muscle cells in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects ingested a mixed meal (50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, and 35% lipids) containing 0 g (control) or 10 g C10 in addition to the meal or 23 g C10 as a substitute of fats. RESULTS In type 2 diabetic subjects, the incremental glucose area under the curve (AUC) decreased by 42% (P < 0.05) and 70% (P < 0.05) in the 10 g C10 and 23 g C10 groups, respectively. At the largest amounts used, C10 reduced the glucose AUC in healthy volunteers also. When fats were substituted with 23 g C10, AUC of Ra was significantly reduced on the order of 18% (P < 0.05) in both healthy and diabetic subjects. The insulin-dependent glucose uptake by L6 cells was increased in the presence of C10 (38.7 ± 10.3 vs. 11.4 ± 5.4%; P = 0.026). This increase was associated with a 1.7-fold raise of GLUT4. CONCLUSIONS Sebacic acid significantly reduced hyperglycemia after a meal in type 2 diabetic subjects. This beneficial effect was associated with a reduction in glucose Ra, probably due to lowered hepatic glucose output and increased peripheral glucose disposal. PMID:20724647

  2. RAS is required for epidermal growth factor-stimulated arachidonic acid release in rat-1 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Warner, L C; Hack, N; Egan, S E; Goldberg, H J; Weinberg, R A; Skorecki, K L

    1993-12-01

    Previous studies have provided suggestive evidence for an interaction between ras activation and signalling pathways involved in agonist-stimulated arachidonic acid release in a variety of cell systems. In order to clarify this interaction, we have measured epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated arachidonic acid release in rat-1 fibroblasts transfected with the N-17 dominant negative mutation of ras. Cells transfected with the N-17 ras mutant, display a markedly attenuated arachidonic acid-release response to EGF, compared to sham-transfected and non-transfected cells. In contrast, the response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was not attenuated in the N-17-mutant expressing cells. No differences were detected between sham-transfected and N-17 mutant expressing cells in levels of immunodetectable EGF receptor, cytosolic phospholipase A2 or mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Attenuation of EGF-stimulated arachidonic acid release in the N-17 mutant expressing cells, was accompanied by a marked diminution in EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase. We conclude that the signalling pathway involved in epidermal growth factor-stimulated arachidonic acid release is similar to the signalling pathway for mitogenic responses to epidermal growth factor and requires ras activation, likely followed by a downstream cascade of kinases eventuating in MAP kinase activation.

  3. Potassium channel KCNJ15 is required for histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianye; Liu, Wensheng; Karvar, Serhan; Baker, Susan S; He, Wenjun; Baker, Robert D; Ji, Guang; Xie, Jianqun; Zhu, Lixin

    2015-08-15

    Gastric acid secretion is mediated by the K(+)-dependent proton pump (H(+),K(+)-ATPase), which requires a continuous supply of K(+) at the luminal side of the apical membrane. Several K(+) channels are implicated in gastric acid secretion. However, the identity of the K(+) channel(s) responsible for apical K(+) supply is still elusive. Our previous studies have shown the translocation of KCNJ15 from cytoplasmic vesicles to the apical membrane on stimulation, indicating its involvement in gastric acid secretion. In this study, the stimulation associated trafficking of KCNJ15 was observed in a more native context with a live cell imaging system. KCNJ15 molecules in resting live cells were scattered in cytoplasm but exhibited apical localization after stimulation. Furthermore, knocking down KCNJ15 expression with a short hairpin RNA adenoviral construct abolished histamine-stimulated acid secretion in rabbit primary parietal cells. Moreover, KCNJ15, like H(+),K(+)-ATPase, was detected in all of the parietal cells by immunofluorescence staining, whereas only about half of the parietal cells were positive for KCNQ1 under the same condition. Consistently, the endogenous protein levels of KCNJ15, analyzed by Western blotting, were higher than those of KCNQ1 in the gastric mucosa of human, mouse, and rabbit. These results provide evidence for a major role of KCNJ15 in apical K(+) supply during stimulated acid secretion. PMID:26108660

  4. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state.

  5. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state. PMID:26999667

  6. An integrated bienzyme glucose oxidase-fructose dehydrogenase-tetrathiafulvalene-3-mercaptopropionic acid-gold electrode for the simultaneous determination of glucose and fructose.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Susana; Loaiza, Oscar A; Pedrero, María; de Villena, F Javier Manuel; Pingarrón, José M

    2004-06-01

    A bienzyme biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and fructose was developed by coimmobilising glucose oxidase (GOD), fructose dehydrogenase (FDH), and the mediator, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde atop a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold disk electrode (AuE). The performance of this bienzyme electrode under batch and flow injection (FI) conditions, as well as an amperometric detection in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), are reported. The order of enzyme immobilisation atop the MPA-SAM affected the biosensor amperometric response in terms of sensitivity, with the immobilisation order GOD, FDH, TTF being selected. Similar analytical characteristics to those obtained with single GOD or FDH SAM-based biosensors for glucose and fructose were achieved with the bienzyme electrode, indicating that no noticeable changes in the biosensor responses to the analytes occurred as a consequence of the coimmobilisation of both enzymes on the same MPA-AuE. The suitability of the bienzyme biosensor for the analysis of real samples under flow injection conditions was tested by determining glucose in two certified serum samples. The simultaneous determination of glucose and fructose in the same sample cannot be performed without a separation step because at the detection potential used (+0.10 V), both sugars show amperometric response. Consequently, HPLC with amperometric detection at the TTF-FDH-GOD-MPA-AuE was accomplished. Glucose and fructose were simultaneously determined in honey, cola softdrink, and commercial apple juice, and the results were compared with those obtained by using other reference methods.

  7. Six weeks' sebacic acid supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and glucose tolerance in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Membrez, M; Chou, C J; Raymond, F; Mansourian, R; Moser, M; Monnard, I; Ammon-Zufferey, C; Mace, K; Mingrone, G; Binnert, C

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of chronic ingestion of sebacic acid (SA), a 10-carbon medium-chain dicarboxylic acid, on glycaemic control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Three groups of 15 db/db mice were fed for 6 weeks either a chow diet (Ctrl) or a chow diet supplemented with 1.5 or 15% (SA1.5% and SA15%, respectively) energy from SA. Fasting glycaemia was measured once a week and HbA1c before and after supplementation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the end of the supplementation. Gene expression was determined by transcriptomic analysis on the liver of the Ctrl and SA15% groups. Results: After 42 days of supplementation, fasting glycaemia and HbA1c were ∼70 and 25% lower in the SA15% group compared with the other groups showing a beneficial effect of SA on hyperglycaemia. During OGTT, plasma glucose area under the curve was reduced after SA15% compared with the other groups. This effect was associated with a tendency for an improved insulin response. In the liver, Pck1 and FBP mRNA were statistically decreased in the SA15% compared with Ctrl suggesting a reduced hepatic glucose output induced by SA. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of SA largely improves glycaemic control in a mouse model of T2D. This beneficial effect may be due to (i) an improved glucose-induced insulin secretion and (ii) a reduced hepatic glucose output. PMID:20977585

  8. DNase I hypersensitivity sites and nuclear protein binding on the fatty acid synthase gene: identification of an element with properties similar to known glucose-responsive elements.

    PubMed Central

    Foufelle, F; Lepetit, N; Bosc, D; Delzenne, N; Morin, J; Raymondjean, M; Ferré, P

    1995-01-01

    We have shown previously that fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression is positively regulated by glucose in rat adipose tissue and liver. In the present study, we have identified in the first intron of the gene a sequence closely related to known glucose-responsive elements such as in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes, including a putative upstream stimulatory factor/major late transcription factor (USF/MLTF) binding site (E-box) (+ 292 nt to + 297 nt). Location of this sequence corresponds to a site of hypersensitivity to DNase I which is present in the liver but not in the spleen. Moreover, using this information from a preliminary report of the present work, others have shown that a + 283 nt to + 303 nt sequence of the FAS gene can confer glucose responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. The protein binding to this region has been investigated in vitro by a combination of DNase I footprinting and gel-retardation experiments with synthetic oligonucleotides and known nuclear proteins. DNase I footprinting experiments using a + 161 nt to + 405 nt fragment of the FAS gene demonstrate that a region from + 290 nt to + 316 nt is protected by nuclear extracts from liver and spleen. This region binds two ubiquitous nuclear factors, USF/MLTF and the CAAT-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor 1 (CTF/NF1). Binding of these factors is similar in nuclear extracts from liver which does or does not express the FAS gene as observed for glucose-responsive elements in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes. This suggests a posttranslational modification of a factor of the complex after glucose stimulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7772036

  9. DNase I hypersensitivity sites and nuclear protein binding on the fatty acid synthase gene: identification of an element with properties similar to known glucose-responsive elements.

    PubMed

    Foufelle, F; Lepetit, N; Bosc, D; Delzenne, N; Morin, J; Raymondjean, M; Ferré, P

    1995-06-01

    We have shown previously that fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression is positively regulated by glucose in rat adipose tissue and liver. In the present study, we have identified in the first intron of the gene a sequence closely related to known glucose-responsive elements such as in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes, including a putative upstream stimulatory factor/major late transcription factor (USF/MLTF) binding site (E-box) (+ 292 nt to + 297 nt). Location of this sequence corresponds to a site of hypersensitivity to DNase I which is present in the liver but not in the spleen. Moreover, using this information from a preliminary report of the present work, others have shown that a + 283 nt to + 303 nt sequence of the FAS gene can confer glucose responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. The protein binding to this region has been investigated in vitro by a combination of DNase I footprinting and gel-retardation experiments with synthetic oligonucleotides and known nuclear proteins. DNase I footprinting experiments using a + 161 nt to + 405 nt fragment of the FAS gene demonstrate that a region from + 290 nt to + 316 nt is protected by nuclear extracts from liver and spleen. This region binds two ubiquitous nuclear factors, USF/MLTF and the CAAT-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor 1 (CTF/NF1). Binding of these factors is similar in nuclear extracts from liver which does or does not express the FAS gene as observed for glucose-responsive elements in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes. This suggests a posttranslational modification of a factor of the complex after glucose stimulation.

  10. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-01

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p < 0.05). These results indicate that not only malic and lactic acid but also bitter and astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  11. A role for guanylate cyclase C in acid-stimulated duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Rao, S P; Sellers, Z; Crombie, D L; Hogan, D L; Mann, E A; Childs, D; Keely, S; Sheil-Puopolo, M; Giannella, R A; Barrett, K E; Isenberg, J I; Pratha, V S

    2004-01-01

    Luminal acidification provides the strongest physiological stimulus for duodenal HCO3- secretion. Various neurohumoral mechanisms are believed to play a role in acid-stimulated HCO3- secretion. Previous studies in the rat and human duodenum have shown that guanylin and Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin, both ligands of the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase receptor [guanylate cyclase C (GC-C)], are potent stimulators for duodenal HCO3- secretion. We postulated that the GC-C receptor plays an important role in acid-stimulated HCO3- secretion. In vivo perfusion studies performed in wild-type (WT) and GC-C knockout (KO) mice indicated that acid-stimulated duodenal HCO3- secretion was significantly decreased in the GC-C KO animals compared with the WT counterparts. Pretreatment with PD-98059, an MEK inhibitor, resulted in attenuation of duodenal HCO3- secretion in response to acid stimulation in the WT mice with no further effect in the KO mice. In vitro cGMP generation studies demonstrated a significant and comparable increase in cGMP levels on acid exposure in the duodenum of both WT and KO mice. In addition, a rapid, time-dependent phosphorylation of ERK was observed with acid exposure in the duodenum of WT mice, whereas a marked attenuation in ERK phosphorylation was observed in the KO animals despite equivalent levels of ERK in both groups of animals. On the basis of these studies, we conclude that transmembrane GC-C is a key mediator of acid-stimulated duodenal HCO3- secretion. Furthermore, ERK phosphorylation may be an important intracellular mediator of duodenal HCO3- secretion. PMID:12881226

  12. Polyphenol fraction of extra virgin olive oil protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose and free fatty acids through modulation of nitric oxide and endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Storniolo, Carolina Emilia; Roselló-Catafau, Joan; Pintó, Xavier; Mitjavila, María Teresa; Moreno, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported that olive oil reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms involved in this beneficial effect have not been delineated. The endothelium plays an important role in blood pressure regulation through the release of potent vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agents such as nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), respectively, events that are disrupted in type 2 diabetes. Extra virgin olive oil contains polyphenols, compounds that exert a biological action on endothelial function. This study analyzes the effects of olive oil polyphenols on endothelial dysfunction using an in vitro model that simulates the conditions of type 2 diabetes. Our findings show that high glucose and linoleic and oleic acids decrease endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, and consequently intracellular NO levels, and increase ET-1 synthesis by ECV304 cells. These effects may be related to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species production in these experimental conditions. Hydroxytyrosol and the polyphenol extract from extra virgin olive oil partially reversed the above events. Moreover, we observed that high glucose and free fatty acids reduced NO and increased ET-1 levels induced by acetylcholine through the modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, events also reverted by hydroxytyrosol and polyphenol extract. Thus, our results suggest a protective effect of olive oil polyphenols on endothelial dysfunction induced by hyperglycemia and free fatty acids. PMID:25460732

