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Sample records for acid stone formers

  1. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  2. Chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Krambeck, Amy E; Lieske, John C

    2011-08-01

    Recent population studies have found symptomatic kidney stone formers to be at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although kidney stones are not commonly identified as the primary cause of ESRD, they still may be important contributing factors. Paradoxically, CKD can be protective against forming kidney stones because of the substantial reduction in urine calcium excretion. Among stone formers, those with rare hereditary diseases (cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, Dent disease, and 2,8 dihydroxyadenine stones), recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, hypertension, and diabetes seem to be at highest risk for CKD. The primary mechanism for CKD from kidney stones is usually attributed to an obstructive uropathy or pyelonephritis, but crystal plugs at the ducts of Bellini and parenchymal injury from shockwave lithotripsy may also contribute. The historical shift to less invasive surgical management of kidney stones has likely had a beneficial impact on the risk for CKD. Among potential kidney donors, past symptomatic kidney stones but not radiographic stones found on computed tomography scans were associated with albuminuria. Kidney stones detected by ultrasound screening have also been associated with CKD in the general population. Further studies that better classify CKD, better characterize stone formers, more thoroughly address potential confounding by comorbidities, and have active instead of passive follow-up to avoid detection bias are needed.

  3. A rapid food screener ranks potential renal acid load of renal stone formers similarly to a diet history questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Dietary acid load was reported to be inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The calcium renal stone formers (RSFs) should be recommended to lower their dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) to reduce stone recurrence. Reduction of dietary PRAL also showed a promising role for the prevention of other metabolic diseases. However, clinicians often fail to provide nutritional screening and counseling due to lack of simple tools to obtain a reliable dietary history. A one-page food screener (LAKE score) was recently designed to obtain a reliable measure of dietary PRAL in short time. We report the testing of such an instrument in the evaluation of PRAL: in a population of 135 healthy subjects (60 males, 75 females; age range 18-73), living in the area of Milan, Italy. Each participant received both the one-page LAKE food screener and an extensive 24-h dietary questionnaire. We examined agreement between the LAKE food screener scores, and estimates of PRAL and other nutrients produced by the computerized processing of thorough 24-h dietary histories. Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (r > 0.50) showed that LAKE score ranked subjects quite well with respect to dietary PRAL. LAKE positive subscore ranked patients with respect to dietary intake of total protein (r = 0.642) and phosphate (r = 0.648). We also obtained an excellent correlation of LAKE negative subscore with potassium intake (r = -0.531) and vitamin C (r = -0.554) as estimated by 24 h recalls. The LAKE score ranked patients similar to the estimates of 24-h dietary recalls, used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of dietary PRAL. This rapid, simple and inexpensive food screener for the evaluation of dietary PRAL could provide a "snapshot" of the diet of the RSFs to allow an immediate feedback to the patient during office consultation.

  4. Evidence for a distinct gut microbiome in kidney stone formers compared to non-stone formers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua M; Moazami, Saman; Qiu, Yunping; Kurland, Irwin; Chen, Zigui; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert; Davies, Kelvin P

    2016-10-01

    with oxalate levels (r = -0.60, p < 0.06) and Escherichia trended to an inverse correlation with citrate (r = -0.56, p < 0.08). We also compared bacterial abundance between uric acid (UA) stone formers (n = 5) and non UA stone formers (n = 18) and found no significant difference between them. We identified two genus of bacteria in the GMB that had significant association with KSD. Interestingly, components of the 24-h urine appear to be correlated to bacterial abundance. These preliminary studies for the first time associate differences in the GMB with kidney stone formation. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the potential causative role of preexisting dysbiosis in kidney stone disease. PMID:27115405

  5. Evidence for a distinct gut microbiome in kidney stone formers compared to non-stone formers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua M; Moazami, Saman; Qiu, Yunping; Kurland, Irwin; Chen, Zigui; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert; Davies, Kelvin P

    2016-10-01

    with oxalate levels (r = -0.60, p < 0.06) and Escherichia trended to an inverse correlation with citrate (r = -0.56, p < 0.08). We also compared bacterial abundance between uric acid (UA) stone formers (n = 5) and non UA stone formers (n = 18) and found no significant difference between them. We identified two genus of bacteria in the GMB that had significant association with KSD. Interestingly, components of the 24-h urine appear to be correlated to bacterial abundance. These preliminary studies for the first time associate differences in the GMB with kidney stone formation. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the potential causative role of preexisting dysbiosis in kidney stone disease.

  6. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  7. Alterations in circadian rhythmicity in calcium oxalate renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Y; Touitou, C; Charransol, G; Reinberg, A; Thomas, J; Bogdan, A; Barthelemy, C; Desgrez, P

    1983-01-01

    The circadian (circannual for oxalic acid) variations of 13 urinary variables (volume, creatinine, calcium, oxalic acid, glycolic acid, 17-ketosteroids, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, phosphates, urea, uric acid, chloride, sodium, and potassium) have been documented in 7 calcium oxalate renal stone formers and 7 healthy men (control group). Urine was collected every 4 h over a period of 24 h. All subjects had the same synchronization: diurnal activity from 07(00) to 23(00) +/- 1 h and nocturnal rest; meals were given at fixed clock hours (08(00), 12(30) and 20(00) +/- 1 h). A statistically-significant rhythm (p less than 0.05) was validated for all variables except urea and calcium in healthy men. In renal stone formers, 6 variables (calcium, oxalic acid, and glycolic acid in particular) had no detectable circadian rhythm. However, a periodicity of c. 8 h (ultradian rhythm) was demonstrated for calcium and oxalic acid with peaks being located around 02(00), 10(00), and 18(00). No circannual variations in oxalic acid output could be observed. The present study shows an alteration of the periodicity of calcium and oxalic metabolisms, i.e. the loss of a circadian (24-h) rhythm and the occurrence of an ultradian rhythm of 8 h. The risk of calcium-oxalate crystallisation appears thus greater at 02(00), 10(00), and 18(00). Furthermore, any study dealing with oxalic acid excretion should state the season of urine collection when comparing renal stone formers and healthy subjects, as significant differences in oxaluria may appear during the summer months and not during the rest of the year. PMID:6862698

  8. Biochemical diagnosis in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spivacow, Francisco Rodolfo; del Valle, Elisa Elena; Negri, Armando Luis; Fradinger, Erich; Abib, Anabella; Rey, Paula

    2015-08-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent condition in urology that has an important recurrence and high impact in health economy. Knowing the biochemical abnormalities implicated in its pathogenesis is mandatory to establish therapeutic aims. Our objectives are to present the results in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina. All patients were selected after completing an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. There were 1717 men, (56.48%), with a mean age of 45±12 years, and 1323 women, (43.52%), mean age 44±12 years. 2781 patients had biochemical abnormalities, (91.49%), and were arbitrarily divided in two groups: those who had only one (single) biochemical abnormality (n=2156) and those who had associated abnormalities (n=625). No biochemical abnormalities were found in 259 patients (8.51%). The abnormalities present, single and associated, in order of frequency, were idiopathic hypercalciuria, (56.88%), hyperuricosuria (21.08%), unduly acidic urine (10.95%), hypocitraturia (10.55%), hypomagnesuria (7.9%), primary hyperparathyroidism (3.01%), hyperoxaluria (2.6%), and cystinuria (0.32%). We performed in 484 patient's stone composition and found calcium oxalate stones related to idiopathic hypercalciuria predominantly while uric acid stones to unduly acidic urine. In conclusion, the biochemical abnormalities described are similar to those found in a previous series of our own and to those reported in the literature. Its diagnosis is important to therapeutic purposes to avoid eventual recurrence.

  9. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  10. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence.

  11. Bone Genes in the Kidney of Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.

    2008-09-01

    Intraoperative papillary biopsies from kidneys of idiopathic-calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) have revealed a distinct pattern of mineral deposition in the interstitium of the renal papilla. The earliest sites of these deposits, termed Randall's plaque, are found in the basement membrane of thin loops of Henle and appear to spread into the surrounding interstitium down to the papillary epithelium. Recent studies show kidney stones of ICSF patients grow attached to the renal papilla and at sites of Randall's plaque. Together these observations suggest that plaque formation may be the critical step in stone formation. In order to control plaque formation and thereby reduce future kidney stone development, the mechanism of plaque deposition must be understood. Because the renal papilla has unique anatomical features similar to bone and the fact that the interstitial deposits of ICSF patients are formed of biological apatite, this paper tests the hypothesis that sites of interstitial plaque form as a result of cell-mediated osteoblast-like activity.

  12. Weekend versus weekday urine collections in assessment of stone-formers.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R W

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collections are an important part of the metabolic evaluation of stone-formers, but are difficult for patients at work. At weekends the results might be different. Forty-five stone-formers who worked at day jobs from Monday to Friday collected urine for 24 h on a normal working day and also on a Saturday or Sunday and the differences were evaluated. Average 24 h urine volume was higher on weekdays than at weekends. Calcium, oxalate, and uric acid excretion did not differ. These results imply an increased risk of crystalluria at the weekend. Therefore weekend collections are most likely to show abnormalities and should be acceptable to clinicians. PMID:8976890

  13. Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, or calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

    2014-04-01

    Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF.

  14. [Composition analyses of urinary microcrystalline in urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones formers and its relationship with the stones formation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Hou, Shan-Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2011-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nano-particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the composition, morphology, particle size and zeta potential of urinary microcrystalline in urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers were investigated. The components of stones were also analyzed. The results showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary microcrystalline composition and urine pH. A high pH value of 6.5 or more usually appeared in the urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers. The main component of urine microcrystalline was magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals with different crystal water such as monohydrate or hexahydrate. Magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals are mainly petal-shaped, crosswise shape. These microcrystalline have an uneven particle size distribution, a wider distribution range, and apparent aggregation. There is no significant difference in the zeta potential between the magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers (mean (-9.83 +/- 0.66) mV) and healthy control subjects (mean (-10.74 +/- 0.25) mV). This study can help predict the occurrence of urolithiasis, and provide inspiration to the prediction of the type of urinary stones.

  15. Acid-base metabolism: implications for kidney stones formation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2006-04-01

    The physiology and pathophysiology of renal H+ ion excretion and urinary buffer systems are reviewed. The main focus is on the two major conditions related to acid-base metabolism that cause kidney stone formation, i.e., distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and abnormally low urine pH with subsequent uric acid stone formation. Both the entities can be seen on the background of disturbances of the major urinary buffer system, NH3+ <--> NH4+. On the one hand, reduced distal tubular secretion of H+ ions results in an abnormally high urinary pH and either incomplete or complete dRTA. On the other hand, reduced production/availability of NH4+ is the cause of an abnormally low urinary pH, which predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Most recent research indicates that the latter abnormality may be a renal manifestation of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Despite opposite deviations from normal urinary pH values, both the dRTA and uric acid stone formation due to low urinary pH require the same treatment, i.e., alkali. In the dRTA, alkali is needed for improving the body's buffer capacity, whereas the goal of alkali treatment in uric acid stone formers is to increase the urinary pH to 6.2-6.8 in order to minimize uric acid crystallization.

  16. Phenotypic characterization of kidney stone formers by endoscopic and histological quantification of intrarenal calcification.

    PubMed

    Linnes, Michael P; Krambeck, Amy E; Cornell, Lynn; Williams, James C; Korinek, Mark; Bergstralh, Eric J; Li, Xujian; Rule, Andrew D; McCollough, Cynthia M; Vrtiska, Terri J; Lieske, John C

    2013-10-01

    Interstitial Randall's plaques and collecting duct plugs are distinct forms of renal calcification thought to provide sites for stone retention within the kidney. Here we assessed kidney stone precursor lesions in a random cohort of stone formers undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Each accessible papilla was endoscopically mapped following stone removal. The percent papillary surface area covered by plaque and plug were digitally measured using image analysis software. Stone composition was determined by micro-computed tomography and infrared analysis. A representative papillary tip was biopsied. The 24-h urine collections were used to measure supersaturation and crystal growth inhibition. The vast majority (99%) of stone formers had Randall's plaque on at least 1 papilla, while significant tubular plugging (over 1% of surface area) was present in about one-fifth of patients. Among calcium oxalate stone formers the amount of Randall's plaque correlated with higher urinary citrate levels. Tubular plugging correlated positively with pH and brushite supersaturation but negatively with citrate excretion. Lower urinary crystal growth inhibition predicted the presence of tubular plugging but not plaque. Thus, tubular plugging may be more common than previously recognized among patients with all types of stones, including some with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

  17. Component analyses of urinary nanocrystallites of uric acid stone formers by combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transformation, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse the components of nanocrystallites in urines of patients with uric acid (UA) stones. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed to analyse the components of these nanocrystallites. XRD and FFT showed that the main component of urinary nanocrystallites was UA, which contains a small amount of calcium oxalate monohydrate and phosphates. EDS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of C, O, Ca and P. The formation of UA stones was closely related to a large number of UA nanocrystallites in urine. A combination of HRTEM, FFT, EDS and XRD analyses could be performed accurately to analyse the components of urinary nanocrystallites.

  18. The challenge of cystine and struvite stone formers: clinical, metabolic and surgical assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yamaçake, Kleiton G. R.; Marchini, Giovanni S.; Reis, Sabrina; Danilovic, Alexandre; Vicentini, Fábio C.; Torricelli, Fábio C. M.; Srougi, Miguel; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the clinical, metabolic, and calculi characteristics of cystine and struvite stone patients after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Material and Methods: Between January/2006-July/2013, 11 cystine stone patients were treated in our clinic. Of those, 3 were excluded due to incomplete follow-up. Eight cystine stone patients (2 with bilateral disease; 10 renal units-RU) were considered for further analysis. A cohort of 8 struvite stone formers (10RU) was matched having the same age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and Guys stone score. Analyzed parameters comprised demographic data, serum/urinary metabolic evaluation and surgical outcomes. Results: Both groups had 6 female patients. Groups were similar in regards to age, gender, BMI, stone burden, and serum creatinine (p=NS). All patients had PCNL as the first surgical treatment modality. Stone free rate (SFR) after the first PCNL tended to be lower (0%) in the cystine compared to the struvite group (40%)(p=0.08). Final SFR after secondary procedures increased to 70% in cystine and 80% in struvite patients (p=1.0); mean number of procedures to achieve stone free status was higher in the first group (3.57 vs. 2.0;p=0.028). Hypocitraturia was found in all patients, but struvite cases presented with lower mean urinary citrate levels (p=0.016). Other common abnormalities were elevated urinary pH (cystine 75% and struvite 62.5%;p=1.0) and low urinary volume (62.5%,37.5%;p=0.63). Conclusion: Multiple interventions and suboptimal stone free rates are trait of the significant stone burden of struvite and cystine patients. Underlying metabolic abnormalities characterized by increased urinary pH, hypocitraturia and low urinary volume are often encountered in both populations. PMID:27622279

  19. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: a study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hussein, N S; Sadiq, S M; Kamaliah, M D; Norakmal, A W; Gohar, M N

    2013-05-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD) of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%), hyperoxaluria (61.4%), hypocitraturia (57.2%), hyperuricouria (19.7%), hypomagnesuria (59.3%) and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%). Hyperoxaluria (61.4%) was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  20. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  1. Increased renal papillary density in kidney stone formers detectable by CT scan is a potential marker of stone risk, but is unrelated to underlying hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Linda; Girfoglio, Daniela; Kirkham, Alex; Allen, Darrell; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Moochhala, Shabbir; Unwin, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Several previous studies have reported an increase in Hounsfield unit density of the renal papillae in patients with nephrolithiasis compared with controls. Kidney stone formers (KSF) were found to have higher papillary and cortical density in both kidneys, irrespective of which side had calculi, and it was proposed that this might be related to the presence of underlying hypercalciuria. The current study was designed: (1) to determine whether recurrent KSF do have higher papillary density compared with healthy controls; (2) to test an association between higher renal papillary density and the presence of hypercalciuria in KSF. This retrospective case-matched controlled study was carried out at the Royal Free Hospital, London, UK. We investigated 111 patients, 57 of whom were KSF and 54 healthy controls. The CT attenuation values were measured within a 0.2 cm(2) area of the renal papilla in the upper, middle, and lower segments of each kidney, and were compared between KSF and non-stone formers, and between KSF with and without hypercalciuria. There were no significant differences in age and sex between groups. Papillary density was significantly higher in KSF by both crude and adjusted analyses (p < 0.001). However, there was no association between higher papillary density and hypercalciuria in KSF. The papillary density measured by CT is a useful, non-invasive tool to differentiate between KSF and healthy controls. The absence of any correlation between papillary density and hypercalciuria suggests that the presence of clinically significant underlying renal stone disease, rather than urinary metabolic abnormalities, correlates with radiologically detectable increased papillary density.

  2. Influence of dietary calcium on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, P; Gascon-Barré, M; Dufresne, L; Perreault, J P

    1984-11-01

    The role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in the pathogenesis of idiopathic hypercalciuria was studied in 37 renal stone formers who, during two 10-day periods, followed first a normal and then a low calcium diet. The following samples were taken during each diet; 24 h urine; fasting blood and urine; blood and urine following a 1 g oral calcium load. Patients were divided according to serum calcium level, 24 h urinary calcium excretion on the first diet and fasting calcium excretion on the second diet. Eight patients were found to be normocalciuric (NSF), 16 had absorptive hypercalciuria (AH), five renal hypercalciuria (RH) and eight primary hyperparathyroidism. In NSF and AH, a positive correlation was found between the fasting and the 24 hour urinary calcium (r = 0.787, P less than 0.001), while negative correlations were found between the fasting urinary calcium and the serum parathyroid hormone (r = -0.703, P less than 0.001) or the fasting urinary cyclic AMP (r = -0.434, P less than 0.01). Patients with RH had higher serum PTH and urinary cAMP levels for a given degree of fasting calciuria mainly on the low calcium diet. Mean serum 1,25(OH)2D was similar in NSF (43.6 +/- 4.5 pg/ml), AH (43.6 +/- 2.3 pg/ml) and RH (40.4 +/- 4.8 pg/ml) on the first diet; increases were similar in all groups after 10 d of calcium restriction. A positive correlation was found between the serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and the 24 h urinary calcium excretion on the first diet in NSF (r = 0.889, P less than 0.001) but not in AH or RH. There was no evidence of such correlation with the low calcium diet. No correlation between the calciuric response to calcium loading and the serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D was found. The results suggest that serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D may be related to urinary calcium excretion in NSF more than in AH or RH. The factors responsible for the hyperabsorption of calcium in the latter patients remain to be elucidated.

  3. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  4. [Two cases of uric acid stones unsuccessfully dissociated by oral chemolysis].

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Makoto; Yamada, Tetsuo; Murayama, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    We report two patients with renal uric acid (UA) stones in whom chemolysis by oral administration of alkaline citrate and allopurinol was unsuccessful. The stone in a 58-year old female did not dissolve because her urinary pH remained low throughout the day after alkaline citrate administration. The stone in a 50-year old man did not dissolve because his urinary pH was 5.5-6.0 after alkaline citrate administration. Alkalization of the urine helps reduce the stone size and the calcification of the stone. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was performed and the stone composition showed mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The indication of oral chemolysis of uric acid stones is discussed.

  5. A test of the hypothesis that the collecting duct calcium-sensing receptor limits rise of urine calcium molarity in hypercalciuric calcium kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; Gillen, Daniel L; Worcester, Elaine M

    2009-10-01

    The process of kidney stone formation depends on an imbalance between excretion of water and insoluble stone-forming salts, leading to high concentrations that supersaturate urine and inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) fluid. For common calcium-containing stones, a critical mechanism that has been proposed for integrating water and calcium salt excretions is activation of the cell surface calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on the apical membranes of IMCD cells. High deliveries of calcium into the IMCD would be predicted to activate CaSR, leading to reduced membrane abundance of aquaporin-2, thereby limiting water conservation and protecting against stone formation. We have tested this hypothesis in 16 idiopathic hypercalciuric calcium stone formers and 14 matched normal men and women in the General Clinical Research Center. Subjects were fed identical diets; we collected 14 urine samples at 1-h intervals during a single study day, and one sample overnight. Hypercalciuria did not increase urine volume, so urine calcium molarity and supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate rose proportionately to calcium excretion. Thus CaSR modulation of urine volume via IMCD CaSR activation does not appear to be an important mechanism of protection against stone formation. The overnight period, one of maximal water conservation, was a time of maximal stone risk and perhaps a target of specific clinical intervention.

  6. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... for uric acid stones) Antibiotics (for struvite stones) Diuretics (water pills) Phosphate solutions Sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate Water pills (thiazide diuretics) Tamsulosin to relax the ureter and help the ...

  7. Biomimetic Randall's plaque as an in vitro model system for studying the role of acidic biopolymers in idiopathic stone formation.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Archana; Rodriguez, Douglas; Khan, Saeed; Gower, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Randall's plaque (RP) deposits seem to be consistent among the most common type of kidney stone formers, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. This group forms calcium oxalate renal stones without any systemic symptoms, which contributes to the difficulty of understanding and treating this painful and recurring disease. Thus, the development of an in vitro model system to study idiopathic nephrolithiasis, beginning with RP pathogenesis, can help in identifying how plaques and subsequently stones form. One main theory of RP formation is that calcium phosphate deposits initially form in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle, which then fuse and spread into the interstitial tissue, and ultimately make their way across the urothelium, where upon exposure to the urine, the mineralized tissue serves as a nidus for overgrowth with calcium oxalate into a stone. Our group has found that many of the unusual morphologies found in RP and stones, such as concentrically laminated spherulites and mineralized collagenous tissue, can be reproduced in vitro using a polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) process, in which acidic polypeptides induce a liquid phase amorphous precursor to the mineral, yielding non-equilibrium crystal morphologies. Given that there are many acidic proteins and polysaccharides present in the renal tissue and urine, we have put forth the hypothesis that the PILP system may be involved in urolithiasis. Therefore, our goal is to develop an in vitro model system of these two stages of composite stone formation to study the role that various acidic macromolecules may play. In our initial experiments presented here, the development of "biomimetic" RP was investigated, which will then serve as a nidus for calcium oxalate overgrowth studies. To mimic the tissue environment, MatriStem(®) (ACell, Inc.), a decellularized porcine urinary bladder matrix was used, because it has both an intact epithelial basement membrane surface and a tunica propria

  8. Nucleation time of gall bladder bile in gall stone patients: influence of bile acid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, S; Ahlberg, J; Angelin, B; Reihnér, E; Einarsson, K

    1991-01-01

    The time required for precipitation of cholesterol crystals (nucleation time, NT) was determined and related to the cholesterol saturation in gall bladder bile of gall stone free subjects (n = 11), patients with pigment stones (n = 3), and patients with cholesterol gall stones (n = 30) undergoing cholecystectomy. Seven of the gall stone patients had been treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and nine with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 15 mg/kg/day for three weeks before operation. NT was longer in gall stone free subjects (mean, 20 days), patients with pigment stones (14 days) and patients treated with CDCA (24 days) and UDCA (17 days) compared with untreated patients with cholesterol gall stones (1.5 days). In spite of low cholesterol saturation and prolonged NT, and in contrast to those treated with CDCA, four of the nine patients treated with UDCA had cholesterol crystals in their bile. These observations give further support to the concept that the mechanism for inducing gall stone dissolution may be different for CDCA and UDCA. PMID:1773966

  9. SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE METHOD TO MEASURE ACID DEPOSITION EFFECTS ON BUILDING STONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, Marguerite J.; Ager, Cathy M.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), the U. S. Geological Survey is cooperating with other agencies to test the effects of acid deposition on building stone. A 10-year test-site study has been organized for the purpose of correlating possible stone deterioration with environmental factors. In Summer 1984, slabs of building stone, 3 by 2 by 2 inches, were exposed to the atmosphere at four test sites where the pH of precipitation and other meteorological variables are continuously monitored. This paper examines the development of one experimental technique used in this study - the application of diffuse spectral reflectance methods for laboratory and in situ measurement of those properties of stone which may be affected by acid deposition.

  10. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials.

  11. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  12. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations. PMID:25844464

  13. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations.

  14. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics.

  15. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  16. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  17. Differentiation of human kidney stones induced by melamine and uric acid using surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Sodhi, Rana N S; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Huanwen

    2011-03-01

    Clinically obtained human kidney stones of different pathogenesis were dissolved in acetic acid/methanol solutions and then rapidly analyzed by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SDAPCI-MS) without any desalination treatment. The mass spectral fingerprints of six groups of kidney stone samples were rapidly recorded in the mass range of m/z 50-400. A set of ten melamine-induced kidney stone samples and nine uric acid derived kidney stone samples were successfully differentiated from other groups by principal component analysis of SDAPCI-MS fingerprints upon positive-ion detection mode. In contrast, the mass spectra recorded using negative-ion detection mode did not give enough information to differentiate those stone samples. The results showed that in addition to the melamine, the chemical compounds enwrapped in the melamine-induced kidney stone samples differed from other kidney stone samples, providing useful hints for studying on the formation mechanisms of melamine-induced kidney stones. This study also provides useful information on establishing a MS-based platform for rapid analysis of the melamine-induced human kidney stones at molecular levels.

  18. Biomimetic Randall’s Plaque as an In Vitro Model System for Studying the Role of Acidic Biopolymers in Idiopathic Stone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, Archana; Rodriguez, Douglas; Khan, Saeed; Gower, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Randall’s plaque (RP) deposits seem to be consistent among the most common type of kidney stone formers, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. This group forms calcium oxalate renal stones without any systemic symptoms, which contributes to the difficulty of understanding and treating this painful and recurring disease. Thus, the development of an in vitro model system to study idiopathic nephrolithiasis, beginning with RP pathogenesis, can help in identifying how plaques, and subsequently stones, form. One main theory of RP formation is that calcium phosphate deposits initially form in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle, which then fuse and spread into the interstitial tissue, and ultimately make their way across the urothelium, where upon exposure to the urine, the mineralized tissue serves as a nidus for overgrowth with calcium oxalate into a stone. Our group has found that many of the unusual morphologies found in RP and stones, such as concentrically-laminated spherulites and mineralized collagenous tissue, can be reproduced in vitro using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process, in which acidic polypeptides induce a liquid-phase amorphous precursor to the mineral, yielding non-equilibrium crystal morphologies. Given that there are many acidic proteins and polysaccharides present in the renal tissue and urine, we have put for the hypothesis that the PILP system may be involved in urolithiasis. Therefore, our goal is to develop an in vitro model system of these two stages of composite stone formation in order to study the role that various acidic macromolecules may play. In our initial experiments presented here, the development of “biomimetic” RP was investigated, which will then serve as a nidus for calcium oxalate overgrowth studies. In order to mimic the tissue environment, MatriStem® (ACell, Inc.), a decellularized porcine urinary bladder matrix was used, because it has both an intact epithelial basement membrane surface

  19. Nutritional aspects of stone disease.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2002-12-01

    Kidney stones can form during a state of urinary supersaturation. Because urine often is supersaturated with respect to various salts, crystal formation is very common in nonstone formers and stone formers alike, and it may even be absent in kidney stone formers. Thus, uncomplicated crystalluria does not distinguish between stone formers and healthy people. Landmark clinical studies, however, have shown that under identical conditions of dietary and fluid intake, healthy controls almost exclusively excrete single calcium oxalate crystals 3 to 4 microns in diameter, whereas recurrent calcium stone formers pass larger crystals, 10 to 12 microns in diameter, often fused into polycrystalline aggregates 20 to 300 microns in diameter. Thus, those who form stones appear to be more "sensitive" to a given diet than nonstone formers. It is in these subjects that "bad dietary habits" induce nephrolithiasis, making nutritional aspects important. This article reviews the current evidence-based knowledge of the impact of nutrition on the recurrence of a kidney stone.

  20. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  1. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development.

  2. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  3. Study of the Dissolution Behavior of Muscovite in Stone Coal by Oxygen Pressure Acid Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Nan-nan; Zhang, Yi-min; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The dissolution behavior of muscovite in stone coal during the oxygen pressure acid leaching process was studied. The study showed that the dissolution behaviors of V, Al, and K were similar. K was the most easily leached, followed by Al, and then by V during oxygen pressure acid leaching process. When the reaction temperature exceeded 423 K (150 °C), alunite was generated, which led to vanadium losses because of its absorption performance. The dissolution of the muscovite in stone coal mainly depended on H2SO4 concentration and temperature. O2 had a main effect not on muscovite's dissolution but on the V3+ oxidation. During the oxygen pressure acid leaching process, (1) the interfacial K in the muscovite lattice was dissolved rapidly, producing a new interface; (2) for charge balance, the interfacial O absorbed hydrogen ions to form hydroxy; (3) the interfacial hydroxy reacted with hydrogen ions and left vacancy as a result of O loss, producing more new surface to expose more Al, V, and Si; (4) the interfacial Al or V was exchanged by hydrogen ions and V3+ was oxidized to V4+ and V5+; and (5) Si hardly reacted with H+ and generated high-Si surface.

  4. Utilization of date stones for production of activated carbon using phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Haimour, N.M. . E-mail: nomanhaimour@hotmail.com; Emeish, S. . E-mail: s_emiesh@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    Date stone wastes have been utilized for production of activated carbon by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using a fluidized-bed reactor. The effects of the activation time, activation temperature, impregnation ratio, and particle size on the yield and the adsorptive capacity towards iodine were studied. The yield and the quality of the activated carbon prepared by using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were compared with that prepared from date stones using the same equipment, and under similar conditions by using ZnCl{sub 2} as an oxidizing agent. The maximum value of the iodine number of the activated carbon produced using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in this work was about 495 under the following conditions: impregnation ratio 0.4, activation time 60 min, activation temperature 800 deg. C, particle size 0.60 mm. The iodine number for the produced activated carbon was higher when phosphoric acid was used, compared to that when zinc chloride was used as impregnation reagent; however, the yield obtained when H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was used was lower than the yield when ZnCl{sub 2} was used. The iodine number increases significantly with increasing the activation temperature. By increasing the impregnation ratio at the same temperature, the iodine number decreased sharply and an oscillation is noticed for all the cases but it was clearer at 800 deg. C. The average variation of the iodine number for the whole range of particle size used in this work is {+-}10%.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of the Shelburne Marble and the Salem limestone: Test stones used to study the effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Salem Limestone and the Shelburne Marble are representative of limestones and marbles commonly used in buildings and monuments. Both stones are composed predominantly of calcite. The Salem Limestone is homogeneous in composition and mineralogic characteristics throughout the test block. The Shelburne Marble has compositionally homogeneous mineral phases, but the distribution of those phases within the test block is random. The mineralogy and physical characteristics of the Shelburne Marble and Salem Limestone test blocks described in the study provide a baseline for future studies of the weathering behavior of these stones. Because the Shelburne Marble and the Salem Limestone are representative of typical commercial marbles and limestones, they are likely to be useful in a consortium study of the effects of acid precipitation on these two types of building stones.

  6. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  7. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  8. Data on the degree of saturation of urine with respect to calcium hydrogen phosphate in hypercalciuric children and renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Reusz, G S; Tulassay, T

    Calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO4) was considered as one of the main factors governing renal calculus formation. The degree of saturation with respect to this phase was therefore calculated in urines of 36 hypercalciuric children (20 absorptive, 16 renal subtype) with isolated hematuria, 10 renal stone patients, and 30 healthy controls. The effects of low calcium diet and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were also investigated in the patient groups. The results were compared to the widely used indicator of hypercalciuria (Ca/Cr ratio). Urines of both the hypercalciuric and the normocalciuric renal stone patients were saturated on basal conditions. On low calcium diet, 12 children of the absorptive hypercalciuric, 13 of the renal hypercalciuric and 7 of the renal stone-forming children had their urines in the saturated zone - irrespective of the evolution of Ca/Cr ratio. Thiazide normalized the activity product of CaHPO4 in all groups. The use of the Ca/Cr ratio as the sole parameter in the investigation of children with isolated hematuria and hypercalciuria or calcium nephrolithiasis seems to be insufficient; simultaneous determinations of the state of saturation of urines is recommended. This technique should also allow a quantitative assessment of the various therapeutic regimens recommended.

  9. Effects of acid deposition on dissolution of carbonate stone during summer storms in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term research program designed to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone. Acidic deposition accelerates the dissolution of carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. Sequential sampling of runoff from carbonate-stone (marble) and glass (reference) microcatchments in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State provided a detailed record of the episodic fluctuations in rain rate and runoff chemistry during individual summer storms. Rain rate and chemical concentrations from carbonate-stone and glass runoff fluctuated three to tenfold during storms. Net calcium-ion concentrations from the carbonatestone runoff, a measure of stone dissolution, typically fluctuated twofold during these storms. High net sulfate and net calcium concentrations in the first effective runoff at the start of a storm indicated that atmospheric pollutants deposited on the stone surface during dry periods formed calcium sulfate minerals, an important process in carbonate stone dissolution. Dissolution of the carbonate stone generally increased up to twofold during coincident episodes of low rain rate (less than 5 millimeters per hour) and decreased rainfall (glass runoff) pH (less than 4.0); episodes of high rain rate (cloudbursts) were coincident with a rapid increase in rainfall pH and also a rapid decrease in the dissolution of carbonate-stone. During a storm, it seems the most important factors causing increased dissolution of carbonate stone are coincident periods of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. Dissolution of the carbonate stone decreased slightly as the rain rate exceeded about 5 millimeters per hour, probably in response to rapidly increasing rainfall pH during episodes of high rain rate and shorter contact time between the runoff and the stone surface. High runoff rates resulting from cloudbursts remove calcium sulfate minerals formed during dry periods prior to storms and also remove dissolution products formed in large

  10. Experimental determination of multiple thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in the urine of healthy controls and calcium oxalate stone formers: does a universal discriminator exist?

    PubMed

    Rodgers, A L; Webber, D; Hibberd, B

    2015-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis is thought to be governed by urinary thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors. However, identification of one or more of these factors which consistently and unambiguously differentiates between healthy subjects (N) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone patients (SF) remains elusive. The present study addresses this challenge. 24 h urines were collected from 15 N and 10 SF. Urine compositions were used to compute thermodynamic risk indices including urinary ratios, quotients and supersaturation (SS) values, while CaOx metastable limits (MSL) were determined experimentally. Crystallisation kinetics was determined by measuring rates of particle formation (number, volume, size) using a Coulter counter multisizer (CC) and a Coulter flow cytometer (FC). Particle shapes were qualitatively differentiated by FC and were viewed directly by scanning electron microscopy. Several urinary composition ratios and risk quotients were significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between CaOx MSL or SS values. Using transformed FC data, the rate of CaOx crystallisation in SF was significantly greater than in N. This was not supported by CC measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to particle size or CaOx crystal growth rates. Single and aggregated CaOx dihydrate crystals were observed in both groups with equal frequency and there were no differences in the kinetic properties of these deposits. A few CaOx monohydrate crystals were observed in SF. Although several risk factors were found to be significantly different between the groups, none of them were consistently robust when compared to other cognate factors. Arguments were readily invoked which demonstrated inter-factor inconsistencies and conflicts. We suspect that a unique discriminatory factor, such as any of those which we investigated in the present study, may not exist.

  11. Experimental determination of multiple thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in the urine of healthy controls and calcium oxalate stone formers: does a universal discriminator exist?

    PubMed

    Rodgers, A L; Webber, D; Hibberd, B

    2015-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis is thought to be governed by urinary thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors. However, identification of one or more of these factors which consistently and unambiguously differentiates between healthy subjects (N) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone patients (SF) remains elusive. The present study addresses this challenge. 24 h urines were collected from 15 N and 10 SF. Urine compositions were used to compute thermodynamic risk indices including urinary ratios, quotients and supersaturation (SS) values, while CaOx metastable limits (MSL) were determined experimentally. Crystallisation kinetics was determined by measuring rates of particle formation (number, volume, size) using a Coulter counter multisizer (CC) and a Coulter flow cytometer (FC). Particle shapes were qualitatively differentiated by FC and were viewed directly by scanning electron microscopy. Several urinary composition ratios and risk quotients were significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between CaOx MSL or SS values. Using transformed FC data, the rate of CaOx crystallisation in SF was significantly greater than in N. This was not supported by CC measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to particle size or CaOx crystal growth rates. Single and aggregated CaOx dihydrate crystals were observed in both groups with equal frequency and there were no differences in the kinetic properties of these deposits. A few CaOx monohydrate crystals were observed in SF. Although several risk factors were found to be significantly different between the groups, none of them were consistently robust when compared to other cognate factors. Arguments were readily invoked which demonstrated inter-factor inconsistencies and conflicts. We suspect that a unique discriminatory factor, such as any of those which we investigated in the present study, may not exist. PMID:26198547

  12. Comparison on Response and Dissolution Rates Between Ursodeoxycholic Acid Alone or in Combination With Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Gallstone Dissolution According to Stone Density on CT Scan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Hyun, Jong Jin; Choi, In Young; Yeom, Suk Keu; Kim, Seung Young; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Chang Duck

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical dissolution of gallstone is usually performed on radiolucent gallstones in a functioning gallbladder. However, absence of visible gallstone on plain abdominal x-ray does not always preclude calcification. This study aims to compare the response and dissolution rates between ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone or in combination with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) according to stone density on computed tomography (CT) scan. A total of 126 patients underwent dissolution therapy with either UDCA alone or combination of CDCA and UDCA (CNU) from December 2010 to March 2014 at Korea University Ansan Hospital. In the end, 81 patients (CNU group = 44, UDCA group = 37) completed dissolution therapy for 6 months. Dissolution rate (percentage reduction in the gallstone volume) and response to therapy (complete dissolution or partial dissolution defined as reduction in stone volume of >50%) were compared between the 2 groups. Dissolution and response rates of sludge was also compared between the 2 groups. The overall response rate was 50.6% (CNU group 43.2% vs UDCA group 59.5%, P = 0.14), and the overall dissolution rate was 48.34% (CNU group 41.5% vs UDCA group 56.5%, P = 0.13). When analyzed according to stone density, response rate was 33.3%, 87.1%, 30.0%, and 6.2% for hypodense, isodense, hyperdense, and calcified stones, respectively. Response rate (85.7% vs 88.2%, P = 0.83) and dissolution rate (81.01% vs 85.38%, P = 0.17) of isodense stones were similar between CNU and UDCA group. When only sludge was considered, the overall response rate was 87.5% (CNU group 71.4% vs UDCA group 94.1%, P = 0.19), and the overall dissolution rate was 85.42% (CNU group 67.9% vs UDCA group 92.7%, P = 0.23). Patients with isodense gallstones and sludge showed much better response to dissolution therapy with CNU and UDCA showing comparable efficacy. Therefore, CT scan should be performed before medication therapy if stone dissolution is intended

  13. [Calyceal stones].

    PubMed

    Netsch, C; Gross, A J

    2013-08-01

    The natural course of untreated, asymptomatic calyceal calculi has not yet been clearly defined regarding disease progression and risk of surgical interventions. The decision for an active treatment of calyceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the German (DGU) and European (EAU) Associations of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of calyceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate removal of stones is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone location and stone composition and can show remarkable differences. Minimally invasive procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of calyceal stones which have low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centres of excellence.

  14. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  15. Urothelial injury to the rabbit bladder from various alkaline and acidic solutions used to dissolve kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Reckler, J; Rodman, J S; Jacobs, D; Rotterdam, H; Marion, D; Vaughan, E D

    1986-07-01

    Different irrigating solutions are used clinically to dissolve uric acid, cystine and struvite stones. These studies were undertaken to assess the toxicity to the rabbit bladder epithelium of several commonly used formulations. Test solutions were infused antegrade through a left ureterotomy overnight. Bladders were removed and routine histological sections made. A pH 7.6 solution of NaHCO3 appeared harmless. The same solution with two per cent acetylcysteine produced slight injury. All pH 4 solutions caused significant damage to the urothelium. Hemiacidrin, which contains magnesium, produced less damage than did other pH 4 solutions without that cation. Our data tend to support Suby's conclusions that addition of magnesium reduces urothelial injury even though the presence of magnesium will slow dissolution of struvite.

  16. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  17. Pears and renal stones: possible weapon for prevention? A comprehensive narrative review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, R; De Giorgi, A; Storari, A; Fabbian, F

    2016-01-01

    Urinary stones have been recognized as a human disease since dawn of history and treatment of this condition is reported by Egyptian medical writings. Also, pears have a very long history, being one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and also known for medicinal use. Urinary tract stone formation represents a common condition and also a significant burden for health care service, due also to possible frequent relapses. Furthermore, urinary stones have been reported to have relationship with different metabolic derangements, and appropriate diet could contribute to avoid or reduce urinary stone formation. Citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth in the urinary system, and hypocitraturia represents a main therapeutical target in stone formers. Pears contain a significant amount of malic acid, a precursor of citrate, and have antioxidant activity as well. A diet supplemented with pears, and associated with low consumption of meat and salt could impact positively cardiometabolic risk and urinary tract stone formation. However, very few studies evaluated the impact of pears utilization on health, and none on urinary tract stone formation in particular. High content in malate could warrant protection against stone formation, avoiding patients at high risk to be compelled to assume a considerable and expensive amount of pills. PMID:26914114

  18. Pears and renal stones: possible weapon for prevention? A comprehensive narrative review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, R; De Giorgi, A; Storari, A; Fabbian, F

    2016-01-01

    Urinary stones have been recognized as a human disease since dawn of history and treatment of this condition is reported by Egyptian medical writings. Also, pears have a very long history, being one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and also known for medicinal use. Urinary tract stone formation represents a common condition and also a significant burden for health care service, due also to possible frequent relapses. Furthermore, urinary stones have been reported to have relationship with different metabolic derangements, and appropriate diet could contribute to avoid or reduce urinary stone formation. Citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth in the urinary system, and hypocitraturia represents a main therapeutical target in stone formers. Pears contain a significant amount of malic acid, a precursor of citrate, and have antioxidant activity as well. A diet supplemented with pears, and associated with low consumption of meat and salt could impact positively cardiometabolic risk and urinary tract stone formation. However, very few studies evaluated the impact of pears utilization on health, and none on urinary tract stone formation in particular. High content in malate could warrant protection against stone formation, avoiding patients at high risk to be compelled to assume a considerable and expensive amount of pills.

  19. Gallbladder stones: shockwave therapy.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, M

    1992-11-01

    Within the past 7 years, gallbladder lithotripsy by shockwaves has been proven to be a safe and effective non-invasive therapy for selected patients with gallstone disease. While regulatory decisions prevent shockwave therapy from being used more frequently in the USA, the number of patients treated in Europe and Asia is increasing constantly. At our institution, a relatively constant number of about 250 new patients per year have been treated since 1988 (Figure 4). About 20% of patients with gallstones are suitable for shockwave therapy according to present criteria. The rate of evacuation of all fragments is determined by the initial stone number and stone size, the success at stone fragmentation, adjuvant bile acid dissolution therapy, and gallbladder contractility. In contrast to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Dubois et al, 1989; Perissat et al, 1989; Southern Surgeons Club, 1991), shockwave therapy does not require general anaesthesia. And in contrast to direct contact dissolution therapy of gallbladder stones using MTBE (Thistle et al, 1989), lithotripsy is non-invasive. In the majority of patients, complete fragment disappearance takes several months. Preliminary analyses of the cost-effectiveness of lithotripsy have revealed that lithotripsy, including retreatments and bile acid medication for recurrent stones, costs about as much as open cholecystectomy (Rothschild et al, 1990; Bass et al, 1991). The ideal patient for gallbladder lithotripsy has a single radiolucent stone < or = 20-25 mm in diameter in a functioning gallbladder (Figure 1). In patients with such stones, nearly all studies have confirmed a favourable outcome with rapid clearance of all fragments and a relatively low rate of stone recurrence. For carefully selected patients, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is therefore an attractive non-invasive therapy.

  20. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  1. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation. PMID:25615853

  2. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation.

  3. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  4. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine ... chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is ...

  5. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  7. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution. PMID:16303218

  8. Chronic stress and calcium oxalate stone disease: is it a potential recurrence risk factor?

    PubMed

    Arzoz-Fabregas, Montserrat; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Edo-Izquierdo, Sílvia; Doladé-Botías, María; Fernandez-Castro, Jordi; Roca-Antonio, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Chronic emotional stress is associated with increased cortisol release and metabolism disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of chronic stress on calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease and its recurrence. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in this case-control study over a period of 20 months. All patients were CaOx stone formers with a recent stone episode (<3 months); 31 were first-time stone formers (FS) and 33 recurrent stone formers (RS). Dimensions of chronic stress were evaluated with self-reported validated questionnaires measuring stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and satisfaction with life. An ad hoc self-reporting questionnaire was designed to evaluate stress-related specifically to stone episodes. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine cortisol levels and urinary composition. In addition, epidemiological data, socioeconomic information, diet and incidences of metabolic syndrome (MS) were reported. Overall, no significant differences were observed in the scores of cases and controls on any of the questionnaires dealing with stress. The number (p < 0.001) and the intensity (p < 0.001) of perceived stressful life events were higher in RS than in FS, but there were no differences between the two groups in other dimensions of stress. RS had higher glucose (p = 0.08), uric acid (p = 0.02), blood cortisol (p = 0.01), and urine calcium levels (p = 0.01) than FS. RS also had lower economic levels (p = 0.02) and more frequent incidences of MS (p = 0.07) than FS. Although no differences were observed in cases and controls among any dimension of chronic stress, the number and intensity of stressful life events were higher in RS than in FS. These differences correlate with variations in blood and urinary levels and with metabolic disorders, indicating an association between chronic stress and risk of recurrent CaOx stone formation.

  9. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, Delphine; Landesman, Catherine; Grambow, Bernd; Ribet, Solange; Giffaut, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) can affect the mobility of radionuclides in pore water of clay-rich geological formations, such as those intended to be used for nuclear waste disposal. The present work studies the adsorption and transport properties of a polycarboxylic acid, polymaleic acid (PMA, Mw = 1.9 kDa), on Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples (COx). Even though this molecule is rather different from the natural organic matter found in clay rock, the study of its retention properties on both dispersed and intact samples allows assessing to which extent organic acids may undergo sorption under natural conditions (pH 7) and what could be the impact on their mobility. PMA sorption and desorption were investigated in dispersed systems. The degree of sorption was measured after 1, 8 and 21 days and for a range of PMA initial concentrations from 4.5 × 10- 7 to 1.4 × 10- 3 mol.L- 1. The reversibility of the sorption process was estimated by desorption experiments performed after the sorption experiments. At the sorption steady state, the sorption was described by a two-site Langmuir model. A total sorption capacity of COx for PMA was found to be 1.01×10- 2 mol.kg- 1 distributed on two sorption sites, one weak and one strong. The desorption of PMA was incomplete, independently of the duration of the sorption phase. The amount of desorbable PMA even appeared to decrease for sorption phases from 1 to 21 days. To describe the apparent desorption hysteresis, two conceptual models were applied. The two-box diffusion model accounted for intraparticle diffusion and more generally for nonequilibrium processes. The two-box first-order non-reversible model accounted for a first-order non-reversible sorption and more generally for kinetically-controlled irreversible sorption processes. The use of the two models revealed that desorption hysteresis was not the result of nonequilibrium processes but was due to irreversible sorption. Irreversible sorption on the strong site was

  10. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  11. Effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Phil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to assess the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary stone-forming constituents, and to assess the effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence risk in first stone formers (SF). Baseline serum creatinine levels were obtained, and renal insufficiency was defined as creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (Cockroft-Gault). This retrospective case-control study consists of 342 first SF; 171 SF with normal renal function were selected with 1:1 propensity scores matched to 171 SF with renal insufficiency. Urinary metabolic evaluation was compared to renal function. GFR was positively correlated with urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion. Subjects with renal insufficiency had significantly lower urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion than those with normal renal function, but not urine volume. With regard to urinary metabolic abnormalities, similar results were obtained. SF with renal insufficiency had lower calcium oxalate supersaturation indexes and stone recurrence rates than SF with normal renal function. Kaplan-Meier curves showed similar results. In conclusion, GFR correlates positively with urinary excretion of stone-forming constituents in SF. This finding implies that renal insufficiency is not a risk factor for stone recurrence. PMID:25120325

  12. Effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Phil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to assess the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary stone-forming constituents, and to assess the effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence risk in first stone formers (SF). Baseline serum creatinine levels were obtained, and renal insufficiency was defined as creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (Cockroft-Gault). This retrospective case-control study consists of 342 first SF; 171 SF with normal renal function were selected with 1:1 propensity scores matched to 171 SF with renal insufficiency. Urinary metabolic evaluation was compared to renal function. GFR was positively correlated with urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion. Subjects with renal insufficiency had significantly lower urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion than those with normal renal function, but not urine volume. With regard to urinary metabolic abnormalities, similar results were obtained. SF with renal insufficiency had lower calcium oxalate supersaturation indexes and stone recurrence rates than SF with normal renal function. Kaplan-Meier curves showed similar results. In conclusion, GFR correlates positively with urinary excretion of stone-forming constituents in SF. This finding implies that renal insufficiency is not a risk factor for stone recurrence.

  13. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones Print A ... remove the stones from their urinary tracts. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  14. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  15. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S

    2014-12-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland.

  16. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D; Canales, Benjamin K

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers.

  17. Improvement of oxygen-containing functional groups on olive stones activated carbon by ozone and nitric acid for heavy metals removal from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Bohli, Thouraya; Ouederni, Abdelmottaleb

    2016-08-01

    Recently, modification of surface structure of activated carbons in order to improve their adsorption performance toward especial pollutants has gained great interest. Oxygen-containing functional groups have been devoted as the main responsible for heavy metal binding on the activated carbon surface; their introduction or enhancement needs specific modification and impregnation methods. In the present work, olive stones activated carbon (COSAC) undergoes surface modifications in gaseous phase using ozone (O3) and in liquid phase using nitric acid (HNO3). The activated carbon samples were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, SEM, pHpzc, FTIR, and Boehm titration. The activated carbon parent (COSAC) has a high surface area of 1194 m(2)/g and shows a predominantly microporous structure. Oxidation treatments with nitric acid and ozone show a decrease in both specific surface area and micropore volumes, whereas these acidic treatments have led to a fixation of high amount of surface oxygen functional groups, thus making the carbon surface more hydrophilic. Activated carbon samples were used as an adsorbent matrix for the removal of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at 30 °C, and the data are well fitted to the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir equation. Results show that oxidized COSACs, especially COSAC(HNO3), are capable to remove more Co(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Nitric acid-oxidized olive stones activated carbon was tested in its ability to remove metal ions from binary systems and results show an important maximum adsorbed amount as compared to single systems.

  18. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  19. The use of stoned olive cake and rolled linseed in the diet of intensively reared lambs: effect on the intramuscular fatty-acid composition.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Serra, A; Pauselli, M; Luciano, G; Lanza, M; Pennisi, P; Conte, G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Morbidini, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of stoned olive cake and rolled linseed in a concentrate-based diet for lambs on the fatty-acid composition of polar and non-polar intramuscular lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle. To achieve this objective, 32 Appenninica lambs were randomly distributed into four groups of eight lambs each and were fed conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C); concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L); concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC); and concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The concentrates were administered together with grass hay at a 20:80 forage:concentrate ratio. Growing performances and carcass traits were evaluated. The fatty-acid composition was analysed in the total intramuscular lipids, as well as in the polar and neutral lipids. The average feed intake and the growth performance of lambs were not affected by the dietary treatments, as a consequence of similar nutritional characteristics of the diets. The inclusion of rolled linseed in the L and OCL diets increased the content of C18:3 n-3 in intramuscular total lipids, which was threefold higher in meat from the L lambs and more than twofold higher in meat from the OCL lambs compared with the C and OC treatments. The n-6:n-3 ratio significantly decreased in the meat from lambs in the L and OCL groups, reaching values below 3. The L treatment resulted in the highest level of trans-18:1 fatty acids in the muscle. Regardless of the dietary treatment, the t10-18:1 was the major isomer, representing 55%, 45%, 49% and 45% of total trans-18:1 for C, L, OC and OCL treatments, respectively. Neutral lipids from the OC-fed lambs contained the highest amount of c9-18:1 (more than 36% of total fatty acids); however, the content of c9-18:1 did not differ between the OC and C lambs, suggesting an intensive biohydrogenation of

  20. Renal histopathology and crystal deposits in patients with small bowel resection and calcium oxalate stone disease.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Philips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2010-08-01

    We present here the anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from 11 patients with renal stones following small bowel resection, including 10 with Crohn's disease and 1 resection in infancy for unknown cause. They presented predominantly with calcium oxalate stones. Risks of formation included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion greater than 45 mg per day) in half of the cases, and acidic urine of reduced volume. As was found with ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) contained crystal deposits associated with cell injury, interstitial inflammation, and papillary deformity. Cortical changes included modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Randall's plaque (interstitial papillary apatite) was abundant, with calcium oxalate stone overgrowth similar to that seen in ileostomy, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque was compatible with the low urine volume and pH. The IMCD deposits all contained apatite, with calcium oxalate present in three cases, similar to findings in patients with obesity bypass but not an ileostomy. The mechanisms for calcium oxalate stone formation in IMCDs include elevated urine and presumably tubule fluid calcium oxalate supersaturation, but a low calcium to oxalate ratio. However, the mechanisms for the presence of IMCD apatite remain unknown.

  1. [Management of renal stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    The management of renal stones needs a recent and good quality imaging. Contrast medium injection is optional. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the most common treatment of renal stones. ESWL is indicated as first line treatment for less than 1.5cm stones. The stone-free (SF) rate at 3 months of ESWL is 70-80%. Results of ESWL for stones with more than 1000UH density or located in the lower calyx are poor. Flexible ureteroscopy (URS) is indicated in case of ESWL failure or for hyperdense, 1-2cm stones. The SF rate of flexible is 80%. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is indicated for complex or more than 2cm stones. Asymptomatic and non infected stones, especially if located in the lower calyx, do not need urological treatment but must be followed up. In all cases, renal stones needs a metabolic evaluation and treatment, and annual follow-up.

  2. A nidus, crystalluria and aggregation: key ingredients for stone enlargement.

    PubMed

    Saw, N K; Rao, P N; Kavanagh, J P

    2008-02-01

    The in vitro study of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation is usually based on crystallisation models but it is recognised that both healthy individuals and stone formers have crystalluria. We have established a robust in vitro stone growth model based on the principle of mixed suspension, mixed product removal system (MSMPR). Utilising this technique we studied the influence of CaOx crystallisation kinetics and the variation of calcium and oxalate concentrations on CaOx stone growth in vitro. Six stones received standard concentration of Ca (6 mM) and Ox (1.2 mM) in the medium while another six received variable concentrations of both Ca and Ox at various intervals. Stone mass was plotted against the experiment duration (typically 5-7 weeks). The stone growth was dependent on sufficient input calcium and oxalate concentrations and once triggered, stone growth could not be maintained at reduced calcium and oxalate inputs. The stone growth rate was positively correlated to the number of crystals in suspension around the stone and to the crystal nucleation rate and negatively correlated to the crystal growth rates. This leads to the conclusion that aggregation of crystals from the surrounding suspension was the dominant mechanism for stone enlargement.

  3. [Calcium kidney stones. Diagnostic and preventive prospects].

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, T; Terranegra, A; Biasion, R; Soldati, L; Vezzoli, G

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stone disease is one of the main causes of hospitalization in Italy. Its prevalence increased in the last century and is probably still increasing. The pathogenesis of the disease is not known, although two main theories have been elaborated. The first hypothesizes that hydroxyapatite deposition in the interstitium of the renal papillae (Randall's plaque) precedes urinary calcium oxalate precipitation on the ulcered surface of the papilla to form a stone. The second presumes the tubular lumen of Bellini's duct to be the site where calcium-oxalate salts precipitate to form the nucleus for stone formation within the urinary tract. These pathogenetic processes may be favored by different dietary and genetic factors. The genes involved are not known, although many studies have been performed. Polymorphisms of genes coding for the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and urokinase were found to be associated with kidney stones, but these results have not been replicated. Different nutrients are suspected to predispose patients to calcium kidney stone disease. A high intake of animal proteins, sodium, vitamin C and oxalate has been implicated in stone formation, whereas calcium, alkalis and phytate may have a protective effect. The prevention of calcium stone formation is based on the recognition of risk factors like those already mentioned here. Furthermore, a family history of kidney stones may be useful in identifying subjects predisposed to become calcium stone formers. However, the expectations of the scientific community are turned to the advances in genetics and to the findings of genetic studies, which may provide diagnostic tools and criteria to define the risk profile of the single individual.

  4. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  5. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  6. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  7. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  8. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition.

  9. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  11. Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age.

  12. Estimating the Rate of Occurrence of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Goodenow, D.; Gokoglu, S.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in urine chemistry, during and post flight, potentially increases the risk of renal stones in astronauts. Although much is known about the effects of space flight on urine chemistry, no inflight incidence of renal stones in US astronauts exists and the question "How much does this risk change with space flight?" remains difficult to accurately quantify. In this discussion, we tackle this question utilizing a combination of deterministic and probabilistic modeling that implements the physics behind free stone growth and agglomeration, speciation of urine chemistry and published observations of population renal stone incidences to estimate changes in the rate of renal stone presentation. The modeling process utilizes a Population Balance Equation based model developed in the companion IWS abstract by Kassemi et al. (2016) to evaluate the maximum growth and agglomeration potential from a specified set of urine chemistry values. Changes in renal stone occurrence rates are obtained from this model in a probabilistic simulation that interrogates the range of possible urine chemistries using Monte Carlo techniques. Subsequently, each randomly sampled urine chemistry undergoes speciation analysis using the well-established Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) code to calculate critical values, such as ionic strength and relative supersaturation. The Kassemi model utilizes this information to predict the mean and maximum stone size. We close the assessment loop by using a transfer function that estimates the rate of stone formation from combining the relative supersaturation and both the mean and maximum free stone growth sizes. The transfer function is established by a simulation analysis which combines population stone formation rates and Poisson regression. Training this transfer function requires using the output of the aforementioned assessment steps with inputs from known non-stone-former and known stone-former urine chemistries. Established in a Monte Carlo

  13. 77 FR 40638 - Syniverse Technologies, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... 19, 2012 (Vol. 77, No. 76 FR 23510). At the request of State Workforce Office, the Department... Insight Global Stone Staffing, and Randstad Formerly Known as Sapphire Technologies, Watertown, MA... workers from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad formerly known as Sapphire Technologies,...

  14. Can Blood Gas and Acid-Base Parameters at Maximal 200 Meters Front Crawl Swimming be Different Between Former Competitive and Recreational Swimmers?

    PubMed

    Kapus, Jernej; Usaj, Anton; Strumbelj, Boro; Kapus, Venceslav

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether maximal 200 m front crawl swimming strategies and breathing patterns influenced blood gas and acid-base parameters in a manner which gives advantage to former competitive swimmers in comparison with their recreational colleagues. Twelve former competitive male swimmers (the CS group) and nine recreational male swimmers (the RS group) performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swimming with self- selected breathing pattern. Stroke rate (SR) and breathing frequency (BF) were measured during the swimming test. Measures also included blood lactate concentration ([LA]) and parameters of blood acid-base status before and during the first minute after the swimming test. The CS group swam faster then the RS group. Both groups have similar and steady SR throughout the swimming test. This was not matched by similar BF in the CS group but matched it very well in the RS group (r = 0.89). At the beginning of swimming test the CS group had low BF, but they increased it throughout the swimming test. The BF at the RS group remained constant with only mirror variations throughout the swimming test. Such difference in velocity and breathing resulted in maintaining of blood Po2 from hypoxia and Pco2 from hypercapnia. This was similar in both groups. [LA] increased faster in the CS group than in the RS group. On the contrary, the rate of pH decrease remained similar in both groups. The former competitive swimmers showed three possible advantages in comparison to recreational swimmers during maximal 200 m front crawl swimming: a more dynamic and precise regulation of breathing, more powerful bicarbonate buffering system and better synchronization between breathing needs and breathing response during swimming. Key pointsTraining programs for competitive swimmers should promote adaptations to maximal efforts.Those adaptations should include high and maximal intensity swims with controlled breathing frequency (taking breath every fourth

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  16. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  17. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  18. Quantification of Urinary Stone Composition in Mixed Stones Using Dual-Energy CT: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Huang, Alice; Montoya, Juan; Duan, Xinhui; Williams, James C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using dual-energy computed tomography to accurately quantify uric acid and non-uric-acid components in urinary stones having mixed composition. Materials and Methods A total of 24 urinary stones were analyzed with microCT to serve as the reference standard for uric acid and non-uric-acid composition. These stones were placed in water phantoms to simulate body attenuation of slim to obese adults and scanned on a third-generation dual-source scanner using dual-energy modes adaptively selected based on phantom size. CT number ratio, which is distinct for different materials, was calculated for each pixel of the stones. Each pixel was then classified as uric acid and non-uric-acid by comparing the CT number ratio with preset thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. Minimal, maximal and root-mean-square errors were calculated by comparing composition to the reference standard and the threshold with the minimal root-mean-square-error was determined. A paired t-test was performed to compare the stone composition determined with dual-energy CT with the reference standard obtained with microCT. Results The optimal CT number ratio threshold ranged from 1.27 to 1.55, dependent on phantom size. The root-mean-square error ranged from 9.60% to 12.87% across all phantom sizes. Minimal and maximal absolute error ranged from 0.04% to 1.24% and from 22.05% to 35.46%, respectively. Dual-energy CT and the reference microCT did not differ significantly on uric acid and non-uric-acid composition (P from 0.20 to 0.96, paired t-test). Conclusion Accurate quantification of uric acid and non-uric-acid composition in mixed stones is possible using dual-energy CT. PMID:27224260

  19. Mechanisms of differing stone fragility in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, P; Preminger, G M

    1994-08-01

    Clinical experience with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has demonstrated significant variations in stone fragility. To understand the physical mechanisms of the differences, we quantitatively determined shockwave-stone interaction under clinically relevant SWL conditions for six stone compositions: calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), struvite (MAPH), calcium apatite (CA), uric acid (UA), brushite, and cystine. We also characterized the acoustic and mechanical properties of the stones using ultrasound and microindentation techniques. Our results show that renal calculi have distinctly different acoustic and mechanical properties. Higher wave speed, Young's modulus, and fracture toughness were measured from COM and cystine stones, whereas lower values of the corresponding properties were found in CA and MAPH, and the values for brushite and UA stones were in between. Computer modeling of shockwave propagation revealed that under the same shockwave intensity, larger deformation was induced in CA and MAPH stones than in COM and cystine stones. In addition, multiple reflected tensile waves were predicted for stones with concentric layer structure, indicating their susceptibility to shockwave fragmentation. These findings elucidate the mechanisms of the differences in stone fragility observed clinically. Their implications to SWL are discussed.

  20. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  1. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...

  2. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...

  3. Trace element relations to renal stones phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Gazilka, M.

    1990-04-01

    The renal stones formation is still not well known and seems to be a very complex phenomenon. Therefore, the renal stones were analyzed by the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Using FTIR the samples were grouped into 5 types: phosphates, mixture of phosphates and oxalates, oxalates, mixture of oxalates and uric acid, and uric acid. PIXE was used to determine Trace Element (TE) contents. The combination of the two analysis methods enables us to find some TE relations to different renal stones phases. In general it appeared that TE contents in mixed structures are always between values of the respective pure phases. It was also found that some of the toxic elements are related to the structures but not necessarily to environmental influences as in the case of lead. All data were statistically analyzed and the correalations of the elements are presented.

  4. Sequencing of proteins extracted from stones.

    PubMed

    Binette, J P; Binette, M B

    1994-01-01

    Proteins from urinary tract and gallbladder stones were extracted and characterized to determine the composition of the matrix and possibly unravel the role of the organic phase in stone formation. Proteins from crushed stones were extracted by electrodialysis and concentrated in the Amicon centricon cartridge or by lyophilization after dialysis against distilled water. Aliquots were first analyzed by isoelectric focusing in gel and if suitable subjected to two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis. The most promising spots were harvested and the N-terminal amino acids sequenced, thus providing maximum information with minimum expenditure of material. The 2D separations and amino acid sequences of several protein extracts demonstrated similarities and differences in composition and achieved the identification or demonstration of previously and recently detected polypeptides.

  5. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones.

  6. Effective atomic number accuracy for kidney stone characterization using spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Langan, D. A.; Sahani, D. S.; Kambadakone, A.; Aluri, S.; Procknow, K.; Wu, X.; Bhotika, R.; Okerlund, D.; Kulkarni, N.; Xu, D.

    2010-04-01

    The clinical application of Gemstone Spectral ImagingTM, a fast kV switching dual energy acquisition, is explored in the context of noninvasive kidney stone characterization. Utilizing projection-based material decomposition, effective atomic number and monochromatic images are generated for kidney stone characterization. Analytical and experimental measurements are reported and contrasted. Phantoms were constructed using stone specimens extracted from patients. This allowed for imaging of the different stone types under similar conditions. The stone specimens comprised of Uric Acid, Cystine, Struvite and Calcium-based compositions. Collectively, these stone types span an effective atomic number range of approximately 7 to 14. While Uric Acid and Calcium based stones are generally distinguishable in conventional CT, stone compositions like Cystine and Struvite are difficult to distinguish resulting in treatment uncertainty. Experimental phantom measurements, made under increasingly complex imaging conditions, illustrate the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy. Preliminary clinical studies are reported.

  7. High levels, partitioning and fish consumption based water guidelines of perfluoroalkyl acids downstream of a former firefighting training facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fowler, Craig; Day, Sarah; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Drouillard, Ken G; Morse, Dave

    2016-09-01

    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been observed at locations in/around/downstream of the sites where PFOS-based firefighting foam was used repeatedly for a prolonged period. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of PFAA contamination in the Lake Niapenco area in Ontario, Canada, where among the highest ever reported levels of PFOS were recently measured in amphipods, fish and snapping turtle plasma. Levels and distribution of PFAAs in water, sediment and fish samples collected from the area varied widely. An upstream pond beside a former firefighting training area (FFTA) was confirmed as the source of PFAAs even 20years after the last use of the foam at the FFTA. Recent PFOS concentration in water (~60ng/L) at Lake Niapenco, about 14km downstream of the pond, was still 3-7× higher than the background levels. For PFOS, Log KD ranged 1.3-2.5 (mean±SE: 1.7±0.1), Log BAFs ranged 2.4-4.7 (3.4±0.05), and Log BSAFs ranged 0.7-2.9 (1.7±0.05). Some fish species-specific differences in BAF and BSAF were observed. At Log BAF of 4.7, fish PFOS levels at Lake Niapenco could reach 15,000ng/g, 100× greater than a "do not eat" advisory benchmark, without exceeding the current drinking water guideline of 300ng/L. A fish consumption based water guideline was estimated at 1-15ng/L, which is likely applicable worldwide given that the Log BAFs observed in this study were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. It appears that PFAA in the downstream waters increased between 2011 and 2015; however, further monitoring is required to confirm this trend.

  8. High levels, partitioning and fish consumption based water guidelines of perfluoroalkyl acids downstream of a former firefighting training facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fowler, Craig; Day, Sarah; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Drouillard, Ken G; Morse, Dave

    2016-09-01

    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been observed at locations in/around/downstream of the sites where PFOS-based firefighting foam was used repeatedly for a prolonged period. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of PFAA contamination in the Lake Niapenco area in Ontario, Canada, where among the highest ever reported levels of PFOS were recently measured in amphipods, fish and snapping turtle plasma. Levels and distribution of PFAAs in water, sediment and fish samples collected from the area varied widely. An upstream pond beside a former firefighting training area (FFTA) was confirmed as the source of PFAAs even 20years after the last use of the foam at the FFTA. Recent PFOS concentration in water (~60ng/L) at Lake Niapenco, about 14km downstream of the pond, was still 3-7× higher than the background levels. For PFOS, Log KD ranged 1.3-2.5 (mean±SE: 1.7±0.1), Log BAFs ranged 2.4-4.7 (3.4±0.05), and Log BSAFs ranged 0.7-2.9 (1.7±0.05). Some fish species-specific differences in BAF and BSAF were observed. At Log BAF of 4.7, fish PFOS levels at Lake Niapenco could reach 15,000ng/g, 100× greater than a "do not eat" advisory benchmark, without exceeding the current drinking water guideline of 300ng/L. A fish consumption based water guideline was estimated at 1-15ng/L, which is likely applicable worldwide given that the Log BAFs observed in this study were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. It appears that PFAA in the downstream waters increased between 2011 and 2015; however, further monitoring is required to confirm this trend. PMID:27302846

  9. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  10. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures. PMID:27512433

  11. 78 FR 52984 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite... former workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs... investigation, I determine that workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and...

  12. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Netzer, Linda; Hesse, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. Methods Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. Results Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p = 0.035), calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p = 0.001) and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p = 0.005) as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. Conclusions Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect. PMID:24265740

  13. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most

  14. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Matlaga, Brian R.

    2007-04-05

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  15. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  16. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  17. 15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Wilder Mill (on left) and Paper Machine Building (on right), showing collapsed area of stone arch bridge spanning raceway in foreground; view to south - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  18. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.

    PubMed

    Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  19. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  20. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells. PMID:18072248

  1. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells.

  2. Mineralogical signatures of stone formation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gower, Laurie B; Amos, Fairland F; Khan, Saeed R

    2010-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in biomineralization are modulated through interactions with organic matrix. In the case of stone formation, the role of the organic macromolecules in the complex urinary environment is not clear, but the presence of mineralogical 'signatures' suggests that some aspects of stone formation may result from a non-classical crystallization process that is induced by acidic proteins. An amorphous precursor has been detected in many biologically controlled mineralization reactions, which is thought to be regulated by non-specific interactions between soluble acidic proteins and mineral ions. Using in vitro model systems, we find that a liquid-phase amorphous mineral precursor induced by acidic polypeptides can lead to crystal textures that resemble those found in Randall's plaque and kidney stones. This polymer-induced liquid-precursor process leads to agglomerates of coalesced mineral spherules, dense-packed spherulites with concentric laminations, mineral coatings and 'cements', and collagen-associated mineralization. Through the use of in vitro model systems, the mechanisms involved in the formation of these crystallographic features may be resolved, enhancing our understanding of the potential role(s) that proteins play in stone formation.

  3. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  4. Investigations on the "Extreme" Microbial Arsenic Cycle within the Sediments of an Acidic Impoundment of the Former Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine: Herman Pit, Clear Lake, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J. S.; Hoeft McCann, S. E.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Stoneburner, B.; Saltikov, C.; Oremland, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of prokaryotes in the redox reactions of arsenic occurring between this element's +5 [arsenate; As(V)] and + 3 [arsenite; As(III)] oxidation states has been well established. Most research has focused upon circum-neutral pH environments, such as freshwater lake and aquifer sediments, and extreme environments like hot springs and hypersaline soda lakes have also been well investigated. In contrast, little work has been conducted on acidic environments. The azure-hued, clear waters of the Herman Pit are acidic (pH 2-4), and overlie oxidized sediments that have a distinctive red/orange coloration indicative of the presence of ferrihydrites and other Fe(III) minerals. There is extensive ebullitive release of geothermal gases from the lake bottom in the form of numerous continuous-flow seeps which are composed primarily of mixtures of CO2, CH4, and H2S. We collected near-shore surface sediments with an Eckman grab, and stored the "soupy" material in filled mason jars kept at 4˚C. Initial experiments were conducted using 3:1 mixtures of lake water: sediment so as to generate dilute slurries which were amended with mM levels of electron acceptors (arsenate, nitrate, oxygen), electron donors (arsenite, acetate, lactate, hydrogen), and incubated under N2, air, or H2. Owing to the large adsorptive capacity of the Fe(III)-rich slurries, we were unable to detect As(V) or As(III) in the aqueous phase of either live or autoclaved controls, although the former consumed lactate, acetate, nitrate, or hydrogen, while the latter did not. This prompted us to conduct a series of further diluted slurry experiments using the live materials from the first as a 10 % addition to lakewater. In these experiments we observed reduction of As(V) to As(III) in anoxic slurries and that rates were enhanced by addition of electron donors (H2, acetate, or lactate). We also observed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in oxic slurries and in anoxic slurries amended with nitrate. These

  5. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  6. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  7. Kidney stone risk following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Canales, Benjamin K; Gonzalez, Ricardo D

    2014-09-01

    Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. The studies with the highest level of evidence, performed in non-stone forming patients before and after RYGB, cite a number of kidney stone risk factors, including a 25% increase in urinary oxalate, a 30% decrease in urinary citrate, and reduction in urine volume by half a liter. In addition to these, recent clinical and experimental studies have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this unique population. This review summarizes the current RYGB urinary chemistry profiles and epidemiological studies, outlines known and theoretical mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and hypocitrituria, and provides some standard recommendations for reducing stone risk in RYGB stone formers as well as some novel ones, including correction of metabolic acidosis and use of probiotics.

  8. Calcium-sensing receptor and calcium kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Terranegra, Annalisa; Rainone, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Cozzolino, Mario; Aloia, Andrea; Dogliotti, Elena; Cusi, Daniele; Soldati, Laura

    2011-11-22

    Calcium nephrolithiasis may be considered as a complex disease having multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and characterized by various clinical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors may increase susceptibility to calcium stones; therefore, it is crucial to characterize the patient phenotype to distinguish homogeneous groups of stone formers. Family and twin studies have shown that the stone transmission pattern is not mendelian, but complex and polygenic. In these studies, heritability of calcium stones was calculated around 50%Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is mostly expressed in the parathyroid glands and in renal tubules. It regulates the PTH secretion according to the serum calcium concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion regulating the function of different tubular segments. In particular, CaSR reduces passive and active calcium reabsorption in distal tubules, increases phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for calcium nephrolithiasis.In a case-control study we found an association between the normocitraturic stone formers and two SNPs of CaSR, located near the promoters region (rs7652589 and rs1501899). This result was replicated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, comparing patients with or without kidney stones. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the minor alleles at these polymorphisms were able to modify the binding sites of specific transcription factors and, consequently, CaSR expression.Our studies suggest that CaSR is one of the candidate genes explaining individual predisposition to calcium nephrolithiasis. Stone formation may be favored by an altered CaSR expression in kidney medulla involving the normal balance among calcium, phosphate, protons and water excretion.

  9. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis.

  10. Kidney stones during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy.

  11. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  12. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  13. Assessment of stone composition in the management of urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; de la Rosette, J J M

    2011-02-01

    Several explanations have been suggested to account for the failure of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment in patients with urinary stones, including large stone volume, unfavorable stone location or composition and the type of lithotriptor used. Unfavorable stone composition is considered a major cause of failure of ESWL treatment, and consequently knowledge of the stone composition before treatment is initiated is desirable. Plain abdominal radiographs cannot accurately determine either stone composition or fragility, and although the CT attenuation value in Hounsfield units (HU) (that is, normalized to the attenuation characteristics of water) is useful, this parameter has limited value as a predictor of stone composition or the response to ESWL treatment. By contrast, stone morphology as visualized by CT correlates well with both fragility and susceptibility to fragmentation by ESWL. For patients prone to recurrent calculi, analyses of stone composition are especially important, as they may reveal an underlying metabolic abnormality. The development of advanced imaging technologies that can predict stone fragility is essential, as they could provide extra information for physicians, enabling them to select the most appropriate treatment option for patients with urinary stones.

  14. Outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy monotherapy for large renal calculi: effect of stone and collecting system surface areas and cost-effectiveness of treatment.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Chandhoke, P S; Berman, C J; Sankey, N E

    1995-02-01

    The treatment options for large renal calculi are controversial. We report on our experience with 65 treatments of renal calculi > 3 cm using extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) monotherapy. We stratified our results according to stone and collecting system surface areas (measured by computer image analyses), stone location, and stone type. The overall success rate of SWL monotherapy was 27% at 3 months. The best stone-free rate (60%) was obtained for stones < 500 mm2 and located primarily within the renal pelvis. The stone-free rate for stones with surface areas > 1000 mm2 was only 8%. None of the cystine stones was treated successfully, whereas 80% of patients with uric acid stones became stone free. We estimated an average cost of $67,048 to render a patient with a large renal calculus stone free using SWL monotherapy. We recommend that other treatment options, such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, be considered as first-line therapy for large renal calculi.

  15. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  16. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  17. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  18. Necromancing the stones.

    PubMed

    Goel, V

    1995-12-15

    Since its introduction 15 years ago extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a standard treatment for urinary stones. The author comments on the results of Adrian R. Levy and Maurice McGregor's study of the use of ESWL for urinary stones in Quebec (see pages 1729 to 1736 of this issue). The rapid increase in the use of ESWL that occurred in the first 2 years of the study points to the fact that the application of a new technology is often quickly expanded before thorough assessments of effectiveness and safety have been carried out. New technologies also lead to shifts in cost distribution that must be considered in cost analyses. The author argues that continuing research is needed to document the dissemination of new technologies and points to methodologic concerns that should be addressed to make such research as fruitful as possible.

  19. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  20. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  1. Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

  2. Repeated piezoelectric lithotripsy for gallstones with and without ursodeoxycholic acid dissolution: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y; Ishihara, F; Kajiyama, G; Nakazawa, S; Otho, M; Tanimura, H; Akura, Y; Harada, M; Hihara, M; Kawai, Y

    1995-12-01

    The use of bile acid dissolution therapy in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of gallstones, remains controversial. Our study examined whether chemolitholysis after sufficient disintegration enhanced stone clearance within 6 months of the first lithotripsy. A total of 143 patients who developed one to three radiolucent stones measuring < or = 30 mm in diameter were randomly separated into two treatment groups: 47% were given lithotripsy alone, and 53% lithotripsy plus ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Repeated piezoelectric lithotripsy was given, with no limit on the total number of treatment sessions, to pulverize or disintegrate stones into fragments < 3 mm. Stones were disintegrated in 97% of all patients, and the fragments were < or = 2 mm in 50% of these patients. According to an intention-to-treat analysis, 52% in the lithotripsy alone group and 58% in the UDCA group were free of stones 6 months after the first lithotripsy (P = 0.61). Of the patients with fragments < or = 2 mm, 71% in the former and 86% in the latter group were free of stones 6 months after the first lithotripsy, with no significant difference between the groups. Biliary pain occurred in 25% of all patients, including 3 with acute cholecystitis. We concluded that the sufficient disintegration of gallstones achieved with repeated lithotripsy enhanced the early clearance of fragments, regardless of whether chemolitholysis was employed.

  3. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  4. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention.

  5. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  6. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated

  7. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  8. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  9. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  10. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  11. Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauri, K. Lal

    1990-01-01

    Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by SO2 reactions with calcareous minerals. These crusts exfoliate, destroying the sculptural form. Because of the absence of proven technology to treat and restore these objects, the caryatids at the Acropolis had to be moved indoors to save them from further disfiguration. In arid climates, the salts in stone and the meteorologic conditions combine to disrupt stone structures. The Great Sphinx at Giza is a prominent example of this mode of stone decay. In humid, tropical regions, such as in southern India, hydrolysis disrupts the mineral structure, causing rapid damage even to such durable stone as granite. The human effort to save the deteriorating structures has often aggravated the problem. The sandstone at the Legislative Building in Olympia, Washington has, because of the “protective” acrylic coating, suffered greater damage than the similar but unprotected sandstone at a nearby school building. It appears that proper management can greatly help to reduce the decay of the stone. A scientifically designed cleaning can inhibit the formation of crusts and the accumulation of efflorescences. The absence of the crusts and efflorescence and application of appropriate impregnants, which consolidate yet maintain the "breathability" of stone, may prolong the life of historic structures.

  12. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  13. The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

  14. Estimation of Pyruvic acid in serum and saliva among healthy and potentially malignant disorder subjects – a stepping stone for cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Anithraj; Prasad, Kakarla; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Acharya, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Background According to Warburg’s effect, the rate of glycolysis increases in cancerous cells. This will increase overall levels of pyruvic acid. The present on-going study was conducted to estimate the levels of pyruvic acid in saliva and serum in normal, oral PMD subjects. Material and Methods A total of 50 subjects in healthy, PMD of the oral cavity individuals were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Collected saliva and serum samples were subjected to pyruvic acid level estimation using biochemical analysis. Results Of the 50 participants 25 (13: Males; 12: Females) & 25 (16: Males; 9: Females) were PMD group. Independent samples t test showed statistically significant difference in serum & salivary pyruvic acid level in between 2 groups (p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Estimation of pyruvic acid showed sequential increase in the level in PMD group compared to healthy. Hence the study results open new direction in cancer screening. Key words:Pyruvic acid, glycolysis, warburg’s effect. PMID:26535090

  15. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  16. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  17. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  18. Treatment of urinary tract stones.

    PubMed

    Wickham, J E

    1993-11-27

    Replacement of open surgery with minimally invasive techniques for treating stones in the renal tract has greatly reduced patients' morbidity and mortality and the period of hospitalisation and convalescence. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy does not require anaesthesia and requires little analgesia so that treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, and there is no wound to heal. Only a small puncture site is needed for percutaneous endoscopic lithotomy, and with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics there are few complications. Of renal stones, about 85% can now be successfully treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy alone, and almost all of the stones too large or hard for lithotripsy can be treated endoscopically, with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes being used to fragment the stone. Stones in the upper and lower thirds of the ureter can be treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy, but stones in the middle third, which cannot normally be visualised to allow focusing of the shockwaves, usually require ureteroscopy. Nearly all bladder stones can be treated by transurethral endoscopy with an electrohydraulic probe. Only the largest renal tract stones still require open surgery.

  19. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  20. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  1. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  2. Lost Stones During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Arozamena, C.; Gutierrez, L.; Bracco, J.; Mon, A.; Almeyra, R. Sanchez; Secchi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gallbladder perforation, with loss of calculi in the abdomen is frequent during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recent publications report complications in port sites or in the abdominal cavity. A study of 3686 laparsocopic cholecystectomies performed by 6 surgeons was undertaken. In 627 patients, perforation of the gallbladder occurred and in 254 stones were spilled into the abdominal cavity. In 214 they were retrieved and in 40 left in the abdomen. Twelve patients developed complications. Percutaneous drainage was successful in 2 with serous collections. Two patients with abdominal abscesses were reoperated, stones retrieved and the abdomen drained. One patient developed an intestinal obstruction due to a stone in the ileum. One patient who had a cholecystectomy in another hospital developed a paraumbilical tumor. At reoperation a stone was retrieved. In another six patients, stones were found in port sites. Stones lost into the abdomen should be removed because of their potential morbidity, especially if they are large or if infection is present in the gallbladder at the time of initial surgery. There is no indication for routine conversion to open surgery when stone spillage occurs, although patients should be informed to avoid legal consequence, and to hasten early diagnosis of later complications. PMID:9893240

  3. [Relationship between metabolic syndrome and urinary stone disease].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologically, there are many same characteristics among patients with urolithiasis, life-style related diseases and metabolic syndrome. In a comparison with the major urological diseases, the patients with stone disease have the largest amount of visceral fat on computerized tomography. The patients who finally had a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in urolithiasis were 43% of men and female 31%. The clinical features of the patients include increased urinary oxalate excretion, abnormal uric acid metabolism, and acidic urine. The basic studies by the animal experiments suggest that there is a close relationship between urolithiasis and metabolic syndrome. After the treatment of the urinary stone, it is very important to make a long-term follow-up by not only the prevention of recurrent stone episode but also life style management and medical treatment for metabolic syndrome. PMID:21960234

  4. 78 FR 37586 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Determination was published in the Federal Register on May 15, 2013 (78 FR 28628-28630). Workers at the subject... Employment and Training Administration Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite... former workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado...

  5. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  6. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  7. Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

  8. Study on leaching vanadium from roasted residue of stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    He, D.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Ou, L.

    2008-11-15

    In China, the total reserves of vanadium, reported as V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, in stone coal is 118 Mt (130 million st). Recovering vanadium from such a large resource is very important to China's vanadium industry. The technology now being used to recover vanadium from stone coal has the following two problems in the leaching process: a low recovery of vanadium and high acid consumption. To resolve these problems, a new leaching technology is proposed. The effects of factors such as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, liquid-solid ratio, temperature and time, and the types and additions of additives were studied. By adding 1.5% (by weight) CaF2 and leaching the roasted residue of stone coal with 5.4% (by weight) sulfuric acid at 90{sup o}C for 12 hours at a liquid-solid ratio of 2 mL/g, the leaching degree of vanadium reached 83.10%. This proposed leaching technology gives a feasible alternative for the processing of roasting residue of stone coal and can be applied in the comprehensive utilization of stone coal ores in China.

  9. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases. PMID:27630833

  10. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases.

  11. [Management of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Taxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    Proximal ureteral stone less than 4-6mm may initially be treated by surveillance. Generally, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the first line treatment for proximal ureteral stones, specially for stones less than 1cm. For stones greater than 1cm, the results of ureteroscopy (URS) are better than the results of ESWL and in these cases URS may be an option. In case of failure of ESWL, URS can be proposed. URS can be the first line treatment in case of severe ureteral obstruction with no urinary infection. Proximal ureteroscopy must be careful because severe complications are not infrequent. Open surgery has very rare indication. Metabolic check-up and annually follow-up with at least a renal imaging at three months are recommended.

  12. Analysis of amino acid constituents of gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Lian-Lian; Xiao, Yu-Xia; Ni, Jing-Hua; Yu, Yan

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To seek drugs that will efficaciously dissolve bilirubin, glycoprotein and black stones and that will represent improved lithotriptic agents to resolve cholesterol stones, and to study the amino acid constituents of gallstones. METHODS: According to characteristics determined by infrared spectroscopy and to the contents of bilirubin determined by semi-quantitative chemical analysis, 30 of 148 cases of gallstones were selected and divided into 5 groups. Amino acids of the 30 cases were detected by high-speed chromatography. RESULTS: The quantity of amino acids was highest in black stones (226.9 mg/g) and lowest in pure cholesterol stones (1.4 mg/g). In the 5 groups of gallstones, the quantity of amino acids followed the hierarchy of black stone > mixed bilirubin stone and glucoprotein stone > mixed cholesterol stone > pure cholesterol stone. The proportions were: 95.95:29.02 and 28.05:5.78:1. Aliphatic amino acids accounted for approximately 50% of the total amino acids in the gallstones, with glycine accounting for 15.3% of the total amount of the 17 kinds of amino acids. CONCLUSION: For mixed stones, the higher level of bilirubin, the higher content of amino acids. Acidic amino acids were relatively higher in bilirubin stones than in cholesterol stones. PMID:27053886

  13. Problem in analyzing cystine stones using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Cystine stones are produced by an inherited disorder of the transport of amino acid cystine that results in excess of cystine in the urine (cystinuria). Cystine calculi in urinary tract present a significant problem in patients. We have recorded that cystine calculi are very uncommon in our region. Cystine crystals are unusually identified in the urinary deposits. The problem of recognizing cystine by FTIR as a component in mixture of stones is significant. The problem is compounded by the similarity of wavelengths of cystine with that of whewellite and uric acid. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the problems of identifying cystine in stone analysis and identifying a solution to get over this deficiency. Out of 1,300 urinary stones analysed by ordinary wet chemical methods and infrared spectroscopy, 30 stone samples, which were reported to have cystine peaks in significant numbers, were selected. These samples were powdered, mixed with potassium bromide, pelletized and taken up for FTIR analysis. The wavelength patterns were scrutinized by comparing with the peaks obtained by the reference standards of cystine. Spectra were also obtained from pure cystine. Comparison of spectra with those of whewellite and uric acid was performed. Then the samples were taken for Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis X-ray (SEM-EDAX). The samples were made conductive by gold sputtering and were fed into JEOL JSM 35 C SEM machine. Morphology was recorded by taking photographs. Further elemental distribution analysis (EDAX) was carried out to identify the elemental composition. Of the 30 samples taken up for FTIR analysis, all showed spectra identifiable with the reference peaks for cystine. However, when these peaks were compared with those of whewellite and uric acid, all the stone samples showed duplication of peaks for whewellite and uric acid and whewellite. The pure cystine spectra showed identifiable peaks are in the range of 3026, 1618

  14. Laser lithotripsy for ureteric stones.

    PubMed

    Foo, K T; Wujanto, R; Wong, M Y

    1994-01-01

    The use of laser is a relatively new modality of treatment in urology. With the advent of the pulse-dye laser lithotripter and a finer 7.2 ureteroscope (miniscope), we found that it was more effective for treating ureteric stones than the conventional ultrasound lithotripsy. Between May 1989 and December 1991, 239 patients (162 males, 77 females) with 259 ureteric stones were treated endoscopically by this modality. Their ages ranged from 19 to 81 years (mean 46.3). The stones were mostly of 5 to 10 mm in their transverse diameters. They were situated in the upper ureter in 59, middle ureter in 39, and lower ureter in 161 cases. The miniscope was inserted into the ureter without prior dilatation and under direct vision. Stone fragmentation was performed using the 504-nm pulse-dye laser of 30 to 60 mJ energy. Complete fragmentation of the stone using the Candela laser lithotripter was achieved in 202 patients (85%). The average hospital stay was two days. Of the 37 unsuccessful cases, 11 were due to failed ureteroscopy, ten due to poor visibility from bleeding, 14 due to stone migrating up to the kidneys and two were monohydrate calculi which did not fragment with laser lithotripsy. Open ureterolithotomies were necessary in 14 patients (5.9%). Significant morbidity was perforation of the ureters which occurred in three patients (1.3%). This was due to ureteroscopy rather than the laser lithotripsy itself. With the availability of the new shockwave lithotripter (ESWL) which can treat ureteric stones in even less invasive ways, without anaesthesia and as outpatient, we are now reserving laser lithotripsy for those who failed ESWL. Generally they are the stones which cause severe obstruction to the ureter.

  15. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  16. An update on the changing epidemiology and metabolic risk factors in pediatric kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Sas, David J

    2011-08-01

    Nephrolithiasis in children is a painful and costly disease that may also have detrimental long-term effects on kidney function. Recent data provide evidence that the incidence of nephrolithiasis in children is rising. Children who are white, female, and adolescent seem to have the highest risk for forming symptomatic kidney stones. Although the reasons for the rising incidence and demographic discrepancies in pediatric nephrolithiasis are not yet clear, recent investigations into urine chemistry provide clues regarding predisposing metabolic risk factors. As more data emerge regarding epidemiologic and metabolic characteristics of pediatric kidney stone formers, we hope to gain a better understanding of the causes of kidney stone disease and, ultimately, provide better strategies for stone prevention in children.

  17. Dual energy micro CT SkyScan 1173 for the characterization of urinary stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, L. A.; Asyana, V.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.; Latief, F. D. E.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the composition of urinary stones is an essential part to determine suitable treatments for patients. The aim of this research is to characterize the urinary stones by using dual energy micro CT SkyScan 11173. This technique combines high-energy and low- energy scanning during a single acquisition. Six human urinary stones were scanned in vitro using 80 kV and 120 kV micro CT SkyScan 1173. Projected images were produced by micro CT SkyScan 1173 and then reconstructed using NRecon (in-house software from SkyScan) to obtain a complete 3D image. The urinary stone images were analysed using CT analyser to obtain information of internal structure and Hounsfield Unit (HU) values to determine the information regarding the composition of the urinary stones, respectively. HU values obtained from some regions of interest in the same slice are compared to a reference HU. The analysis shows information of the composition of the six scanned stones obtained. The six stones consist of stone number 1 (calcium+cystine), number 2 (calcium+struvite), number 3 (calcium+cystine+struvite), number 4 (calcium), number 5 (calcium+cystine+struvite), and number 6 (calcium+uric acid). This shows that dual energy micro CT SkyScan 1173 was able to characterize the composition of the urinary stone.

  18. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  19. Mechanisms for the atmospheric corrosion of carbonate stone

    SciTech Connect

    Graedel, T.E.

    2000-03-01

    The physical and chemical phenomena responsible for the atmospheric corrosion of carbonate stone are presented. Corrosion product formation, morphology, and chemical makeup are discussed in the context of calcium-containing minerals and other crystalline structures that thermodynamics and kinetics suggest are likely to be present. Formation pathways for the minerals most often reported to occur in carbonate corrosion layers are shown in schematic diagrams. The dominant corrosion products are sulfates and oxalates, the former resulting from interactions with atmospheric sulfur dioxide or sulfate ions, the latter from oxalate secretions from the biological organisms. present (and perhaps to some extent from oxalate deposited from the atmosphere). The degradation processes are enhanced by the catalytic action of transition metal ions present in the stone and of soot deposited from the atmosphere.

  20. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Analysis of urinary stone based on a spectrum absorption FTIR-ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asyana, V.; Haryanto, F.; Fitri, L. A.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.

    2016-03-01

    This research analysed the urinary stone by measuring samples using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and black box analysis. The main objective of this study is to find kinds of urinary stone and determine a total spectrum, which is a simple model of the chemical and mineral composition urinary stone through black box analysis using convolution method. The measurements result showed that kinds of urinary stone were pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate, a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with calcium phosphate, a mixture of ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate,pure uric acid, ion amino acid uric acid, and a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with ion amino acid uric acid. The results of analysis of black box showed characteristics as the most accurate and precise to confirm the type of urinary stones based on theregion absorption peak on a graph, the results of the convolution, and the shape of the total spectrum on each urinary stones.

  2. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.; Cintron, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity.

  3. The use of non-contrast computed tomography and color Doppler ultrasound in the characterization of urinary stones - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Tefik, Tzevat; Akbulut, Fatih; Örmeci, Mehmet Tolgahan; Beşe, Caner; Şanlı, Öner; Oktar, Tayfun; Salmaslıoğlu, Artür

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of density value in computed tomography (CT) and twinkling artifact observed in color Doppler analysis for the prediction of the mineral composition of urinary stones. Material and methods A total of 42 patients who were operated via percutaneous or endoscopic means and had undergone abdominal non-contrast CT and color Doppler ultrasonography examinations were included in the study. X-ray diffraction method was utilized to analyze a total of 86 stones, and the correlations between calculated density values and twinkling intensities with stone types were investigated for each stone. Results Analyses of extracted stones revealed the presence of 40 calcium oxalate monohydrate, 12 calcium oxalate dihydrate, 9 uric acid, 11 calcium phosphate, and 14 cystine stones. The density values were calculated as 1499±269 Hounsfield Units (HU) for calcium oxalate monohydrate, 1505±221 HU for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 348±67 HU for uric acid, 1106±219 HU for calcium phosphate, and 563±115 HU for cystine stones. The artifact intensities were determined as grade 0 in 15, grade 1 in 32, grade 2 in 24, and grade 3 in 15 stones. Conclusion In case the density value of the stone is measured below 780 HU and grade 3 artifact intensity is determined, it can be inferred that the mineral composition of the stone tends to be cystine. PMID:26623143

  4. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  5. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation.

  6. Treating stones in transplanted kidneys.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Sadideen, H; Goldsmith, D

    2013-02-01

    The formation of calculi in renal allografts is an uncommon complication in renal transplant recipients, with a reported incidence of 0.2-1.7% according to retrospective studies. Although the majority of these stones appear to form de novo following renal transplantation (RTX), there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that more often than previously thought they may be transplanted with the donor graft itself. The etiology and pathophysiology of renal graft stones is multifactorial. A combination of metabolic and urodynamic factors predispose to stone formation and these are generally found more frequently in allograft rather than native kidneys. In addition tertiary hyperparathyroidism (following RTX) plays an important role. Renal allograft stones can pose significant challenges for the clinician. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and must be prompt, as these patients' reliance on a solitary kidney for their renal function leaves them susceptible to significant morbidity. However, reports in the literature come largely from anecdotal experience and case reports, meaning that there is a limited consensus regarding how best to manage the condition. We suggest that interventional treatment should be guided primarily by stone size and individual patient presentation. Good outcomes have been reported with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy, but optimal management of the risk factors leading to calculi formation (i.e., prevention) will remain the most cost-effective management.

  7. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  8. [A case of Prader-Willi syndrome accompanied with a renal stone].

    PubMed

    Asanuma, H; Nagatsuma, K; Baba, S; Murai, M

    1998-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the correlation between Prader-Willi syndrome and urolithiasis. We report a patient with Prader-Willi syndrome with a renal uric acid (UA) stone. A 23-year-old male patient was admitted to our department with gross hematuria and left flank pain. The blood and urine examination demonstrated hyperuricemia with the presence of UA crystals in the urine. Excretory urography revealed a radiolucent stone (17 x 27 mm) in the left renal pelvis suggesting a UA stone. The stone was removed successfully using extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) combined with medication for UA metabolism. The stone was thought to have formed as a result of overeating associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, and accompanying overproduction of purine.

  9. [Rare cases of bladder stones].

    PubMed

    Sampalmieri, Gregorio; Moretti, Antonello; Sampalmieri, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We present here two special cases of urolithiasis. The first one shows a giant bladder lithiasis resulting in severe renal insufficiency in a 63-year-old patient, who had previously had nicturia (2-3 times), occasional episodes of urinary frequency and burning micturition, in the absence of renal colic, hematuria or interrupted urination. The second case referes to an 85-year-old man suffering from prostatic enlargement and bladder stones, hospitalized to undergo intervention of trans-vesical prostatic adenomectomy, during which two star-shaped stones were found without obvious symptoms.

  10. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  11. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  12. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  13. Thirty-eight years of stone meetings in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bichler, K H

    2006-04-01

    Of decisive importance for the many research groups all over Europe were the scientific symposia dealing with the theoretical foundations and clinical aspects of urinary stone disease. There were several sources from which today's European Urinary Stone meetings and the "Eurolithiasis Society" itself arose. It was a long way from Leeds in 1968 to Jena 1970, Bonn-Vienna in 1972 and to 11 European meetings from 1989 to 2005. Which developments in urinary stone disease research have been presented at our congresses during the past 40 years? The 1970s and 1980s are the years marked by efforts to measure the important lithogenic substances such as calcium, ionized calcium, uric acid, phosphate, oxalate with reliable methods. Hypercalciuria and specifically mild hyperoxaluria were the topics of numerous investigations in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The calcium-loading test described by Pak has been discussed frequently since its application. It became apparent that oxalic acid is more important in urinary stone formation than hypercalciuria. Of importance were investigations done by Robertson and his colleagues on the influence of diet (in particular, an animal protein-rich diet) on urinary stone formation. Another emphasis of research was investigation of the crystallization process: supersaturation, crystal growth and aggregation are important steps in urinary stone formation. Of great importance in the formation of urinary stones are inhibitors (inhibitory activity): citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate, macromolecules: GAGs, THP etc. and it became possible in the early 1970s to determine substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and GAGs. Much attention in the 1970s and 1980s was focused on urinary stone analysis (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization microscopy) and standardization of these methods. In the mid-1980s, a whole series of epidemiological studies were carried out, with data for the Federal Republic of Germany, East Germany

  14. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  15. Intra-tubular deposits, urine and stone composition are divergent in patients with ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Coe, Fredric L; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Worcester, Elaine M

    2009-11-01

    Patients with ileostomy typically have recurrent renal stones and produce scanty, acidic, sodium-poor urine because of abnormally large enteric losses of water and sodium bicarbonate. Here we used a combination of intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of the renal papilla and cortex to measure changes associated with stone formation in seven patients with ileostomy. Papillary deformity was present in four patients and was associated with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rates. All patients had interstitial apatite plaque, as predicted from their generally acid, low-volume urine. Two patients had stones attached to plaque; however, all patients had crystal deposits that plugged the ducts of Bellini and inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). Despite acid urine, all crystal deposits contained apatite, and five patients had deposits of sodium and ammonium acid urates. Stones were either uric acid or calcium oxalate as predicted by supersaturation, however, there was a general lack of supersaturation for calcium phosphate as brushite, sodium, or ammonium acid urate because of the overall low urine pH. This suggests that local tubular pH exceeds that of bulk urine. Despite low urine pH, patients with an ileostomy resemble those with obesity bypass, in whom IMCD apatite crystal plugs are found. They are, however, unlike these bypass patients in having interstitial apatite plaque. IMCD plugging with sodium and ammonium acid urate has not been found previously and appears to correlate with formation of uric acid stones. PMID:19710630

  16. Barium stone impaction in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Y; Koyuncu, A; Osmanoglu, N

    1995-06-01

    Autonomic symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, abnormal sweating and constipation occur frequently in Parkinson's disease. In our case, barium meal used for upper gastrointestinal study caused barium stone formation and a paralytic-ileus-like syndrome. Therefore, attention should be paid while using barium meal for diagnostic purpose in Parkinsonism. PMID:7474296

  17. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  18. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  19. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  20. Management of lower-pole caliceal stones.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Glenn S

    2003-09-01

    A series of 205 urologists answered questions about their choice of treatment for lower-caliceal stones. The preferred approaches were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for stones <1 cm and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for those >2 cm. For stones of 1 to 2 cm, 65% preferred SWL and 30% would advise PCNL. Thus, SWL is recommended for lower-caliceal stones more frequently than is justified by published success rates. Continued efforts need to be made to inform practicing urologists regarding the most appropriate therapy for patients with lower-pole stones >1 cm.

  1. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, D. A.; Buist, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    In a two year period from March 1983, 157 patients with upper urinary tract stones were managed primarily by endoscopy. Of 90 patients with renal stones, extraction was achieved in 91% of patients with complete extraction in 76%. Of the remaining patients with ureteric stones, successful extraction was achieved in 75%. Ten patients required open surgery which was for failed extraction in 9. Morbidity is low with a mean hospital stay of 4.7 days for patients with kidney stones, and of 3.7 days for patients undergoing extraction of ureteric stones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3954313

  2. From stones to rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  3. Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

  4. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  5. Teaching about the Former Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Teaching students about the former Yugoslavia can be difficult--so much diversity, so much conflict, so much culture. Yet, teaching students about the country matters for two reasons: (1) because the former Yugoslavia is an essential part of understanding World War I and the reemergence of nationalism in a postwar era, and (2) because a study of…

  6. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  7. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  8. Flexible ureteroscopy for kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Defidio, Lorenzo; De Dominicis, Mauro

    2010-03-01

    Endoscopic evaluation and management of different pathological conditions involving the upper urinary tract using rigid or flexible endoscopes, is now readily feasible and has been shown to be safe and efficacious even in the smallest children. Paediatric ureteroscopic procedures are similar to their adult counterparts, so that basic endoscopic principles should be observed. Aims of the management should be complete clearance of stones, preservation of renal function and prevention of stone recurrence. In order to select the most appropriate surgical treatment, location, composition, and size of the stone(s), the anatomy of the collecting system, and the presence of obstruction along with the presence of infection of the urinary tract should be considered. Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the most important procedure for treating urinary stones, advances in flexible endoscopes, intracorporeal lithotripsy, and extraction instruments have led to a shift in the range of indications. According to the location of the stone the treatment can be done with the rigid or flexible ureteroscope. To obtain stone fragments is essentialfor biochemical analysis. The stone composition may give significant information to prevent the high rate of recurrence, with dietary modification and specific therapy. Successful outcomes for the retrograde treatment of renal calculi are similar to the ones obtained in the adult population (stone free rate 91-98%). The retrograde semirigid and flexible ureteropyeloscopy, using a small calibre ureteroscope, are a valuable technique for kidney stones treatment in children. With excellent technique and meticulous attention to details, the significant complications are rare.

  9. Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

    2012-12-01

    Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac(®) suction device, the Passport(™) balloon, the Stone Cone(™), the PercSys Accordion(®), the NTrap(®), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(™), the Parachute(™), and the Escape(®). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop(®) gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration.

  10. Flexible ureteroscopy for kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Defidio, Lorenzo; De Dominicis, Mauro

    2010-03-01

    Endoscopic evaluation and management of different pathological conditions involving the upper urinary tract using rigid or flexible endoscopes, is now readily feasible and has been shown to be safe and efficacious even in the smallest children. Paediatric ureteroscopic procedures are similar to their adult counterparts, so that basic endoscopic principles should be observed. Aims of the management should be complete clearance of stones, preservation of renal function and prevention of stone recurrence. In order to select the most appropriate surgical treatment, location, composition, and size of the stone(s), the anatomy of the collecting system, and the presence of obstruction along with the presence of infection of the urinary tract should be considered. Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the most important procedure for treating urinary stones, advances in flexible endoscopes, intracorporeal lithotripsy, and extraction instruments have led to a shift in the range of indications. According to the location of the stone the treatment can be done with the rigid or flexible ureteroscope. To obtain stone fragments is essentialfor biochemical analysis. The stone composition may give significant information to prevent the high rate of recurrence, with dietary modification and specific therapy. Successful outcomes for the retrograde treatment of renal calculi are similar to the ones obtained in the adult population (stone free rate 91-98%). The retrograde semirigid and flexible ureteropyeloscopy, using a small calibre ureteroscope, are a valuable technique for kidney stones treatment in children. With excellent technique and meticulous attention to details, the significant complications are rare. PMID:20593723

  11. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  12. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; Çayci, Fatma Şemsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL.

  13. Endoscopic treatment of difficult extrahepatic bile duct stones, EPBD or EST: An anatomic view

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Large bile duct stone (> 10 mm) or multiple stones (≥ 3) are challenging for endoscopists. Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is a routine therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure usually used. It is safe and effective, but severe perforation or massive bleeding are the main causes of mortality. Because of the permanent destroy of Oddi sphincter, the use of EST is still controversial. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) gives another way to open the sphincter. Less incidence of bleeding, perforation and partly preserving the Oddi sphincter’s function are the main advantages. But high incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis becomes a predominant problem. According to the anatomical feature of Oddi sphincter, limited EST + EPBD seems a more reasonable procedure. Compared to the former two procedures, it makes the stone extraction process much easier with lower incidences of short-term and long-term complications. PMID:25789099

  14. Endoscopic treatment of difficult extrahepatic bile duct stones, EPBD or EST: An anatomic view.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Wen

    2015-03-16

    Large bile duct stone (> 10 mm) or multiple stones (≥ 3) are challenging for endoscopists. Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is a routine therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure usually used. It is safe and effective, but severe perforation or massive bleeding are the main causes of mortality. Because of the permanent destroy of Oddi sphincter, the use of EST is still controversial. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) gives another way to open the sphincter. Less incidence of bleeding, perforation and partly preserving the Oddi sphincter's function are the main advantages. But high incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis becomes a predominant problem. According to the anatomical feature of Oddi sphincter, limited EST + EPBD seems a more reasonable procedure. Compared to the former two procedures, it makes the stone extraction process much easier with lower incidences of short-term and long-term complications.

  15. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  16. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  17. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection.

  18. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  19. Contamination of woody habitat soils around a former lead smelter in the North of France.

    PubMed

    Douay, F; Pruvot, C; Waterlot, C; Fritsch, C; Fourrier, H; Loriette, A; Bidar, G; Grand, C; de Vaufleury, A; Scheifler, R

    2009-10-15

    The contamination of the topsoil of 262 woody habitats around a former lead smelter in the North of France was assessed. In this urbanized and industrialized area, these kinds of habitats comprise of hedges, groves, small woods, anthropogenic creations and one large forest. Except for the latter, which is 3 km away, these woody habitat soils often present a high anthropization degree (a significant amount of pebbles and stones related to human activities) with a high metal contamination. In the studied woody habitat topsoils, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations largely exceeded those of agricultural topsoils located in the same environmental context. Therefore, atmospheric emissions from the smelter are not the only cause of the high contamination of the woody habitat soils. This last one is related to the nature and the contamination level of deposit in relation with human activities (rubbles, slag, soils, etc). With regard to the results obtained with chemical extractions, the mobility of Cd, Pb and Zn in these soils is also greater than in agricultural soils. In the forest, pollutant solubility is increased by soil acidic pH. The variability of the physico-chemical parameters and the high metal contamination of the topsoils are the main characteristics of the woody habitats located around the former smelter. Although never taken into account during risk assessment, the disturbance of these environmental components could have important biogeochemical impacts (nutrients and metal cycles). Moreover, any modification of the soils' use could potentially cause mobilization and transfer of the pollutants to the biosphere. Six years after the closure of the smelter, and as social and economic pressures considerably increase in this area, the study of these peculiar ecosystems is necessary to understand and predict the bioavailability, transfer, bioaccumulation and effects of pollutants in food chains.

  20. The recurrence rate of stones following ESWL.

    PubMed

    Köhrmann, K U; Rassweiler, J; Alken, P

    1993-01-01

    With extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) stone fragmentation and the potential creation of residual stones has become an integral part of the treatment strategy. Therefore true recurrence, regrowth and pseudo-recurrence determine the rate of new stone formation. In unselected series the overall recurrence rate after ESWL varies between 6% after 1 year and 20% after 4 years. The comparison between the recurrence rate after ESWL and the natural recurrence rate reveals that the results of ESWL are better than expected. Lithotripsy has no special effect on true stone recurrence, and even pseudo-recurrence is of minor clinical significance.

  1. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  2. STONES: Passing a stone in your sleep might be easier than you think

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Passing kidney calculi can be excruciatingly painful for patients, likened to childbirth in intensity. The mechanism of the simple act of passing a stone, however, is not well understood. A recent research article examined a novel approach for optimizing kidney stone clearance—sleep position, a simple noninvasive concept that might improve urinary stone passage. PMID:21878879

  3. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  4. Renal stone disease and obesity: what is important for urologists and nephrologists?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Ahmed, Hassan T; Khalil, Atif A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, obesity has reached an epidemic stage and represents a challenge for health authorities across the globe. Certainly, with emergence of obesity epidemic, we started to see an increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nephrolithiasis. Interestingly, epidemiologic studies have shown that the incident stone risk increases with body mass index (BMI), and no further increase in risk is noticed when the BMI > 30 kg/m(2). Furthermore, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also associated with an increase in the incidence of renal stones disease. The shared links between these metabolic disorders are insulin resistance. Furthermore, insulin resistance is thought to alter renal acid-base metabolism, resulting in a lower urine pH and increased risk of uric acid stone disease. Obesity is also associated with excess nutritional intake of lithogenic substances such as refined sugars, low fluid intake, calcium, oxalate, and purine-rich foods. Obesity is also associated with an increase in incidence of urinary tract infection. Recent reports suggested that renal stone disease carries risk of myocardial infarction, progression of CKD, and diabetes. Alarmingly, orlistat (obesity medication) and bariatric surgery are associated with hyperoxaluria and associated stone formation and even oxalate nephropathy. Certainly, the many health risks of obesity, including nephrolithiasis, will add more burden on urologists and nephrologists. Shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy are all safe procedures in obese individuals. Further research is urgently needed to address the pathophysiology and management of obesity-induced renal stones disease.

  5. RENAL HISTOPATHOLOGY AND CRYSTAL DEPOSITS IN PATIENTS WITH SMALL BOWEL RESECTION AND CALCIUM OXALATE STONE DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Sommer, Andre J.; Williams, James C.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Philips, Carrie L.; Coe, Fredric L

    2013-01-01

    To date, the surgical anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from patients with stones and small bowel resection have not been studied. We present here materials from 11 cases, 10 Crohn’s disease and one with resection in infancy for unknown cause. Stones are predominantly calcium oxalate (CaOx). Urine stone risks included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion > 45 mg/day) in half of the cases, and reduced urine volume and pH. As in ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) contain crystal deposits with associated cell injury, interstitial inflammation and papillary deformity. Cortical changes include modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Interstitial papillary apatite (Randall’s) plaque is abundant, and CaOx stones grow over deposits as in ileostomy, idiopathic CaOx stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque is compatible with the low urine volume and pH. IMCD deposits all contain apatite; in 3 cases CaOx is also present. This is similar to findings in obesity bypass but not ileostomy. Mechanisms for CaOx in IMCD appear to include elevated urine, and presumably tubule fluid CaOx SS with a low calcium to oxalate ratio; mechanisms for the universal presence of IMCD apatite are unknown. PMID:20428098

  6. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  7. A Lion of a Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

    This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  8. [Multiple calcium oxalate stone formation in a patient with glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and renal tubular acidosis type I: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, A; Segawa, T; Kakehi, Y; Takeuchi, H

    1993-07-01

    A case of multiple urinary stones in a patient with glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1) is reported. In spite of the presence of hyperuricemia, these stones did not consist of uric acid, but mainly of calcium oxalate. Laboratory studies revealed distal renal tubular acidosis and hypocitraturia, but no significant abnormality in calcium metabolism. We discussed the mechanism of calcium stone formation in our case, and its prophylactic treatment by oral administration of citrate compound. PMID:8362684

  9. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones.

    PubMed

    Rawat, B; Fache, J S; Burhenne, H J

    1992-01-01

    Encouraging results with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic duct stones have been reported from Europe. We present our experience with the first two North American patients, treated with excellent results in one and limited clinical improvement in the other patient at 1 year follow-up. Targeting of pancreatic duct stones was achieved with either fluoroscopy or ultrasound.

  10. Ventricular candidiasis in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Ventricular candidiasis is consistently one of the most prominent pathologic conditions diagnosed in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) in the United Arab Emirates, predominately affecting the captive population. Predisposing factors are a humid environment, stress, immunosuppression, inadequate nutrition, and an extended use of oral antibiotics. In this report, we describe the clinical signs, diagnosis, and pathologic result in stone curlews with ventricular candidiasis.

  11. Sludge, stones and sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, A A; Olatunji, P O

    2002-12-01

    A total of ninety-seven paediatric and adult patients with sickle cell anaemia and fourty-eight control subjects were investigated with the aim of determining the content of the gallbladder. The patients and control subjects were categorised according to the presence or otherwise of gallbladder stones, and, or sludge. The age last birthday, PCV and number of crises per year were recorded in order to determine their influence on the development of gallbladder stones and sludge. The gallbladder contents were examined using ultrasonographic technique. The age and number of crises per year was determined from the clinical record files and direct questioning of patients. Seventy patients had normal gallbladder content while eighteen had sludge, six had stones, and three had a combination of sludge and stones. None of the control subjects had sludge or stone. The age of patients increased from progressively from those with normal content through those with sludge to those with stones. The PCV and number of crises per year only differentiated between normal and abnormal gallbladder contents. While the prevalence of gallbladder stones in this study falls within the range in previous studies, a high prevalence of sludge was observed. The association between the occurrence of sludge and stones with age, PVC and number of crises per year suggests the need for a larger series and that they may identify a group of patients requiring closer monitoring.

  12. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  13. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  14. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of primary intrahepatic stones.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Lee, S K; Min, Y I; Lee, M G; Sung, K B; Cho, K S; Lee, S G; Min, P C

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis.

  15. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones.

  16. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  17. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  18. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  19. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  20. Shockwave lithotripsy of salivary duct stones.

    PubMed

    Iro, H; Schneider, H T; Födra, C; Waitz, G; Nitsche, N; Heinritz, H H; Benninger, J; Ell, C

    1992-05-30

    Surgical extirpation of the affected gland has been necessary for cases of sialolithiasis in which the stone cannot be removed by dilatation or dissection of the salivary duct. The ability of the piezoelectric lithotripter to deliver shockwaves to a small focus makes extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of salivary gland stones potentially safe. Its safety and efficacy have been assessed in 51 patients with symptomatic solitary salivary stones that could not be removed by conservative measures. The stones had a median diameter of 8 (range 4-18) mm and were located in the submandibular gland in 69% of patients and in the parotid gland in 31%. A total of 72 shockwave treatment sessions (maximum 3 per patient) were given under continuous sonographic monitoring. In 45 patients (88%) complete fragmentation (fragments less than or equal to 3 mm) of the concrements was achieved. No patient needed anaesthesia, sedatives, or analgesics. The only untoward effects were localised petechial haemorrhages after 10 (13%) out of 72 treatments and transient swelling of the gland immediately after delivery of shockwave in 2/72 (3%) sessions. 20 weeks after the first session 90% (46/51) of patients were free of discomfort, and 53% (27/51) were stone free. Stone-clearance rate was higher among patients with stones in the parotid gland (81%) than among those with stones of the submandibular gland (40%). Auxiliary measures such as dilatation or dissection of the salivary duct were required only in patients with stones in the submandibular gland (20%). No long-term damage to the treated salivary gland or to adjacent tissue structures was noted during the median follow-up of 9 (1-24) months. Extracorporeal piezoelectric shockwave therapy seems likely to be safe, comfortable, and effective minimally-invasive, non-surgical treatment for salivary stones.

  1. EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination in achieving a total understanding of mixed stone morphology. Ten mixed urinary stones were washed and dried and the composition recognized by analysis of FTIR spectra by comparing with the spectra of pure components. Spectra for different layers were obtained. Then the stone samples were further studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The findings of FTIR were correlated with SEM-EDAX and detailed data generated. Using SEM-EDAX, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements were studied to understand their initiation and formation. As much as 80% of the stones studied were mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in various proportions. Quantitative evaluation of components was achieved through FTIR and SEM-EDAX analysis. It was possible to get an idea about the spatial distribution of molecules using SEM analysis. The composition of different areas was identified using EDAX. Analyzing with EDAX, it was possible to obtain the percentage of different elements present in a single sample. The study concludes that the most common mixed stone encountered in the study is a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate in a definite proportion. The combination identified not only the molecular species present in the calculus, but also the crystalline forms within chemical constituents. Using EDAX, the amount of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon present in the stone sample could be well understood.

  2. Extraction of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Microwave Assisted Sulfation Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyu; Xian, Pengfei; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Bowen

    2015-02-01

    The extraction of vanadium from stone coal was investigated by microwave-assisted sulfation roasting followed by water leaching. The results showed that this process is an effective method for the extraction of vanadium from stone coal. Microwave-assisted sulfation roasting promotes the reaction of sulfuric acid with vanadium oxides and decreases roasting time. Under optimized conditions (roasting temperature 200°C, heating rate of 10°C/min, 25% sulfuric acid addition, water leaching at 75°C for 1 h, and liquid/solid ratio of 1.5 ml/g), the leaching rate of vanadium reached 92.6%.

  3. Microwave-assisted autohydrolysis of Prunus mume stone for extraction of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, S; Ozaki, Y; Azuma, J

    2010-03-01

    Stone of Prunus mume (P. mume) is a by-product of pickled P. mume industry. Stones of native and pickled P. mume, mainly composed of holocellulose (83.8 +/- 1.8% and 65.1 +/- 0.3%, respectively) and acid-insoluble lignin (25.3 +/- 2.2% and 30.6 +/- 0.9%, respectively), were autohydrolyzed by microwave heating to extract polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. By heating at 200 to 230 degrees C, 48.0% to 60.8% of polysaccharide and 84.1% to 97.9% of phenolic compound were extracted in water along with partial degradation of hemicelluloses and lignin. The extracted liquors showed antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical originated from phenolic compounds. The pickled P. mume stone showed higher autohydrolyzability and microwave absorption capacity than the native stone due to absorbed salts and acids during pickling in fruit juice of P. mume with external addition of sodium chloride. Pickling process in salty and weak acidic juice seemed to be a kind of pretreatment for softening the stones prior to autohydrolysis induced by microwave heating. PMID:20492219

  4. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU): pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes), arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca) salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaPi)), supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB) and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF)), in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote) of oxidative metabolism (OM), without and with variation of markers. Results 1) In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite) were unchanged; 2) upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median) numerous stone parameters differed significant!)', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3) a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4) in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5) also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were negatively

  5. Analysis and classification of heterogeneous kidney stones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Oztoprak, Belgin Genc; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Yoo, Jong; Gulecen, Turgay; Mutlu, Nazim; Russo, Richard E; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Demir, Arif

    2012-11-01

    Kidney stones were analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), utilizing a high resolution multi-channel charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer and a nanosecond-pulse Nd : YAG laser. The kidney stones were also characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for comparative analysis. It was found that the ratio of hydrogen (H) to carbon (C) was an important indicator of organic compounds such as uric acid. Advantages of LIBS, especially with regards to amount of sample required and sample preparation as well as the ability to carry out elemental analysis and classification of kidney stones simultaneously, over other analytical techniques such as XRD and XRF are discussed. The common minor elements detected in the kidney stones include P, S, Si, Ti, and Zn. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of broadband LIBS spectra were employed for classifying different types of kidney stones. The results are beneficial in understanding kidney stone formation processes, which can lead to preventive therapeutic strategies and treatment methods for urological patients.

  6. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  7. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  8. Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter and the initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. The images show that the orientation of the stones with respect to the shock changes the dominant mechanism for fragmentation. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface, which propagated from the surface to the interior of the stone. Initiation of a secondary spall-like crack was observed proximal to the first crack. Little surface damage was observed. Horizontal stones presented pitting in the proximal surface and erosion in lateral faces, indicating the action of cavitation. Angled stones presented both spall-like fracture in either the leading or the distal corners and surface damage (pitting) in the proximal surface. Experiments are being performed to follow the development of cracks in human kidney stones. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  9. Selective inclusion of proteins into urinary calcium oxalate crystals: comparison between stone-prone and stone-free population groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, D.; Rodgers, A. L.; Sturrock, E. D.

    2003-11-01

    This study investigated whether incorporation of proteins into calcium oxalate urinary crystals is different in the black and white populations in South Africa and whether such differences could provide insight into the former group's remarkably low stone incidence. CaOx monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals were precipitated from each group's urine after adjustment of the calcium concentrations to 0.5 and 12 mmol/l, respectively. Crystals were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Intracrystalline proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunodetected for urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1) and osteopontin. Crystals precipitated from the black and white groups' control urines comprised mainly COM and COD, respectively. In both race groups UPTF1 was the major protein included in pure COM crystals while in pure COD it was osteopontin, but in the black group osteopontin was also included in COM. The black group's urine crystals incorporated significantly more intracrystalline protein. Selective inclusion of UPTF1 and osteopontin may be due to the unique crystal structure of COM and COD and the proteins' conformation at the different calcium concentrations at which these hydrates precipitate. The greater amount of intracrystalline inhibitory protein in the black group may be a factor in their low stone incidence.

  10. Endoscopic lithotripsy for bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Leung, J W

    1993-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy and common duct stone extraction is successful in 85-90% of patients using conventional balloons and baskets. However, most patients with biliary stones > 2 cm will require mechanical, electrohydraulic, or laser lithotripsy prior to stone extraction. Mechanical lithotripsy is inexpensive, easy to perform, and effective in 80-90% of cases. Most failures result from inability to entrap the stone in the lithotripsy basket. These cases may be successfully treated using either electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy (intraductal shockwave lithotripsy). In most cases, intraductal shockwave lithotripsy requires direct visual control. Due to difficulty with peroral cholangioscopy, these techniques will not be widely used until a smaller, more maneuverable "mother and baby scope" system is developed. We recommend mechanical lithotripsy as the initial treatment for large biliary stones. Failed cases should be referred to specialized centers for a repeat attempt with intraductal shockwave lithotripsy. With this approach, an experienced endoscopist is successful in removing biliary stones in over 95% of patients. Long term biliary stenting remains a viable option for the high risk patients with large common bile duct stones.

  11. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  12. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously.

  13. Stones in the common bile duct: experience with medical dissolution therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, K. W.; Ellis, W. R.; Whitten, B. H.; Balfour, T. W.; Bell, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with radiolucent common bile duct stones received medical treatment. Nineteen had Rowachol, a terpene preparation, eight (42%) achieving complete stone disappearance within 3 to 48 months. Fifteen (including 3 of the above) took Rowachol with bile acid (chenodeoxycholic in 11, ursodeoxycholic in 4) for 3 to 60 months: 11 (73%) achieved complete dissolution within 18 months. Persistent symptoms and complications settled on conservative management: 8 (25%) patients required admission (2 biliary colic, 1 obstructive jaundice, 4 cholangitis, 1 pancreatitis). One patient died of a myocardial infarction during recovery from pancreatitis; the other continued treatment, 2 achieving complete dissolution/disappearance. Oral dissolution therapy with Rowachol and bile acids should be considered when endoscopic sphincterotomy or surgery is not feasible, but careful attention to potential complications is required while stones persist. PMID:4022860

  14. Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

    2013-05-01

    The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients.

  15. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  16. INACCURATE REPORTING OF MINERAL COMPOSITION BY COMMERCIAL STONE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR INFECTION AND METABOLIC STONES

    PubMed Central

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Khan, Naseem F.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of stone composition analysis by commercial laboratories. METHODS 25 human renal stones with infrared spectroscopy (IR) determined compositions were fragmented into aliquots and studied with micro-computed tomography (CT) to ensure fragment similarity. Representative fragments of each stone were submitted to 5 commercial stone laboratories for blinded analysis. RESULTS All laboratories agreed on composition for 6 pure stones. Of 4 stones known to contain struvite, only 2(50%) were identified as struvite by all laboratories. Struvite was reported as a component by some laboratories for 4 stones previously determined not to contain struvite. Overall, there was disagreement regarding struvite in 6(24%) stones. For 9 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, all laboratories reported some mixture of CaOx, but the quantities of subtypes differed significantly among laboratories. In 6 apatite containing stones, apatite was missed by the laboratories in 20% of the samples. None of the laboratories identified atazanavir in a stone containing that antiviral drug. One laboratory reported protein in every sample, while all others reported it in only 1 sample. Nomenclature for apatite differed among laboratories, with one reporting apatite as carbonate apatite (CA) and never hydroxyapatite (HA), another never reporting CA and always reporting HA, and a third reporting CA as apatite with calcium carbonate. CONCLUSIONS Commercial laboratories reliably recognize pure calculi; however, variability in reporting of mixed calculi suggests a problem with accuracy of stone analysis results. Furthermore, there is a lack of standard nomenclature used by laboratories. PMID:20728108

  17. Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, David S.

    2012-03-14

    Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

  18. Potential pharmacologic treatments for cystinuria and for calcium stones associated with hyperuricosuria.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2011-08-01

    Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to "salt out" (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of l-cystine methyl ester and l-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, l-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

  19. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  20. ESWL and the future of stone management.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, F; Schmidt, A

    1993-01-01

    Based on optimal efficacy regarding disintegration and stone clearance, combined with minimal invasiveness, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) represents the first choice therapy for urolithiasis. Further developments in ESWL have related more to economic aspects than to improvement of disintegration efficacy or reduction of side effects. Routine indications for ESWL are well known and widely accepted. Its limitations are also well established: silent calyceal stones, calyceal diverticula stones, nephrolithiasis in horse-shoe kidneys, medullary sponge kidney, and residual fragments after ESWL. Although endourology provides new, less invasive and traumatic means of stone retrieval or disintegration, including laser lithotripsy, small ureteroscopes and actively deflectable uretero- and pyeloscopes, indications for an aggressive approach in such cases are limited to those who are symptomatic. In the case of distal ureteral calculi ureteroscopy in traureteral laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy open up new and interesting possibilities for the future.

  1. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of bile duct stones].

    PubMed

    Wenzel, H; Greiner, L; Jakobeit, C; Lazica, M; Thüroff, J

    1989-05-12

    Extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) was undertaken in 50 patients (mean age 73.7 years; range 29-90 years) with extrahepatic and, in five, with intrahepatic gallstones, the usual endoscopic methods having been unsuccessful in removing the stones. Occasionally stone fragments were passed spontaneously, but in most they had to be removed endoscopically, in 48 (96%) with extrahepatic and in three (60%) with intrahepatic stones. Biliary tract or gallbladder infections occurred after the lithotripsy and associated local litholysis in seven of the 48 with extrahepatic (14%) and three of the five (60%) with intrahepatic stones. There was one hospital death. The results indicate that EL has definite advantages over surgical treatment in these patients, who are usually elderly and in whom surgical intervention is more risky.

  2. Adenoid Stones – “Adenoliths”

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Hitomi; Thaker, Ameet I.; Davis, Greg E.

    2015-01-01

    Stones made of bacterial aggregates can be found in chronically inflamed lymphoid tissue such as hypertrophied tonsils. Although it is common to find tonsilloliths in cryptic tonsils, it is rare to find stones in adenoid tissue. Here we present an interesting case of a patient who underwent adenoidectomy for adenoid hypertrophy, recurrent malaise and upper respiratory infections. Intraoperatively we found numerous bright green stones in the crypts of the adenoid tissue, reminiscent of tonsilloliths in tonsillar crypts. Pathology revealed polymicrobial bacterial aggregates surrounded by neutrophils. Our findings suggest that the pathophysiology is similar to that of tonsillolith formation. Thus, we should at least consider the presence of adenoid stones and consider adenoidectomy for symptoms often attributed to tonsilloliths. We have coined the term “adenoliths” to describe this interesting finding and present it as a potential source of recurrent infection. PMID:26798664

  3. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  4. The mechanisms of stone fragmentation in ESWL.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, W

    2001-05-01

    Currently, several mechanisms of kidney stone fragmentation in extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) are under discussion. As a new mechanism, the circumferential quasistatic compression or "squeezing" by evanescent waves in the stone has been introduced. In fragmentation experiments with self-focussing electromagnetic shock-wave generators with focal diameters comparable to or larger than the stone diameter, we observed first cleavage surfaces either parallel or perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. This is in agreement with the expectation of the "squeezing" mechanism. Because, for positive pulse pressures below 35 MPa and stones with radii of 15 mm or smaller, cleavage into only two fragments was observed, we developed a quantitative model of binary fragmentation by "quasistatic squeezing." This model predicts the ratio of the number of pulses for the fragmentation to 2-mm size and of the number of pulses required for the first cleavage into two parts. This "fragmentation-ratio" depends linearly alone on the stone radius and on the final size of the fragments. The experimental results for spherical artificial stones of 5 mm, 12 mm and 15 mm diameter at a pulse pressure of 11 MPa are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Thus, binary fragmentation by quasistatic squeezing in ESWL as a new efficient fragmentation mechanism is also quantitatively verified.

  5. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for isolated calyceal stones: How important is the stone location?

    PubMed Central

    Özgör, Faruk; Küçüktopcu, Onur; Şimşek, Abdulmuttalip; Sarılar, Ömer; Binbay, Murat; Gürbüz, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous access site on the success and complication rates of isolated calyceal stones. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated 2700 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in our clinic between October 2002 and August 2014. We selected only the patients with isolated lower, middle or upper calyceal stones and we grouped the patients according to the location of their stones. Successful operation was defined as complete stone clearence or retention of stone fragments smaller than 4 mm which do not lead to infection, obstruction or pain requiring treatment. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results Totally 360 patients underwent PNL for their isolated upper, middle and lower calyceal stones. Access sites for those patients were selected based on stone location. The stones were localized in the lower (n=304), middle (n=14), and upper (n=42) calices. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to operation and scopy times. Hemoglobin drop was seen more frequently in the upper calyceal access group, without any significant intergroup difference. Thoracic complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax and pleural effusion were more common in the upper calyceal access group (11.9%; p<0.001). Complete stone clerance was accomplished in 81.9%, 92.9% and 78.6% of the patients with lower, middle and upper calyceal stones respectively without any significant intergroup difference (p=0.537). Conclusion PNL is an effective and safe treatment modality for isolated calyceal kidney stones and upper calyceal access causes thoracic complications more than other access sites. PMID:26623144

  6. When should one perform shockwave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stones?

    PubMed

    Ilker, Y; Tarcan, T; Akdas, A

    1995-12-01

    Extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy of lower caliceal stones is often unrewarding because of the difficulty of passing stone fragments. We report our results in SWL of lower pole stones in 219 patients and compare them with the results of SWL of middle (82 patients) and upper pole (85 patients) stones. The stone-free rate of SWL monotherapy was found to be 59%, 77%, and 64% in lower, middle, and upper caliceal stones, respectively. In lower pole stones, SWL was unsuccessful in 41% of the patients, of whom 9% had minimal residual asymptomatic stones (less than 4 mm in greatest diameter). In comparison with the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) of lower pole urolithiasis in the literature, SWL was unsuccessful in large stones, with stone-free rates of 13% and 0 when the stone size was 3 to 4.9 cm2 and > 5 cm2, respectively. A stone-free rate of 82% when the stone burden was < 1 cm2 is similar to the PCN results of other centers, suggesting that SWL may be the first choice of treatment in lower pole stones of this size. We achieved a stone-free rate of 59% when the stone size was between 1 and 3 cm2, which is lower than the stone-free rates of PCN in the literature. In spite of its lower stone-free rates, SWL, with its lower morbidity, may still be considered an acceptable treatment modality in this range of moderate stone burden, especially when there is a patient desire for conservative treatment.

  7. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  8. [Pain-free piezoelectric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in gallbladder stones. Initial experiences].

    PubMed

    Ackermann, C; Meyer, B; Rothenbühler, J M; Beglinger, C; Stalder, G A; Harder, F

    1989-05-27

    Efficacy and side effects of lithotripsy of gallbladder stones with a piezoelectric lithotriptor are assessed. 16 treatments were performed in 8 patients (1-3 per patient). Patients required no premedication, analgesia, infusion or monitoring. Gallstone fragmentation was achieved with all treatments. Laboratory findings remained unchanged after treatment, with the exception of one patient with mild pancreatitis. With adjuvant oral bile acid treatment, 6 of the 8 patients were stone-free within 3 days to 3 months. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy with piezoelectric shock waves provides painless and efficient gallstone fragmentation. Repeated treatments may speed complete fragment dissolution.

  9. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation.

  10. Stones in 2015: Changes in stone management - suspending belief for evidence.

    PubMed

    Ambani, Sapan N; Ghani, Khurshid R

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, population-based studies in patients with urinary stones informed us of the changing trends in contemporary stone management and identified areas for improvement. Although meta-analyses aim to provide the highest level of evidence, a randomized controlled trial of medical expulsive therapy challenged current paradigms and was the defining publication of the year.

  11. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  12. Assessing the efficiency of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for stones in renal units with impaired function: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anand; Sinha, Tapan; Karan, S C; Sandhu, A S; Gupta, S K; Sethi, G S; Talwar, R; Narang, V; Adlakha, N; Agarwal, A

    2006-08-01

    The objective was to determine the efficiency of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in clearing stones from renal units with impaired function. Thirty-five patients with poorly functioning kidneys determined by intravenous urogram and 99mtechnetium diethylene triamine pentacetic acid renal dynamic scan underwent ESWL. Stone clearance was assessed at 3 months and compared with that in normally functioning kidneys. The study group was divided into two subgroups. Those with split glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the concerned kidney between 10 and 20 ml/min were in group 1. Group 2 consisted of patients with split GFR between 20 and 30 ml/min. A control group (group 3) was formed from patients with urolithiasis and normally functioning kidneys. The overall retreatment rate was 84.4%. The overall stone clearance rate in the study group was 34.2% while it was 57.7% in the control group. The stone clearance rate in group 2 was 40%. The difference in stone clearance rate between the study and control groups was statistically significant (P=0.023) but that between group 2 and the control group was not (P=0.159). The incidence of steinstrasse between the study group 2 and control group was not statistically significant (P=0.408). The clearance rate for ureteral stones was comparable in all the three groups. The stone-free rate and rate of steinstrasse for renal stones in kidneys with moderately impaired function were comparable to normally functioning kidneys. However, kidneys with severely impaired function had poor results. The clearance rate for ureteral stones was not influenced by the impairment of renal function.

  13. [Acute renal failure due to obstructive ureteral stone associated with norovirus gastroenteritis in an infant with congenital solitary kidney].

    PubMed

    Kato, Taiki; Hamano, Atsushi; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    We report a 35 month-old boy with acute renal failure caused by an obstructive ureteral stone associated with norovirus gastroenteritis. He visited his family physician because of fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. He was diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis. The symptoms relieved once, but abdominal pain and vomiting recurred two days after the visit and the volume of urine decreased. He was diagnosed as norovirus gastoenteritis and acute renal failure which was unresponsive to fluid replacement. Ultrasound study of the abdomen showed a solitary kidney with mild hydronephrosis. He was then admitted to our hospital. He was finally diagnosed as acute postrenal failure due to obstructive ureteral stone with left solitary kidney by abdominal computer tomography (CT). We performed transurethral catheterization immediately. The creatinine and blood urea nitrogen returned to normal level in 2 days. The CT performed on the 28th day post operation showed disappearance of the stone after uric alkalization. Recently, some cases of postrenal failure due to bilateral obstructive ureteral stones, mainly ammonium acid urate stones, associated with viral gastroenteritis were reported. As clinical features, they are common in boys three years or younger after an episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high uric acid concentration. By far, the most common cause of acute renal failure in patients with severe gastroenteritis is prerenal failure resulting from hypovolemia. But postrenal cause due to bilateral obstructive stones should be taken in a consideration.

  14. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  15. The influence of magnesium chloride on blood and urine parameters in calcium oxalate stone patients.

    PubMed

    Brundig, P; Berg, W; Schneider, H J

    1981-01-01

    The influence of magnesium chloride on various blood and urine parameters in calcium oxalate stone patients is studied. High dose magnesium therapy was found to increase urinary magnesium concentrations, whereas the oxalic acid concentration is reduced. The experiments support the statements on the role of magnesium in endogenous oxalic acid depression and the inhibition of the intestinal resorption. For urolith prevention it will be necessary to apply high magnesium doses of easily absorbable and well-tolerated medicaments.

  16. Analysis of stone-column reinforced foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Pande, G. N.

    1998-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to analyse elastic as well as elastoplastic behaviour of stone-column reinforced foundations. The stone-columns are assumed to be dispersed within the in situ soil and a homogenization technique is invoked to establish equivalent material properties for in situ soil and stone-column composite. The difficulties encountered in carrying out elastoplastic analyses of composite materials are overcome by adopting a separate yield function for each of the constituent materials and a sub-iteration procedure within an implicit backward Euler stress integration scheme. In the proposed procedure, equilibrium as well as kinematic conditions implied in the homogenization procedure are satisfied for both elastic as well as elastoplastic stress states.The proposed model is implemented in an axi-symmetric finite element code and numerical prediction is made for the behaviour of model circular footings resting on stone-column reinforced foundations. This prediction indicates good agreement with experimental observation. Finally, a new scheme in which the length of stone-column is variable is proposed and its behaviour is examined through a numerical example.

  17. Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

    1989-08-01

    The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer.

  18. Future Treatment of Common Bile Duct Stones.

    PubMed

    Johnson; Hunter

    1997-03-01

    Management options for patients found to have common bile duct stones have expanded as a function of improved instrumentation and radiographic support. Technological advances initially lead to increased costs but eventually result in improved quality for patients. Controversy exists for patients with either soft clinical findings or stones found at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. As laparoscopic common duct exploration becomes more widespread the need for perioperative ERCP will likely decrease; however, this will depend on the experience of the surgeons at a given institution. Common bile duct stones found at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be approached in a variety of different ways. The most commonly used methods are laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration, laparoscopic choledochotomy with common bile duct exploration, open common bile duct exploration, laparoscopic antegrade sphincterotomy, and postoperative ERCP. In the future, the treatment goal of biliary lithiasis will be to accomplish cholecystectomy and removal of bile duct stones in a single stage. Advances in fiberoptic technology will make transcystic duct exploration more effective, but it is likely that sphincterotomy (antegrade or retrograde) will be used preferentially for the distally impacted stone.

  19. Alcohol dispersions of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for stone conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Suzuki, Amelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2013-09-10

    Alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the so-called nanolimes, are emerging as an effective conservation material for the consolidation of stone, mortars, and plasters present in old masonry and/or mural paintings. To better understand how this treatment operates, to optimize its performance and broaden its applications, here we study the nano and microstructural characteristics, carbonation behavior, and consolidation efficacy of colloidal alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles produced by both homogeneous (commercial nanolime) and heterogeneous phase synthesis (aged slaked lime and carbide lime putties). We observe that the alcohol not only provides a high colloidal stability to Ca(OH)2 particles, but also affects the kinetics of carbonation and CaCO3 polymorph selection. This is due to the pseudomorphic replacement of Ca(OH)2 particles by calcium alkoxides upon reaction with ethanol or 2-propanol. The extent of this replacement reaction depends on Ca(OH)2 size and time. Hydrolysis of alkoxides speeds up the carbonation process and increases the CaCO3 yield. The higher degree of transformation into calcium alkoxide of both the commercial nanolime and the carbide lime fosters metastable vaterite formation, while calcite precipitation is promoted upon carbonation of the aged slaked lime due its lower reactivity, which limits calcium alkoxide formation. A higher consolidation efficacy in terms of strength gain of treated porous stone is achieved in the latter case, despite the fact that the carbonation is much faster and reaches a higher yield in the former ones. Formation of alkoxides, which has been neglected in previous studies, needs to be considered when applying nanolime treatments. These results show that the use Ca(OH)2 nanoparticle dispersions prepared with either aged slaked lime or carbide lime putties is an economical and effective conservation alternative to commercial nanolimes produced by homogeneous phase synthesis. Ultimately, this

  20. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  1. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed

    Payne, S R; Ford, T F; Wickham, J E

    1985-10-01

    Since 1981, 525 renal and ureteric calculi have been removed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) or transurethral ureteroscopy as the primary modalities of therapy. Successful extraction of the stone at the first attempt was achieved in 92 per cent of cases by PCN and 70 per cent of cases by ureteroscopy, whilst further endoscopic surgery improved the overall success rates to 98 per cent and to 80 per cent respectively. Complication rates from these procedures have both been low as has the morbidity, with most patients leaving hospital within 4 days and returning to work within 2 weeks. The successful development of endoscopic lithotomy and the use of in situ destruction techniques has meant that we now reserve open surgery for difficult multibranched staghorn calculi and ureteric stones embedded in the urothelium. With the advent of extracorporeally generated shockwave lithotripsy it is likely that even these types of stone will be amenable to minimally invasive procedures.

  2. Laser ablation of gall bladder stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

    1999-06-01

    Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

  3. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  4. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  5. [Stone Cone® in ureteroscopic ballistic lithotripsy of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Arancio, M; Guglielmetti, S; Delsignore, A; Landi, A; Marchetti, C; Mina, A; Marcato, M; Martinengo, C

    2008-01-01

    Stone Cone® (Microvasive-Boston Scientific Corp, USA) is a device which prevents retrograde calculus migration during endoscopic ureterolithotripsy. We have studied the safety and efficacy of this device in endoscopic ureterolithotripsy with ballistic energy in proximal ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 01/02/2006 to 01/02/2008 we carried out 36 ureterorenoscopies (URS) for proximal ureteral stones (average age: 46, range: 15-73). A ballistic energy was used for stones fragmentation. In 18 patients (Group A) we carried out URS with the aid of Stone Cone®, which was not used in the other 18 patients (Group B). Semirigid 8 Ch or 10 Ch Storz ureteroscope and ballistic lithotriptor Swiss Lithoclast Master EMS® were used. In cases of migration, edema, and ureteral damage, a ureteral stent was used. RESULTS. In Group B patients (URS performed without Stone Cone®) the migration of the whole stone, or of clinically significant fragments, occurred 8 times (45%). All of these patients underwent external shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) at a center equipped with a lithotriptor. A ureteral stent was placed in 14 cases (78%). In Group A, the migration of a stone requiring ESWL treatment occurred only once (5%). The ureteral stent was placed 8 times (45%). We had no significant complications during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS. The Stone Cone® is a safe and easy-to-use device. The cost of this device can be balanced by the reduction of postoperative ESWL treatments for lithiasic fragments pushing up into the kidneys (p<0.01), and of ureteral stent applications at the end of the procedure (p<0.05).

  6. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  7. [Minimally-invasive therapy of urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Knoll, T; Trojan, L; Haecker, A; Michel, M S; Köhrmann, K U; Alken, P

    2003-09-01

    Open surgery was the standard therapy for urinary calculi up to about 30 years ago. This changed upon introduction of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 1980, a procedure that is now the primary therapy for 70 % of the patients in western countries. Simultaneously, endourological procedures like ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) have been improved, and now, modern small diameter and highly efficient instruments offer an ideal alternative to shockwave lithotripsy. Today, minimally-invasive stone treatment has replaced open stone surgery almost completely. This article introduces ESWL, URS and PCNL and discusses indications, outcomes and limitations.

  8. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  9. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  10. Endotherapy for chronic pancreatitis with intracanalar stones.

    PubMed

    Maydeo, A; Soehendra, N; Reddy, N; Bhandari, S

    2007-07-01

    Endotherapy for pancreatic stone is an emerging specialty. The judicious application of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in selected groups of patients has increased the success rates of endotherapy, with excellent long-term results. In this review the authors share their vast experience of treating patients with pancreatic stones. The article will focus on the basic principles of pancreatic endotherapy, the instrumentation required, details of the ESWL technique and its applications, as well as the limitations, success rate, and complications of endotherapy in selected patients.

  11. 2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE PIER PROTECTED THE STONEWORK FROM DAMAGE FROM ICE FLOWS, BARGES, ETC. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  12. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for kidney stone on surgical clip.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Y; Kearse, W S

    1997-04-01

    We report the successful use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for the destruction of a renal stone that had formed around a surgical clip. The SWL led to passage of both the stone and the clip.

  13. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  14. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  15. 1. WEIDER'S CROSSING STONE HOUSE. WEIDER'S CROSSING WAS ONCE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEIDER'S CROSSING STONE HOUSE. WEIDER'S CROSSING WAS ONCE A SIZABLE COMMUNITY. THIS IS ONE OF ONLY TWO HOUSES REMAINING MARKING WEIDER'S CROSSING. - Weider's Crossing Stone House, Weissport, Carbon County, PA

  16. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  17. 44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is the only stone window sill in the house. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Metabolic evaluation of stone disease patients: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Norman, R W

    2001-07-01

    The high success rates of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and endourological techniques, together with their ease of use, in the treatment of urinary stones often overshadow the importance of the metabolic component of stone disease. It is my opinion that the prevention of further stones complements management of the acute episode. This review summarizes a variety of approaches to the measurement and manipulation of individual risk factors in recurrent urinary stone disease.

  1. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  2. 8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  3. Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  4. [Multimodal surgical management of stones in the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Fritschi Urs; Kabongo, Olivier M'Baya; Tawadros, Thomas; Jichlinski, Patrice; Valerio, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Emergency and differed urinary stone treatment are basic challenges in daily urological practice. By proposing the complete range of treatment and by improving medical and paramedical skills, management of stone patients can be optimized. In this article, we present the latest developments in stone treatment as well as our experiences with new technologies. PMID:25626248

  5. Correlation of the gallbladder stone and tissue fluorescent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.; Marafi, Mustafa A.; Makdisi, Yacob; Bhatia, Kuldip S.

    2001-11-01

    Fluorescent images of gallbladder stones, tissue and bile are obtained using a streak camera. A Match Spatial Filer (MSF) is made using a stone fluorescent image. The MSF is used to perform correlations with fluorescent tissue and bile image. A method for recognition of the stone and rejection of the tissue during the laser lithotripsy is proposed using the correlation outputs.

  6. Cost effectiveness of adjuvant bile salt treatment in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of gall bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, J P; Ross, B; Milner, P C; Brazier, J E; Westlake, L; Kohler, B; Frost, E; Williams, B T; Johnson, A G

    1994-09-01

    The relative cost effectiveness of adjuvant urso and chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been assessed as part of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of ESWL as a treatment of gall bladder stones. Of the first patients with gall stone volume < 4 cm3 randomised to ESWL in the main trial, 24 were randomised to have ESWL alone and 26 to have adjuvant bile acid treatment, one of whom died before the end of the 12 month follow up period. At 12 months after treatment, differences in gall stone clearance between ESWL alone (3/24 (13%) clear, 5 (21%) referred for surgery) and ESWL and bile acids (6/25 (24%) clear, 2 (8%) referred for surgery) were not significant (p = 0.36, log rank test). Patients in both groups had substantial and significant health gains (according to biliary pain frequency and severity, Nottingham Health Profile scores, visual analogue scale symptom scores, and complications) but there were no significant differences between the groups. Improvements in both groups usually occurred within a few weeks of treatment and were unrelated to gall stone clearance. Costs were greater in the bile salt group (95% confidence intervals for estimated cost difference: 90 pounds to 630 pounds). If the purpose of treatment is symptom relief rather than gall stone clearance then adjuvant bile salt treatment seems to be unnecessary.

  7. Atypical findings in a patient with a renal milky stone including a cake of stone.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takaharu

    2006-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our department with the diagnosis of a renal calculus. She exhibited dull left flank pain. A plain film revealed a round opaque calcific density in the left kidney in the supine and the upright position. There was no connection between the calcification and the renal collecting system by retrograde pyelography. Computed tomography in the supine position showed a rounded calcification in the left renal parenchyma without a semilunar configuration. She was diagnosed with left renal calyceal diverticula calculi. She underwent a surgical intervention which found a renal milky stone including a 10-mm. diameter stone. The examination of the fluid and the stone material disclosed three components: calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. The present case is interesting because its characteristics differ from the common features of renal milky stone.

  8. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. Some foods may ... consume of the following: • liquids • sodium • animal protein • calcium • oxalate Drinking enough liquids each day is the best ...

  9. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    PubMed

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  10. Profilometry of medieval Irish stone monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubos, Thierry; Redfern, Michael; O Croinin, Daibh

    2005-06-01

    National monuments are at ever-increasing risk of severe and permanent damage. The 3D laser scanning of stone monuments brings a new dimension in the field of cultural heritage by providing means of preserving, visualizing, accessing and analysing some of its most invaluable artefacts. In this article, we present the results obtained with our project "Profilometry of Medieval Irish Stone Monuments" hosted at the Centre for the Study of Human Settlement and Historical Change, NUI Galway. This project aims to create a virtual archive of selected incised stones from 3D scans taken in the field. The raw scans are processed into watertight 3D models and new processing techniques have been developed to enhance the surface features of the stones. Also, textured 3D models of the artefacts have been made available online for the benefit of both the historian community and the broader public. This article focuses on the analysis we performed on the shaft of the east cross at Toureen Peacaun, Co Tipperary, which shows the longest inscription in Ireland with geometrical capitals.

  11. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  14. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  15. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  16. Drop impact on natural porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-05-01

    Drop impact and spreading on three natural porous stones are experimentally determined using high-speed imaging and compared with spreading over an impermeable steel surface. The dynamic non-wetting behavior during spreading and the hydrophobic contact angle >90° is attributed to the presence of an air layer between the droplet and the porous substrate. As the contact line pins at maximum spreading on the porous stone, the maximum spreading determines the liquid contact area on such substrate. The droplet gets pinned when the air layer is broken at the contact line and capillary forces develop in fines pores at the droplet edge, pinning the droplet. Maximum spreading on porous stones increases with impact velocity but does not scale with Weber number at low impact velocity. It is demonstrated that dynamic wetting plays an important role in the spreading at low velocity and that the dynamic wetting as characterized by the dynamic contact angle θD has to be taken into account for predicting the maximum spreading. Correcting the maximum spreading ratio with the dynamic wetting behavior, all data for porous stones and non-porous substrate collapse onto a single curve.

  17. Considerations on the European Standard EN 14157 Test Methods: Abrasion Resistance of Natural Stones Used for Flooring in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, Z.; Günes Yılmaz, N.; Goktan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, the Wide Wheel abrasion (WWA) test and the Böhme abrasion (BA) test are among the most widely used standard test methods for determining abrasion resistance of natural stones, the former being the reference test method in EN 14157 Standard. However, it is stated in the Annex-A (Informative) of EN 14157 Standard that very limited data are available to provide correlations between these two test methods. To be able to fill this gap, in this study, 25 different natural stones belonging to sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous groups were tested for their abrasion resistance as well as physico-mechanical properties. Also, for a better interpretation of abrasion resistance characteristics of the tested stone materials, relationships between abrasion resistance and physico-mechanical properties were statistically examined. A statistically significant linear correlation ( R 2 = 0.85; P value = 0.000) was established between the WWA test and the BA test, which could be used in practice for converting the measured abrasion resistance values from one testing method to another. It was also found that the correlation between these two test methods improved significantly ( R 2 = 0.93; P value = 0.001) when relatively high-porosity stone materials (porosity ≥1%) were separately evaluated. Both methods of abrasion resistance employed in the present study showed statistically significant linear correlations with uniaxial compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength, the former proving to be a more influencing parameter on resistance to abrasion. Also, from the point view of representing actual abrasion mechanism of stone materials in practice, the necessity of simulating multi-directional foot traffic in abrasion testing methods was discussed. In this respect, the reference test method in the EN 14157 Standard was criticized for not fully meeting this requirement. It was also pointed out that the reference method could have some drawbacks when applied to coarse

  18. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    PubMed

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted.

  19. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    PubMed

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted. PMID:17830710

  20. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  1. Gallstone disease: Management of intrahepatic stones.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori; Atomi, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Hepatolithiasis (oriental cholangiohepatitis) has reportedly been endemic only in East Asia. The disease is now occasionally recognized in Western societies, especially in people who have lived in the Orient. Hepatolithiasis is characterized by its intractable nature and frequent recurrence, requiring multiple operative interventions, which is in distinct contrast to gallbladder stones. In addition to frequent cholangitis and chronic sepsis, it is widely known that longstanding intrahepatic stones lead to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Symptoms of hepatolithiasis include abdominal pain, jaundice and cholangitis. Pyogenic cholangitis due to strictures and hepatolithiasis tends to recur, and sometimes patients may present with liver abscesses. Radiological studies and percutaneous procedures are keys in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatolithiasis. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accurately depict the normal anatomy and presence of intrahepatic stones. It should be stressed that each modality has its pros and cons, and imaging studies should be performed on the basis of understanding the pathophysiology. As the diagnostic role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) evolves, the roles of both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), and their most significant advantage, is primarily therapeutic with their ability to extract stones, biopsy intraductal lesions, and place stents easily. The primary goals of treatment are to eliminate attacks of cholangitis and to stop the progression of the disease (which leads to biliary cirrhosis). Surgery has a primary role in hepatolithiasis because hepatolithiasis tends to recur, so that multiple sessions of the endoscopic approach (i.e. two or three times a year) are often required. PTC is an alternative when surgical resection of the affected lobe is

  2. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  3. Clinical observation of childhood urinary stones induced by melamine-tainted infant formula in Anhui province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Bo; Lu, Ling; Zhang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The current report detailed an investigation of melamine-linked urinary stones in children exposed to contaminated formula. Material and methods A total of 1062 children fed with melamine-contaminated infant formula were screened for urinary stones. Sixty healthy children without melamine exposure were recruited as a control group. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract system was performed. Urinalysis, renal function, liver status, and serum electrolytes were determined. Results We encountered 49 affected children from the 1062 screened ones, at a rate of 4.6% per ultrasound performed. Thirty-two were male, and 17 were female. The affected children ranged in age from 1 month to 96 months, with a mean of 25 months. Duration of exposure was from 1.3 months to 84 months, with a mean of 19.5 months. The melamine contents in serum were between 12 mg/kg and 2563 mg/kg, with mean concentration of 1295.3 mg/kg. Most affected children were asymptomatic with no urinary findings. Patients with urinary stones exhibited lower urine pH and serum HCO3 – than those in the healthy children, whereas for serum uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and anion gap the opposite trends were observed. The stone diameter ranged from 2 mm to 18 mm with a median of 6.5 mm. Multiple stones were noted in all patients. After 1 week of conservative management, stone diameters of 38 cases (77.6%) were significantly decreased. Among them, urinary stones were discharged completely in 21 affected children (42.9%). Conclusions The short-term outcome of melamine-linked urinary stones is satisfactory. PMID:23515431

  4. Initial presentation in psychiatry emergency room led to diagnosis of many urinary bladder stones in a male patient.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nagaraja, Aarathi; Mahmood, Aza K

    2013-01-01

    The first case of man who presented to psychiatry emergency room for evaluation of abnormal behavior because of urinary stones was reported. Careful evaluation of patient led to a diagnosis of 37 urinary bladder stones in an Egyptian man with obstructive uropathy and metabolic defects in the form of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects can lead to successful outcome in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery. A 61-year-old Egyptian man presented to psychiatry emergency room because he was found lying on floor in bathroom to urinate by his wife who thought her husband needed psychiatric evaluation. Patient gave history of frequent urination and dysuria on and off for 3 years. In the last 3 months before his presentation to emergency room, he got into a habit of lying down on his left side when he went to bathroom to urinate because it was easier for him to pass urine. Renal consultation requested because of presence of red blood cells in urinalysis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed bilateral hydronephrosis and multiple bladder stones. Twenty-four-hour urine collection showed low urinary citrate and high oxalate. Patient underwent open vesicolithotomy and removal of 36 stones. Stone analysis showed 75% uric acid and 25% calcium oxalate. Patient did very well after surgery, and 1 month later, he underwent transuretheral resection of prostate without any complications. Now patient has no difficulty passing urine and he has no recent attack of urinary tract infection. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects in men with urinary bladder stones would hopefully provide clinicians with the proper diagnostic tools to more specifically treat such patients with improved success in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery.

  5. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  6. Treating urinary tract stones: common questions about a common problem.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manoj

    2010-08-01

    Urinary stones are a common and costly problem. Although shockwave lithotripsy is the mainstay of treatment for stones, a number of other surgical tools and approaches may be beneficial to some patients. Newer diagnostic techniques and technologies are improving our ability to determine the size, location, and composition of stones and, thus, our approach to treatment. And an increased focus on diet and metabolism is helping patients prevent stone formation. This article reviews the current approaches to diagnosing and treating urologic stones and answers questions primary care physicians often ask about this topic.

  7. [A Case Report of 2,8-Dihydroxyadenine Stone].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Here we report a case of a 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) stone. A 48-year-old woman arrived at our hospital with left flank pain. She was diagnosed with a left ureteral stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was tried, but the left ureteral stone was radiolucent and ESWL was not effective. Transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) was successful. An analysis of the stone revealed 2,8-DHA. A 2,8-DHA stone is caused by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency. By genetic tests, she was diagnosed with APRT deficiency. PMID:26278213

  8. Similarity of urinary risk factors among stone-forming patients in five regions of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, J. A.; Hill, K. D.; Pak, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Study Objective: To compare urinary biochemical risk factors among stone-forming patients in the Southeast (SE) or "stone belt" versus four other regions of the United States. Design: Prospective biochemical survey for regional comparisons. Setting: Referral-based nephrolithiasis clinics, urologists, nephrologists, and family practitioners. Patients: Consecutive sample of 3473 stone-forming patients who submitted 24-hour urine collections for biochemical analyses of stone-forming risk factors. Interventions: None. Subjects taking medication known to interfere with stone-forming risk factors were deleted from the final data compilation. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, the mean values for each urinary parameter spanned a narrow range without significant difference between the five regions. Among "metabolic" factors, 40% in the SE had hypercalciuria (> 6.25 mmol/d), compared to 35%-43% in other regions, and hyperuricosuria (> 4.2 mmol/d) was found in 16% in the SE versus 17%-19% elsewhere. Among "environmental" factors, low urine volume ( < 2 L/d) was found in 77% patients in the SE compared to 69%-78% elsewhere, and high sodium was encountered in 27% in the SE versus 24%-29% elsewhere. No differences were noted in occurrence of other abnormal risk factors: hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, low pH, high sulfate, high phosphorus, or low magnesium. Conclusions: Despite expected regional differences in nutritional and environmental influences, the results of this study showed a striking similarity in urinary biochemical risk factor profiles of stone-formers in all five regions of the United States.

  9. Gallstone disease. The clinical manifestations of infectious stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Stewart, L; Fine, R; Pellegrini, C A; Way, L W

    1989-05-01

    Gallstones from 82 patients were examined under a scanning electron microscope for evidence of bacteria, and the findings were compared with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Bacteria were present in 68% of pigment stones and the pigment portions of 80% of composite stones. These gallstones were referred to as infectious stones. No bacteria were found in cholesterol gallstones. Acute cholangitis was diagnosed in 52% of patients with infectious stones and in 18% of patients with noninfectious stones. Over half of the patients with noninfectious stones presented with mild symptoms. Infectious stones were more often associated with a previous common duct exploration, an urgent operation, infected bile, a common duct procedure, and complications. These data show that gallstone disease is more virulent in patients whose gallstones contain bacteria.

  10. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  11. In vitro dissolution of gallbladder stone by edible leaves, fruits and homoeopathic medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ishwar; Singh, Yogendra; Ansari, Shoeb A.; Agrawal, Namita R.

    2005-10-01

    Gallbladder stone sample of a female patient was analysed by diagnostic, spectroscopic methods and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Besides cholesterol as the major constituent, bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea were also found to be present in the sample. Bile acid (ursodeoxycholic acid) was used to study its effect on the dissolution of cholestrol present in the stone. Extracts of edible leaves and fruits (amla, lemon and mausammi) and the homoeopathic medicines Berberis vulgaris Q. Dioscorea Q. and Calcarea carb 200 in the concentration range 0-3% (v/v) were found to be effective in the dissolution process in the following sequences: B. vulgaris Q. and Dioscorea Q.> C. carb 200, lemon>mausammi, amla was found to be more effective than jamun and tulsi leaf extracts in the given concentration range.

  12. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Kıraç, Mustafa; Küpeli, Bora; Irkilata, Lokman; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Aksakal, Nur; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Bozkırlı, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%), 43 (39.8%), and 38 (35.5%) of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05). The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate-but not calcium-abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  13. Usefulness of measuring renal papillae in Hounsfield units in stone - forming patients

    PubMed Central

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Cano-Garcia, Maria del Carmen; Huerta-Brunel, Juan Esteban; Hidalgo-Agullo, Guillermo; Roletto-Salmo, Luis; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this work is to study the density of the renal papillae in stone-forming patients and to determine its usefulness. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 79 patients diagnosed with renal stones and on whom a computed tomography without contrast was performed from June 2014 to May 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (single episode) included 43 patients, and Group 2 (recurrent episodes) included 36 patients. The density of six renal papillae (3 per kidney) was measured, and the means obtained were compared between Groups 1 and 2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean papillary density in Group 1 was 32.26 (SD 4.07) HU compared to 42.36 (SD 8.03) HU in Group 2 (P=00001). A ROC curve was constructed, obtaining an optimal cut-off point of 36.8HU [area under the curve, 0.881 (95% CI; 0.804-0.958); P=0001], with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90%. The relative risk was estimated at 40.3 (95% CI; 10.8-151.1), meaning that a patient with a mean papillary density greater than 36.8HU would have a 40 times greater risk of having recurrent renal stones. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 81% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 90%. Conclusion: The measurement of renal papillary density could be useful in predicting recurrent stone-formers. These results need to be confirmed in future studies with a greater number of patients and a longer follow-up. PMID:27622277

  14. [Components of Urinary Nanocrystals and Their Influence on Formation of Calcium Oxalate Stones].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-bao; Wen, Xiao-ling; Xue, Jun-fa; Ouyang, Jian-ming

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were accurately performed to analyze the components of nanocrystals in the urine of patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. XRD, SAED and FFT detected the presence of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), uric acid (UA), and calcium phosphate (CaP). EDS detected the elements of C, O, Ca, with a small amount of N and P. These results showed that the main components of urinary nanocrystals were COM, with a small amount UA and phosphate. HRTEM observation showed that the particle size of urinary nanocrystals was dozens of nanometers. The result was consistent with the calculation by Debye-Scherrer equation. When the urine was filtered through a microporous membrane of 0.45, 1.2, and 3 μm, respectively, the number of diffraction peaks of the obtained urine crystallites increased with the increased pore size, indicating the increase of urinary crystallite species. Crystal nucleation, growth, aggregation, and adhesion of crystals to the renal epithelial cells are important processes for CaOx stone formation. The presence of a large amount of COM crystals in patients' urine is a critical factor for CaOx stones formation. Nano UA and CaP crystallite can induce the CaOx stone formation as central nidus.

  15. The risk of renal stone formation during and after long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Morukov, B. V.; Sams, C. F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The formation of a renal stone during space flight may have serious negative effects on the health of the crewmember and the success of the mission. Urinary biochemical factors and the influence of dietary factors associated with renal stone development were assessed during long duration Mir Space Station missions. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected prior to, during and following long duration space flight. The relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were determined. RESULTS: Changes in the urinary biochemistry of crewmembers during long duration spaceflight demonstrated increases in the supersaturation of the stone-forming salts. In-flight hypercalciuria was evident in a number of individual crewmembers and 24-hour dietary fluid intake and urine volume were significantly lower. During flight, there was a significant increase in brushite supersaturation. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest acute effects of space flight and postflight changes in the urinary biochemistry favoring increased crystallization in the urine. The effects of dietary intake, especially fluid intake, may have a significant impact on the potential for renal stone formation. Efforts are now underway to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate the increased risk. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication—hepatolithiasis. A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications. Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  17. Analysis of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jarolímová, Zdeňka; Lubal, Přemysl; Kanický, Viktor

    2012-08-30

    An analytical method for the determination of the composition of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis with conductometric detection was developed. Using different leading/terminating electrolyte systems, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds (urate, xanthate, oxalate) and inorganic ions (phosphate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NH(4)(+)) species commonly present in mixed renal stones in three separate steps can be carried out with limits of detection about 10 μmol/L. The developed method was validated by the analysis of real samples and can be used for urinary calculi classification. In addition, it was verified that this method can also be employed for the determination of the above mentioned analytes in some other samples (bones, teeth) concerning apatite biominerals (fluoro-, carbonate-, chloro-apatite). PMID:22939127

  18. Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Openov, L. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene, which is a graphene allotrope, predicted recently are studied in terms of the nonorthogonal tight-binding model. The energies of the defect formation and the heights of energy barriers preventing the formation and annealing of the defects are found. Corresponding frequency factors in the Arrhenius formula are calculated. The evolution of the defect structure is studied in the real-time mode using the molecular dynamics method.

  19. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  20. An Unusual Type of Kidney Stone.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Maes, Heleen; Verstraete, Alain Gaston; Stove, Veronique; Delanghe, Joris Richard

    2016-01-01

    A very rare case of acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis is presented in a 54-year-old female patient who had been prescribed sulfasalazine (6 x 500 mg/day) because of psoriatic arthritis for the last 9 years. The patient's renal function was only slightly impaired. Reflectance infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of the chemical nature of the stone. As acetylsulfapyridine is a metabolite of sulfasalazine, administration of the latter drug was the cause of the nephrolithiasis.

  1. Renal stone disease in spinal-cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John

    2012-08-01

    Renal stone disease is common among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They frequently have recurrent stones, staghorn calculi, and bilateral stone disease. The potential risk factors for stones in the SCI population are lesion level, bladder management strategy, specific metabolic changes, and frequent urinary tract infections. There has been a reduction in struvite stones among these patients, likely as a result of advances in their urologic care. The clinical presentation of stone disease in patients with SCI may involve frequent urinary infections or urosepsis, and at the time of presentation patients may need emergency renal drainage. The proportion of patients who have their stones treated with different modalities is largely unknown. Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is commonly used to manage stones in patients with SCI, and there have been reports of stone-free rates of 50% to 70%. The literature suggests that the morbidity associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy in these patients is considerable. Ureteroscopy is a common modality used in the general population to treat patients with upper tract stone disease. Traditional limitations of this procedure in patients with SCI have likely been overcome with new flexible scopes; however, the medical literature has not specifically reported on its use among patients with SCI.

  2. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  3. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-10-01

    This study describes and evaluates the use of non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) before and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Computer measured stone volume was used as an exact measurement for treatment response. 81 patients received SWL of kidney stones at Herlev Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014 and follow-up was possible in 77 (95 %) patients. NCCT was used before and after treatment. Treatment response was expressed as a reduction of the stone volume. Stone characteristics as the stone volumes, HU, SSD and localization were measured by radiologist using a vendor non-specific computer program. Complications, patient characteristics and additional treatment were registered. On average, 5858 shocks were given each patient. The follow-up NCCT was performed 24 days after treatment. It was possible to calculate the stone volume in 88 % of the patients-the remaining 12 % it was not possible due to stone disintegration. The stone free rate was 22 %. The average relative reduction in stone burden was 62 %. Only 8 % of the patients were radiological non-responders. Steinstrasse was observed in 13 (17 %) and 28 (36 %) patients had additional treatment performed. Irradiation dose per NCCT was 2.6 mSv. Stone volume could be calculated in most patients. The relative reduction in stone burden after treatment was 62 %. The stone volume was redundant when evaluating stone free patients, but in cases of partial response it gave an exact quantification, to be used in the further management and follow-up of the patients.

  4. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-10-01

    This study describes and evaluates the use of non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) before and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Computer measured stone volume was used as an exact measurement for treatment response. 81 patients received SWL of kidney stones at Herlev Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014 and follow-up was possible in 77 (95 %) patients. NCCT was used before and after treatment. Treatment response was expressed as a reduction of the stone volume. Stone characteristics as the stone volumes, HU, SSD and localization were measured by radiologist using a vendor non-specific computer program. Complications, patient characteristics and additional treatment were registered. On average, 5858 shocks were given each patient. The follow-up NCCT was performed 24 days after treatment. It was possible to calculate the stone volume in 88 % of the patients-the remaining 12 % it was not possible due to stone disintegration. The stone free rate was 22 %. The average relative reduction in stone burden was 62 %. Only 8 % of the patients were radiological non-responders. Steinstrasse was observed in 13 (17 %) and 28 (36 %) patients had additional treatment performed. Irradiation dose per NCCT was 2.6 mSv. Stone volume could be calculated in most patients. The relative reduction in stone burden after treatment was 62 %. The stone volume was redundant when evaluating stone free patients, but in cases of partial response it gave an exact quantification, to be used in the further management and follow-up of the patients. PMID:26914829

  5. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN NORMAL AND STONE FORMING RATS TREATED WITH THE RIPE KERNEL JUICE OF PLANTAIN (MUSA PARADISIACA)

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kalpana; Baskar, R.; Varalakshmi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats. PMID:22556626

  6. Artificial aggregate made from waste stone sludge and waste silt.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yu; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2010-11-01

    In this research, waste stone sludge obtained from slab stone processing and waste silt from aggregate washing plants were recycled to manufacture artificial aggregate. Fine-powdered stone sludge was mixed with waste silt of larger particle size; vibratory compaction was applied for good water permeability, resulting in a smaller amount of solidifying agent being used. For the densified packing used in this study, the mix proportion of waste stone sludge to waste silt was 35:50, which produced artificial aggregate of more compact structure with water absorption rate below 0.1%. In addition, applying vibratory compaction of 33.3 Hz to the artificial aggregate and curing for 28 days doubled the compressive strength to above 29.4 MPa. Hence, recycling of waste stone sludge and waste silt for the production of artificial aggregate not only offers a feasible substitute for sand and stone, but also an ecological alternative to waste management of sludge and silt.

  7. Development of latent fingermarks from rocks and stones.

    PubMed

    Hefetz, Ido; Cohen, Amit; Cohen, Yaron; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, stones have been used in the commission of crimes due to their widespread availability. Stones can be used as a lethal weapon that sometimes might be the only evidence in a serious case. The common perception, even in professional fingermark circles, is that stones do not yield identifiable latent fingermarks. The authors of this research paper examined the feasibility of developing fingermarks from seven types of stones using three latent fingermark techniques: magnetic powder, cyanoacrylate fuming, and ninhydrin. The paper will demonstrate that by classifying stones and rocks according to their natural properties (porosity, permeability, and the nature of surface area), even application of the simplest development techniques can produce good results. In conclusion, chert and limestone yielded the most qualitative and quantitative results using magnetic powder. The time factor is also important in recovering latent fingermarks on stones and rocks. PMID:24502220

  8. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  9. Milk of calcium stones: radiological signs and management outcome.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M

    2015-06-01

    Milk of calcium (MOC) is a rare type of stone that was first described in 1940 by Ludin and Howald who reported MOC in renal cysts. Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts. Stasis, obstruction and infection are important predisposing factors. Due to a layering effect, characteristic radiological signs especially in CT can help in diagnosis to avoid unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. This is the largest reported case series, in which radiological signs by CT scan to predict renal MOC stones, clinical picture and management outcome are described in detail. Cases with suspected renal milk of calcium stones were studied over 7 years (2008-2015). All cases were diagnosed preoperatively by non-contrast CT. Urine cultures were performed in all patients preoperatively. Intra-operative and postoperative findings were reported. Stones retrieved were sent for chemical analysis using an infrared method. Seven cases of milk of calcium renal stones were included in this study. These stones were faint radio-opaque in two cases and radiolucent in five cases. All cases were diagnosed preoperatively with non-contrast CT. Their Hounsfield units (HU) ranged from 114 to 612. All stones were located in a dependent position (gravitational effect) in the posterior aspect of dilated calyces. Five cases exhibited the typical fluid level and two cases demonstrated semilunar (half moon) pattern in the anterior surface of the stones. All cases underwent PCNL with suction and retrieval of soft stones without the need for disintegration. When stones demonstrate a low Hounsfield unit, are arranged in dependent positions within dilated calyces and exhibit fluid level or semilunar pattern on non-contrast CT, milk of calcium stones should be considered. PCNL is an effective modality for management of renal milk of calcium stones. PMID:25820293

  10. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  11. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  12. Kidney stones: painful and common--but preventable.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R

    2009-05-01

    Kidney stones are among the more common and painful urological disorders, affecting approximately 10% of Americans. While most stones pass spontaneously, obstructions result in renal colic, often requiring aggressive management of pain. If obstructions persist, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy may be required for a stone's removal. Recurrence rates are high, and prevention includes increased fluid intake, dietary restrictions, and the use of pharmacotherapy. Stone recurrence increases with age, underscoring the importance of prevention for those 60 years of age and older.

  13. Current trends in the management of urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, T P; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Darcy, M D; Cragg, A H; Hunter, D W; Amplatz, K

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of renal and ureteral stones has undergone rapid and major changes over the past ten years. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy has become the most commonly used modality for the treatment of renal and upper ureteral stones. Lower ureteral stones are more commonly being approached by retrograde techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, medical therapy, and open surgical nephrolithotomy offer viable alternatives in given situations. Presented here is the current application of each of these techniques, both alone and in combination, for the treatment of urinary stones.

  14. Stone fragmentation pattern of piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Mohsenvand, C; Rodin, L; Wang, Y H; Pettersson, S

    1998-06-01

    Whole stones (N = 64; largest diameter 5-15 mm) were treated in vitro with piezoelectric shockwaves using the Edap LT-01 lithotripter with 2.5 Hz at either 100% or 54% power. The number of fragments larger than 2 mm was counted after every 30 seconds. The stones were defined as totally broken when all fragments were < 2 mm. Total fragmentation time was correlated with the energy level and the size of the stone. The number of large fragments did not correlate with the energy level but rather with the original size of the stone.

  15. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Alan Stone and the ethics of forensic psychiatry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Miller, Glenn H

    2008-01-01

    In 1982, Alan Stone presented a keynote speech at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) on the ethics of forensic psychiatry. That speech was sharply critical of the prevailing ethics standards and led forensic psychiatrists to study his ideas carefully. A quarter-century later, he returned to the AAPL's Annual Meeting to present his current thinking. This overview outlines the development of Stone's thought over 25 years and the dialectic among Stone and three critics: Paul Appelbaum, Ezra Griffith, and Stephen Morse. Stone is now more optimistic about the possibility of developing an ethic for forensic psychiatry.

  17. Memorial stone (Hibernian Society of Baltimore), level 280 Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Hibernian Society of Baltimore), level 280 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Memorial stone (Cliosophic Society), level 270 Washington Monument, High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Cliosophic Society), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Memorial stone (Massachusetts Voluntary Militia), level 280 Washington Monument, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Massachusetts Voluntary Militia), level 280 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  1. 7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  2. Memorial stone (R. Norris and Son Locomotive Works), level 270 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (R. Norris and Son Locomotive Works), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Superconducting Cable Having A Felexible Former

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-03-15

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  4. Superconducting Cable Having A Flexible Former

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-08-30

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  5. Hyperoxaluria leads to dysbiosis and drives selective enrichment of oxalate metabolizing bacterial species in recurrent kidney stone endures

    PubMed Central

    Suryavanshi, Mangesh V.; Bhute, Shrikant S.; Jadhav, Swapnil D.; Bhatia, Manish S.; Gune, Rahul P.; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition. Interestingly, higher than usual concentration of oxalate was found inhibitory to many gut microbes, including Oxalobacter formigenes, a well-characterized OMBS. In addition a concomitant enrichment of acid tolerant pathobionts in recurrent stone sufferers is observed. Further, specific enzymes participating in oxalate metabolism are found augmented in stone endures. Additionally, hyperoxaluria driven dysbiosis was found to be associated with oxalate content, stone episodes and colonization pattern of Oxalobacter formigenes. Thus, we rationalize the first in-depth surveillance of OMBS in the human gut and their association with hyperoxaluria. Our findings can be utilized in the treatment of hyperoxaluria associated recurrent stone episodes. PMID:27708409

  6. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 25 patients with melamine-induced kidney stones complicated by acute obstructive renal failure in Beijing Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Shen, Ying; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Gui Ju; Chen, Zhi; Fan, Jian Feng; Jia, Li Qun; Xiao, Hong Zhan; Li, Xu Ran; Puschner, Birgit

    2010-04-01

    A total of 25 Chinese patients aged 6 to 36 months hospitalised at Beijing Children's Hospital due to melamine-induced kidney stones complicated by acute obstructive renal failure in 2008 were included in a study in order to diagnose and treat these special cases more effectively. Feeding history, clinical presentation, ultrasound findings, treatments and effects were summarised. Twelve to seventeen months follow-up was reported also. Ultrasound examination showed that calculi were located at the kidney and ureters. Stones were composed of both uric acid and melamine in a molar ratio of 1.2:1 to 2.1:1. Treatments providing liquid plus alkalisation of urine proved to be effective in helping the patients pass the stones. Surgical intervention was needed in severe cases. Renal function returned to normal in all 25 patients after various durations of therapy. Sixty-eight percent of the patients expelled all of the calculi within 3 months, 90% in 6 months and 95% in 9 months, without sequelae till now. Melamine-contaminated milk formula can cause kidney stones in infants, which should be diagnosed by feeding history, clinical symptoms and ultrasound examination. Composition of the stones was not only of melamine but also uric acid. Providing liquid orally or intravenously plus alkalisation of urine proved to promote the removal of the stones. Follow-up of 12 to 17 months after discharge showed no sequelae. PMID:19841939

  7. Effect of pH on the morphology of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Neelesh; Sova, Stacey; Singh, N. B.; Arnold, Brad; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian; Su, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The process for the formation of kidney stone is very complex phenomena and has some similarity to the crystal growth from a solution. It is very much dependent on the acidity pH of the fluids. This pH variation affects the content and amount of filtering residue and its morphology. In this study we have performed experiments using carbonate, oxides and urea to simulate and understand the morphologies of the residue filtered and coarsened in different conditions. We observed that different of morphologies of kidney stones can be explained on the basis of acidity and hydration conditions. At lower pH fat prism crystals are observed and as pH increases, long fat needle crystals with large aspect ratio are observed. The coarsening experiments showed further growth of crystals. The remelting experiments showed that during dissolution of kidney stones the joining material breaks first leaving the large faceted crystals undissolved when attempts are made to dissolve into small crystallites. However, the morphology did not change. It was also observed that impurities such as magnesium oxide (MgO) affect the morphology significantly.

  8. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  10. Management of waste from stone processing industry.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength.

  11. Acid rain and weathering damage to carbonate building stone

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.M.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-07-01

    Marble and limestone specimens were exposed to atmospheric conditions at four eastern US sites. A number of methods were used for damage assessment; this paper describes the results of chemical and physical measurements of material loss. Good agreement was observed among the results obtained with different methods. A surface recession rate near 15 ..mu..m/y was observed for skyward surfaces of marble tested in NC, and comparable results were obtained at the other test sites. The response of the porous limestone was assessed with greater difficulty; a loss rate similar to that of marble was inferred. Initial correlations of material loss with environmental factors are briefly discussed.

  12. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of stones in lower calices of kidney].

    PubMed

    Martov, A G; Peniukova, I V; Moskalenko, S A; Peniukov, V G; Peniukov, D V; Balykov, I S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the study aimed to evaluation of possible relationship between anatomical structure of the renal pelvis of the kidney, the size of the stone and the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of stones in lower calices of kidney, defined as "stone-free state". ESWL was performed in 285 patients. Sizes of stones varied from 5 to 25 mm. With interval distribution of stone sizes, the greatest number of cases was detected with size of 5 to 12 mm. The destruction of stone required one ESWL session in 196 cases, and three sessions only in 12 cases. The total number of pulses per one stone did not exceed 9500, and more than 70% of the stones have been effectively destroyed with less than 3000 pulses. The result of treatment was assessed 3-4 months after the last ESWL session on the basis of ultrasound and X-ray examination using nominal (dichotomous) scale. In addition, for verification of significant (expected and unexpected) correlations, exploratory analysis of the correlation matrices of factors possibly affecting the discharge of stone fragments was performed. Positive treatment outcome was recorded in 212 (74.4%) patients. Residual stone fragments (> or = 5 mm) were identified in 73 (25.6%) patients; in 69 patients fragments corresponded to the initial localization and 4 fragments were located in the pelvis and calices of middle and lower segments of the kidney. Statistical processing found no association between the size of the stone and the number of ESWL sessions required for its destruction (P = 0,4056). The analysis of relationship between the nature of the complications and size of stone revealed differences, but there were no significant differences in median test (p = 0.1067). Based on exploratory analysis and correlations identified, in-depth evaluation was carried out on three factors: the size of the stone, length of lower calices neck, and pyelocaliceal corner. Width of lower calices neck as a

  13. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease.

  14. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease. PMID:27651947

  15. Rapid cholesterol nucleation time and cholesterol gall stone formation after subtotal or total colectomy in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Makino, I; Chijiiwa, K; Higashijima, H; Nakahara, S; Kishinaka, M; Kuroki, S; Mibu, R

    1994-01-01

    Changes in biliary lipid composition, pH, ionised calcium, total and unconjugated bilirubin, and cholesterol nucleation time of gall bladder bile samples were examined in six patients who had undergone subtotal or total colectomy between five months and seven years previously, and values were compared with those in control patients with no gall stones. The colectomy group mainly comprised patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli, in whom only a short length of the terminal ileum (mean (SEM) 2.25 (0.57) cm) had been resected. The reconstruction procedures were ileoanal anastomosis in two patients, terminal ileostomy in two, ileorectal anastomosis in one, and J shaped ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in one patient. The distributions of age, sex, and relative body weight were similar in the two groups. The gall bladder bile was lithogenic in the post colectomy group--these patients had a significantly increased cholesterol saturation index (p < 0.01) and rapid cholesterol nucleation time (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. A significant increase in the molar percentage of cholesterol and a decrease in that of total bile acid associated with significantly decreased secondary bile acids (p < 0.05) were observed in the post colectomy group. Gall stones formed in two of six patients after colectomy were cholesterol stones containing more than 80% cholesterol by dry weight. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, pH, and ionised calcium values were similar in the two groups. The results indicate that after total or subtotal colectomy the composition of gall bladder bile increases the risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. PMID:7829016

  16. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stone disease: clinical experience with the electromagnetic lithotriptor 'Lithostar'.

    PubMed

    Simon, J; Corbusier, A; Mendes Leal, A; Van den Bossche, M; Wespes, E; Van Regemorter, G; Schulman, C C

    1989-01-01

    400 urinary stone patients were treated with the electromagnetic lithotriptor Siemens 'Lithostar': 66.3% had renal stones and 33.7% had ureteral stones. Ninety percent of the treatments were performed under intravenous sedation only: 14.5% of the patients had more than one session. After 3 months more than 80% of the patients with a single stone smaller than 1.5 cm and 46% of the patients with stones larger than 2.5 cm were 'stone-free'.

  17. Adjuvant therapy after surgical stone management.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Michael N; Monga, Manoj; Preminger, Glenn M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the most widely researched adjuvant medical therapies for the surgical management of urolithiasis. Articles were identified and reviewed from PubMed and Medline databases with MeSH headings focusing on the various surgical treatments of urolithiasis and adjuvant therapy. Additional articles were retrieved from references and conference proceedings. Surgical treatments reviewed included shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Adjuvant therapy was considered medical or complementary therapy as an adjunct to these surgical interventions. Adjuvant therapy for the surgical management of urolithiasis has been documented to increase stone-free rates, reduce stone remission rates, prevent renal damage, and decrease postoperative morbidity. A variety of agents have been studied, ranging from antioxidants to alpha-blockers and to alkalinizing agents. Additionally, there is increasing interest in complementary adjuvant therapy (ie, acupuncture). Adjuvant therapy is a fertile area for research in the surgical management of urolithiasis. The optimal agents have yet to be determined and therefore further investigation is warranted and necessary.

  18. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  19. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  20. Coagulum pyelolithotomy: impact on unrecognized stones.

    PubMed

    Kalash, S S; Young, J D

    1985-12-01

    The use of coagulum free of thrombin to remove 313 renal calculi from 46 patients is reviewed. Twenty-six additional calculi removed from 17 patients were not apparent on preoperative studies. Of the 313 stones apparent preoperatively 3 were not extracted in the coagulum. Other means (stone forceps and so forth) were used to deliver 2 of these calculi and 1 was left in the kidney. Incisions used for these procedures included the conventional flank incision in 9 patients, a 10 cm. posterior flank incision in 30 and lumbotomy in 7. Adjunctive use of coagulum in 8 additional patients is presented. The recovery of more than the preoperatively identified renal calculi may be an advantage for coagulum pyelolithotomy. The length of hospital stay in these 46 patients averaged 4.8 days, with an average operative time of 1.22 hours. The patients returned to work within an average of 13 days. We suggest that these data are comparable to other methods of pyelonephrolithotomy. PMID:3932682

  1. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  2. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  3. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  4. Perioperative cultures and the role of antibiotics during stone surgery.

    PubMed

    Motamedinia, Piruz; Korets, Ruslan; Badalato, Gina; Gupta, Mantu

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infection and urosepsis are the most common complications associated with the procedures urologists employ to manage stone disease. Recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and utilization of perioperative urine and stone culture prior to shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) or endoscopic intervention have evolved overtime. We sought to provide readers with a comprehensive consensus regarding these most recent recommendations.

  5. In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, H; Terpstra, O T; Nijs, H G; Steen, G

    1991-02-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene/mono-octanoin (70%/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was used for chemical analysis of cholesterol, calcium, and bilirubin contents. Eight sets were cholesterol stones with a mean (SD) cholesterol content of 89.9 (5.6)%. These stones dissolved completely in either solvent, often leaving sand-like debris, with the exception of one stone. MTBE dissolved cholesterol gall stones 100 times faster than mono-octanoin and 10 times faster than limonene or the limonene/mono-octanoin mixture (p less than 0.001). The combination of limonene and mono-octanoin was as effective as limonene alone. Of the four solvents, MTBE is the best one to evaluate for dissolution of residual fragments after ESWL treatment of gall bladder stones.

  6. Urinary tract stones--Part II: current status of treatment.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, C; Anson, K M; Patel, U

    2003-06-01

    The majority of renal and ureteric stones are now managed by minimally invasive techniques, for example nephrostomy, ureteral stents, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A multi-disciplinary approach is necessary, and this review examines the status of modern stone therapy and the contribution of the radiology department.

  7. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  8. DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

  9. 26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  11. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  12. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  13. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  14. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  15. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  16. 11. FLOOR 2 LOOKING NORTH; SHOWS BURR STONES AND ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FLOOR 2 LOOKING NORTH; SHOWS BURR STONES AND ROCK STONES, BEARING OF UPRIGHT SHAFT ON CENTER POST, BELT AT BASE OF UPRIGHT SHAFT DRIVES GOVERNOR SPINDLE; TRUNDLEWHEELS OF TWO LAYSHAFTS ENGAGE WITH CROWN WHEEL ABOVE GREAT SPUR WHEEL - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  17. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and formation of calcium renal stones.

    PubMed

    Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M; Evan, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    The most common presentation of nephrolithiasis is idiopathic calcium stones in patients without systemic disease. Most stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate and form on a base of interstitial apatite deposits, known as Randall's plaque. By contrast some stones are composed largely of calcium phosphate, as either hydroxyapatite or brushite (calcium monohydrogen phosphate), and are usually accompanied by deposits of calcium phosphate in the Bellini ducts. These deposits result in local tissue damage and might serve as a site of mineral overgrowth. Stone formation is driven by supersaturation of urine with calcium oxalate and brushite. The level of supersaturation is related to fluid intake as well as to the levels of urinary citrate and calcium. Risk of stone formation is increased when urine citrate excretion is <400 mg per day, and treatment with potassium citrate has been used to prevent stones. Urine calcium levels >200 mg per day also increase stone risk and often result in negative calcium balance. Reduced renal calcium reabsorption has a role in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Low sodium diets and thiazide-type diuretics lower urine calcium levels and potentially reduce the risk of stone recurrence and bone disease. PMID:27452364

  18. A mechanistic analysis of stone comminution in lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Macconaghy, Brian; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2005-04-01

    In vitro experiments and an elastic wave model were employed to isolate and assess the importance of individual mechanisms in stone comminution in lithotripsy. Cylindrical U-30 cement stones were treated in an HM-3-style research lithotripter. Baffles were used to block specific waves responsible for spallation, squeezing, or shear. Surface cracks were added to stones to simulate the effect of cavitation, then tested in water and glycerol (a cavitation suppressive medium). Each case was simulated using the elasticity equations for an isotropic medium. The calculated location of maximum stress compared well with the experimental observations of where cracks naturally formed. Shear waves from the shock wave in the fluid traveling along the stone surface (a kind of dynamic squeezing) led to the largest stresses in the cylindrical stones and the fewest SWs to fracture. Reflection of the longitudinal wave from the back of the stone-spallation-and bubble-jet impact on the proximal and distal faces of the stone produced lower stresses and required more SWs to break stones. Surface cracks accelerated fragmentation when created near the location where the maximum stress was predicted. [Work supported by NIH DK43881, NIH-Fogarty, NSBRI SMS00203, RFBR, and ONRIFO.

  19. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  20. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  1. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  2. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  3. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  4. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  5. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland.

  6. Proteomic analysis of a matrix stone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Canales, Benjamin K; Anderson, Lorraine; Higgins, LeeAnn; Frethem, Chris; Ressler, Alice; Kim, Il Won; Monga, Manoj

    2009-12-01

    Matrix stones are radiolucent bodies that present as soft muco-proteinaceous material within the renal collecting system. Following wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we homogenized a surgically removed matrix stone, extracted and purified protein, and analyzed samples using tandem mass spectrometry for proteomic composition. Resulting spectra were searched using ProteinPilot 2.0, and identified proteins were reported with >95% confidence. Primary XRD mineral analysis was a biological apatite, and SEM revealed fibrous, net-like laminations containing bacterial, cellular, and crystalline material. Of the 33 unique proteins identified, 90% have not been previously reported within matrix stones and over 70% may be considered inflammatory or defensive in nature. Characterization of other matrix stone proteomes, in particular from non-infectious populations, may yield insights into the pathogenesis of this rare stone as well as the mineralogical process that occurs within crystalline calculi.

  7. The dissolution of calcium oxalate kidney stones. A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tomazic, B B; Nancollas, G H

    1982-07-01

    The rates of dissolution of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) and of kidney stones containing these phases has been studied in 0.15 M sodium chloride solution at 37C. In contrast to the diffusion controlled dissolution of the pure synthetic phases, the kidney stones appear to dissolve considerably more slowly by a predominantly surface controlled process, independent of fluid dynamics. The differences between the dissolution rates of the synthetic and stone minerals become greater as the reactions approach equilibrium. As was found for the COD mineral, the dihydrate stone material transforms into the thermodynamically more stable monohydrate phase. The COD stone phase is significantly stabilized in the presence of inhibitors such as polyphosphate and magnesium ions. This may be an important factor in explaining the observed presence of dihydrate as a surface phase in many reported cases of calcium oxalate lithiasis.

  8. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  9. Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER

  10. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  11. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture

  12. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  13. Consolidation of degraded ornamental porous limestone stone by calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the microbiota inhabiting the stone.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, C; Rodriguez-Navarro, C; Piñar, G; Carrillo-Rosúa, F J; Rodriguez-Gallego, M; Gonzalez-Muñoz, M T

    2007-08-01

    Although it has already been shown that calcareous stone can be consolidated by using a bacterially inoculated culture medium, a more user-friendly method is the in situ application of a sterile culture medium that is able to activate, among the microbial community of the stone, those bacteria with a potential for calcium carbonate precipitation. In order to test this new method for stone consolidation, non-sterilized decayed porous limestone was immersed in sterile nutritional media. Results were compared to those of the runs in which stone sterilized prior to the treatment was used. The effects of the microbial community on stone consolidation were determined by recording the evolution of the culture media chemistry. The treated stone was tested for mechanical resistance and porosity. Results demonstrate that the tested media were able to activate bacteria from the microbial community of the stone. As a consequence of the growth of these bacteria, an alkalinization occurred that resulted in calcium carbonate precipitation. The new precipitate was compatible with the substrate and consolidated the stone without pore plugging. Therefore, a good candidate to in situ consolidate decayed porous limestone is the application of a sterile culture medium with the characteristics specified in the present study.

  14. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  15. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  16. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  17. [Mineralogical and spectral characteristics of "Gaozhou stone" from Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Shi, Guang-hai; Lou, Fa-sheng; Wu, Shi-jin; Shi, Miao; Huang, An-jie

    2015-01-01

    The seal stone is a kind of artwork with historical and cultural characteristics of China, which has been playing an important role in Chinese traditional culture. "Gaozhou stone", a new kind of the seal stone, has been found in the market recently. To investigate the mineralogical and spectral characterastics of "Gaozhou stone", samples were studied by using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM and DTA. Measurements by XRD reveal that kaolin minerals (kaolinite, dickite), pyrophyllite and minor sericite and illite occur in the ores. When kaolinite and dickite are associated, it is not easy to differentiate them from each other. Although some reflections overlap others, kaolin polytypes can be differentiated by XRD patterns in the range 18°-40° (2θ), the reflections at 0. 395, 0. 379, 0. 343, 0. 326, 0. 294, 0. 280, 0. 232 and 0. 221 nm are diagnostic of dickite. The XRD results indicate the presence of transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in these samples. The main chemical components of "Gaozhou stone" are SiO2 and Al2O3 with minor Fe2O3, K2O and Na2O, corresponding with that of kaolin minerals. The OH groups in kaolin group minerals have attracted considerable attention as a sensitive indicator of structural disorder. In principle, dickite has three bands, whereas kaolinite has four bands at the OH-stretching region. According to the results of FTIR, transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in "Gaozhou stone" has 3 absorption bands of 3 670, 3 650 and 3 620 cm-1 in high frequency region. The intensity of 3 670 cm-1 band that belongs to outer layer hydroxyl vibration is approximately equal to the intensity of 3 620 cm band ascribing to inner layer OH vibration. This value will only have subtle changes due to the different component ratio of kaolinite and dickite layers. Micro-morphology viewed by SEM presents irregular platy or pseudo-hexagonal platy particles with an average diameter of 0. 5-4 µm of "Gaozhou stone". Such morphologies are quite similar to other

  18. NMR applications to low porosity carbonate stones.

    PubMed

    Alesiani, M; Capuani, S; Maraviglia, B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate NMR applications to porous materials widely employed in artistic and historical monuments and largely studied in the Cultural Heritage conservation field. Carrara marble, Candoglia marble and travertine samples were studied and data from relaxation times measurements were compared. Very interesting results from treated samples are reported and explained under the structure related spin lattice relaxation time point of view. Images of Carrara marble aged sample (XIX century), coming from the Florence Cathedral obtained for short absorption time of water by capillary rise and for relatively small thickness slices together show the fluid's spatial distribution within the stone. Comparative images showing untreated sample with the treated ones were obtained suggesting very useful applications for the determination of treatment effectiveness. PMID:14559345

  19. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  20. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. Sulphite quantification on damaged stones and mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G.; Zappia, G.; Sabbioni, C.

    An analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the sulphite and main anions found in degradation patinas on historic buildings and monuments, as well as on stones and mortars exposed in simulation chamber and field tests. The quantification of anions was performed by means of ion chromatography (IC), after the stabilisation of sulphite with a D(-) fructose solution. The utilisation of two different chromatographic columns, connected in series, allowed the simultaneous determination of fluoride, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, iodide, oxyhalides, nitrate, phosphate, sulphite, sulphate and oxalate, in a time of approximately 25 min, without interference and with high reproducibility. Finally, the results show how in the majority of cases the formation of sulphite is an intermediate stage in the sulphation process affecting building materials exposed to the environment and needs to be measured together with sulphate, in order to obtain a correct interpretation of degradation mechanisms on such materials.

  2. Laserlithotripsy of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed Central

    Ell, C; Lux, G; Hochberger, J; Müller, D; Demling, L

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde laser lithotripsy of common bile duct stones is a new technique which can be carried out through the endoscope without anaesthesia using ordinary endoscopic equipment. In the method described here a flashlamp pulsed Neodymium YAG laser (wave length 1064 nm) was used. Light energy was transmitted along a highly flexible quartz fibre with a diameter of 0.2 mm. This new technique was used in nine patients with concrements in the common bile duct, which could not be removed with the established endoscopic techniques. In eight of the nine the concrements (maximum diameter 4.7 x 3.1 cm) could be fragmented and in six the fragments could be extracted from the common bile duct. The total energy required was 80-300 J; complications were not observed. Images Figs 3 and 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs 8 and 9 PMID:2898421

  3. ["Endoscopy in a stone quarry"--multiple pigment stones 6 weeks after delivery].

    PubMed

    Sandmann, M; Fähndrich, M; Heike, M

    2010-03-01

    A 29-year-old African woman without any history of diseases was referred to our clinic because of recurrent abdominal pain. 6 weeks earlier she had delivered a healthy baby. Laboratory data revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated cholestatic liver enzymes, and an elevated bilirubin level of 2.2 mg/dl. Abdominal sonography showed choledocholithiasis. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the presence of more than 100 small stones in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. An endoscopic papillotomy was performed and multiple small black stones were removed from the bile duct by basket into the duodenum. Because of the hypochromic microcytic anemia, the detection of pigment stones and the ethnic background of the patient we suspected a hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 97 % HbC. The molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation in codon 6 GAG > AAG for the beta globin chain (HbCC). HbC is a structurally abnormal hemoglobin with typical aggregates and tetragonal crystal formation which results in mild chronic hemolytic anemia. The cholezystectomy after 6 weeks was performed without complications.

  4. Oxalate: from the environment to kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Sabolić, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Oxalate urolithiasis (nephrolithiasis) is the most frequent type of kidney stone disease. Epidemiological research has shown that urolithiasis is approximately twice as common in men as in women, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-related prevalence is unclear. Oxalate in the organism partially originate from food (exogenous oxalate) and largely as a metabolic end-product from numerous precursors generated mainly in the liver (endogenous oxalate). Oxalate concentrations in plasma and urine can be modified by various foodstuffs, which can interact in positively or negatively by affecting oxalate absorption, excretion, and/or its metabolic pathways. Oxalate is mostly removed from blood by kidneys and partially via bile and intestinal excretion. In the kidneys, after reaching certain conditions, such as high tubular concentration and damaged integrity of the tubule epithelium, oxalate can precipitate and initiate the formation of stones. Recent studies have indicated the importance of the SoLute Carrier 26 (SLC26) family of membrane transporters for handling oxalate. Two members of this family [Sulfate Anion Transporter 1 (SAT-1; SLC26A1) and Chloride/Formate EXchanger (CFEX; SLC26A6)] may contribute to oxalate transport in the intestine, liver, and kidneys. Malfunction or absence of SAT-1 or CFEX has been associated with hyperoxaluria and urolithiasis. However, numerous questions regarding their roles in oxalate transport in the respective organs and male-prevalent urolithiasis, as well as the role of sex hormones in the expression of these transporters at the level of mRNA and protein, still remain to be answered. PMID:24384768

  5. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  6. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  7. 46 CFR 502.32 - Former employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Practice Before the Commission § 502.32 Former employees. Title V of the Ethics in Government Act... the Senior Executive Service as designated by the Office of Government Ethics under 18 U.S.C. 207(d)(1... applicant desires to appear; and (ii) Be accompanied by an affidavit to the effect that the matter for...

  8. [The former soldiers becoming first aid trainers].

    PubMed

    Prieur, Joël

    2015-12-01

    The Order of Malta France is organising, through an innovative partnership with the French Army, the training of first aid instructors aimed at former soldiers injured in combat. One soldier, who received multiple wounds in Lebanon in 2011, describes his training experience. PMID:26654504

  9. 46 CFR 502.32 - Former employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Practice Before the Commission § 502.32 Former employees. Title V of the Ethics in Government Act... the Senior Executive Service as designated by the Office of Government Ethics under 18 U.S.C. 207(d)(1... activities are designed to expedite consultation with the Director of the Office of Government Ethics...

  10. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  11. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  12. Extending Transitional Services to Former Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerman, Ben; Barth, Richard P.; Wildfire, Judy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what a private agency expended while addressing the transitional needs of former long-term foster youth and examines the association between expenditures and adult outcomes. Not all young adults accepted supports extended to them. In the sample, 41% of the young adults incurred expenses after age 19. Of those using supports,…

  13. Marathon Group Therapy with Former Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Mannion, John

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the effects of marathon group therapy on attitudes of former drug users in a residential drug treatment center. Experimental group members responded higher on the group counseling evaluative subscale and lower on the guilt evaluative subscale than control members. (Author)

  14. Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, H. C., Jr.; Bishop, S. G.; Eichen, E.; Kazarinov, R. F.; Taylor, H. F.

    1992-05-01

    Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union has been examined in the areas of eptitaxial layer growth and device processing, photonic devices such as semiconductor laser and photodetectors, high-speed lasers, the integration of photonic devices and transistors for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC's), optical amplifiers, optoelectronic switching, and optical communications. These devices are largely prepared with 3-5 compound semiconductors. The assessment by a panel of US experts is based on a review of the translated Soviet technical literature, supplemented by information from recent visits to the former Soviet Union. The majority of Soviet optoelectronic devices were fabricated on wafers prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy. The strongest area of Soviet optoelectronic device research has been semiconductor lasers. No reports of ER(3+)-doped fiber amplifiers were found in the Soviet literature. However, Er(3+)-doped fiber fabrication is extremely simple, and, given its traditional strengths in the area of glass fabrication, the former Soviet Union should have the capability to fabricate Er(3+)-doped optical-fiber amplifiers. The current turmoil in the former Soviet Union makes predictions of the future difficult. It is likely that researchers will be driven to develop funding ties with foreign entities, and they also will become better integrated into the world research community by publishing in foreign (mainly US) journals.

  15. Assessing Guilt toward the Former Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wietzker, Anne; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Divorce is often accompanied by feelings of guilt toward the former spouse. So far, no scale has been available to measure such feelings. For this purpose, the authors developed the Guilt in Separation Scale (GiSS). Content validity was assured by using experts and lay experts to generate and select items. Exploratory analyses were run on samples…

  16. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  17. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition.

  18. Diagnosis and management of postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy residual stone fragments.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2009-10-01

    Residual stone fragments can occur in up to 8% of patients who are treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When left untreated, approximately half of these patients will experience a stone-related event, for which more than half will need a secondary surgical intervention. Predictors of adverse events are a residual fragment larger than 2 mm that is located in the pelvis or ureter. Preventive measures for the creation of residual fragments include a carefully selected access giving exposure to the bulk of the stone, the creation of multiple tracts, the use of single pulse pneumatic lithotripsy, the prevention of stone migration with ureteral balloons or stone cones, and careful flushing of the stones from the collecting system. Plain radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, linear tomography, and ultrasonography have all been used to judge the result of PCNL and to detect the presence of residual fragments. Thin-slice, unenhanced helical CT, however, is more sensitive and should be performed at 1 month after surgery. While medical therapy and shockwave lithotripsy possess a minor role, second-look flexible nephroscopy and/or flexible ureterorenoscopy seem to be the treatments of choice for residual stone fragments after PCNL.

  19. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children.

  20. Minimal surgery for parotid stones: a 7-year endoscopic experience.

    PubMed

    Karavidas, K; Nahlieli, O; Fritsch, M; McGurk, M

    2010-01-01

    The results of endoscope-assisted parotid surgery are presented as a minimally invasive alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones. From 1999 to 2007, 70 patients with parotid sialoliths were treated by minimally invasive surgical techniques in three specialist centres. At surgery a combination of sialoendoscopic and ultrasound examination was used to locate the stone within the duct. The calculus was released by incising the duct through a pre-auricular approach (40 patients) or by direct transcutaneous incision over the stone (27 patients). Four patients were treated using other minimally invasive procedures. Local anesthesia was used in 22 patients and general anesthesia in 48. The average follow-up was 25.5 months with two patients lost to review. In 3 patients treatment had long-term complications (persistent stone fragment; obstructive symptoms due to a fibrous stricture; a visible scar on the cheek). In one patient, endoscopy was abandoned due to stricture. 85 stones were retrieved successfully from 69 patients. The average size of the stones was 7.2 mm. There were no cases of facial nerve weakness or salivary fistula. The data suggest that endoscopic-assisted surgery is a viable alternate to adenectomy for the treatment of large or recalcitrant parotid stones. PMID:19897340

  1. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process.

  2. Vanadium Extraction from Refractory Stone Coal Using Novel Composite Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z. L.; Zhang, Y. M.; Liu, T.; Huang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the novel composite additive BaCO3/CaO for the vanadium extraction from the refractory stone coal, the vanadium leaching effect has been investigated and many technical conditions have also been optimized. The results indicated that an optimum vanadium leaching efficiency of 81.07% can be obtained under the conditions that the mass ratio of BaCO3 to CaO was 1:9 with the total proportion of the raw ore was 5 wt.%, the roasting temperature was 850°C, the roasting time was 2 h, the sulfuric acid concentration was 15% (v/v), the leaching temperature was 95°C, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 4 mL/g, and the leaching time was 3 h. Meanwhile, the vanadium leaching mechanisms demonstrated that the composite additive BaCO3/CaO can destroy the lattice structure of muscovite and phlogopite with the production of BaSi4O9 and Ca2Al2SiO7 during the roasting process, which can therefore facilitate the release and extraction of vanadium.

  3. Current indications for open stone surgery in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sy, F Y; Wong, M Y; Foo, K T

    1999-03-01

    A 3-year retrospective study (January 1995 to December 1997) of all treatment modalities for urinary stone disease done in the Department of Urology, Singapore General Hospital was documented, and open stone surgery identified. Patient's characteristics, stone burden, surgical factors, indications and outcome were reviewed for each patient. Of the 2651 procedures performed for urinary stone disease, the majority had extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy [78% (n = 2075)], while 11% (n = 298) had percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and 9% (n = 228) ureteroscopy. Open stone surgery rate was 2% (n = 50) which included 16 anatrophic nephrolithotomies, 5 pyelolithotomies, 18 ureterolithotomies and 11 nephrectomies. There were 28 males and 22 females varying in age from 26 to 63 years (mean 48 years). The most common indications for open stone surgery were complex stone burden [38% (n = 19)], failure of minimally invasive modalities [16% (n = 8)], non-functioning kidneys [20% (n = 10)], concurrent open surgery [8% (n = 4)], co-morbid medical condition [4% (n = 2)], patient preference for open procedure [8% (n = 4)], anatomic abnormality [4% (n = 2)] and obesity [2% (n = 1)]. Stone free rate of 90% was achieved, morbidity of 8% (n = 4) mostly wound infections and a pneumothorax. Majority of patients with urinary tract calculi can be treated with less invasive modalities. Complex stone burden, failure of less invasive modalities, non-functioning kidney, concurrent open surgery, co-morbid medical problems, patients' preference, anatomic abnormality and obesity are factors to be considered in a small cohort of patients who may still benefit from treatment using open surgical technique.

  4. Stone culture retrieved during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Osman, Yasser; Elshal, Ahmed M; Elawdy, Mohamed M; Omar, Helmy; Gaber, Asaad; Elsawy, Essam; El-Nahas, Ahmed R

    2016-08-01

    Stone culture has been frequently investigated following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in the last decade. We aimed to crucially define the clinical role of stone culture in modifying the treatment plan in patients with postoperative sepsis. Between June 2012 and April 2013, a total of 79 consecutive PNL procedures were included. Perioperative data were prospectively maintained. Preoperative urine sample, retrieved stone fragments and postoperative nephrostomy tube urine sample were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The occurrence of at least two of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) events during their inpatient stay was diagnostic of SIRS. The antibiotic regimen utilized and its modifications were reported. The preoperative culture was positive in 26 patients (32.9 %). The culture of stone fragments showed significant bacterial growth in 23 (29.1 %) cases. Significant growth on stone culture was significantly associated with the presence of preoperative urinary catheters and positive preoperative urine culture (P = 0.001, 0.006 respectively). Postoperative culture was positive in only six patients (7.6 %). SIRS was diagnosed in the first postoperative day in 12 patients (15.2 %). Leukocytosis was the only predictor of SIRS. Neither preoperative culture, stone culture nor postoperative culture was predictor of SIRS. Stone culture was positive in four patients with SIRS. Stone culture changed the treatment plan in only one patient. Our data do not support the routine implementation of stone culture in the PNL workup, as it did not indicate a change of antibiotic regimen in most of the cases. PMID:26781741

  5. [Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of a salivary stone].

    PubMed

    Iro, H; Schneider, T; Nitsche, N; Waitz, G; Marienhagen, J; Ell, C

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonography revealed a 12 mm concrement in the left parotid duct of a 67-year-old man with an acute exacerbation of a left-sided purulent parotitis. After the acute phase had subsided under antibiotic therapy it was not possible to remove the stone either by bougie or cutting into the duct close to the papilla. Piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy with a total of 1000 shock-waves fragmented the stone, and sonography 48 hours and four weeks later demonstrated that the parotid gland was free of stone.

  6. Urinary tract stone disease: are all problems solved?

    PubMed

    Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2013-02-01

    During the past four decades there have been dramatic developments in the methods used for active stone removal from the urinary tract, and the need for open surgery has been almost entirely replaced by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous surgery, ureteroscopy and retrograde intrarenal surgery. Residual fragments and the pronounced risk of recurrent stone formation remain important problems for the future development of urolithology and for the optimal low-risk management of this large group of patients. It is emphasized that all aspects of the care of patients with stone disease are the responsibility of the urologist.

  7. Kidney Stones in Several Spinal Abnormalities: A Challenging Treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maximiliano Lopez; Sanguinetti, Horacio; Battiston, Santiago; Alvarez, Patricio; Bernardo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe skeletal deformities are a challenging group to treat. A female, white, 35-year-old presented with right kidney stones located in renal pelvis, lower calyx, and upper ureter. She was affected by severe spinal deformity with restrictive respiratory obstruction, caused by kyphoscoliosis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position was performed, achieving complete removal of kidney stones. The treatment of renal stones in this patient was complex, so special attention to respiratory function was mandatory; this was a challenging but feasible situation. PMID:27579402

  8. Stone Columns - Determination of the soil improvement factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivarč, J.

    2011-09-01

    A stone column is one of the soil stabilizing methods that is used to increase strength, decrease the compressibility of soft and loose fine graded soils, accelerate a consolidation effect and reduce the liquefaction potential of soils. The columns consist of compacted gravel or crushed stone arranged by a vibrator. This paper deals with Priebe's theory (1976) on the design of an improvement factor, which belongs among the most used analytical methods and also describes the numerical and laboratory models of stone columns. The improvement factors calculated from numerical and laboratory models are compared with the improvement factors resulting from Priebe's theory.

  9. Septic Shock Due to Biliary Stones in a Postcholecystectomy Patient.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Mohammad Feroz; Khan, Muhammad Faisal; Khursheed, Moazzum

    2015-10-01

    Septic shock leading to multi-organ failure is not uncommon. Early diagnosis to confirm the source is the distinctive attribute of sepsis management guidelines. Cholangitis as the source of sepsis can become a diagnostic dilemma in patients who have had cholecystectomy in the past. CT abdomen should be the investigation of choice in this group of patients. This report describes two postcholecystectomy patients who presented with septic shock secondary to biliary stones. The source of septic shock in both patients were biliary stones was confirmed with abdominal CT. Ultrasound abdomen failed to report biliary stones in these patients. Both improved on percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

  10. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  11. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  12. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  13. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  14. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  15. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  16. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  17. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  18. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  19. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  20. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  1. Large stone clearance in 2-year-old child with staghorn and calyceal stones using SWL monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Al-Ali, Badereddin; Pummer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric urolithiasis requires a thorough metabolic and urological evaluation on an individual basis. The objective of our case report was to determine the efficiency and the role of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis. In this case report we reported our own experience in the management of staghorn and calyceal stones in both kidneys with SWL. In our case, clearance of multiple staghorn stones and a calyceal stone was obtained without any complications after 7 sessions of SWL over 2 months.

  2. Co-melting technology in resource recycling of sludge derived from stone processing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Shen-Chih; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2012-12-01

    Stone processing sludge (SPS) is a by-product of stone-processing wastewater treatment; it is suitable for use as a raw material for making artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWAs). In this study, boric acid was utilized as a flux to lower sintering temperature. The formation of the viscous glassy phase was observed by DTA curve and changes in XRD patterns. Experiments were conducted to find the optimal combination of sintering temperature, sintering time, and boric acid dosage to produce an ALWA of favorable characteristics in terms of water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, compressive strength and weight loss to satisfy Taiwan's regulatory requirements for construction and insulation materials. Optimal results gave a sintering temperature of 850 degrees C for 15 min at a boric acid dosage of 15% by weight of SPS. Results for ALWA favorable characteristics were: 0.21% (water absorption), 0.35% (apparent porosity), 1.67 g/cm3 (bulk density), 66.94 MPa (compressive strength), and less than 0.1% (weight loss).

  3. A Miniaturized, 1.9F Integrated Optical Fiber and Stone Basket for Use in Thulium Fiber Laser Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher R; Hutchens, Thomas C; Hardy, Luke A; Irby, Pierce B; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2015-10-01

    The thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative laser lithotripter to the standard holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The more uniform beam profile of the TFL enables higher power transmission through smaller fibers. In this study, a 100-μm core, 140-μm outer-diameter (OD) silica fiber with 5-mm length hollow steel tip was integrated with 1.3F (0.433-mm OD) nitinol wire basket to form a 1.9F (0.633-mm OD) device. TFL energy of 30 mJ, 500 μs pulse duration, and 500 Hz pulse rate was delivered to human uric acid stones, ex vivo. Stone ablation rates measured 1.5 ± 0.2 mg/s, comparable to 1.7 ± 0.3 mg/s using bare fiber tips separately with stone basket. With further development, this device may minimize stone retropulsion, allowing more efficient TFL lithotripsy at higher pulse rates. It may also provide increased flexibility, higher saline irrigation rates through the ureteroscope working channel, reduce fiber degradation compared with separate fiber and basket manipulation, and reduce laser-induced nitinol wire damage.

  4. 5. TOP OF ARCH AND VIADUCT. NOTE THAT STONES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TOP OF ARCH AND VIADUCT. NOTE THAT STONES OF ARCH HAVE BEEN DRAFTED FINISH AROUND THE EDGE) AND THE KEYSTONE HAS BEEN ROUGHLY POINTED. - Valley Railroad, Folly Mills Creek Viaduct, Interstate 81, Staunton, Staunton, VA

  5. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  6. Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther hollow below. - Schenley Park Bridge over Panther Hollow, Spanning Panther Hollow at Panther Hollow Road, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 6. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION - York County Bridge No. 101, Blymire Hollow Road (T-578) spanning Blymire Creek, 100 feet from State Route 2095, Winterstown, York County, PA

  8. 5. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF THE NORTH ELEVATION - York County Bridge No. 101, Blymire Hollow Road (T-578) spanning Blymire Creek, 100 feet from State Route 2095, Winterstown, York County, PA

  9. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. Cataract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  10. Weathering of Stone Monuments in Cities: A Student Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography project for students limited to urban areas. Students investigate the rock-weathering process through library resources, then observe, collect, and analyze data about stone monuments. An individually written report concludes the project. (KC)

  11. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stone].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of stone by means of acoustic shockwaves created by an extracorporeal source. ESWL brakes the stone by spallation and squeezing. The optimal frequency for fragmentation is 1Hz. The initial power must be low, then progressively increased during the session. The contra-indications for ESWL are pregnancy, major deformities, severe obesity, aortic aneurism, uncontrolled coagulation disorders, untreated urinary infection, cardiac pacemaker. A stone density of 1000UH is a risk factor for fragmentation failure. The success rate for the kidney and the ureter is 60-80% and 80%, respectively. Stone clearance may be facilitated by alpha blockers. Asymptomatic and non-infected residual fragments less than 4mm must be followed-up annually.

  12. Is extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy suitable treatment for lower ureteric stones?

    PubMed

    Cole, R S; Shuttleworth, K E

    1988-12-01

    Forty patients with lower ureteric calculi for which intervention was considered desirable have been treated by in situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the Dornier HM3 Lithotripter using a modified technique. Stone localisation was satisfactory in all patients. Adequate disintegration was achieved in 90% of patients following one treatment; 34 patients have been followed up for at least 3 months and 27 of these are stone-free (79%). Treatment failed in 4 patients and 2 of these had dense lower ureteric stone streets as a result of previous ESWL. The retreatment rate, post-treatment auxiliary procedure rate and complication rate were minimal. It was concluded that in situ ESWL is an effective and safe method for treating certain selected lower ureteric stones and should be considered as a feasible alternative to the more conventional methods of treatment.

  13. Preoperative percutaneous stone surgery in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andreas J; Bach, T

    2009-10-01

    Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is an essential component in the management of large volume renal calculi. Either in combination with shockwave lithotripsy but especially as monotherapy, PCNL is recommended as the most effective treatment option for patients with staghorn calculi or large volume stone disease. Multiple tracts allow successful management of nearly every stone burden in a single surgical session. Furthermore, patients with anatomic variations (eg, horseshoe kidney) can be treated by PCNL successfully. Overall stone-free rates of above 78% are described. With the rising age of the overall patient population, another problem occurs. Increasing age frequently leads to an increase in comorbidities; for example, patients receiving anticoagulation may need treatment for stones, which can pose a dilemma. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of thrombotic risk, depending on the underlying disease, and to propose a clinical pathway on how to deal with this selected group of patients.

  14. 29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF DAM, USED TO STORE EXPLOSIVES DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSE MESA - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney mimicking the log cabins of the Southern Appalachians. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  16. 14. DETAIL, TYPICAL CUT STONE MASONRY FACING BLOCKS, AT BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, TYPICAL CUT STONE MASONRY FACING BLOCKS, AT BASE OF BRIDGE, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING MASONS MARKS, MOORING RING, AND PORTION OF SUBMERGED TIMBER GRILLAGE - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM BOARD-FACED PARTITION AND ORIGINAL TIMBER STRUCTURE - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  19. 1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at corner of Benjamin Carr Farm. Wall moved to current location in 1941-1942. - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  20. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE WORK, AND GATE STOP FROM SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST ELEMENTS. - William Enston Home, Entrance Gate, 900 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  1. 128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone faced bridge on the bass lake carriage trail. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  3. 6. TERRACED, STONE RETAINING WALLS BEHIND HOUSE No. 16. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. TERRACED, STONE RETAINING WALLS BEHIND HOUSE No. 16. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. 7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE SOUTH OF BRIDGE, EAST END - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  5. Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall southbound on Warrington Avenue - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Treatment of stones associated with complex or anomalous renal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mantu; Lee, Michael W

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the most common renal anomalies and the management of patients with calculus disease in anomalous kidneys. The emphasis is on minimally invasive techniques to achieve a stone-free status with minimal morbidity. PMID:17678992

  8. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK AT PETER SKENE OGDEN MEMORIAL PARK - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  9. Stone's views of 25 years ago have now shifted incrementally.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Ezra E H

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, a major article by Professor Alan Stone on ethics in forensic psychiatry was published. It caused reverberations on a national scale. After the seismic shocks that he had provoked settled down, several thoughtful forensic psychiatrists set out to take serious stock of his critique and to articulate ways in which corrective actions could be taken. Indeed, slightly more than a decade later, I critiqued Stone's ideas in my Presidential Address to the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. It is a unique privilege now to evaluate what Stone currently says about ethics in forensic psychiatry. While his present positions are slightly different from his arguments of 25 years ago, Stone still holds dearly to his ivory tower, which remains almost impermeable to the voices of those working in the trenches.

  10. VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR (ON THE LEFT) AND SOUTH CONVEYOR. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  11. 14. Detail, typical approach span fixed bearing atop stone masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, typical approach span fixed bearing atop stone masonry pier, view to northwest, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  12. 4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. EMPIRE TAILING PILE IS VISIBLE IN LOWER CENTER (SLOPE WITH ORE CHUTE IS HIDDEN BY TREES ABOVE TAILINGS), TIP TOP IS VISIBLE IN RIGHT THIRD AND SLIGHTLY UPHILL IN ELEVATION FROM UPPER EMPIRE TAILINGS,(TO LOCATE, FIND THE V-SHAPED SPOT OF SNOW JUST BELOW THE RIDGE LINE ON FAR RIGHT OF IMAGE. TIP TOP BUILDING IS VISIBLE IN THE LIGHT AREA BELOW AND SLIGHTLY LEFT OF V-SHAPED SNOW SPOT), AND STONE CABIN II IS ALSO VISIBLE, (TO LOCATE, USE A STRAIGHT EDGE AND ALIGN WITH EMPIRE TAILINGS. THIS WILL DIRECT ONE THROUGH THE EDGE OF STONE CABIN II, WHICH IS THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE POINT WHERE THE RIDGE LINE TREES STOP). STONE CABIN I IS LOCATED IN GENERAL VICINITY OF THE LONE TREE ON FAR LEFT RIDGE LINE. ... - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. 9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE NEAR GIANT SLIDE TRAIL MARKER ON AROUND-THE-MOUNTAIN LOOP. - Rockefeller Carriage Roads, Mount Desert Island, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  14. Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site name and Great Seal of the United States. View looking northeast. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  15. Topological anisotropy of stone-wales waves in graphenic fragments.

    PubMed

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. PMID:22174641

  16. Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the Emmanuel Christian Community Church congregation - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. Lock 6 Detail of hinge stone with iron straps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 6 - Detail of hinge stone with iron straps and carved completion date (1830) located on ground at southeast corner of lock - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  19. 4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK BEAMS, STRINGERS AND DIAGONAL BRACING OF DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  20. 5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR