Science.gov

Sample records for acid stone formers

  1. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  2. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  3. Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Cohort of Uric Acid and Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Viers, BR; Lieske, JC; Vrtiska, TJ; Herrera Hernandez, LP; Vaughan, LE; Mehta, RA; Bergstralh, EJ; Rule, AD; Holmes, DR; Krambeck, AE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the endoscopic and histologic renal papillary lesions in a cohort of uric acid (UA) stone formers (SF). Methods Data was prospectively obtained during percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 2009–2013. Renal papillae were endoscopically analyzed to quantitate surface area (SA) occupied by plaque or plug, and biopsies were obtained. UA SF were compared to non-SF controls and patients with >50% CaOx in the absence of UA. Results There were 23 UA SF; of which 19 stones (83%) were admixed with CaOx and 4 (17%) were pure. Compared to CaOx SF and controls, UA SF had a higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity, greater serum creatinine and UA, lower eGFR and urine pH, and elevated UA supersaturation. Characteristics of UA SF were compared to 95 CaOx SF, and 19 controls. Overall, 23 (100%) UA SF had endoscopic plaque and 13 (57%) plugs. Endoscopically, UA SF displayed a greater incidence of plugging (57% vs 45% vs 11%; p=0.006) relative to CaOx SF and controls. Likewise, UA SF had a greater %SA of plugging (0.1 vs 0.0; p=0.002) and plaque (2.0 vs 0.9, p=0.006) than controls; but similar amounts to CaOx SF. Histologic plugs were similar in UA and CaOx SF, although CaOx SF demonstrated greater interstitial inflammation on endoscopic biopsy. Conclusions UA and CaOx SF have similar amounts of plaque, while UA SF have more endoscopic but not histological collecting duct plugs. These data suggest overlap between the pathogenesis of UA and CaOx stones. The anchoring site for UA stones remains uncertain. PMID:25681832

  4. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  5. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  6. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494

  7. The loss of circadian rhythmicity of urinary solute excretion in idiopathic stone formers.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, H; Vaidyanathan, S; Wangoo, D; Thind, S K; Nath, R; Malakondaiah, G C; Krishan, K

    1989-10-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in urinary volume and excretion of creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and phosphate was studied in 15 idiopathic stone formers and in 17 control subjects who were age-matched, related adult males, living in the same house and engaged in similar occupations to those of the stone patients, but who had no clinically obvious stone disease. Three-hourly urine samples were collected and creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and inorganic phosphate were estimated. The time series of data were analysed by cosinor rhythmometry. Circadian rhythmicity has been described in urinary volume and urinary excretion of creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and inorganic phosphate in normal subjects, but it was not detected in the stone formers. The control subjects exhibited a circadian rhythmicity only in urinary volume and creatinine excretion. Thus they occupied a position midway between healthy adults, who exhibit circadian rhythmicity in all of the above parameters, and the stone formers, who appear to have lost it altogether. PMID:2819381

  8. Renal intratubular crystals and hyaluronan staining occur in stone formers with bypass surgery but not with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L; Gillen, Daniel; Lingeman, James E; Bledsoe, Sharon; Worcester, Elaine M

    2008-03-01

    Whether idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) crystal deposits bears on pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation. In prior work, using light and transmission electron microscopy, we have found no IMCD crystal deposits. Here, we searched serial sections of papillary biopsies from a prior study of 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, 4 intestinal bypass patients with CaOx stones, and 4 non-stone-forming subjects, and biopsies from an additional hitherto unreported 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers and 1 bypass patient using polarized light oil immersion optics, for deposits overlooked in our original study. We found no IMCD deposits in any of 1,500 serial sections from the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, nor in 87 additional sections from a frozen idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former biopsy sample processed without exposure to aqueous solutions. Among 4 of the 5 bypass patients but in none of the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers or 4 normal stone formers, we found tiny birefringent thin crystalline overlays on scattered IMCD cell membranes. We also found IMCD lumen deposits in two bypass patients that contained mixed birefringent and nonbirefringent crystals, presumably CaOx and apatite. In the bypass patients, we observed focal apical IMCD cell hyaluronan staining, which was absent in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The absence of any IMCD deposits in 1,500 serial sections of biopsies from 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers allows us to place the upper limit on the probability of their occurrence at approximately 0.002 and place the lower limit of their size at the resolution of the optics (<0.2 mu). The tiny deposits in bypass patients may be the initial crystal lesion. PMID:18286613

  9. ApaL1 urokinase and Taq1 vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in first-stone formers, recurrent stone formers, and controls in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Serdar; Tuken, Murat; Gunes, Sezgin; Akin, Yigit; Ozturk, Murat; Seyhan, Serkan; Yuruk, Emrah; Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yılmaz, Ali Faik; Nguyen, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in genotype distribution and allele frequency of urokinase and vitamin D receptor (VDR) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between first-stone formers, recurrent stone formers, and controls in a Caucasian population. A total of 86 first-stone formers, 78 recurrent stone formers, and 167 controls were included. Urokinase and VDR SNPs were tested by gene amplification followed by ApaL1 and Taq1 endonuclease digestion, respectively. Baseline variables, genotype, and allele frequencies were compared between the three groups, using descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk for recurrent urolithiasis associated with genotypes. We found that differences in the distribution of ApaL1 SNP and Taq1 SNP genotypes were statistically different between recurrent stone formers and first-stone formers, and between recurrent stone formers and controls. Allele frequency analysis showed that the T allele for ApaL1 SNP and the C allele for Taq1 SNP were significantly associated with recurrent urolithiasis. For Taq1 SNP, logistic regression analysis showed that the C/C genotype was associated with a more than threefold higher risk for recurrent urolithiasis. We conclude that ApaL1 and Taq1 SNPs of the urokinase and VDR genes are associated with recurrent urolithiasis in a Caucasian population. PMID:26275878

  10. Weekend versus weekday urine collections in assessment of stone-formers.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R W

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collections are an important part of the metabolic evaluation of stone-formers, but are difficult for patients at work. At weekends the results might be different. Forty-five stone-formers who worked at day jobs from Monday to Friday collected urine for 24 h on a normal working day and also on a Saturday or Sunday and the differences were evaluated. Average 24 h urine volume was higher on weekdays than at weekends. Calcium, oxalate, and uric acid excretion did not differ. These results imply an increased risk of crystalluria at the weekend. Therefore weekend collections are most likely to show abnormalities and should be acceptable to clinicians. PMID:8976890

  11. Uric acid stones following hepatic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mei-Tsuey; Goldfarb, David S

    2004-12-01

    We report the case of a 52 year old man with a history of insulin-requiring diabetes and hepatitis B with cirrhosis who received an orthotopic liver transplant. One year later he developed renal colic and was found to have a 3 mm stone at the left ureterovesical junction. Numerous other stones formed and infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated all to be composed of 100% uric acid. Urine collections demonstrated a low urine pH of 5.1 without hyperuricosuria. His stones were effectively prevented with potassium citrate therapy. Few incidence data are available for uric acid stone occurrence in solid organ recipients. Calcineurin inhibitors are thought to often cause hyperuricemia on the basis of decreased urate excretion. However, this effect would not be expected to cause hyperuricosuria nor uric acid stones. This class of drugs may also be associated with low urine pH, perhaps on the basis of hypoaldosteronism, but the contribution of such a syndrome to uric acid stone formation is not established. PMID:15565437

  12. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  13. Bile acid dissolution therapy of gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Fromm, H; Malavolti, M

    1992-11-01

    Oral cholelitholytic bile acid therapy has become established treatment for selected patients with cholesterol gallstones. The treatment finds its clinical application both alone and in combination with ESWL. UDCA alone or, less commonly, a combination of this bile acid with CDCA is used. Optimal results can be expected only in carefully selected patients. Bile acid dissolution therapy is most successful in patients with radiolucent gallstones which are < or = 0.5 cm in diameter or are shown by OCG to be floating. Dissolution is seldom seen when the stones are > 1 cm in size. Cholelitholytic treatment in combination with ESWL yields optimal results in single radiolucent gallstones which are not greater than 2 cm. ESWL thus makes it possible to use medical treatment effectively in single 1-2 cm gallstones when bile acids alone would not be successful. Bile acid treatment is extremely safe, especially if UDCA is given without the addition of CDCA. PMID:1486209

  14. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  15. An evaluation of Tamm-Horsfall protein glycans in kidney stone formers using novel techniques.

    PubMed

    Argade, Sulabha; Chen, Tony; Shaw, Timothy; Berecz, Zoltan; Shi, William; Choudhury, Biswa; Parsons, C Lowell; Sur, Roger L

    2015-08-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is theorized to play a critical role in preventing kidney stone formation. There is conflicting literature on THP analysis in kidney stone patients; therefore, this study was conducted using sensitive and specific bio-analytical techniques to better understand differences in THP, which play a potential role in nephrolithiasis pathogenesis. THP was isolated from urine samples of 34 male and 19 female kidney stone patients and 30 male and 24 female control subjects using diatomaceous earth. Protein was quantified by Superdex-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Sialic acid was determined by 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene high-performance liquid chromatography. Neutral and amino sugars were determined by high pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection. THP N-glycans were derivatized with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) and profiled by HPAEC with fluorescence detection. N-glycan structures were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicate that kidney stone patients had 32% lower protein content compared to controls, while sialic acid content was lower by 29 and 24% in male and female kidney stone patients, respectively, compared to controls. The neutral and amino sugars were also lower by 18 and 20% for male and female kidney stone patients, respectively, compared to controls. All results were statistically significant (p<0.001). These results are supported by 2-AB profiling of THP N-glycans and by MALDI-TOF MS of highly sialylated N-glycans in the range of m/z 3000-6000. This study demonstrates quantitative and qualitative differences in THP, which can be crucial contributing factors for nephrolithiasis. PMID:25935139

  16. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  17. The Vacuolar H+-ATPase B1 Subunit Polymorphism p.E161K Associates with Impaired Urinary Acidification in Recurrent Stone Formers.

    PubMed

    Dhayat, Nasser A; Schaller, Andre; Albano, Giuseppe; Poindexter, John; Griffith, Carolyn; Pasch, Andreas; Gallati, Sabina; Vogt, Bruno; Moe, Orson W; Fuster, Daniel G

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase B1 subunit gene ATP6V1B1 cause autosomal-recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We previously identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human B1 subunit (c.481G>A; p.E161K) that causes greatly diminished pump function in vitro To investigate the effect of this SNP on urinary acidification, we conducted a genotype-phenotype analysis of recurrent stone formers in the Dallas and Bern kidney stone registries. Of 555 patients examined, 32 (5.8%) were heterozygous for the p.E161K SNP, and the remaining 523 (94.2%) carried two wild-type alleles. After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, and dietary acid and alkali intake, p.E161K SNP carriers had a nonsignificant tendency to higher urinary pH on a random diet (6.31 versus 6.09; P=0.09). Under an instructed low-Ca and low-Na diet, urinary pH was higher in p.E161K SNP carriers (6.56 versus 6.01; P<0.01). Kidney stones of p.E161K carriers were more likely to contain calcium phosphate than stones of wild-type patients. In acute NH4Cl loading, p.E161K carriers displayed a higher trough urinary pH (5.34 versus 4.89; P=0.01) than wild-type patients. Overall, 14.6% of wild-type patients and 52.4% of p.E161K carriers were unable to acidify their urine below pH 5.3 and thus, can be considered to have incomplete dRTA. In summary, our data indicate that recurrent stone formers with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase B1 subunit p.E161K SNP exhibit a urinary acidification deficit with an increased prevalence of calcium phosphate-containing kidney stones. The burden of E161K heterozygosity may be a forme fruste of dRTA. PMID:26453614

  18. [Prevention of infected urinary stones by urease inhibitor. IV. Treatment of infection stones in rats by a new hydroxamic acid and cefalexin].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Tomoyoshi, T; Okada, Y; Yoshida, O; Kobashi, K

    1983-03-01

    We investigated the combined effectiveness of a new urease inhibitor, N-( pivaroyl ) glycinohydroxamic acid, with Cefalexin in the treatment of infection stones in rats. Combination therapy with the hydroxamic acid and Cefalexin inhibited bladder stone formation, and dissolved the stone dose dependently, while separate therapy was not significantly effective against stone formation or bacterial growth. This compound may become a useful medicine for the treatment of infection stones. PMID:6375315

  19. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  20. Role of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 and Parathyroid Hormone in Urinary Calcium Excretion in Calcium Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok Joong; Shin, Kyung-Sub; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the possible role of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as intrinsic factors in urinary calcium stone formers (SFs), we investigated their relationship with serum and urinary biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 326 calcium SFs (male: 204, female: 122) were enrolled and underwent outpatient metabolic evaluations including 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH as well as serum and 24-hour urinary biochemical parameters. As control, 163 age- and sex-matched (2:1) individuals (non-SFs) who have never urinary stone episode were included. Results 1,25(OH)2D3 level was positively correlated with urinary calcium excretion (r=0.347, p<0.001). The hypercalciuric group and recurrent SFs had higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels than the normocalciuric group (p<0.001) and first SFs (p=0.050). In the adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 level (β=0.259, p<0.001) and serum PTH level (β=-0.160, p<0.001) were significantly correlated with urinary calcium excretion. The patients in highest tertile of 1,25(OH)2D3 had a more than 3.1 fold risk of hypercalciuria than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio=3.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.431-6.888, p=0.004). No correlation was observed between PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 (R=0.005, p=0.929) in calcium SFs, while a negative correlation was found in controls (R=-0.269, p=0.001). Conclusion 1,25(OH)2D3 was closely correlated with urinary calcium excretion, and high 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were detected in the hypercalciuric group and in recurrent SFs. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 was not correlated with PTH in calcium SFs. These findings suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 might be important intrinsic factor for altered calcium regulation in SFs. PMID:25048492

  1. SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE METHOD TO MEASURE ACID DEPOSITION EFFECTS ON BUILDING STONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, Marguerite J.; Ager, Cathy M.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), the U. S. Geological Survey is cooperating with other agencies to test the effects of acid deposition on building stone. A 10-year test-site study has been organized for the purpose of correlating possible stone deterioration with environmental factors. In Summer 1984, slabs of building stone, 3 by 2 by 2 inches, were exposed to the atmosphere at four test sites where the pH of precipitation and other meteorological variables are continuously monitored. This paper examines the development of one experimental technique used in this study - the application of diffuse spectral reflectance methods for laboratory and in situ measurement of those properties of stone which may be affected by acid deposition.

  2. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Baedecker, P.A. ); Reddy, M.M. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. It can serve as the basis for an undergraduate (or pre college) experiment in environmental chemistry. Recent field investigations are described that provide measurements of carbonate stone dissolution and mechanical erosion under weathering conditions that are prevalent in the eastern US. The purpose of the laboratory work is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that were difficult to resolve on the basis of field experiments alone.

  3. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  4. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics. PMID:22030245

  5. Differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodine using dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Qu, M.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C. H.

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the feasibility of differentiating uric acid from non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodinated contrast material was evaluated using dual-energy CT (DECT). Iodine subtraction was accomplished with a commercial three material decomposition algorithm to create a virtual non-contrast (VNC) image set. VNC images were then used to segment stone regions from tissue background. The DE ratio of each stone was calculated using the CT images acquired at two different energies with DECT using the stone map generated from the VNC images. The performance of DE ratio-based stone differentiation was evaluated at five different iodine concentrations (21, 42, 63, 84 and 105 mg/ml). The DE ratio of stones in iodine solution was found larger than those obtained in non-iodine cases. This is mainly caused by the partial volume effect around the boundary between the stone and iodine solution. The overestimation of the DE ratio leads to substantial overlap between different stone types. To address the partial volume effect, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach was implemented to estimate the contribution of iodine and stone within each image pixel in their mixture area. The DE ratio of each stone was corrected to maximally remove the influence of iodine solutions. The separation of uric-acid and non-uric-acid stone was improved in the presence of iodine solution.

  6. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  7. Medical treatment of biliary duct stones: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration.

    PubMed Central

    Salvioli, G; Salati, R; Lugli, R; Zanni, C

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with radiolucent biliary duct stones without cholangitis and jaundice were randomly allocated into two treatment groups receiving ursodeoxycholic acid 12 mg/kg (group A) or placebo (group B) in three daily doses for 24 months. In group A stones disappeared completely in seven patients and partially in one; placebo administration had no effect on stone size and three patients of group B (only one of group A) went to surgery for complications. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment did not adversely affect liver function tests, and alkaline phosphatase decreased. Abdominal and biliary colics also became less frequent in the first six months of therapy in group A, but not in the placebo group. The bile was supersaturated with cholesterol in both groups, but decreased significantly only in patients receiving ursodeoxycholic acid even though the lithogenic index remained high. Cholesterol saturation of bile does not seem to be the only factor determining the dissolution of biliary duct stones which sometimes contain cholesterol as the main component. PMID:6345281

  8. Treatment of renal uric acid stone by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with sodium bicarbonate: 2 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Yong; Lian, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Yan; Song, Peng; Yan, Yi; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid stone is the most comment radiolucent renal stone with high recurrence rate, which would further cause acute upper urinary tract obstruction and kidney failure. Here we report two cases of renal uric acid stone from December 2012 to April 2013. One 43-year-old male patient suffered from chronic uric acid nephrolithiasis caused by the long-term indwelling of bilateral double-J stent. Another 69-year-old patient was also diagnosed with uric acid nephrolithiasis at the right kidney. Both patients were first treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), followed by 1.5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. After a week of the treatment, the uric acid stones in both patients were completely dissolved without retrograde infection. In summary, the use of ESWL and sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy as a combined modality is a safe, effective, inexpensive treatment for uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:26550383

  9. Biomimetic Randall’s Plaque as an In Vitro Model System for Studying the Role of Acidic Biopolymers in Idiopathic Stone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, Archana; Rodriguez, Douglas; Khan, Saeed; Gower, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Randall’s plaque (RP) deposits seem to be consistent among the most common type of kidney stone formers, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. This group forms calcium oxalate renal stones without any systemic symptoms, which contributes to the difficulty of understanding and treating this painful and recurring disease. Thus, the development of an in vitro model system to study idiopathic nephrolithiasis, beginning with RP pathogenesis, can help in identifying how plaques, and subsequently stones, form. One main theory of RP formation is that calcium phosphate deposits initially form in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle, which then fuse and spread into the interstitial tissue, and ultimately make their way across the urothelium, where upon exposure to the urine, the mineralized tissue serves as a nidus for overgrowth with calcium oxalate into a stone. Our group has found that many of the unusual morphologies found in RP and stones, such as concentrically-laminated spherulites and mineralized collagenous tissue, can be reproduced in vitro using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process, in which acidic polypeptides induce a liquid-phase amorphous precursor to the mineral, yielding non-equilibrium crystal morphologies. Given that there are many acidic proteins and polysaccharides present in the renal tissue and urine, we have put for the hypothesis that the PILP system may be involved in urolithiasis. Therefore, our goal is to develop an in vitro model system of these two stages of composite stone formation in order to study the role that various acidic macromolecules may play. In our initial experiments presented here, the development of “biomimetic” RP was investigated, which will then serve as a nidus for calcium oxalate overgrowth studies. In order to mimic the tissue environment, MatriStem® (ACell, Inc.), a decellularized porcine urinary bladder matrix was used, because it has both an intact epithelial basement membrane surface

  10. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

  12. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  13. Study of the Dissolution Behavior of Muscovite in Stone Coal by Oxygen Pressure Acid Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Nan-nan; Zhang, Yi-min; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The dissolution behavior of muscovite in stone coal during the oxygen pressure acid leaching process was studied. The study showed that the dissolution behaviors of V, Al, and K were similar. K was the most easily leached, followed by Al, and then by V during oxygen pressure acid leaching process. When the reaction temperature exceeded 423 K (150 °C), alunite was generated, which led to vanadium losses because of its absorption performance. The dissolution of the muscovite in stone coal mainly depended on H2SO4 concentration and temperature. O2 had a main effect not on muscovite's dissolution but on the V3+ oxidation. During the oxygen pressure acid leaching process, (1) the interfacial K in the muscovite lattice was dissolved rapidly, producing a new interface; (2) for charge balance, the interfacial O absorbed hydrogen ions to form hydroxy; (3) the interfacial hydroxy reacted with hydrogen ions and left vacancy as a result of O loss, producing more new surface to expose more Al, V, and Si; (4) the interfacial Al or V was exchanged by hydrogen ions and V3+ was oxidized to V4+ and V5+; and (5) Si hardly reacted with H+ and generated high-Si surface.

  14. Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

    1994-01-01

    Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8307431

  15. Utilization of date stones for production of activated carbon using phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Haimour, N.M. . E-mail: nomanhaimour@hotmail.com; Emeish, S. . E-mail: s_emiesh@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    Date stone wastes have been utilized for production of activated carbon by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using a fluidized-bed reactor. The effects of the activation time, activation temperature, impregnation ratio, and particle size on the yield and the adsorptive capacity towards iodine were studied. The yield and the quality of the activated carbon prepared by using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were compared with that prepared from date stones using the same equipment, and under similar conditions by using ZnCl{sub 2} as an oxidizing agent. The maximum value of the iodine number of the activated carbon produced using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in this work was about 495 under the following conditions: impregnation ratio 0.4, activation time 60 min, activation temperature 800 deg. C, particle size 0.60 mm. The iodine number for the produced activated carbon was higher when phosphoric acid was used, compared to that when zinc chloride was used as impregnation reagent; however, the yield obtained when H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was used was lower than the yield when ZnCl{sub 2} was used. The iodine number increases significantly with increasing the activation temperature. By increasing the impregnation ratio at the same temperature, the iodine number decreased sharply and an oscillation is noticed for all the cases but it was clearer at 800 deg. C. The average variation of the iodine number for the whole range of particle size used in this work is {+-}10%.

  16. Mineralogical characterization of the Shelburne Marble and the Salem limestone: Test stones used to study the effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Salem Limestone and the Shelburne Marble are representative of limestones and marbles commonly used in buildings and monuments. Both stones are composed predominantly of calcite. The Salem Limestone is homogeneous in composition and mineralogic characteristics throughout the test block. The Shelburne Marble has compositionally homogeneous mineral phases, but the distribution of those phases within the test block is random. The mineralogy and physical characteristics of the Shelburne Marble and Salem Limestone test blocks described in the study provide a baseline for future studies of the weathering behavior of these stones. Because the Shelburne Marble and the Salem Limestone are representative of typical commercial marbles and limestones, they are likely to be useful in a consortium study of the effects of acid precipitation on these two types of building stones.

  17. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  18. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  19. Evaluation of effects of novel urease inhibitor, N-(pivaloyl)glycinohydroxamic acid on the formation of an infection bladder stone using a newly designed urolithiasis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Munakata, K; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O; Takebe, S; Kobashi, K

    1991-04-01

    By using our new infection stone model of a rat, we evaluated the effect of a novel urease inhibitor, N-(pivaloyl)glycinohydroxamic acid (P-GHA), on the formation of an infection bladder stone. The oral dosing of P-GHA significantly inhibited the elevation of the urinary ammonia level of rats having the urinary tract infection with Proteus mirabilis. A short term regimen (7 d, 730 +/- 38 mg/kg) with P-GHA significantly inhibited the development of the infection bladder stone. Furthermore, a long term combination regimen (11 d) of P-GHA and aminobenzylpenicillin markedly inhibited the development of the infection bladder stone, and also caused a very slight renal impairment to the rats tested in contrast with the method of Vermeulen et al. Our infection stone model in rats, therefore, seems to be useful for the evaluation of therapeutic agents in long term examinations. PMID:1893494

  20. Economic impact of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence in the United States and worldwide, and represent a significant cost burden. Cost effectiveness research in this area may enable improvements in treatment efficiency that can benefit patients, providers and the healthcare system. There has been limited research in the cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stone disease, despite the diverse treatment approaches that are available. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to improve rates of stone passage for ureteral stones, and there is evidence that this practice should be liberalized from the standpoint of both clinical and cost effectiveness. While conservative treatment following a primary stone event appears to be cost effective, the economic impact of medical therapy for recurrent stone formers requires clarification despite its clinical efficacy. Future study regarding the cost effectiveness of prevention and interventions for stone disease are likely to improve both the quality and efficiency of care. PMID:26816777

  1. Accumulation and Clearance of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Current and Former Residents of an Exposed Community

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan; Bartell, Scott M.; Steenland, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid found in > 99% of Americans. Its health effects are unknown. Prior estimates of serum half-life range from 2.3 to 3.8 years. Objectives We assessed the impact of years of residence and years since residing in the study area on serum PFOA concentration in a sample of current and former residents who were exposed to PFOA emissions from an industrial facility in six water districts in West Virginia and Ohio. Methods Serum samples and questionnaires, including residential history, were collected in 2005–2006. We modeled log serum PFOA (nanograms per milliliter) for current residents as a function of years of residence in a water district, adjusted for a variety of factors. We modeled the half-life in former residents who lived in two water districts with high exposure levels using a two-segment log-linear spline. Results We modeled serum PFOA concentration in 17,516 current residents as a function of years of residence (R2 = 0.68). Years of residence was significantly associated with PFOA concentration (1% increase in serum PFOA/year of residence), with significant heterogeneity by water district. Half-life was estimated in two water districts comprising a total of 1,573 individuals. For the participants included in our analyses, we found that years since residing in a water district was significantly associated with serum PFOA, which yielded half-lives of 2.9 and 8.5 years for water districts with higher and lower exposure levels, respectively. Conclusion Years of residence in an exposed water district is positively associated with observed serum PFOA in 2005–2006. Differences in serum clearance rate between low- and high-exposure water districts suggest a possible concentration-dependent or time-dependent clearance process or inadequate adjustment for background exposures. PMID:20870569

  2. Kidney stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

  3. Effects of acid deposition on dissolution of carbonate stone during summer storms in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term research program designed to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone. Acidic deposition accelerates the dissolution of carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. Sequential sampling of runoff from carbonate-stone (marble) and glass (reference) microcatchments in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State provided a detailed record of the episodic fluctuations in rain rate and runoff chemistry during individual summer storms. Rain rate and chemical concentrations from carbonate-stone and glass runoff fluctuated three to tenfold during storms. Net calcium-ion concentrations from the carbonatestone runoff, a measure of stone dissolution, typically fluctuated twofold during these storms. High net sulfate and net calcium concentrations in the first effective runoff at the start of a storm indicated that atmospheric pollutants deposited on the stone surface during dry periods formed calcium sulfate minerals, an important process in carbonate stone dissolution. Dissolution of the carbonate stone generally increased up to twofold during coincident episodes of low rain rate (less than 5 millimeters per hour) and decreased rainfall (glass runoff) pH (less than 4.0); episodes of high rain rate (cloudbursts) were coincident with a rapid increase in rainfall pH and also a rapid decrease in the dissolution of carbonate-stone. During a storm, it seems the most important factors causing increased dissolution of carbonate stone are coincident periods of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. Dissolution of the carbonate stone decreased slightly as the rain rate exceeded about 5 millimeters per hour, probably in response to rapidly increasing rainfall pH during episodes of high rain rate and shorter contact time between the runoff and the stone surface. High runoff rates resulting from cloudbursts remove calcium sulfate minerals formed during dry periods prior to storms and also remove dissolution products formed in large

  4. Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Traxer, Olivier; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone ("umbilication") corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the respective composition of Randall's plaque and stones. The proportion of umbilicated stones rose significantly from 10% in period 1 (1978-1984) to 21% in period 2 (1990-1993) and 22.2% in period 3 (2000-2006), with a parallel rise in the prevalence of stones with identifiable Randall's plaque. The main component of plaques was carbapatite in 90.8% of cases, whereas other components such as amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate or uric acid were found in other cases. The morphology of plaques made of carbapatite was diverse, as was their carbonate content, thus suggesting variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Stones were made of whewellite as the main component in 51.4% of cases, or admixed with weddellite in 26.8%, predominant weddellite in 12.5% and other components (mainly uric acid) in 7.5% of cases. Our findings confirm that Randall's plaques are made of carbapatite in the great majority of cases, but with the stones more frequently composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (which is associated with hyperoxaluria) than of calcium oxalate dihydrate (associated with hypercalciuria). In conclusion, in our country, stones developed on a carbapatite Randall's plaque are as frequently made of

  5. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney or ureter. It uses sound or shock waves to break up stones. Then, the stone fragments ... the urine. It is also called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or ESWL. Procedures performed by passing a ...

  6. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  7. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake

  8. Experimental determination of multiple thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in the urine of healthy controls and calcium oxalate stone formers: does a universal discriminator exist?

    PubMed

    Rodgers, A L; Webber, D; Hibberd, B

    2015-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis is thought to be governed by urinary thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors. However, identification of one or more of these factors which consistently and unambiguously differentiates between healthy subjects (N) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone patients (SF) remains elusive. The present study addresses this challenge. 24 h urines were collected from 15 N and 10 SF. Urine compositions were used to compute thermodynamic risk indices including urinary ratios, quotients and supersaturation (SS) values, while CaOx metastable limits (MSL) were determined experimentally. Crystallisation kinetics was determined by measuring rates of particle formation (number, volume, size) using a Coulter counter multisizer (CC) and a Coulter flow cytometer (FC). Particle shapes were qualitatively differentiated by FC and were viewed directly by scanning electron microscopy. Several urinary composition ratios and risk quotients were significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between CaOx MSL or SS values. Using transformed FC data, the rate of CaOx crystallisation in SF was significantly greater than in N. This was not supported by CC measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to particle size or CaOx crystal growth rates. Single and aggregated CaOx dihydrate crystals were observed in both groups with equal frequency and there were no differences in the kinetic properties of these deposits. A few CaOx monohydrate crystals were observed in SF. Although several risk factors were found to be significantly different between the groups, none of them were consistently robust when compared to other cognate factors. Arguments were readily invoked which demonstrated inter-factor inconsistencies and conflicts. We suspect that a unique discriminatory factor, such as any of those which we investigated in the present study, may not exist. PMID:26198547

  9. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  10. Kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R; Pearle, Margaret S; Robertson, William G; Gambaro, Giovanni; Canales, Benjamin K; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier; Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the renal calyces and pelvis that are found free or attached to the renal papillae. They contain crystalline and organic components and are formed when the urine becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral. Calcium oxalate is the main constituent of most stones, many of which form on a foundation of calcium phosphate called Randall's plaques, which are present on the renal papillary surface. Stone formation is highly prevalent, with rates of up to 14.8% and increasing, and a recurrence rate of up to 50% within the first 5 years of the initial stone episode. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for stone formation, which, in turn, can lead to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Management of symptomatic kidney stones has evolved from open surgical lithotomy to minimally invasive endourological treatments leading to a reduction in patient morbidity, improved stone-free rates and better quality of life. Prevention of recurrence requires behavioural and nutritional interventions, as well as pharmacological treatments that are specific for the type of stone. There is a great need for recurrence prevention that requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in stone formation to facilitate the development of more-effective drugs. PMID:27188687

  11. Present and future of lead/acid battery manufacturer in the Commonwealth of Independent States (formerly the USSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusin, A. I.; Leonov, V. N.; Gerasimov, A. G.; Volinkin, V. T.

    The production of lead/acid batteries in the former USSR, and now in the CIS, is concentrated in eight manufacturing plants (seven in Russia, one in Kazakhstan). The batteries that are manufactured include: automotive, aircraft, stationary, traction, diesel locomotive, railway car, boat, motorcycle, low-capacity sealed, and submersible designs. These activities involve the annual processing of 230 000 tonnes of lead. A brief review is given of the technology used in each of the battery designs.

  12. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor's help: Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away Blood in your urine Fever and chills Vomiting Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy A burning feeling when you urinate Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, ...

  13. Stone chewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

  14. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  15. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts. PMID:25140731

  16. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation. PMID:25615853

  17. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infection Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder ... stream Pain, discomfort in the penis Signs of urinary tract infection (such as fever, pain when urinating, and need ...

  18. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cortex to the inner medulla. The renal pelvis is the funnel through which urine exits the kidney ... a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size of a small pebble. But ureters ...

  19. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine ... chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is ...

  20. Kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The age of peak incidence for stone disease is 20 to 40 years, although stones are seen in all age groups. There is a male to female ratio of 3:2. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions for stone removal in people with asymptomatic kidney stones? What are the effects of interventions for the removal of symptomatic renal stones? What are the effects of interventions to remove symptomatic ureteric stones? What are the effects of interventions for the management of acute renal colic? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodic drugs, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, intravenous fluids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, oral fluids, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy. PMID:22075544

  1. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  2. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, Delphine; Landesman, Catherine; Grambow, Bernd; Ribet, Solange; Giffaut, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) can affect the mobility of radionuclides in pore water of clay-rich geological formations, such as those intended to be used for nuclear waste disposal. The present work studies the adsorption and transport properties of a polycarboxylic acid, polymaleic acid (PMA, Mw = 1.9 kDa), on Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples (COx). Even though this molecule is rather different from the natural organic matter found in clay rock, the study of its retention properties on both dispersed and intact samples allows assessing to which extent organic acids may undergo sorption under natural conditions (pH 7) and what could be the impact on their mobility. PMA sorption and desorption were investigated in dispersed systems. The degree of sorption was measured after 1, 8 and 21 days and for a range of PMA initial concentrations from 4.5 × 10- 7 to 1.4 × 10- 3 mol.L- 1. The reversibility of the sorption process was estimated by desorption experiments performed after the sorption experiments. At the sorption steady state, the sorption was described by a two-site Langmuir model. A total sorption capacity of COx for PMA was found to be 1.01×10- 2 mol.kg- 1 distributed on two sorption sites, one weak and one strong. The desorption of PMA was incomplete, independently of the duration of the sorption phase. The amount of desorbable PMA even appeared to decrease for sorption phases from 1 to 21 days. To describe the apparent desorption hysteresis, two conceptual models were applied. The two-box diffusion model accounted for intraparticle diffusion and more generally for nonequilibrium processes. The two-box first-order non-reversible model accounted for a first-order non-reversible sorption and more generally for kinetically-controlled irreversible sorption processes. The use of the two models revealed that desorption hysteresis was not the result of nonequilibrium processes but was due to irreversible sorption. Irreversible sorption on the strong site was

  3. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  4. Effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Phil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to assess the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary stone-forming constituents, and to assess the effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence risk in first stone formers (SF). Baseline serum creatinine levels were obtained, and renal insufficiency was defined as creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (Cockroft-Gault). This retrospective case-control study consists of 342 first SF; 171 SF with normal renal function were selected with 1:1 propensity scores matched to 171 SF with renal insufficiency. Urinary metabolic evaluation was compared to renal function. GFR was positively correlated with urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion. Subjects with renal insufficiency had significantly lower urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion than those with normal renal function, but not urine volume. With regard to urinary metabolic abnormalities, similar results were obtained. SF with renal insufficiency had lower calcium oxalate supersaturation indexes and stone recurrence rates than SF with normal renal function. Kaplan-Meier curves showed similar results. In conclusion, GFR correlates positively with urinary excretion of stone-forming constituents in SF. This finding implies that renal insufficiency is not a risk factor for stone recurrence. PMID:25120325

  5. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones Print A ... remove the stones from their urinary tracts. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  6. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Novak, Thomas E; Trock, Bruce J

    2010-12-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein, we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence over time, and medical comorbidities associated with this disorder. We identified patients by International Classification of Disease 9th Edition (ICD-9) codes for renal and ureteral calculi as the primary diagnosis. Medical comorbidities were identified using specific comorbidity software. Statistical comparisons between children with and without stone disease were performed. In the first decade of life, stone disease was more prevalent among males than females; however, in the second decade of life females were more commonly affected. Of note, there was a significant increase in treated stone disease across both genders between 1997 and 2003. We also found that the risk of kidney stone diagnosis in children younger than 6 years of age was significantly associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The gender distribution among pediatric stone formers varies significantly by age, although overall females have a greater prevalence than males. There is also a strong association of stone disease and both diabetes and hypertension, although this was only observed in children less than 6 years of age. Taken all together, these findings suggest that urolithiasis in the young child is a complex systemic disease process. PMID:20967433

  7. A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.

    PubMed

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  8. Kidney Stone Risk Following Modern Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  9. [Kidney stone as a cardiovascular risk marker].

    PubMed

    Ernandez, Thomas; Bonny, Olivier

    2014-09-10

    Most of the time, kidney stones are considered as minor, but painful events. However, several studies have recently shown an association between kidney stone and an increased cardio-vascular risk. We review here these studies and explore the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. At the end, we propose that lithiasis should be considered as a red flag intervening early during life-time and allowing a check of cardiovascular risk factors and early preventive intervention. Such approach may be successful in reducing the incidence of cardio-vascular events in stone formers. PMID:25322624

  10. Improvement of oxygen-containing functional groups on olive stones activated carbon by ozone and nitric acid for heavy metals removal from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Bohli, Thouraya; Ouederni, Abdelmottaleb

    2016-08-01

    Recently, modification of surface structure of activated carbons in order to improve their adsorption performance toward especial pollutants has gained great interest. Oxygen-containing functional groups have been devoted as the main responsible for heavy metal binding on the activated carbon surface; their introduction or enhancement needs specific modification and impregnation methods. In the present work, olive stones activated carbon (COSAC) undergoes surface modifications in gaseous phase using ozone (O3) and in liquid phase using nitric acid (HNO3). The activated carbon samples were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, SEM, pHpzc, FTIR, and Boehm titration. The activated carbon parent (COSAC) has a high surface area of 1194 m(2)/g and shows a predominantly microporous structure. Oxidation treatments with nitric acid and ozone show a decrease in both specific surface area and micropore volumes, whereas these acidic treatments have led to a fixation of high amount of surface oxygen functional groups, thus making the carbon surface more hydrophilic. Activated carbon samples were used as an adsorbent matrix for the removal of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at 30 °C, and the data are well fitted to the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir equation. Results show that oxidized COSACs, especially COSAC(HNO3), are capable to remove more Co(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Nitric acid-oxidized olive stones activated carbon was tested in its ability to remove metal ions from binary systems and results show an important maximum adsorbed amount as compared to single systems. PMID:25794582

  11. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  12. Differences in Urinary Stone Composition according to Body Habitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Doo, Seung Whan; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Jun Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed differences in urinary stone composition according to body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, 505 ureteral or renal stones were collected from 505 patients who underwent surgical intervention. Data on patient age, gender, BMI, urinary pH, and stone composition were collected. Results The patients' mean age was 49.2 years (range, 20 to 83 years). Of the 505 patients, 196 (38.7%) had calcium oxalate (CO) stones, 172 (33.9%) had mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (COP) stones, 72 (14.2%) had calcium phosphate (CP) stones, 50 (9.8%) had uric acid (UA) stones, and 15 (2.9%) had struvite stones. We excluded struvite stones in the statistical analysis because of the small number of patients; a total of 490 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be associated with UA stones compared with COP stones (odds ratio [OR] 3.488; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.732-7.025; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.765; 95% CI 1.222-6.259; p=0.015). Similar results were observed for CO stones compared with COP stones (OR 2.682; 95% CI 1.727-4.164; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.176-3.843; p<0.013). Conclusions Obesity was associated with UA and CO stones compared with the occurrence of COP and CP stones. PMID:22025958

  13. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  14. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space.

    PubMed

    Zerwekh, Joseph E

    2002-10-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis. PMID:12361779

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  16. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  17. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  18. Treatment of the Infected Stone.

    PubMed

    Marien, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Infected kidney stones refer to stones that form because of urinary tract infections with urease-producing bacteria, secondarily infected stones of any composition, or stones obstructing the urinary tract leading to pyelonephritis. The mainstay of treatment of infection stones is complete stone removal. Kidney stones that obstruct the urinary tract and cause obstructive pyelonephritis are also frequently referred to as infected stones. Obstructive pyelonephritis is a urologic emergency as it can result in sepsis and even death. Infection stones and obstructive stones causing pyelonephritis are different disease processes, and their workup and management are described separately. PMID:26475943

  19. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  20. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  1. KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary. PMID:23438422

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Kabisch, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  4. 77 FR 40638 - Syniverse Technologies, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... 19, 2012 (Vol. 77, No. 76 FR 23510). At the request of State Workforce Office, the Department... Insight Global Stone Staffing, and Randstad Formerly Known as Sapphire Technologies, Watertown, MA... workers from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad formerly known as Sapphire Technologies,...

  5. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  6. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  7. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  8. Quantification of Urinary Stone Composition in Mixed Stones Using Dual-Energy CT: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Huang, Alice; Montoya, Juan; Duan, Xinhui; Williams, James C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using dual-energy computed tomography to accurately quantify uric acid and non-uric-acid components in urinary stones having mixed composition. Materials and Methods A total of 24 urinary stones were analyzed with microCT to serve as the reference standard for uric acid and non-uric-acid composition. These stones were placed in water phantoms to simulate body attenuation of slim to obese adults and scanned on a third-generation dual-source scanner using dual-energy modes adaptively selected based on phantom size. CT number ratio, which is distinct for different materials, was calculated for each pixel of the stones. Each pixel was then classified as uric acid and non-uric-acid by comparing the CT number ratio with preset thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. Minimal, maximal and root-mean-square errors were calculated by comparing composition to the reference standard and the threshold with the minimal root-mean-square-error was determined. A paired t-test was performed to compare the stone composition determined with dual-energy CT with the reference standard obtained with microCT. Results The optimal CT number ratio threshold ranged from 1.27 to 1.55, dependent on phantom size. The root-mean-square error ranged from 9.60% to 12.87% across all phantom sizes. Minimal and maximal absolute error ranged from 0.04% to 1.24% and from 22.05% to 35.46%, respectively. Dual-energy CT and the reference microCT did not differ significantly on uric acid and non-uric-acid composition (P from 0.20 to 0.96, paired t-test). Conclusion Accurate quantification of uric acid and non-uric-acid composition in mixed stones is possible using dual-energy CT. PMID:27224260

  9. Stone formation and management after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarplin, Sarah; Ganesan, Vishnu; Monga, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a significant health concern and is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, particularly in women. The underlying pathophysiology of stone formation in obese patients is thought to be related to insulin resistance, dietary factors, and a lithogenic urinary profile. Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. Use of surgical procedures for obesity (bariatric surgery) has risen over the past two decades. Although such procedures effectively manage obesity-dependent comorbidities, several large, controlled studies have revealed that modern bariatric surgeries increase the risk of nephrolithiasis by approximately twofold. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, fat malabsorption leads to hyperabsorption of oxalate, which is exacerbated by an increased permeability of the gut to oxalate. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery show characteristic 24 h urine parameters including low urine volume, low urinary pH, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. Prevention of stones with dietary limitation of oxalate and sodium and a high intake of fluids is critical, and calcium supplementation with calcium citrate is typically required. Potassium citrate is valuable for treating the common metabolic derangements as it raises urinary pH, enhances the activity of stone inhibitors, reduces the supersaturation of calcium oxalate, and corrects hypokalaemia. Both pyridoxine and probiotics have been shown in small studies to reduce hyperoxaluria, but further study is necessary to clarify their effects on stone morbidity in the bariatric surgery population. PMID:25850790

  10. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...

  11. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...

  12. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  13. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

  14. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  15. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  16. Effective atomic number accuracy for kidney stone characterization using spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Langan, D. A.; Sahani, D. S.; Kambadakone, A.; Aluri, S.; Procknow, K.; Wu, X.; Bhotika, R.; Okerlund, D.; Kulkarni, N.; Xu, D.

    2010-04-01

    The clinical application of Gemstone Spectral ImagingTM, a fast kV switching dual energy acquisition, is explored in the context of noninvasive kidney stone characterization. Utilizing projection-based material decomposition, effective atomic number and monochromatic images are generated for kidney stone characterization. Analytical and experimental measurements are reported and contrasted. Phantoms were constructed using stone specimens extracted from patients. This allowed for imaging of the different stone types under similar conditions. The stone specimens comprised of Uric Acid, Cystine, Struvite and Calcium-based compositions. Collectively, these stone types span an effective atomic number range of approximately 7 to 14. While Uric Acid and Calcium based stones are generally distinguishable in conventional CT, stone compositions like Cystine and Struvite are difficult to distinguish resulting in treatment uncertainty. Experimental phantom measurements, made under increasingly complex imaging conditions, illustrate the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy. Preliminary clinical studies are reported.

  17. Salivary duct stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. Inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  18. Skimming and Skipping Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

  19. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  20. Diet and Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink at least three quarts (12 cups) of water a day to help reduce the risk for stone formation. Making these healthy lifestyle changes can also help reduce ... NY Register Now 2016 Orangeburg Kidney Walk Thu, ...

  1. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the child’s body to break the kidney stone into smaller particles to pass more readily through the urinary tract. Children younger than age 12 may receive general anesthesia during the procedure. ...

  2. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures.

  3. Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a kidney stone. 2 2 Scales CD, Smith AC, Hanley JM, Saigal CS. Prevalence of kidney ... table or, less commonly, in a tub of water above the lithotripter. The lithotripter generates shock waves ...

  4. 78 FR 52984 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite... former workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs... investigation, I determine that workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and...

  5. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Netzer, Linda; Hesse, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. Methods Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. Results Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p = 0.035), calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p = 0.001) and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p = 0.005) as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. Conclusions Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect. PMID:24265740

  6. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  7. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  8. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Matlaga, Brian R.

    2007-04-05

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  9. High levels, partitioning and fish consumption based water guidelines of perfluoroalkyl acids downstream of a former firefighting training facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fowler, Craig; Day, Sarah; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Drouillard, Ken G; Morse, Dave

    2016-09-01

    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been observed at locations in/around/downstream of the sites where PFOS-based firefighting foam was used repeatedly for a prolonged period. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of PFAA contamination in the Lake Niapenco area in Ontario, Canada, where among the highest ever reported levels of PFOS were recently measured in amphipods, fish and snapping turtle plasma. Levels and distribution of PFAAs in water, sediment and fish samples collected from the area varied widely. An upstream pond beside a former firefighting training area (FFTA) was confirmed as the source of PFAAs even 20years after the last use of the foam at the FFTA. Recent PFOS concentration in water (~60ng/L) at Lake Niapenco, about 14km downstream of the pond, was still 3-7× higher than the background levels. For PFOS, Log KD ranged 1.3-2.5 (mean±SE: 1.7±0.1), Log BAFs ranged 2.4-4.7 (3.4±0.05), and Log BSAFs ranged 0.7-2.9 (1.7±0.05). Some fish species-specific differences in BAF and BSAF were observed. At Log BAF of 4.7, fish PFOS levels at Lake Niapenco could reach 15,000ng/g, 100× greater than a "do not eat" advisory benchmark, without exceeding the current drinking water guideline of 300ng/L. A fish consumption based water guideline was estimated at 1-15ng/L, which is likely applicable worldwide given that the Log BAFs observed in this study were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. It appears that PFAA in the downstream waters increased between 2011 and 2015; however, further monitoring is required to confirm this trend. PMID:27302846

  10. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  11. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  12. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  13. Can a dual-energy computed tomography predict unsuitable stone components for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Oh, Tae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the potential of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to identify urinary stone components, particularly uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate, which are unsuitable for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and Methods This clinical study included 246 patients who underwent removal of urinary stones and an analysis of stone components between November 2009 and August 2013. All patients received preoperative DECT using two energy values (80 kVp and 140 kVp). Hounsfield units (HU) were measured and matched to the stone component. Results Significant differences in HU values were observed between uric acid and nonuric acid stones at the 80 and 140 kVp energy values (p<0.001). All uric acid stones were red on color-coded DECT images, whereas 96.3% of the nonuric acid stones were blue. Patients with calcium oxalate stones were divided into two groups according to the amount of monohydrate (calcium oxalate monohydrate group: monohydrate≥90%, calcium oxalate dihydrate group: monohydrate<90%). Significant differences in HU values were detected between the two groups at both energy values (p<0.001). Conclusions DECT improved the characterization of urinary stone components and was a useful method for identifying uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, which are unsuitable for ESWL. PMID:26366277

  14. Effect of Cystone® on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone®, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone® vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone® to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone® on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone®. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone® to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  15. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells. PMID:18072248

  16. 15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Wilder Mill (on left) and Paper Machine Building (on right), showing collapsed area of stone arch bridge spanning raceway in foreground; view to south - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  17. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  18. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  19. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

  20. Investigations on the "Extreme" Microbial Arsenic Cycle within the Sediments of an Acidic Impoundment of the Former Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine: Herman Pit, Clear Lake, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J. S.; Hoeft McCann, S. E.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Stoneburner, B.; Saltikov, C.; Oremland, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of prokaryotes in the redox reactions of arsenic occurring between this element's +5 [arsenate; As(V)] and + 3 [arsenite; As(III)] oxidation states has been well established. Most research has focused upon circum-neutral pH environments, such as freshwater lake and aquifer sediments, and extreme environments like hot springs and hypersaline soda lakes have also been well investigated. In contrast, little work has been conducted on acidic environments. The azure-hued, clear waters of the Herman Pit are acidic (pH 2-4), and overlie oxidized sediments that have a distinctive red/orange coloration indicative of the presence of ferrihydrites and other Fe(III) minerals. There is extensive ebullitive release of geothermal gases from the lake bottom in the form of numerous continuous-flow seeps which are composed primarily of mixtures of CO2, CH4, and H2S. We collected near-shore surface sediments with an Eckman grab, and stored the "soupy" material in filled mason jars kept at 4˚C. Initial experiments were conducted using 3:1 mixtures of lake water: sediment so as to generate dilute slurries which were amended with mM levels of electron acceptors (arsenate, nitrate, oxygen), electron donors (arsenite, acetate, lactate, hydrogen), and incubated under N2, air, or H2. Owing to the large adsorptive capacity of the Fe(III)-rich slurries, we were unable to detect As(V) or As(III) in the aqueous phase of either live or autoclaved controls, although the former consumed lactate, acetate, nitrate, or hydrogen, while the latter did not. This prompted us to conduct a series of further diluted slurry experiments using the live materials from the first as a 10 % addition to lakewater. In these experiments we observed reduction of As(V) to As(III) in anoxic slurries and that rates were enhanced by addition of electron donors (H2, acetate, or lactate). We also observed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in oxic slurries and in anoxic slurries amended with nitrate. These

  1. Kidney stone risk following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. The studies with the highest level of evidence, performed in non-stone forming patients before and after RYGB, cite a number of kidney stone risk factors, including a 25% increase in urinary oxalate, a 30% decrease in urinary citrate, and reduction in urine volume by half a liter. In addition to these, recent clinical and experimental studies have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this unique population. This review summarizes the current RYGB urinary chemistry profiles and epidemiological studies, outlines known and theoretical mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and hypocitrituria, and provides some standard recommendations for reducing stone risk in RYGB stone formers as well as some novel ones, including correction of metabolic acidosis and use of probiotics. PMID:25473624

  2. Microbial biofilms on building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppert, M.; Kemmling, A.; Kämper, M.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestric ecosystems as well as on man-made material. The organisms take part in biogenic weathering on natural rocks as well as on building stone [1]. Though the presence of biofilms on stone monuments exposed to the outdoor environment is obvious, thin films also occur on monuments under controllable indoor environment conditions. Numerous biofilm organisms produce large volumes of extracellular polymer (EP), mainly polysaccharides. Hydrated, gel-like EP acts as glue between the organisms and the material surface and forms a protected environment for the microbial cells. The contact zone between EP and the material surface is the crucial reactive interface of the bio-organic cover and the underlying building material. At this interface, all hazardous compounds (e.g. organic acids), after diffusion transfer via EP, react with the material surface. Upon dehydration, volume of EP greatly decreases. The thin, varnish-like EP layer still protects the dormant cells from irreversible inactivation. Periodic shrinking and swelling of the EP induces mechanical stress on the stone surface, epecially when the polymer penetrates small pores and cavities in the underlying material surface. Thus, monitoring and structure/functional analysis of EP and EP production by organisms is important to understand biogenic weathering phenomena and building stone deterioration. The study presented here describes biofilms on the surfaces of building material in outdoor and indoor environments. The application of marker techniques and visualization of samples with light and electron microscopy illustrates the role of EP at microscale. EP forms the matrix that encloses microorganisms, dust particles and mineral grains in a rigid film. EP penetrates small pore spaces of the underlying substratum and may also facilitate subsequent penetration of the microorganisms into the material. EP seals the material surface and cements the superficial layer

  3. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  4. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  5. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  6. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  7. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... days after this procedure. Drink a lot of water in the weeks after treatment. This helps pass any pieces of stone that still remain. Your health care provider may give you a medicine ... take and drink a lot of water if you have pain. You may need to ...

  8. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones. PMID:11107533

  9. Predicting stone composition before treatment – can it really drive clinical decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Bres–Niewada, Ewa; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Determination of stone composition is considered to be crucial for the choice of an optimal treatment algorithm. It is especially important for uric acid stones, which can be dissolved by oral chemolysis and for renal stones smaller than 2 cm, which can be treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). Material and methods This short review identifies the latest papers on radiological assessment of stone composition and presents a comprehensive evaluation of current scientific findings. Results Stone chemical composition is difficult to predict using standard CT imaging, however, attenuation index measured in Hounsfield units (HU) is related to ESWL outcome. Stone density >1000 HU can be considered predictive for ESWL failure. It seems that stone composition is meaningless in determining the outcome of ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous surgery. Alternative imaging techniques such as Dual–Energy CT or analysis of shape, density and homogeneity of stones on plain X–rays are used as promising methods of predicting stone composition and ESWL outcome. Conclusions New imaging techniques facilitate the identification of uric acid stones and ESWL–resistant stones. Therefore, they may help in selecting the best therapeutic option. PMID:25667761

  10. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  11. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  12. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  13. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  14. Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

  15. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  16. Diet: from food to stone.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

  17. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  18. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated

  19. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  20. [MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES ON KIDNEY STONES].

    PubMed

    Romanova, Yu M; Mulabaev, N S; Tolordava, E R; Seregin, A V; Seregin, I V; Alexeeva, N V; Stepanova, T V; Levina, G A; Barhatova, O I; Gamova, N A; Goncharova, S A; Didenko, L V; Rakovskaya, I V

    2015-01-01

    The clinical material obtained surgically in patients with kidney stone disease (KSD) was tested for content of the stone microflora using PCR and standard microbiological methods. It was demonstrated that about 50% of stones in patients with KSD were infected with various infection agents as observed using standard microbiological and molecular genetic methods. The percentage of detection of the Mycoplasma hominis using cultural method is lower than the percentage detected using PCR, which is due to difficult isolation and cultivation, as well as DNA fragments of mycoplasma observed after antibiotic therapy. Studies based on modern microscopy methods showed that microorganisms on the surface of the kidney stone formed multispecies biofilms. PMID:26182663

  1. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  2. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  3. Reconsideration of the 1988 NIH Consensus Statement on Prevention and Treatment of Kidney Stones: Are the Recommendations Out of Date?

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, David S

    2002-01-01

    In 1988, a consensus conference was held at the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for prevention and treatment of kidney stones. The recommendations regarding the medical evaluation of stone formers and treatment directed at stone prevention are reviewed. The relevance of those 1988 guidelines is evaluated for continued pertinence. Most of the recommendations promulgated in the consensus statement remain useful today. One significant change is the current consensus that dietary calcium restriction is no longer considered appropriate therapy, as there is no evidence that it actually prevents stones and has as a consequence the potential to worsen bone demineralization. PMID:16985656

  4. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  5. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  6. Effects of microgravity on renal stone risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y. C.; Cintron, N. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Physiologic changes induced during human exposure to the microgravity environment of space may contribute to an increased potential for renal stone formation. Renal stone risk factors obtained 10 days before flight and immediately after return to earth indicated that calcium oxalate and uric acid stone-forming potential was increased after space flights of 4-10 days. These data describe the need for examining renal stone risk during in-flight phases of space missions. Because of limited availability of space and refrigerated storage on spacecraft, effective methods must be developed for collecting urine samples in-flight and for preserving (or storing) them at temperatures and under conditions commensurate with mission constraints.

  7. [Advance in detection methods of microbes on historic stones--a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Zhu, Xudong; Pan, Jiao

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed the methods for identification of microorganisms on the surface of historic stones, including nucleic acid analysis, cell membrane analysis, secondary metabolites analysis and the traditional culture analysis. After comprehensive comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we addressed the biological protection of stone artifacts. The establishment of rapid detection of microorganisms on the historic stones is important to prevent corrosion caused by microorganisms and to protect our valuable cultural heritage. PMID:22260041

  8. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  9. Estimation of Pyruvic acid in serum and saliva among healthy and potentially malignant disorder subjects – a stepping stone for cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Anithraj; Prasad, Kakarla; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Acharya, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Background According to Warburg’s effect, the rate of glycolysis increases in cancerous cells. This will increase overall levels of pyruvic acid. The present on-going study was conducted to estimate the levels of pyruvic acid in saliva and serum in normal, oral PMD subjects. Material and Methods A total of 50 subjects in healthy, PMD of the oral cavity individuals were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Collected saliva and serum samples were subjected to pyruvic acid level estimation using biochemical analysis. Results Of the 50 participants 25 (13: Males; 12: Females) & 25 (16: Males; 9: Females) were PMD group. Independent samples t test showed statistically significant difference in serum & salivary pyruvic acid level in between 2 groups (p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Estimation of pyruvic acid showed sequential increase in the level in PMD group compared to healthy. Hence the study results open new direction in cancer screening. Key words:Pyruvic acid, glycolysis, warburg’s effect. PMID:26535090

  10. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  11. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  12. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  13. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  14. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  15. Sticks and stones.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, S

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY "Sticks and Stones" is an exploration of life-in-the-ghetto; twenty five years of sex and politics, and wrestling with sexual correctness. It is concerned with the changing paradigms of lesbian 'vice and virtue': the butch-femme bar girl; the feminist woman-identified-woman; the sex radical warrior; the chic babe who's Queer and Here. How's a lesbian supposed to find an identity in all that? And remain true to her erotic preferences and sexual practices, frequently in the face of severe opposition? Joan Nestle, Gayle Rubin, Emma Healey and Sue O'Sullivan act as critical guides through this retrospective view of my collisions with erotic orthodoxy; they add discursive weight to the recollected experiences of negotiating historical shifts and re-alignments in ideology and practice of (Western) lesbian sexuality. Is the only way to spot a 'real' lesbian to watch