  13. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  14. Standardized extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulates insulin secretion and blocks hepatic glucose production by regulating the expression of glucose-metabolic genes in streptozitocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been increasing interest in Ficus deltoidea Jack. (Moraceae) due to its chemical composition and the potential health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of F. deltoidea leaves on diabetes. Methods The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of F. deltoidea were prepared and subjected to standardization using preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50–5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and rats found diabetic were orally administered with the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 14 days. Levels of blood glucose and insulin were measured in control as well as diabetic rats on 0, 7 and 14th day. In addition, glucose metabolism regulating gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. Results HPLC analysis revealed that the methanol extract is enriched with C-glycosylflavones particularly, vitexin and isovitexin. In oral glucose tolerance test, oral administration of the methanol extract increased the glucose tolerance. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.01) antidiabetic activity. The extract treatment caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in elevated fasting blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The streptozotocin-related weight loss in rats was noticeably reversed by the extract treatment. Finally, RT-PCR analysis revealed a novel mechanisms for the anti-diabetic action of methanol extract of F. deltoidea. The extract exerted its effect via an increase of insulin secretion which impeded the hepatic glucose production, via down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes expression on one hand, and up-regulation of hepatic GK and PPARγ genes expression on the other hand. The extract caused an increased expression of GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscles which leads to

  15. Investigation of mechanism of fade of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in the cat.

    PubMed

    Hirst, B H

    1988-01-01

    1. In conscious cats prepared with gastric fistulae gastric acid secretion in response to pentagastrin was found to reach a maximum after 45 min of stimulation, and to fade thereafter. Over the period 45-150 min of stimulation the fade was 5.4-7.8% of the maximum response per 15 min. 2. Once the response to pentagastrin had declined, acid secretion could not be restored by doubling the dose of pentagastrin, although an equisecretory dose of histamine could restore it. 3. Low doses of histamine were additive to the pentagastrin acid secretory response; they tended to prolong the peak response, but did not alter the subsequent fade of acid secretion. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine did not affect maximal acid secretion or the fade of the pentagastrin response. 4. The beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol increased the secretory response to pentagastrin, whilst the alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonist phentolamine was without effect. Neither agent altered the fade of the pentagastrin response. Isoprenaline tended to inhibit pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion and increase the rate of fade of the response. 5. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonist methylsergide slightly enhanced the acid secretory response to pentagastrin, but did not alter the fade of the response. A low dose of 5-HT did not alter pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion, whilst a higher dose of 5-HT inhibited it. 6. Tetra-, penta- and pentadecagastrin demonstrated tachyphylaxis, i.e. progressively reduced responses upon repeated stimulation, whilst histamine did not. A low dose of histamine did not prevent tachyphylaxis of the pentagastrin response. 7. It is concluded that fade of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion in the conscious cat cannot be satisfactorily explained by the failure of the acid secretory mechanism, depletion of histamine, release of 5-HT, or activation of histamine H1-, alpha- or beta-adreno-, or 5-HT-receptors. The similar characteristics of fade

  16. Phenylacetic acid stimulation of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, R.J.; Hungate, R.E.; Opsahl, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The rate of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8 grown on a defined medium could be increased by adding a minimum of 6.6% (vol/vol) rumen fluid. Strain 8 was grown on half this concentration, and the culture medium before and after growth was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine which components of the rumen fluid were used. Phenylacetic acid was identified as the component needed to make the defined medium nutritionally equivalent to one supplemented with rumen fluid. (/sup 14/C)phenylacetic acid fed to cultures of strain 8 was primarily incorporated into protein. Hydrolysis of protein samples and separation of the resulting amino acids showed that only phenylalanine was labeled. The results indicate that cellulose digestion by strain 8 was probably limited by phenylalanine biosynthesis in our previously reported medium. The data obtained on the utilization of other rumen fluid components, as well as on the production of metabolites, illustrate the potential usefulness of this method in formulating defined media to simulate those in nature. 14 references.

  17. The short-chain fatty acid receptor, FFA2, contributes to gestational glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Miles; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gibbons, Sean M; Angueira, Anthony R; Brodsky, Michael; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Gilbert, Jack A; Lowe, William L; Layden, Brian T

    2015-11-15

    The structure of the human gastrointestinal microbiota can change during pregnancy, which may influence gestational metabolism; however, a mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we observed that in wild-type (WT) mice the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased during pregnancy. Along with these changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are mainly produced through gut microbiota fermentation, significantly changed in both the cecum and peripheral blood throughout gestation in these mice. SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy. Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy. Insulin tolerance tests were similar in Ffar2-/- and WT mice before and during pregnancy. Next, we examined the role of FFA2 in gestational β-cell mass, observing that Ffar2-/- mice had diminished gestational expansion of β-cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, mouse genotype had no significant impact on the composition of the gut microbiome, but did affect the observed SCFA profiles, suggesting a functional difference in the microbiota. Together, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis. PMID:26394664

  18. FDP-E induces adipocyte inflammation and suppresses insulin-stimulated glucose disposal: effect of inflammation and obesity on fibrinogen Bβ mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsung; Vaughan, Roger A; Paton, Chad M

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with increased fibrinogen production and fibrin formation, which produces fibrin degradation products (FDP-E and FDP-D). Fibrin and FDPs both contribute to inflammation, which would be expected to suppress glucose uptake and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, yet the effect of FDP-E and FDP-D on adipocyte function and glucose disposal is completely unknown. We tested the effects of FDPs on inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary macrophages and adipocyte glucose uptake in vitro. High-fat-fed mice increased hepatic fibrinogen mRNA expression ninefold over chow-fed mice, with concomitant increases in plasma fibrinogen protein levels. Obese mice also displayed increased fibrinogen content of epididymal fat pads. We treated cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary macrophages with FDP-E, FDP-D, or fibrinogen degradation products (FgnDP-E). FDP-D and FgnDP-E had no effect on inflammation or glucose uptake. Cytokine mRNA expression in RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with FDP-E induced inflammation with maximal effects at 100 nM and 6 h. Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose uptake was reduced by 71% in adipocytes treated with FDP-E. FDP-E, but not FDP-D or FgnDP-E, induces inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes and decreases glucose uptake in vitro. FDP-E may contribute toward obesity-associated acute inflammation and glucose intolerance, although its chronic role in obesity remains to be elucidated.

  19. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. PMID:7926899

  20. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-08-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion.

  1. Superoxide triggers an acid burst in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to condition the environment of glucose-starved cells.

    PubMed

    Baron, J Allen; Laws, Kaitlin M; Chen, Janice S; Culotta, Valeria C

    2013-02-15

    Although yeast cells grown in abundant glucose tend to acidify their extracellular environment, they raise the pH of the environment when starved for glucose or when grown strictly with non-fermentable carbon sources. Following prolonged periods in this alkaline phase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells will switch to producing acid. The mechanisms and rationale for this "acid burst" were unknown. Herein we provide strong evidence for the role of mitochondrial superoxide in initiating the acid burst. Yeast mutants lacking the mitochondrial matrix superoxide dismutase (SOD2) enzyme, but not the cytosolic Cu,Zn-SOD1 enzyme, exhibited marked acceleration in production of acid on non-fermentable carbon sources. Acid production is also dramatically enhanced by the superoxide-producing agent, paraquat. Conversely, the acid burst is eliminated by boosting cellular levels of Mn-antioxidant mimics of SOD. We demonstrate that the acid burst is dependent on the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald4p. Our data are consistent with a model in which mitochondrial superoxide damage to Fe-S enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle leads to acetate buildup by Ald4p. The resultant expulsion of acetate into the extracellular environment can provide a new carbon source to glucose-starved cells and enhance growth of yeast. By triggering production of organic acids, mitochondrial superoxide has the potential to promote cell population growth under nutrient depravation stress.

  2. Effect of glucose and pyruvate in acidic and non-acidic peritoneal dialysis fluids on leukocytes cell functions.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, A; Matata, B M; Brunkhorst, R

    1997-03-01

    A new peritoneal dialysate containing pyruvate anions has been tested for its effects on cell functions and compared with conventional lactate and bicarbonate based solutions. The dialysate has a final pH of 5.4 to 5.6 and is composed of 1.36 to 3.86% glucose-monohydrate, 132 mmol/liter sodium, 1.75 mmol/liter calcium, 0.75 mmol/liter magnesium, 102 mmol/liter chloride and 35 mmol/liter pyruvate. For cytotoxicity testing peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were exposed to conventional lactate dialysate, pyruvate dialysate, bicarbonate dialysate and a control medium RPMI 1640 (Biochrom KG, Berlin, Germany), followed by activation with different bacterial stimuli. In addition, the study further investigated the effect of varying glucose concentration in the different dialysates ranging from 0 to 3.86% and pH changes between 5.2 and 7.4 on the cytotoxicity effect on the selected cells. Mononuclear cells exposed to pyruvate-based dialysate before stimulation with endotoxin exhibited a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mRNA signal comparable to those of cells exposed to RPMI. In contrast, exposure to lactate-based dialysate completely inhibited TNF-mRNA synthesis. In addition, cytokine synthesis in macrophages and PBMCs after exposure to pyruvate was less inhibited when compared to the corresponding levels measured after exposure to lactate. The chemotactic response of polymorphonuclear cells and O-2 generation in all tested cell types after exposure to pyruvate was found not to be inhibited, whereas a complete inhibition was observed after exposure to lactate. The results demonstrate that cytotoxicity effects of peritoneal dialysate on cell lines can be minimized by using a new dialysate formulation containing pyruvate anions instead of lactate.

  3. Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2013-05-17

    During hepatic lipogenesis, the glycerol backbone of acylglycerols originates from one of three sources: glucose, glycerol, or substrates passing through the citric acid cycle via glyceroneogenesis. The relative contribution of each substrate source to glycerol in rat liver acylglycerols was determined using (13)C-enriched substrates and NMR. Animals received a fixed mixture of glucose, glycerol, and lactate; one group received [U-(13)C6]glucose, another received [U-(13)C3]glycerol, and the third received [U-(13)C3]lactate. After 3 h, the livers were harvested to extract fats, and the glycerol moiety from hydrolyzed acylglycerols was analyzed by (13)C NMR. In either fed or fasted animals, glucose and glycerol provided the majority of the glycerol backbone carbons, whereas the contribution of lactate was small. In fed animals, glucose contributed >50% of the total newly synthesized glycerol backbone, and 35% of this contribution occurred after glucose had passed through the citric acid cycle. By comparison, the glycerol contribution was ~40%, and of this, 17% of the exogenous glycerol passed first through the cycle. In fasted animals, exogenous glycerol became the major contributor to acylglycerols. The contribution from exogenous lactate did increase in fasted animals, but its overall contribution remained small. The contributions of glucose and glycerol that had passed through the citric acid cycle first increased in fasted animals from 35 to 71% for glucose and from 17 to 24% for glycerol. Thus, a substantial fraction from both substrate sources passed through the cycle prior to incorporation into the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in the liver.

  4. α-MSH Stimulates Glucose Uptake in Mouse Muscle and Phosphorylates Rab-GTPase-Activating Protein TBC1D1 Independently of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Enriori, Pablo J.; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Litwak, Sara A.; Raun, Kirsten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Wulff, Birgitte Schjellerup; Cowley, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The melanocortin system includes five G-protein coupled receptors (family A) defined as MC1R-MC5R, which are stimulated by endogenous agonists derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The melanocortin system has been intensely studied for its central actions in body weight and energy expenditure regulation, which are mainly mediated by MC4R. The pituitary gland is the source of various POMC-derived hormones released to the circulation, which raises the possibility that there may be actions of the melanocortins on peripheral energy homeostasis. In this study, we examined the molecular signaling pathway involved in α-MSH-stimulated glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes and mouse muscle explants. In order to examine the involvement of AMPK, we investigate α-MSH stimulation in both wild type and AMPK deficient mice. We found that α-MSH significantly induces phosphorylation of TBC1 domain (TBC1D) family member 1 (S237 and T596), which is independent of upstream PKA and AMPK. We find no evidence to support that α-MSH-stimulated glucose uptake involves TBC1D4 phosphorylation (T642 and S704) or GLUT4 translocation. PMID:27467141

  5. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Flachs, P; Rossmeisl, M; Kopecky, J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent major complications of obesity and associated metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome). This review focuses on the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) on insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, which are improved by omega-3 in many animal models of metabolic syndrome, but remain frequently unaffected in humans. Here we focus on: (i) mechanistic aspects of omega-3 action, reflecting also our experiments in dietary obese mice; and (ii) recent studies analysing omega-3's effects in various categories of human subjects. Most animal experiments document beneficial effects of omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism even under conditions of established obesity and insulin resistance. Besides positive results obtained in both cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies on healthy human populations, also some intervention studies in prediabetic subjects document amelioration of impaired glucose homeostasis by omega-3. However, the use of omega-3 to reduce a risk of new-onset diabetes in prediabetic subjects still remains to be further characterized. The results of a majority of clinical trials performed in T2D patients suggest that omega-3 have none or marginal effects on metabolic control, while effectively reducing hypertriglyceridemia in these patients. Despite most of the recent randomized clinical trials do not support the role of omega-3 in secondary prevention of CVD, this issue remains still controversial. Combined interventions using omega-3 and antidiabetic or hypolipidemic drugs should be further explored and considered for treatment of patients with T2D and other diseases. PMID:24564669

  6. Environmental Nitrate Stimulates Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis Root Tips by Releasing It from Inactive Stores[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a major role in root system development, regulating growth and root architecture. However, the precise localization of ABA remains undetermined. Here, we present a mechanism in which nitrate signaling stimulates the release of bioactive ABA from the inactive storage form, ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE). We found that ABA accumulated in the endodermis and quiescent center of Arabidopsis thaliana root tips, mimicking the pattern of SCARECROW expression, and (to lower levels) in the vascular cylinder. Nitrate treatment increased ABA levels in root tips; this stimulation requires the activity of the endoplasmic reticulum-localized, ABA-GE-deconjugating enzyme β-GLUCOSIDASE1, but not de novo ABA biosynthesis. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that ABA is associated with cytoplasmic structures near, but not within, the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings demonstrate a mechanism for nitrate-regulated root growth via regulation of ABA accumulation in the root tip, providing insight into the environmental regulation of root growth. PMID:26887919

  7. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  8. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR α -Regulated Fatty Acid β -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α (PPAR α ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20 mM) but not physiological (6 mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR α transcription of the fatty acid β -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR α in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes.

  9. Pyroglutamic acid stimulates DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinjiro; Okita, Yoichi; de Toledo, Andreia; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Eiichi; Morinaga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We purified pyroglutamic acid from human placental extract and identified it as a potent stimulator of rat primary hepatocyte DNA synthesis. Pyroglutamic acid dose-dependently stimulated DNA synthesis, and this effect was inhibited by PD98059, a dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1) inhibitor. Therefore, pyroglutamic acid stimulated DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes via MAPK signaling.

  10. Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin system improves insulin receptor signaling and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Sherry O; Phillips, Erin E; Castle, Scott M; Daley, Brian J; Enderson, Blaine L; Karlstad, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury is associated with a decline in glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity due to alterations in postreceptor insulin signaling pathways. We have reported that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, improves whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism after burn injury. This study examines whether losartan improves insulin signaling pathways and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in burn-injured rats. Rats were injured by a 30% full-skin-thickness scalding burn and treated with losartan or placebo for 3 days after burn. Insulin signaling pathways were investigated in rectus abdominus muscle taken before and 90 s after intraportal insulin injection (10 U·kg). Insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and plasma membrane-associated GLUT4 transporter were substantially increased with losartan treatment in burn-injured animals (59% above sham). Serine phosphorylated AKT/PKB was decreased with burn injury, and this decrease was attenuated with losartan treatment. In a separate group of rats, the effect of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose transport was significantly impaired in burned as compared with sham soleus muscles, in vitro; however, treatment of burned rats with losartan completely abolished the reduction of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport. These findings demonstrate a cross talk between the AT1 and insulin receptor that negatively modulates insulin receptor signaling and suggest a potential role of renin-angiotensin system blockade as a therapeutic strategy for enhancing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body glucose homeostasis in burn injury.

  11. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  12. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist and antagonist drugs on local cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Kuhar, M.J.; Rapoport, S.I.; London, E.D.

    1982-07-01

    The (/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose method of Sokoloff et al. was used to study local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in rats treated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist (muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-C)pyridin-3-ol, THIP) and antagonist (bicuculline) drugs. It was of interest to determine if the pattern of LCGU responses to GABA agonists and antagonists administered systemically in vivo would reflect the known distributions of markers for central GABAergic synapses. The patterns of LCGU responses to muscimol and THIP generally were similar. Most brain regions showed dose-dependent decreases in LCGU; others showed no effects; but the red nucleus showed an increase. The GABA antagonist bicuculline produced convulsions and variable LCGU responses, depending on the time of administration. Bicuculline also partially antagonized the depressant effects of muscimol of LCGU. The magnitudes and distribution of in vivo cerebral metabolic responses to specific GABA agonists were not correlated simply with markers for GABAergic synapses. This lack of correlation indicates that additional factors, such as neural circuitry, regulate the LCGU responses to GABAergic drugs.

  13. Phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide based fluorescence nano sensor for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Basiruddin, S K; Swain, Sarat K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene has emerged as promising tools for detection based application of biomolecules as it has high surface area with strong fluorescence quenching property. We have used the concept of fluorescent quenching property of reduced graphene oxide to the fluorescent probes which are close vicinity of its surface. In present work, we have synthesized fluorescent based nano-sensor consist of phenylboronic acid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO-PBA) and di-ol modified fluorescent probe for detection of biologically important glucose molecules. This fluorescent graphene based nano-probe has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible, Photo-luminescence (PL) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Finally, using this PBA functionalized reduced GO based nano-sensor, we were able to detect glucose molecule in the range of 2 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL in aqueous solution of pH7.4.

  14. Caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Kitani, Kazuto; Oshima, Rieko; Ma, Xiao; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    5'-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as a key mediator of contraction-stimulated insulin-independent glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Caffeine acutely stimulates AMPK in resting skeletal muscle, but it is unknown whether caffeine affects AMPK in contracting muscle. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle was preincubated and then incubated in the absence or presence of 3 mmol/L caffeine for 30 or 120 min. Electrical stimulation (ES) was used to evoke tetanic contractions during the last 10 min of the incubation period. The combination of caffeine plus contraction had additive effects on AMPKα Thr(172) phosphorylation, α-isoform-specific AMPK activity, and 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) transport. In contrast, caffeine inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. Caffeine significantly delayed muscle fatigue during contraction, and the combination of caffeine and contraction additively decreased ATP and phosphocreatine contents. Caffeine did not affect resting tension. Next, rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of caffeine (60 mg/kg body weight) or saline, and the extensor digitorum longus muscle was dissected 15 min later. ES of the sciatic nerve was performed to evoke tetanic contractions for 5 min before dissection. Similar to the findings from isolated muscles incubated in vitro, the combination of caffeine plus contraction in vivo had additive effects on AMPK phosphorylation, AMPK activity, and 3MG transport. Caffeine also inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in vivo. These findings suggest that caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport, at least in part by decreasing muscle fatigue and thereby promoting energy consumption during contraction.

  15. Caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Kitani, Kazuto; Oshima, Rieko; Ma, Xiao; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    5′-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as a key mediator of contraction-stimulated insulin-independent glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Caffeine acutely stimulates AMPK in resting skeletal muscle, but it is unknown whether caffeine affects AMPK in contracting muscle. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle was preincubated and then incubated in the absence or presence of 3 mmol/L caffeine for 30 or 120 min. Electrical stimulation (ES) was used to evoke tetanic contractions during the last 10 min of the incubation period. The combination of caffeine plus contraction had additive effects on AMPKα Thr172 phosphorylation, α-isoform-specific AMPK activity, and 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) transport. In contrast, caffeine inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Caffeine significantly delayed muscle fatigue during contraction, and the combination of caffeine and contraction additively decreased ATP and phosphocreatine contents. Caffeine did not affect resting tension. Next, rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of caffeine (60 mg/kg body weight) or saline, and the extensor digitorum longus muscle was dissected 15 min later. ES of the sciatic nerve was performed to evoke tetanic contractions for 5 min before dissection. Similar to the findings from isolated muscles incubated in vitro, the combination of caffeine plus contraction in vivo had additive effects on AMPK phosphorylation, AMPK activity, and 3MG transport. Caffeine also inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in vivo. These findings suggest that caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport, at least in part by decreasing muscle fatigue and thereby promoting energy consumption during contraction. PMID:26471759

  16. Caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Kitani, Kazuto; Oshima, Rieko; Ma, Xiao; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    5'-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as a key mediator of contraction-stimulated insulin-independent glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Caffeine acutely stimulates AMPK in resting skeletal muscle, but it is unknown whether caffeine affects AMPK in contracting muscle. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle was preincubated and then incubated in the absence or presence of 3 mmol/L caffeine for 30 or 120 min. Electrical stimulation (ES) was used to evoke tetanic contractions during the last 10 min of the incubation period. The combination of caffeine plus contraction had additive effects on AMPKα Thr(172) phosphorylation, α-isoform-specific AMPK activity, and 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) transport. In contrast, caffeine inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. Caffeine significantly delayed muscle fatigue during contraction, and the combination of caffeine and contraction additively decreased ATP and phosphocreatine contents. Caffeine did not affect resting tension. Next, rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of caffeine (60 mg/kg body weight) or saline, and the extensor digitorum longus muscle was dissected 15 min later. ES of the sciatic nerve was performed to evoke tetanic contractions for 5 min before dissection. Similar to the findings from isolated muscles incubated in vitro, the combination of caffeine plus contraction in vivo had additive effects on AMPK phosphorylation, AMPK activity, and 3MG transport. Caffeine also inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in vivo. These findings suggest that caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport, at least in part by decreasing muscle fatigue and thereby promoting energy consumption during contraction. PMID:26471759

  17. Co-consumption of glucose and xylose for organic acid production by Aspergillus carbonarius cultivated in wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius exhibits excellent abilities to utilize a wide range of carbon sources and to produce various organic acids. In this study, wheat straw hydrolysate containing high concentrations of glucose and xylose was used for organic acid production by A. carbonarius. The results indicated that A. carbonarius efficiently co-consumed glucose and xylose and produced various types of organic acids in hydrolysate adjusted to pH 7. The inhibitor tolerance of A. carbonarius to the hydrolysate at different pH values was investigated and compared using spores and recycled mycelia. This comparison showed a slight difference in the inhibitor tolerance of the spores and the recycled mycelia based on their growth patterns. Moreover, the wild-type and a glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutant were compared for their abilities to produce organic acids using the hydrolysate and a defined medium. The two strains showed a different pattern of organic acid production in the hydrolysate where the Δgox mutant produced more oxalic acid but less citric acid than the wild-type, which was different from the results obtained in the defined medium This study demonstrates the feasibility of using lignocellulosic biomass for the organic acid production by A. carbonarius.

  18. Ethanol extract of the Prunus mume fruits stimulates glucose uptake by regulating PPAR-γ in C2C12 myotubes and ameliorates glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Ju; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to examine whether a 70% ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruits (EMS) exhibits anti-diabetic effects. Treatment with EMS increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, and also increased PPAR-γ activity or PPAR-γ mRNA expression. To confirm these in vitro results, we next conducted an animal experiment. A high-fat diet significantly increased the body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose levels in mice. Under the same conditions, 5% EMS attenuated the high-fat diet-induced increase in body weight and fat accumulation and improved the impaired fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that EMS contained chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, naringin, apigenin-7-glucoside, and hesperidin. Taken together, these findings suggest that EMS exerts an anti-diabetic effect both in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of PPAR-γ.

  19. Ethanol extract of the Prunus mume fruits stimulates glucose uptake by regulating PPAR-γ in C2C12 myotubes and ameliorates glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Ju; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to examine whether a 70% ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruits (EMS) exhibits anti-diabetic effects. Treatment with EMS increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, and also increased PPAR-γ activity or PPAR-γ mRNA expression. To confirm these in vitro results, we next conducted an animal experiment. A high-fat diet significantly increased the body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose levels in mice. Under the same conditions, 5% EMS attenuated the high-fat diet-induced increase in body weight and fat accumulation and improved the impaired fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that EMS contained chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, naringin, apigenin-7-glucoside, and hesperidin. Taken together, these findings suggest that EMS exerts an anti-diabetic effect both in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of PPAR-γ. PMID:23993593

  20. Experimental lead poisoning and intestinal transport of glucose, amino acids, and sodium.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, R A; Exeni, R A; McVicar, M; Lipshitz, F

    1977-03-01

    Juvenile rats fed a diet containing 1% lead acetate for 7 weeks, in addition to an impaired growth rate and renal function derangements, suffered malabsorption of glucose and certain amino acids, as assessed by an in vivo perfusion technique. The reduction in glucose absorption ranged between 10% and 31% when the carbohydrate was pumped in concentrations of 2-80 mM. This alteration was compatible with a noncompetitive type of transport inhibition. The intestinal absorption of glycine, lysine, and phenylalanine were, respectively, decreased 22, 18, and 15% when these amino acids were present at 1 mM levels. Sodium transport was severely reduced (57.6 +/- 17.9 (SEM) vs. 124.2 +/- 17.4 muEq/min-cm) and intestinal mucosa (Na+-K+)-ATPase was concomitantly lower in the lead-intoxicated rats (186.4 +/- 19.0 vs 268.4 +/- 29.8 nmol P/min-mg protein). However, this enzyme was not altered in liver and kidney. Furthermore, intestinal mucosa fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and tryptophan hydroxylase were not different in experimental and control animals. These studies substantiate the presence of functional and biochemical abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of young rats when fed substantial amounts of a soluble lead salt. It is, therefore, reasonable to accept the possibility that physiologic damage occurs in tissues directly subjected to high and persistent levels of a toxic agents, as it occurs in other organs, underscoring the parallelism between transport mechanisms at the renal and intestinal levels.

  1. Kinetics of amino acid and glucose absorption following pancreatic diversion in the pig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rerat, A.; Calmes, R.; Corring, T.; Vaissade, P.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in the pig to determine the consequences of deprivation of exocrine pancreatic secretion on the composition and quantity of nutrients absorbed after intake of a balanced diet. Five growing pigs (53.8 kg body weight) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein and the carotid artery and with an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein to measure the exchanges between the blood and the intestinal lumen. They were also fitted with a permanent catheter in the duct of Wirsung to educe the exocrine pancreatic secretion and another one in the duodenum in order to reintroduce it. In each animal, glucose, amino-N and amino acid absorption as well as insulin and glucagon production were measured over a period of 10 h after the meal (semi-purified diet based on purified starch and containing 180 g fish meal/kg, DM content of the meal 731 g), either in the presence of pancreatic juice (group C: immediate reintroduction), or in the absence of pancreatic juice (group D: deprivation). The deprivation of pancreatic juice provoked a marked depression in the absorption of glucose (D 67.9 (SEM 27.9) g/10 h, C 437.7 (SEM 39.5) g/10 h, P < 0.001), and of amino-N (D 7.55 (SEM 0.54) g/10 h, C 15.80 (SEM 0.79) g/10 h, P < 0.001). The composition of the mixture of amino acids in the portal blood was only slightly modified: only the levels of histidine (P < 0.05) and of valine (P < 0.06, NS) decreased in the absence of pancreatic juice. Insulin production was much lower (by 64%, P < 0.05) in the absence of pancreatic juice whereas that of glucagon was not affected.

  2. Aspartic acid 413 is important for the normal allosteric functioning of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, T.W.; Woodbury, R.L.; Okita, T.W.

    1996-11-01

    As part of a structure-function analysis of the higher-plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP), we used a random mutagenesis approach in combination with a novel bacterial complementation system to isolate over 100 mutants that were defective in glycogen production. One mutant of the large subunit M27 was identified by its capacity to only partially complement a mutation in the structural gene for the bacterial AGP (glg C), as determined by its light-staining phenotype when cells were exposed to I{sub 2} vapors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymatic pyrophosphorylysis assays of M27 cell extracts showed that the level of expression and AGP activity was comparable to those of cells that expressed the wildtype recombinant enzyme. Kinetic analysis indicated that the M27 AGP displays normal Michaelis constant values for the substrates glucose-1-phosphate and ATP but requires 6- to 10-fold greater levels of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) than the wild-type recombinant enzyme for maximum activation. DNA sequence analysis showed that M27 contains a single point mutation that resulted in the replacement of aspartic acid 413 to alanine. Substitution of a lysine residue at this site almost completely abolished activation by 3-PGA. Aspartic acid 413 is adjacent to a lysine residue that was previously identified by chemical modification studies to be important in the binding of 3-PGA. The kinetic properties of M27 corroborate the importance of this region in the allosteric regulation of a higher-plant AGP. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Stimulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation in myocytes by regulating its cellular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-aleem, S.; Frangakis, C. ); Badr, M. )

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the heart, the effect of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor enoximone on the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid, and (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonyl-CoA, were studied in adult rat myocytes, and isolated rat heart mitochondria. Enoximone stimulated arachidonate oxidation by 94%, at a concentration of 0.25 mM. The apparent Vmax value of archidonate oxidation in the presence of enoximone was approximately 75% higher than the value observed with the control in isolated myocytes. Also, enoximone stimulated arachidonate uptake by 27% at a concentration of 0.25 mM. On the other hand, enoximone had no effect on the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonyl-CoA in isolated rat heart mitochondria. These results suggest that the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in myocytes is regulated by the rate of uptake of these acids across sarcolemmal membranes.

  4. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  5. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound.

  6. Cultivation of Escherichia coli with mixtures of 3-phenylpropionic acid and glucose: dynamics of growth and substrate consumption.

    PubMed

    Kovárová, K; Käch, A; Chaloupka, V; Egli, T

    In technical as well as natural ecosystems, pollutants are often mineralised in the presence of easily degradable carbon sources. A laboratory model system consisting of Escherichia coli ML 30 growing with mixtures of 3-phenylpropionic acid (3ppa, 'pollutant') and glucose (easily degradable substrate) was investigated in batch and carbon-limited continuous culture. Untypically, a linear growth pattern was observed during batch cultivation with 3ppa as the only carbon/energy source. When exposed to mixtures of both substrates in batch culture, E. coli utilised the two compounds sequentially. However, 3ppa and glucose were consumed simultaneously in continuous culture. Whereas a pulse of excess glucose to a batch culture growing with 3ppa led to the repression of 3ppa utilisation, an excess of glucose added into continuous culture did not inhibit the utilisation of 3ppa. During continuous cultivation the 3ppa-degrading enzyme system operated close to saturation.

  7. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  8. Simple boric acid-based fluorescent focusing for sensing of glucose and glycoprotein via multipath moving supramolecular boundary electrophoresis chip.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jingyu; Li, Si; Wang, Houyu; Meng, Qinghua; Fan, Liuyin; Xie, Haiyang; Cao, Chengxi; Zhang, Weibing

    2013-06-18

    Boric acid-based fluorescent complex probe of BBV-HPTS (boronic acid-based benzyl viologen (BBV) and hydroxypyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS)) was rarely used for sensitive sensing of saccharide (especially glycoprotein) via electrophoresis. We proposed a novel model of moving supramolecular boundary (MSB) formed with monosaccharide or glycoprotein in microcolumn and the complex probe of BBV-HPTS in the cathodic injection tube, developed a method of MSB fluorescent focusing for sensitive recognition of monosaccharide and glycoprotein, and designed a special multipath capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip for relative experiments. As a proof of concept, glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were respectively used as the mode saccharide and glycoprotein for the relevant demonstration. The experiments revealed that (i) the complex of BBV-HPTS could interact with free glucose or bound one in glycoprotein; (ii) the fluorescent signal was a function of glucose or glycoprotein content approximately; and (iii) interestingly the fluorescent band motion was dependent on glucose content. The developed method had the following merits: (i) low cost; (ii) low limit of detection (down to 1.39 pg/mL for glucose and 2.0 pg per capillary HbA1c); and (iii) high throughput (up to 12 runs or more per patch) and speed (less than 5 min). The developed method has potential use for sensitive monitoring of monosaccharide and glycoprotein in biomedical samples.

  9. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Modulation of norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes by n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Delton-Vandenbroucke, I; Sarda, N; Molière, P; Lagarde, M; Gharib, A

    1996-10-01

    This work showed that docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) acid supplementation for 48 h have opposite effects on the norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes. We found that 22:6n-3 supplementation of pineal cells, done by increasing specifically 22:6n-3 in phospholipid and triacylglycerol pools, led to inhibition of norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP production whereas 20:5n-3 supplementation, by increasing 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the same pools, stimulated it. In contrast, direct treatment of pinealocytes with each fatty acid (50 microM) did not affect cyclic AMP production in the presence of (0.1-10 microM) norepinephrine. The results indicate that, using pharmacological agents such as forskolin or prazosin: (a) neither basal nor forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels were modified in fatty acid-supplemented cells compared to control cells; (b) in the presence of 1 microM prazosin, the activation by 20:5n-3 was still effective whereas no additional inhibition of norepinephrine stimulation was observed in 22:6n-3-supplemented cells. Taken together our results suggest that 22:6n-3 or 20:5n-3 supplementation modulates specifically the alpha 1- or beta-adrenoceptors in the rat pineal gland.

  11. Effects of intravenously administered fructose and glucose on splanchnic amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in hypertriglyceridemic men.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, B M; Ahuja, S P; Marliss, E B

    1975-01-01

    Splanchnic metabolism was studied in the fed state during prolonged intravenous administration (30 g/h) of either fructose or glucose to hypertriglyceridemic men who had been maintained on a high-carbohydrate diet for 2 wk. Splanchnic exchange of amino acids and carbohydrates was quantified by measurement of splanchnic flow and of blood or plasma arteriohepatic venous concentration gradients. Results obtained in subjects receiving fructose were compared with those obtained in (a) similar subjects receiving glucose and (b) postabsorptive controls maintained on isocaloric, balanced diets. Mean arterial plasma levels of alanine, glycine, serine, threonine, methionine, proline, valine, leucine, histidine, lysine, and ornithine were significantly higher in subjects given fructose than in those give glucose (P less than 0.05). The mean arterial concentration and splanchnic uptake of alanine were significantly higher in subjects given fructose than in postabsorptive controls, despite a significantly lower fractional extraction of alanine in the former (P less than 0.05). The mean arterial plasma levels of serine and ornithine were significantly lower in subjects receiving fructose than in postabsorptive controls (P less than 0.05). About half of the administered fructose or glucose was taken up in the splanchnic region, where approximately 15% was converted to CO2 and 10% to lactate. Half of the fructose taken up in the splanchnic region was converted to glucose released from the liver. The amount of hexose carbon remaining for hepatic synthesis of liquids in subjects given fructose was less than half of that of subjects given glucose. These studies demonstrate that fructose and glucose have divergent effects on amino acid metabolism and that during hypercaloric infusion of glucose (as with fructose), the human liver is a major site of lactate production. PMID:1159097

  12. Natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water stimulates glucose uptake through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung-Lark; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and adipogensesis in 3T3 L1 cells. The Jeju ground water samples containing vanadium components were designated as S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l), S2 (24.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), and S3 (26.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), respectively. To investigate the effects of the Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, L6 cells were differentiated in media containing deionized distilled water (DDW group) and the water samples (S1, S2, and S3 groups). After daily changes in cultured media containing the Jeju ground water samples for 1 week, all samples had increased glucose uptake compared to the DDW group and the order of glucose uptake increased in parallel with vanadium content (S3 > S2 > S1). In addition, S3 significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of the Thr-172 residue of the AMP-activated protein kinase-α subunit and the Ser-79 subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase compared to the DDW group. The effect of glucose uptake by S3 was reversed by pretreatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Interestingly, vanadium pentoxide also increased glucose uptake and activated AMPK activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, as compared to the DDW treated group, S3 treatment inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by down regulation of expressions of adipogenic transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that S3 displays beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes, at least in part through the activation of AMPK activity.

  13. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

  14. Vascular smooth muscle cells preloaded with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid fail to respond to serotonin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pakala, R; Pakala, R; Sheng, W L; Benedict, C R

    2000-11-01

    Epidemiological, animal and clinical studies indicate that n-3 fatty acids may benefit individuals with known history of cardiovascular disease or at risk of developing it. Though there is indirect evidence to suggest that the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids may be because of their ability to inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, there are no studies that have examined this hypothesis. In this study, the mitogenic effect of serotonin (5HT) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), known mitogens for vascular SMC, on aortic SMCs preloaded with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is examined. 5HT and PDGF could only partially stimulate proliferation of SMC that were preloaded with EPA or DHA as compared to the control cells. gamma-Linolenic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA) did not block the 5HT or PDGF induced 3[H]thymidine incorporation suggesting that the anti-proliferative effect was specific to n-3 fatty acids only. Further, when EPA and DHA were combined in the ratio they are present in fishoils, there was a synergistic interaction in inhibiting the proliferation of SMC. Further, SMC grown in the presence of EPA or DHA, when stimulated with 5HT, failed to show an increase in 5HT(2) receptor mRNA. One of the potential mechanism by which fish oils may prevent the development of atherosclerosis or restenosis could be inhibition of the mitogen induced SMC proliferation. Combination of EPA with DHA is likely to be more beneficial.

  15. Complete inhibition of food-stimulated gastric acid secretion by combined application of pirenzepine and ranitidine.

    PubMed Central

    Londong, W; Londong, V; Ruthe, C; Weizert, P

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind, placebo controlled and randomised secretory study the effectiveness of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and their combination was compared intraindividually in eight healthy subjects receiving intravenous bolus injections. Pirenzepine (0.15 mg/kg) plus ranitidine (0.6 mg/kg) suppressed peptone-stimulated gastric acid secretion from 69 +/- 11 to 2 +/- 0.4 mmol H+/3 h; the mean percentage inhibition was 97%. Postprandial gastrin was unaffected. There were only minor side-effects in a few experiments (reduction of salivation, brief blurring of vision), but no prolactin stimulation after ranitidine or ranitidine plus pirenzepine. The combined application of ranitidine and pirenzepine inhibited meal-stimulated acid secretion more effectively and produced fewer side-effects than the combination of cimetidine plus pirenzepine studied previously. PMID:6114900

  16. Coordinated changes in hepatic amino acid metabolism and endocrine signals support hepatic glucose production during fetal hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Houin, Satya S.; Rozance, Paul J.; Brown, Laura D.; Hay, William W.; Wilkening, Randall B.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced fetal glucose supply, induced experimentally or as a result of placental insufficiency, produces an early activation of fetal glucose production. The mechanisms and substrates used to fuel this increased glucose production rate remain unknown. We hypothesized that in response to hypoglycemia, induced experimentally with maternal insulin infusion, the fetal liver would increase uptake of lactate and amino acids (AA), which would combine with hormonal signals to support hepatic glucose production. To test this hypothesis, metabolic studies were done in six late gestation fetal sheep to measure hepatic glucose and substrate flux before (basal) and after [days (d)1 and 4] the start of hypoglycemia. Maternal and fetal glucose concentrations decreased by 50% on d1 and d4 (P < 0.05). The liver transitioned from net glucose uptake (basal, 5.1 ± 1.5 μmol/min) to output by d4 (2.8 ± 1.4 μmol/min; P < 0.05 vs. basal). The [U-13C]glucose tracer molar percent excess ratio across the liver decreased over the same period (basal: 0.98 ± 0.01, vs. d4: 0.89 ± 0.01, P < 0.05). Total hepatic AA uptake, but not lactate or pyruvate uptake, increased by threefold on d1 (P < 0.05) and remained elevated throughout the study. This AA uptake was driven largely by decreased glutamate output and increased glycine uptake. Fetal plasma concentrations of insulin were 50% lower, while cortisol and glucagon concentrations increased 56 and 86% during hypoglycemia (P < 0.05 for basal vs. d4). Thus increased hepatic AA uptake, rather than pyruvate or lactate uptake, and decreased fetal plasma insulin and increased cortisol and glucagon concentrations occur simultaneously with increased fetal hepatic glucose output in response to fetal hypoglycemia. PMID:25516551

  17. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores.

    PubMed

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  18. Insulin and amino acids stimulate whole body protein synthesis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids (AA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine the effects of insulin and AA on whole body protein turnover, hyperinsulinemic (0 and 100 ng/(kg[0.66]/min))-euglycemic-AA clamps were performed during euaminoacidemia or hyperaminoacidemia in fasted 7-d-...

  19. PTBP1 is required for glucose-stimulated cap-independent translation of insulin granule proteins and Coxsackieviruses in beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Nath-Sain, Suchita; Petzold, Antje; Schneider, Hendryk; Beck, Mike; Wegbrod, Carolin; Sönmez, Anke; Münster, Carla; Friedrich, Anne; Roivainen, Merja; Solimena, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Glucose and GLP-1 stimulate not only insulin secretion, but also the post-transcriptional induction of insulin granule biogenesis. This process involves the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the RNA binding protein PTBP1. Binding of PTBP1 to the 3′-UTRs of mRNAs for insulin and other cargoes of beta cell granules increases their stability. Here we show that glucose enhances also the binding of PTBP1 to the 5′-UTRs of these transcripts, which display IRES activity, and their translation exclusively in a cap-independent fashion. Accordingly, glucose-induced biosynthesis of granule cargoes was unaffected by pharmacological, genetic or Coxsackievirus-mediated inhibition of cap-dependent translation. Infection with Coxsackieviruses, which also depend on PTBP1 for their own cap-independent translation, reduced instead granule stores and insulin release. These findings provide insight into the mechanism for glucose-induction of insulin granule production and on how Coxsackieviruses, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, can foster beta cell failure. PMID:25061557

  20. The Ketone Body, β-Hydroxybutyrate Stimulates the Autophagic Flux and Prevents Neuronal Death Induced by Glucose Deprivation in Cortical Cultured Neurons.

    PubMed

    Camberos-Luna, Lucy; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Montiel, Teresa; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Massieu, Lourdes

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the major energy substrate in brain, however, during ketogenesis induced by starvation or prolonged hypoglycemia, the ketone bodies (KB), acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can substitute for glucose. KB improve neuronal survival in diverse injury models, but the mechanisms by which KB prevent neuronal damage are still not well understood. In the present study we have investigated whether protection by the D isomer of BHB (D-BHB) against neuronal death induced by glucose deprivation (GD), is related to autophagy. Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradation process activated during nutritional stress, which leads to the digestion of damaged proteins and organelles providing energy for cell survival. Results show that autophagy is activated in cortical cultured neurons during GD, as indicated by the increase in the levels of the lipidated form of the microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II), and the number of autophagic vesicles. At early phases of glucose reintroduction (GR), the levels of p62 declined suggesting that the degradation of the autophagolysosomal content takes place at this time. In cultures exposed to GD and GR in the presence of D-BHB, the levels of LC3-II and p62 rapidly declined and remained low during GR, suggesting that the KB stimulates the autophagic flux preventing autophagosome accumulation and improving neuronal survival.

  1. Regulatory roles for Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Veluthakal, Rajakrishnan; Madathilparambil, Suresh Vasu; McDonald, Phillip; Olson, Lawrence Karl; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2009-01-01

    Using various biochemical, pharmacological and molecular biological approaches, we have recently reported regulatory roles for Rac1, a small G-protein, in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, little is understood with respect to localization of, and regulation by, specific regulatory factors of Rac1 in GSIS. Herein, we investigated regulatory roles for Tiam1, a specific nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac1, in GSIS in pancreatic beta-cells. Western blot analysis indicated that Tiam1 is predominantly cytosolic in distribution. NSC23766, a specific inhibitor of Tiam1-mediated activation of Rac1, markedly attenuated glucose-induced, but not KCl-induced insulin secretion in INS 832/13 cells and normal rat islets. Further, NSC23766 significantly reduced glucose-induced activation (i.e. GTP-bound form) and membrane association of Rac1 in INS 832/13 cells and rat islets. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knock-down of Tiam1 markedly inhibited glucose-induced membrane trafficking and activation of Rac1 in INS 832/13 cells. Interestingly, however, in contrast to the inhibitory effects of NSC23766, Tiam1 gene depletion potentiated GSIS in these cells; such a potentiation of GSIS was sensitive to extracellular calcium. Together, our studies present the first evidence for a regulatory role for Tiam1/Rac1-sensitive signaling step in GSIS. They also provide evidence for the existence of a potential Rac1/Tiam1-independent, but calcium-sensitive component for GSIS in these cells.

  2. Paeonol Inhibits Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by High Glucose via Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Coculture Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junjun; Dai, Min; Wang, Yueqin

    2014-01-01

    Paeonol (Pae) has been previously reported to protect against atherosclerosis (AS) by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation or vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury. But studies lack how VSMCs and VECs interact when Pae plays a role. The current study was based on a coculture model of VSMCs and VECs to investigate the protective mechanisms of Pae on atherosclerosis (AS) by determining the secretory function of VECs and proliferation of VSMCs focusing on the Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. VECs were stimulated by high glucose. Our data showed that high concentration (35.5 mM) of glucose induced damage in VECs. Injury of VECs stimulated VSMC proliferation in the coculture model. Pae (120 μM) decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet derivative growth factor B (PDGF-B) release from VECs and inhibited overexpression of Ras, P-Raf, and P-ERK proteins in VSMCs. The results indicate that diabetes modulates the inflammatory response in VECs to stimulate VSMC proliferation and promote the development of AS. Pae was beneficial by inhibiting the inflammatory effects of VECs on VSMC proliferation. This study suggests the inhibitory mechanism of Pae due to the inhibition of VEGF and PDGF-B secretion in VECs and Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in VSMCs. PMID:25002903

  3. Stimulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity and Na{sup +} coupled glucose transport by {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Sopjani, Mentor; Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan; Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Lam, Rebecca S.; Jakupi, Muharrem; Foeller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} The oncogenic transcription factor {beta}-catenin stimulates the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. {yields} {beta}-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na{sup +}, glucose cotransport. {yields} The effects are independent of transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. {beta}-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that {beta}-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, {beta}-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of {beta}-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of {beta}-catenin on the endogenous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of {beta}-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of {beta}-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of {beta}-catenin on both Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of {beta}-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  4. Relative turnover of (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid in stimulated human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1986-03-05

    The relative release of arachidonic acid (AA) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from platelet phospholipids may be important in accounting for the potential of dietary fish oil containing EPA to alter platelet reactivity. Human platelets enriched in EPA and prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)AA and (/sup 14/C)EPA were used to examine the relative losses of these fatty acids from platelet phospholipids upon stimulation. Washed dual-labelled platelets were incubated with and without thrombin in the presence of BW755C and in the presence and absence of trifluoperazine. The platelet lipids were extracted and the individual phospholipids as well as diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidic acid (PA), etc. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the radioactivity in each fraction determined. The (/sup 3/H)AA/(/sup 14/C)EPA dpm ratio for the loss in radioactivity from PC upon thrombin stimulation was similar to that for the PC in resting platelets. This suggests no marked selectivity in the degradation of AA versus EPA species of PC during platelet activation. The (/sup 3/H)/(/sup 14/C) ratios for the increased radioactivity in DG and PA upon thrombin stimulation were slightly higher than the ratio in PI from resting platelets suggesting only a minor preference for 1-acyl 2-arachidonoyl PI over 1-acyl 2-eicosapentaenoyl PI in the pathway from PI to DG to PA.

  5. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  6. Muconic acid production from glucose using enterobactin precursors in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zheng, Pu

    2015-05-01

    Muconic acid (MA) is a promising bulk chemical due to its extensive industrial applications in the production of adipic acid and other valuable, biodegradable intermediates. MA is heretofore mainly produced from petrochemicals by organic reactions which are not environmentally friendly or renewable. Biological production processes provide a promising alternative for MA production. We designed an artificial pathway in Escherichia coli for the biosynthesis of MA using the catechol group of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, an intermediate in the enterobactin biosynthesis pathway. This approach consists of two heterologous microbial enzymes, including 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The metabolic flow of carbon into the heterologous pathway was optimized by increasing the flux from chorismate through the enterobactin biosynthesis pathway and by regulating the shikimate pathway. Metabolic optimization enabled a concentration of 605.18 mg/L of MA from glucose in a shaking flask culture, a value nearly 484-fold higher than that of the initial recombinant strain. The results indicated that the production of MA from this pathway has the potential for further improvement. PMID:25663483

  7. Muconic acid production from glucose using enterobactin precursors in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zheng, Pu

    2015-05-01

    Muconic acid (MA) is a promising bulk chemical due to its extensive industrial applications in the production of adipic acid and other valuable, biodegradable intermediates. MA is heretofore mainly produced from petrochemicals by organic reactions which are not environmentally friendly or renewable. Biological production processes provide a promising alternative for MA production. We designed an artificial pathway in Escherichia coli for the biosynthesis of MA using the catechol group of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, an intermediate in the enterobactin biosynthesis pathway. This approach consists of two heterologous microbial enzymes, including 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The metabolic flow of carbon into the heterologous pathway was optimized by increasing the flux from chorismate through the enterobactin biosynthesis pathway and by regulating the shikimate pathway. Metabolic optimization enabled a concentration of 605.18 mg/L of MA from glucose in a shaking flask culture, a value nearly 484-fold higher than that of the initial recombinant strain. The results indicated that the production of MA from this pathway has the potential for further improvement.

  8. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  9. Activation of Transmembrane Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 Modulates Pancreatic Islet α Cells to Promote Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Divya P; Asgharpour, Amon; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Park, So Hyun; Liu, Sichen; Imai, Yumi; Nadler, Jerry L; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-03-25

    The physiological role of the TGR5 receptor in the pancreas is not fully understood. We previously showed that activation of TGR5 in pancreatic β cells by bile acids induces insulin secretion. Glucagon released from pancreatic α cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells regulate insulin secretion. Both glucagon and GLP-1 are derived from alternate splicing of a common precursor, proglucagon by PC2 and PC1, respectively. We investigated whether TGR5 activation in pancreatic α cells enhances hyperglycemia-induced PC1 expression thereby releasing GLP-1, which in turn increases β cell mass and function in a paracrine manner. TGR5 activation augmented a hyperglycemia-induced switch from glucagon to GLP-1 synthesis in human and mouse islet α cells by GS/cAMP/PKA/cAMP-response element-binding protein-dependent activation of PC1. Furthermore, TGR5-induced GLP-1 release from α cells was via an Epac-mediated PKA-independent mechanism. Administration of the TGR5 agonist, INT-777, to db/db mice attenuated the increase in body weight and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. INT-777 augmented PC1 expression in α cells and stimulated GLP-1 release from islets of db/db mice compared with control. INT-777 also increased pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin synthesis. The effect of TGR5-mediated GLP-1 from α cells on insulin release from islets could be blocked by GLP-1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that TGR5 activation mediates cross-talk between α and β cells by switching from glucagon to GLP-1 to restore β cell mass and function under hyperglycemic conditions. Thus, INT-777-mediated TGR5 activation could be leveraged as a novel way to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26757816

  10. [The function of mitochondrion, carnitine, coenzyme-A, fat acids, glucose, the Randle cycle and insulin: a lecture].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2012-02-01

    In the function of feeding as biologic function of trophology, occurs the interchange of biologic reactions of exotrophy (postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia) and periods of food absence (biologic reaction of endotrophy). The action of insulin is realized in the biologic reaction of exotrophy only. The phylogenetic late insulin manages the function of phylogenetic early mitochondrion in the biologic reaction of exotrophy. In the biologic reaction of exotrophy, the cells activatedly absorb glucose under effect of insulin through glucose carriers-4 and actively absorb fat acids in the form of nonpolar triglycerides in olein lipoproteins of very low density by force of receptor endocytosis. These mechanisms formed on late stages of phylogenesis in the becoming of biologic function of locomotion--the function of movement. In the biologic reaction of endotrophy the cells absorb passively glucose under effect of glycaemia in intercellular medium through glucose carriers and passively (on gradient of concentration) absorb the fat acids in polar form under passive diffusion through plasmatic membrane. These reactions are worked out on the early stages of phylogenesis in the becoming of biologic function of homeostasis. The syndrome of resistance to insulin is formed only in biologic reaction of exotrophy but the disorders can persist and during realization of biologic reaction of endotrophy. In the biologic reaction of exotrophy insulin "decides": a) glucose can be deposited only in a limited way and can be consumed (oxidized in mitochondrion) in the first instance: b) fat acids can be stored and kept to be used in biologic function of locomotion. In the biologic reaction of exotrophy insulin "endeavors" as fast and full as possible use glucose and preserve in vivo as much as possible of fat acids as a substratum for further realization of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin minimizes in cytosol the content of a) ketone bodies - metabolites of C4 butyric fat

  11. Insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide stimulates amino acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Varela, I; Avila, M; Mato, J M; Hue, L

    1990-01-01

    The ability of the insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide to stimulate amino acid transport was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. At low alpha-aminoisobutyric acid concentrations (0.1 mM), both 100 nM-insulin and 10 microM-phospho-oligosaccharide doubled amino acid uptake after 2 h of incubation. This stimulation was prevented by 0.1 mM-cycloheximide or 5 micrograms of actinomycin D/ml, indicating that the phospho-oligosaccharide, like insulin, was acting via the synthesis of a high-affinity transport component. The effects of the phospho-oligosaccharide and of insulin were blocked by Ins2P (2.5 mM), but not by myo-inositol, inositol hexaphosphoric acid or several monosaccharides such as mannose, glucosamine and galactose. Both the temporal effect on amino acid entry and the extent of stimulation of this process by the phospho-oligosaccharide indicate that this molecule mimics, and may mediate, some of the long-term actions of insulin. However, the effects of phospho-oligosaccharide and insulin were not exactly the same, since the effect of insulin, but not of the phospho-oligosaccharide, was additive with that of glucagon. PMID:2185744

  12. Mice Abundant in Muricholic Bile Acids Show Resistance to Dietary Induced Steatosis, Weight Gain, and to Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Ylva; Eggertsen, Gösta; Rudling, Mats

    2016-01-01

    High endogenous production of, or treatment with muricholic bile acids, strongly reduces the absorption of cholesterol. Mice abundant in muricholic bile acids may therefore display an increased resistance against dietary induced weight gain, steatosis, and glucose intolerance due to an anticipated general reduction in lipid absorption. To test this hypothesis, mice deficient in steroid 12-alpha hydroxylase (Cyp8b1-/-) and therefore abundant in muricholic acids were monitored for 11 weeks while fed a high fat diet. Food intake and body and liver weights were determined, and lipids in liver, serum and feces were measured. Further, responses during oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were evaluated. On the high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice displayed less weight gain compared to wildtype littermates (Cyp8b1+/+). In addition, liver enlargement with steatosis and increases in serum LDL-cholesterol were strongly attenuated in Cyp8b1-/- mice on high fat diet. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was increased and there was a strong trend for doubled fecal excretion of free fatty acids, while excretion of triglycerides was unaltered, indicating dampened lipid absorption. On high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice also presented lower serum glucose levels in response to oral glucose gavage or to intraperitoneal insulin injection compared to Cyp8b1+/+. In conclusion, following exposure to a high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice are more resistant against weight gain, steatosis, and to glucose intolerance than Cyp8b1+/+ mice. Reduced lipid absorption may in part explain these findings. Overall, the results suggest that muricholic bile acids may be beneficial against the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26824238

  13. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate.

  14. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate. PMID:25743071

  15. Pongamol from Pongamia pinnata stimulates glucose uptake by increasing surface GLUT4 level in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Akhilesh K; Jaiswal, Natasha; Yadav, Prem P; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2011-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major site of postprandial glucose disposal and augmenting glucose uptake into this tissue may attenuate insulin resistance that precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the effect of pongamol, an identified lead molecule from the fruits of Pongamia pinnata, on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells. In L6-GLUT4myc myotubes treatment with pongamol significantly promoted both glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in a concentration-dependent manner, without changing the total amount of GLUT4 protein and GLUT4 mRNA, effects that were also additive with insulin. Cycloheximide treatment inhibited the effect of pongamol on GLUT4 translocation suggesting the requirement of new protein synthesis. The pongamol-induced increase in GLUT4 translocation was completely abolished by wortmannin, and pongamol significantly potentiated insulin-mediated phosphorylation of AKT (Ser-473). We conclude that pongamol-induced increase in glucose uptake in L6 myotubes is the result of an increased translocation of GLUT4 to plasma membrane, driven by a PI-3-K/AKT dependent mechanism. PMID:21497640

  16. Nonvolatile oxidation products of glucose in Maillard model systems: formation of saccharinic and aldonic acids and their corresponding lactones.

    PubMed

    Haffenden, Luke J W; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2008-03-12

    By using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based methodologies, nonvolatile oxidation products of isotopically labeled glucose/glycine model systems were studied through a postpyrolytic in situ derivatization technique by using trimethylsilyldiethylamine. Analysis of the data indicated that the known reactive sugar intermediates such as glucosone and its deoxy derivatives can undergo in Maillard model systems three types of transformations: oxidation of the aldehydic groups into carboxylic acids, oxidative cleavage of alpha-dicarbonyl moieties into aldonic acids, and benzylic acid rearrangement of 1-deoxy-glucosone into saccharinic acids. The aldonic and saccharinic acids were identified through silylation of their lactone derivatives, and their origin was verified through (13)C-labeling studies. The following lactones were identified in glucose and glucose/glycine model systems: trans-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3 H)-furanone, cis-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3H)-furanone, 2-C-methyl-2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribonic acid gamma-lactone, 3-deoxy-2,5,6-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribo-hexonic acid gamma-lactone, 2-deoxy-3,5-bis-O-(trimethylsilyl)-pentonic acid gamma-lactone, and 2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-arabinonic acid gamma-lactone. The observed reduction in color and aroma in Maillard reactions performed under oxidative conditions may be attributed to the oxidation of reactive dicarbonyls into the corresponding carboxylic acids or their corresponding lactones. PMID:18251497

  17. Nonvolatile oxidation products of glucose in Maillard model systems: formation of saccharinic and aldonic acids and their corresponding lactones.

    PubMed

    Haffenden, Luke J W; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2008-03-12

    By using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based methodologies, nonvolatile oxidation products of isotopically labeled glucose/glycine model systems were studied through a postpyrolytic in situ derivatization technique by using trimethylsilyldiethylamine. Analysis of the data indicated that the known reactive sugar intermediates such as glucosone and its deoxy derivatives can undergo in Maillard model systems three types of transformations: oxidation of the aldehydic groups into carboxylic acids, oxidative cleavage of alpha-dicarbonyl moieties into aldonic acids, and benzylic acid rearrangement of 1-deoxy-glucosone into saccharinic acids. The aldonic and saccharinic acids were identified through silylation of their lactone derivatives, and their origin was verified through (13)C-labeling studies. The following lactones were identified in glucose and glucose/glycine model systems: trans-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3 H)-furanone, cis-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3H)-furanone, 2-C-methyl-2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribonic acid gamma-lactone, 3-deoxy-2,5,6-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribo-hexonic acid gamma-lactone, 2-deoxy-3,5-bis-O-(trimethylsilyl)-pentonic acid gamma-lactone, and 2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-arabinonic acid gamma-lactone. The observed reduction in color and aroma in Maillard reactions performed under oxidative conditions may be attributed to the oxidation of reactive dicarbonyls into the corresponding carboxylic acids or their corresponding lactones.

  18. Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Roberts, C H; Caballero, B; Wurtman, R J

    1984-07-01

    Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanylmethyl ester; 200 mg/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and tyrosine, and enhanced the increments caused by the aspartame, nearly doubling the rise in brain phenylalanine. Each animal's brain phenylalanine or tyrosine levels were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) with its plasma phenylalanine or tyrosine ratios, affirming that aspartame's effects on the brain amino acids result from the changes it produces in plasma composition. As described previously, glucose consumption increased brain tryptophan levels, and consequently, brain levels of the 5-hydroxyindoles serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Aspartame alone had no effect on these compounds but completely blocked the changes in 5-hydroxyindoles caused by glucose. Each animal's brain level of tryptophan (r = 0.89) and 5-hydroxyindoles (r = 0.74) was also significantly correlated with its plasma tryptophan ratio, affirming that the effects of glucose or aspartame on these brain constituents also result from the changes they produce in plasma composition. The aspartame-glucose combination also reduced brain levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to a significantly greater extent than aspartame or glucose alone. These observations indicate that high aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods. However, they should not in any way be interpreted as demonstrating that aspartame significantly affects the human brain.

  19. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  20. New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Richard C.

    2003-03-10

    Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

  1. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Rutin on OLETF Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung Hoon; Yu, Jae Myung; Lee, Seong Jin; Kang, Dong Hyun; Cho, Young Jung; Kim, Doo Man

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Rutin is a major representative of the flavonol subclass of flavonoids and has various pharmacological activities. Currently, data are lacking regarding its effects on VSMC proliferation induced by intermittent hyperglycemia. Here, we demonstrate the effects of rutin on VSMC proliferation and migration according to fluctuating glucose levels. Materials and Methods Primary cultures of male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat VSMCs were obtained from enzymatically dissociated rat thoracic aortas. VSMCs were incubated for 72 h with alternating normal (5.5 mmol/L) and high (25.0 mmol/L) glucose media every 12 h. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the proliferative molecular pathway [including p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and Akt], the migratory pathway (big MAPK 1, BMK1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptotic pathway were analyzed. Results We found enhanced proliferation and migration of VSMCs when cells were incubated in intermittent high glucose conditions, compared to normal glucose. These effects were lowered upon rutin treatment. Intermittent treatment with high glucose for 72 h increased the expression of phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2), phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-PI3K, phospho-NF-κB, phospho-BMK1, and ROS, compared to treatment with normal glucose. These effects were suppressed by rutin. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-Akt, JNK, and apoptotic pathways [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xL, Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and caspase-3] were not affected by fluctuations in glucose levels. Conclusion Fluctuating glucose levels increased proliferation and migration of OLETF rat VSMCs via MAPK (ERK1/2), BMK1, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways. These effects

  2. Proteolytic cleavage of cellubrevin and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) by tetanus toxin does not impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport or GLUT4 translocation in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hajduch, E; Aledo, J C; Watts, C; Hundal, H S

    1997-01-01

    Acute insulin stimulation of glucose transport in fat and skeletal muscle occurs principally as a result of the hormonal induced translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular vesicular stores to the plasma membrane. The precise mechanisms governing the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane are very poorly understood at present but may share some similarities with synaptic vesicle fusion, as vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) and cellubrevin, two proteins implicated in the process of membrane fusion, are resident in GLUT4-containing vesicles isolated from rat and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes respectively. In this study we show that proteolysis of both cellubrevin and VAMP, induced by electroporation of isolated rat adipocytes with tetanus toxin, does not impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport or GLUT4 translocation. The hormone was found to stimulate glucose uptake by approx. 16-fold in freshly isolated rat adipocytes. After a single electroporating pulse, the ability of insulin to activate glucose uptake was lowered, but the observed stimulation was nevertheless nearly 5-fold higher than the basal rate of glucose uptake. Electroporation of adipocytes with 600 nM tetanus toxin resulted in a complete loss of both cellubrevin and VAMP expression within 60 min. However, toxin-mediated proteolysis of both these proteins had no effect on the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose transport which was elevated approx. 5-fold, an activation of comparable magnitude to that observed in cells electroporated without tetanus toxin. The lack of any significant change in insulin-stimulated glucose transport was consistent with the finding that toxin-mediated proteolysis of both cellubrevin and VAMP had no detectable effect on insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Our findings indicate that, although cellubrevin and VAMP are resident proteins in adipocyte GLUT4-containing vesicles, they are not required for the acute insulin

  3. Evodiamine Inhibits Insulin-Stimulated mTOR-S6K Activation and IRS1 Serine Phosphorylation in Adipocytes and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Obese/Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Tamaki; Yamashita, Yukari; Kontani, Yasuhide; Okamatsu, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu; Yamashita, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which may cause down-regulation of mTOR signaling in adipocytes. A similar effect on AMPK, mTOR and IRS1 phosphorylation was found in adipocytes treated with rosiglitazone. These results suggest evodiamine improves glucose tolerance and prevents the progress of insulin resistance associated with obese/diabetic states, at least in part, through inhibition of mTOR-S6K signaling and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes. PMID:24391749

  4. Fluorescence properties of 3-amino phenylboronic acid and its interaction with glucose and ZnS:Cu quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kur-Kowalska, Karolina; Przybyt, Małgorzata; Ziółczyk, Paulina; Sowiński, Przemysław; Miller, Ewa

    2014-08-14

    Preliminary results of a study of the interaction between 3-amino phenylboronic acid and glucose or ZnS:Cu quantum dots are presented in this paper. ZnS:Cu quantum dots with mercaptopropionic acid as a capping agent were obtained and characterized. Quenching of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence was studied by steady-state and timeresolved measurements. For fluorescence quenching with glucose the results of steady-state measurements fulfill Stern-Volmer equation. The quenching constants are increasing with growing pH. The decay of fluorescence is monoexponential with lifetime about 8.4 ns, which does not depend on pH and glucose concentration indicating static quenching. The quenching constant can be interpreted as apparent equilibrium constant of estrification of boronic group with diol. Quantum dots are also quenching 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence. Fluorescence lifetime, in this case, is slightly decreasing with increasing concentration of quantum dots. The quenching constants are increasing slightly with pH's growth. Quenching mechanism of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence by quantum dots needs further experiments to be fully explained. PMID:24747855

  5. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  6. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. PMID:26060272

  7. Transcriptional profiling of immortalized and K-ras-transformed mouse fibroblasts upon PKA stimulation by forskolin in low glucose availability.

    PubMed

    Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Pirola, Yuri; Ricciardiello, Francesca; Palorini, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    Forskolin (FSK) induces activation of protein kinase A (PKA). This activation protects specifically some cancer cells from death induced by glucose starvation. Cell effects upon FSK treatment prompted us to investigate in detail the physiological role of PKA in the activation of pro-survival mechanisms in glucose starvation. In this regard we performed a microarray analysis of normal NIH3T3 and transformed NIH3T3-K-ras mouse fibroblasts cultured at 1 mM glucose and daily treated or not with 10 μM FSK until 72 h of growth, when the samples were collected. The microarray is deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under Series GSE68266. The microarray data revealed that the activation of PKA regulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic, stress-response and pro-survival processes, like glutamine metabolism, autophagy and unfolded protein response, preventing cancer cell death in glucose starvation. Altogether these findings suggest that PKA activation, by inducing a complex transcriptional program, leads to cancer survival in nutrient stress, a typical feature of developing tumor. These transcriptional data, identifying this important role of PKA, will be useful to identify novel target in cancer therapy. PMID:27486565

  8. Insulin, concanavalin A, EGF, IFG-I and vanadate activate de novo phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol synthesis, C-kinase, and glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.R.; Hernandez, H.; Konda, T.S.; Standaert, M.S.; Pollet, R.J.; Farese, R.V.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that insulin stimulates de novo synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) which is metabolized directly to diacylglycerol (DG) in BS3H-1 myocytes; this is accompanied by increases in C-kinase activity in membrane and cytosolic extracts. This pathway may be involved in stimulating glucose transport and other metabolic processes. In this study, the authors have compared the effects of concanavalin A, EGF, IGF-I and sodium orthovanadate to insulin on PA/DG synthesis, C-kinase activity and glucose transport. All were found to be effective in stimulating glucose transport. Additionally, all activators rapidly increased the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)glycerol into DG and total glycerolipids, although none were as effective as insulin, which increased (/sup 3/H)DG 400% in 1 minute. Increased incorporation into phospholipids and triacylglycerols and to a lesser extent monoacylglycerol was also noted. They examined effects of concanavalin A and EGF on C-kinase activity and found that both agonists, like insulin, increase C-kinase activity in cytosolic and/or membrane fractions. Their findings raise the possibility that activation of receptors having associated tyrosine kinase activity may provoke some cellular responses through de novo PA/GD synthesis and C-kinase activation.

  9. Single valproic acid treatment inhibits glycogen and RNA ribose turnover while disrupting glucose-derived cholesterol synthesis in liver as revealed by the [U-C(6)]-d-glucose tracer in mice.

    PubMed

    Beger, Richard D; Hansen, Deborah K; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Cross, Brandie M; Fatollahi, Javad J; Lagunero, F Tracy; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Boros, Laszlo G

    2009-09-01

    Previous genetic and proteomic studies identified altered activity of various enzymes such as those of fatty acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis after a single toxic dose of valproic acid (VPA) in rats. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of VPA on metabolite synthesis flux rates and the possible use of abnormal (13)C labeled glucose-derived metabolites in plasma or urine as early markers of toxicity. Female CD-1 mice were injected subcutaneously with saline or 600 mg/kg) VPA. Twelve hours later, the mice were injected with an intraperitoneal load of 1 g/kg [U-(13)C]-d-glucose. (13)C isotopomers of glycogen glucose and RNA ribose in liver, kidney and brain tissue, as well as glucose disposal via cholesterol and glucose in the plasma and urine were determined. The levels of all of the positional (13)C isotopomers of glucose were similar in plasma, suggesting that a single VPA dose does not disturb glucose absorption, uptake or hepatic glucose metabolism. Three-hour urine samples showed an increase in the injected tracer indicating a decreased glucose re-absorption via kidney tubules. (13)C labeled glucose deposited as liver glycogen or as ribose of RNA were decreased by VPA treatment; incorporation of (13)C via acetyl-CoA into plasma cholesterol was significantly lower at 60 min. The severe decreases in glucose-derived carbon flux into plasma and kidney-bound cholesterol, liver glycogen and RNA ribose synthesis, as well as decreased glucose re-absorption and an increased disposal via urine all serve as early flux markers of VPA-induced adverse metabolic effects in the host.

  10. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  11. Effects of glucose and ascorbic acid on absorption and first pass metabolism of isoniazid in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Katakuse, Y; Matsuura, H; Kiwada, H; Goromaru, T

    1991-02-01

    We examined the effect of glucose (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) on absorption and metabolism of isoniazid (INAH). After p.o. administration of INAH with or without Glu or AA, plasma concentration and urinary excretion of INAH and its metabolites, acetyl INAH (AcINAH), acetyl hydrazine (AcHy) and hydrazine (Hy), were determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standard. The combined administration of INAH with Glu or AA led to a significant decrease in the excretion of INAH and Hy, and a significant increase in the excretion of AcINAH and AcHy. The absorption amount of INAH was reduced to about one-half by the addition of Glu and the absorption rate of INAH markedly decreased in the case of co-administration of AA. Comparing the oral case with the results of i.v. administration, Glu and AA only affect the absorption process containing the first pass metabolism of INAH.

  12. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    PubMed Central

    Mosayebnia, Mona; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Pasalar, Parvin; Mashayekhi, Mojgan; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG) was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO), a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage. PMID:24554907

  13. Abscisic acid effects on activity and expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Cafasso, Donata; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, protein abundance, and transcript levels of G6PDH isoforms were measured in response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) supply to barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Nure) hydroponic culture. Total G6PDH activity increased by 50% in roots treated for 12 h with exogenous 0.1 mM ABA. In roots, a considerable increase (35%) in plastidial P2-G6PDH transcript levels was observed during the first 3 h of ABA treatment. Similar protein variations were observed in immunoblotting analyses. In leaves, a 2-fold increase in total G6PDH activity was observed after ABA treatment, probably related to an increase in the mRNA level (increased by 50%) and amount of protein (increased by 85%) of P2-G6PDH. Together these results suggest that the plastidial P2-isoform plays an important role in ABA-treated barley plants. PMID:21464159

  14. Analysis of rapid oscillations of glucose and free fatty acids in plasma.

    PubMed

    Brodan, V; Hájek, M; Kuhn, E; Andĕl, M

    1979-07-01

    The authors analyzed rapid oscillations of blood sugar (GL) and free fatty acid levels (FFA) in serum of healthy subjects. They investigated a series of blood samples taken under conditions of absolute rest from the cubital vein at 15-s intervals for a period of 6 min. In addition to common statistical parameters, they calculated the course of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions and periodograms. The magnitude of oscillations is significantly higher than the error of the biochemical methods. In some sequences periodicities were detected which were statistically significant in 23.8% of GL and in 38.1% of FFA. 24-point series of GL collected in parallel from both arms correlate in 36.3% positively, in 27.3% negatively, and in 36.4% they do not correlate. Series of FFA and GL collected simultaneously from one site correlate mutaually in almost all instances either positively or negatively, frequently with a time shift. The oscillations may be due to (a) feedback regulations of the levels of the two metabolites, (b) permanent mutual interaction between the FFA and glucose level and (c) an uneven concentration of the two metabolites in different parts of the circulation. The above factors may combine, and the list of possible factors may not be complete.

  15. The MDM2–p53–pyruvate carboxylase signalling axis couples mitochondrial metabolism to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomu; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Liu, Zhuohao; Yang, Jin-Kui; Wang, Baile; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Yawen; Hallenborg, Philip; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Lam, Karen S. L.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Gao, Xin; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is pivotal for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells. However, little is known about the molecular machinery that controls the homeostasis of intermediary metabolites in mitochondria. Here we show that the activation of p53 in β-cells, by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of its negative regulator MDM2, impairs GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance in mice. Mechanistically, p53 activation represses the expression of the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC), resulting in diminished production of the TCA cycle intermediates oxaloacetate and NADPH, and impaired oxygen consumption. The defective GSIS and mitochondrial metabolism in MDM2-null islets can be rescued by restoring PC expression. Under diabetogenic conditions, MDM2 and p53 are upregulated, whereas PC is reduced in mouse β-cells. Pharmacological inhibition of p53 alleviates defective GSIS in diabetic islets by restoring PC expression. Thus, the MDM2–p53–PC signalling axis links mitochondrial metabolism to insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis, and could represent a therapeutic target in diabetes. PMID:27265727

  16. The Relationship between Membrane Potential and Calcium Dynamics in Glucose-Stimulated Beta Cell Syncytium in Acute Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Evan W.; Slak Rupnik, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory electrical activity is regarded as a hallmark of the pancreatic beta cell glucose-dependent excitability pattern. Electrophysiologically recorded membrane potential oscillations in beta cells are associated with in-phase oscillatory cytosolic calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) measured with fluorescent probes. Recent high spatial and temporal resolution confocal imaging revealed that glucose stimulation of beta cells in intact islets within acute tissue slices produces a [Ca2+]i change with initial transient phase followed by a plateau phase with highly synchronized [Ca2+]i oscillations. Here, we aimed to correlate the plateau [Ca2+]i oscillations with the oscillations of membrane potential using patch-clamp and for the first time high resolution voltage-sensitive dye based confocal imaging. Our results demonstrated that the glucose-evoked membrane potential oscillations spread over the islet in a wave-like manner, their durations and wave velocities being comparable to the ones for [Ca2+]i oscillations and waves. High temporal resolution simultaneous records of membrane potential and [Ca2+]i confirmed tight but nevertheless limited coupling of the two processes, with membrane depolarization preceding the [Ca2+]i increase. The potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium increased the velocity at which oscillations advanced over the islet by several-fold while, at the same time, emphasized differences in kinetics of the membrane potential and the [Ca2+]i. The combination of both imaging techniques provides a powerful tool that will help us attain deeper knowledge of the beta cell network. PMID:24324777

  17. Gallic acid regulates body weight and glucose homeostasis through AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Doan, Khanh V; Ko, Chang Mann; Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Choi, Yun-Hee; Oh, In Young; Nguyen, Nguyen Minh; Ko, Ara; Choi, Jae Won; Jeong, Yangsik; Jung, Min Ho; Cho, Won Gil; Xu, Shanhua; Park, Kyu Sang; Park, Woo Jin; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Hyoung Shik; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism by which GA exerts its beneficial effects is not known. Here we report that GA plays its role through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by regulating mitochondrial function via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α). Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) knockdown significantly blunted GA's effect on PGC1α activation and downstream genes, suggesting a critical role of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway in GA's action. Moreover, diet-induced obese mice treated with GA showed significantly improved glucose and insulin homeostasis. In addition, the administration of GA protected diet-induced body weight gain without a change in food intake. Biochemical analyses revealed a marked activation of AMPK in the liver, muscle, and interscapular brown adipose tissue of the GA-treated mice. Moreover, uncoupling protein 1 together with other genes related to energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the interscapular brown adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that GA plays its beneficial metabolic roles by activating the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway and by changing the interscapular brown adipose tissue genes related to thermogenesis. Our study points out that targeting the activation of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway by GA or its derivatives might be a potential therapeutic intervention for insulin resistance in metabolic diseases.

  18. Stimulation of acid secretion and phosphoinositol production by rat parietal cell muscarinic M sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, A.; Rochlitz, H.; Herz, A.; Paumgartner, G. )

    1988-04-01

    The muscarinic receptor system involved in hydrogen production by enriched rat gastric parietal cells was investigated. Muscarinic receptor density determined by (N-methyl-{sup 3}H)scopolamine binding was 8,100/cell. The receptor appeared to be of the M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtype, since it had a low affinity (K{sub d} 189 nM) for the M{sub 1} receptor antagonist pirenzepine compared with atropine. Receptor activation by carbachol rapidly augmented levels of polyphosphoinositides, indicating an activation of phospholipase C. The dose-response relations for the increase in inositol phosphates closely paralleled the binding of carbachol to muscarinic receptors. The inositol phosphate response was antagonized by pirenzepine with a K{sub i} of 177 nM. the stimulation of inositol phosphate levels by carbachol correlated well with the stimulation of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake, determine as an index of acid secretion. The muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, pilocarpine, and bethanechol elicited partial increases in inositol phosphates at maximal drug concentrations, and these partial increases correlated with their ability to stimulate ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake. These data indicate that inositolpolyphosphates may be a second messenger of M{sub 2} receptors stimulating acid secretion.

  19. Glucose and Fatty Acid Metabolism in a 3 Tissue In-Vitro Model Challenged with Normo- and Hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Iori, Elisabetta; Vinci, Bruna; Murphy, Ellen; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Avogaro, Angelo; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient balance in the human body is maintained through systemic signaling between different cells and tissues. Breaking down this circuitry to its most basic elements and reconstructing the metabolic network in-vitro provides a systematic method to gain a better understanding of how cross-talk between the organs contributes to the whole body metabolic profile and of the specific role of each different cell type. To this end, a 3-way connected culture of hepatocytes, adipose tissue and endothelial cells representing a simplified model of energetic substrate metabolism in the visceral region was developed. The 3-way culture was shown to maintain glucose and fatty acid homeostasis in-vitro. Subsequently it was challenged with insulin and high glucose concentrations to simulate hyperglycaemia. The aim was to study the capacity of the 3-way culture to maintain or restore normal circulating glucose concentrations in response to insulin and to investigate the effects these conditions on other metabolites involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The results show that the system’s metabolic profile changes dramatically in the presence of high concentrations of glucose, and that these changes are modulated by the presence of insulin. Furthermore, we observed an increase in E-selectin levels in hyperglycaemic conditions and increased IL-6 concentrations in insulin-free-hyperglycaemic conditions, indicating, respectively, endothelial injury and proinflammatory stress in the challenged 3-way system. PMID:22509346

  20. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  1. Repression of the glucose-inducible outer-membrane protein OprB during utilization of aromatic compounds and organic acids in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Bhakti; Godbole, Ashwini; Mathew, M K; Apte, Shree K; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 shows preferential utilization of aromatic compounds over glucose. Protein analysis and [¹⁴C]glucose-binding studies of the outer membrane fraction of cells grown on different carbon sources revealed a 40 kDa protein that was transcriptionally induced by glucose and repressed by aromatics and succinate. Based on 2D gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, the 40 kDa protein closely resembled the porin B of P. putida KT2440 and carbohydrate-selective porin OprB of various Pseudomonas strains. The purified native protein (i) was estimated to be a homotrimer of 125 kDa with a subunit molecular mass of 40 kDa, (ii) displayed heat modifiability of electrophoretic mobility, (iii) showed channel conductance of 166 pS in 1 M KCl, (iv) permeated various sugars (mono-, di- and tri-saccharides), organic acids, amino acids and aromatic compounds, and (v) harboured a glucose-specific and saturable binding site with a dissociation constant of 1.3 µM. These results identify the glucose-inducible outer-membrane protein of P. putida CSV86 as a carbohydrate-selective protein OprB. Besides modulation of intracellular glucose-metabolizing enzymes and specific glucose-binding periplasmic space protein, the repression of OprB by aromatics and organic acids, even in the presence of glucose, also contributes significantly to the strain's ability to utilize aromatics and organic acids over glucose.

  2. Regulation by retinoic acid of acylation-stimulating protein and complement C3 in human adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, T; Sniderman, A D; Cianflone, K

    2001-01-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), a product of complement C3, stimulates triacylglycerol synthesis in adipocytes. Previous studies have identified transthyretin, associated with chylomicrons, as a stimulator of C3 and ASP production. Since both transthyretin and chylomicrons transport retinyl ester/retinol, our goal was to investigate whether retinoic acid (RA) could be a potential hormonal mediator of the effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and protein secretion eliminated the stimulatory effects of chylomicrons on both C3 and ASP production in human differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis and secretion are both required. Incubation with chylomicrons increased C3 mRNA levels (37+/-1.5%). RA alone or with chylomicrons had a stimulatory effect on C3 production (29-fold at 16.6 nM RA) and ASP production. An RA receptor antagonist blocked stimulation of C3 mRNA and C3 secretion by both RA and chylomicrons. Finally, RA and chylomicrons activated a 1.8 kb C3-promoter-luciferase construct transfected into 3T3-F442 and 3T3-L1 cells (by 41+/-0.2% and 69+/-0.3% respectively), possibly via RA receptor half-sites identified by sequence analysis. This is the first evidence documenting stimulation by RA of the C3 gene. Thus we propose RA as a novel cellular trigger in chylomicrons that subsequently results in increased ASP production by adipocytes after a meal. PMID:11368771

  3. Synthesis and characterization of microparticles based on poly-methacrylic acid with glucose oxidase for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Hervás Pérez, J P; López-Ruiz, B; López-Cabarcos, E

    2016-03-01

    In the line of the applicability of biocompatible monomers pH and temperature dependent, we assayed poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles as immobilization system in the design of enzymatic biosensors. Glucose oxidase was used as enzyme model for the study of microparticles as immobilization matrices and as biological material in the performance of glucose biosensors. The enzyme immobilization method was optimized by investigating the influence of monomer concentration and cross-linker content (N',N'-methylenebisacrylamide), used in the preparation of the microparticles in the response of the biosensors. The kinetics of the polymerization and the effects of the temperature were studied, also the conversion of the polymerization was determinates by a weight method. The structure of the obtained p-MAA microparticles were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning microscopy (DSC). The particle size measurements were performed with a Galai-Cis 1 particle analyzer system. Furthermore, the influence of the swelling behavior of hydrogel matrix as a function of pH and temperature were studied. Analytical properties such as sensitivity, linear range, response time and detection limit were studied for the glucose biosensors. The sensitivity for glucose detection obtained with poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles was 11.98mAM(-1)cm(-2) and 10μM of detection limit. A Nafion® layer was used to eliminate common interferents of the human serum such as uric and ascorbic acids. The biosensors were used to determine glucose in human serum samples with satisfactory results. When stored in a frozen phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) at -4°C, the useful lifetime of all biosensors was at least 550 days. PMID:26717846

  4. Synthesis and characterization of microparticles based on poly-methacrylic acid with glucose oxidase for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Hervás Pérez, J P; López-Ruiz, B; López-Cabarcos, E

    2016-01-01

    In the line of the applicability of biocompatible monomers pH and temperature dependent, we assayed poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles as immobilization system in the design of enzymatic biosensors. Glucose oxidase was used as enzyme model for the study of microparticles as immobilization matrices and as biological material in the performance of glucose biosensors. The enzyme immobilization method was optimized by investigating the influence of monomer concentration and cross-linker content (N',N'-methylenebisacrylamide), used in the preparation of the microparticles in the response of the biosensors. The kinetics of the polymerization and the effects of the temperature were studied, also the conversion of the polymerization was determinates by a weight method. The structure of the obtained p-MAA microparticles were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning microscopy (DSC). The particle size measurements were performed with a Galai-Cis 1 particle analyzer system. Furthermore, the influence of the swelling behavior of hydrogel matrix as a function of pH and temperature were studied. Analytical properties such as sensitivity, linear range, response time and detection limit were studied for the glucose biosensors. The sensitivity for glucose detection obtained with poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles was 11.98mAM(-1)cm(-2) and 10μM of detection limit. A Nafion® layer was used to eliminate common interferents of the human serum such as uric and ascorbic acids. The biosensors were used to determine glucose in human serum samples with satisfactory results. When stored in a frozen phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) at -4°C, the useful lifetime of all biosensors was at least 550 days.

  5. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

  6. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses. PMID:23674066

  7. Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 improves glucose tolerance and reduces body weight gain in rats by stimulating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Umegatani, Minami; Shiraishi, Aya; Morita, Yukiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao

    2016-08-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055. PMID:27267802

  8. Role for high-glucose-induced protein O-GlcNAcylation in stimulating cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Hugo; Fricovsky, Eduardo; Ihm, Sang; Schimke, Magdalena; Maya-Ramos, Lisandro; Aroonsakool, Nakon; Ceballos, Guillermo; Dillmann, Wolfgang; Villarreal, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Excess enzyme-mediated protein O-GlcNAcylation is known to occur with diabetes mellitus. A characteristic of diabetic cardiomyopathy is the development of myocardial fibrosis. The role that enhanced protein O-GlcNAcylation plays in modulating the phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts (CF) is unknown. To address this issue, rat CF were cultured in normal glucose (NG; 5 mM glucose) or high-glucose (HG; 25 mM) media for 48 h. Results demonstrate that CF cultured in HG have higher levels (∼50%) of overall protein O-GlcNAcylation vs. NG cells. Key regulators of collagen synthesis such as transforming-growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), SMADs 2/3, and SMAD 7 protein levels, including those of arginase I and II, were altered, leading to increases in collagen levels. The nuclear transcription factor Sp1 and arginase II evidence excess O-GlcNAcylation in HG cells. Expression in CF of an adenovirus coding for the enzyme N-acetylglucosaminidase, which removes O-GlcNAc moieties from proteins, decreased Sp1 and arginase II O-GlcNAcylation and restored HG-induced perturbations in CF back to NG levels. These findings may have important pathophysiological implications for the development of diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis. PMID:24553187

  9. Muscle-specific glucose and free fatty acid uptake after sprint interval and moderate-intensity training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Saunavaara, Virva; Kirjavainen, Anna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sprint interval training (SIT) causes larger improvements in glucose and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) in lower and upper body muscles than moderate-intensity training (MIT). Twenty-eight healthy, untrained, middle-aged men were randomized into SIT (n = 14, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling/4 min recovery) and MIT groups [n = 14, 40-60 min cycling at 60% of peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak)] and completed six training sessions within 2 wk. Pre- and postmeasurements included V̇o2 peak, whole body (M-value), muscle-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU), and fasting FFAU measured with positron emission tomography in thigh [quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings] and upper body (deltoids, biceps, and triceps brachii) muscles. V̇o2 peak and M-value improved significantly by 6 and 12% in SIT, and 3 and 8% in MIT, respectively,. GU increased significantly only in the QF, and there was no statistically significant difference between the training modes. GU increased in all four heads of QF in response to SIT, but only in the vasti muscles in response to MIT, whereas in rectus femoris the response was completely lacking. Training response in FFAU in QF was smaller and nonsignificant, but it also differed between the training modes in the rectus femoris. In conclusion, SIT and MIT increased insulin-stimulated GU only in the main working muscle QF and not in the upper body muscles. In addition, the biarticular rectus femoris did not respond to moderate-intensity training, reflecting most probably poor activation of it during moderate-intensity cycling. PMID:25767035

  10. Circadian pattern of large neutral amino acids, glucose, insulin, and food intake in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, W; Schweiger, U; Werner, D; Brunner, G; Tuschl, R J; Laessle, R G; Krieg, J C; Fichter, M M; Pirke, K M

    1991-05-01

    Insulin, glucose, and large neutral amino acids (LNAA) were studied in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa, 13 patients with bulimia nervosa, and 15 healthy controls. Blood samples were collected at hourly intervals during the day and at two-hour intervals during the night over a 24-hour period. Ad libitum caloric and relative carbohydrate intake was significantly reduced in the anorectic and bulimic patients. Elevated concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) were seen in the bulimic group, and low triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in the anorectic group. Mean plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly lowered in both groups. The tryptophan (Trp) to LNAA ratio was reduced in anorectic, but not in bulimic patients. These findings suggest that Trp influx into the brain is reduced in anorectic patients, possibly impairing central serotonergic function.

  11. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis.

  12. Circulating insulin stimulates fatty acid retention in white adipose tissue via KATP channel activation in the central nervous system only in insulin-sensitive mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Coomans, Claudia P.; Geerling, Janine J.; Guigas, Bruno; van den Hoek, Anita M.; Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Ouwens, D. Margriet; Pijl, Hanno; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) is required for the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucose production. Our aim was to determine whether the CNS is also involved in the stimulatory effect of circulating insulin on the tissue-specific retention of fatty acid (FA) from plasma. In wild-type mice, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions stimulated the retention of both plasma triglyceride-derived FA and plasma albumin-bound FA in the various white adipose tissues (WAT) but not in other tissues, including brown adipose tissue (BAT). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin induced a similar pattern of tissue-specific FA partitioning. This effect of ICV insulin administration was not associated with activation of the insulin signaling pathway in adipose tissue. ICV administration of tolbutamide, a KATP channel blocker, considerably reduced (during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions) and even completely blocked (during ICV administration of insulin) WAT-specific retention of FA from plasma. This central effect of insulin was absent in CD36-deficient mice, indicating that CD36 is the predominant FA transporter in insulin-stimulated FA retention by WAT. In diet-induced insulin-resistant mice, these stimulating effects of insulin (circulating or ICV administered) on FA retention in WAT were lost. In conclusion, in insulin-sensitive mice, circulating insulin stimulates tissue-specific partitioning of plasma-derived FA in WAT in part through activation of KATP channels in the CNS. Apparently, circulating insulin stimulates fatty acid uptake in WAT but not in BAT, directly and indirectly through the CNS. PMID:21700834

  13. The effects of somatostatin and metiamide on tachyphylaxis of pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in the conscious cat.

    PubMed Central

    Albinus, M; Blair, E L; Hirst, B H; Reed, J D; Schally, A V; Shaw, B

    1977-01-01

    1. Pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretions show parallel rates of tachyphylaxis in the conscious cat. The responses to histamine show only slight tachyphylaxis. 2. Somatostatin 10 microng.kg(-1).hr(-1) inhibits pentagastrin but not histamine stimulated acid secretion and inhibits pentagastrin stimulated pepsin secretion. 3. The inhibition of pentagastrin stimulated acid and pepsin secretion by Somatostatin delays the tachyphylaxis of these responses, but the rates of tachyphylaxis when they do subsequently occur are identical. 4. Metiamide 10 mg-kg(-1)-hr(-1) equally inhibits histamine and pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion but does not inhibit pentagastrin stimulated pepsin secretion. 5. Inhibiton of acid secretion during metiamide infusion neither prevents nor delays acid nor pepsin tachyphylaxis. 6. It is suggested that tachyphylaxis of acid and pepsin secretion is a gastrin receptor phenomenon and that Somatostatin occupies or modifies the behaviour of these receptors, preventing tachyphylaxis. Metiamide, however, exerts its action only on the histmine H2-receptor and not the gastrin receptor mechanism, and this apparently does not prevent or delay acid tachyphylaxis. PMID:325196

  14. The effects of somatostatin and metiamide on tachyphylaxis of pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in the conscious cat.

    PubMed

    Albinus, M; Blair, E L; Hirst, B H; Reed, J D; Schally, A V; Shaw, B

    1977-04-01

    1. Pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretions show parallel rates of tachyphylaxis in the conscious cat. The responses to histamine show only slight tachyphylaxis. 2. Somatostatin 10 microng.kg(-1).hr(-1) inhibits pentagastrin but not histamine stimulated acid secretion and inhibits pentagastrin stimulated pepsin secretion. 3. The inhibition of pentagastrin stimulated acid and pepsin secretion by Somatostatin delays the tachyphylaxis of these responses, but the rates of tachyphylaxis when they do subsequently occur are identical. 4. Metiamide 10 mg-kg(-1)-hr(-1) equally inhibits histamine and pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion but does not inhibit pentagastrin stimulated pepsin secretion. 5. Inhibiton of acid secretion during metiamide infusion neither prevents nor delays acid nor pepsin tachyphylaxis. 6. It is suggested that tachyphylaxis of acid and pepsin secretion is a gastrin receptor phenomenon and that Somatostatin occupies or modifies the behaviour of these receptors, preventing tachyphylaxis. Metiamide, however, exerts its action only on the histmine H2-receptor and not the gastrin receptor mechanism, and this apparently does not prevent or delay acid tachyphylaxis.

  15. Serum Bile Acids Are Higher in Humans With Prior Gastric Bypass: Potential Contribution to Improved Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P. Reed; Holst, Jens J.; Badman, Michael K.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurocheno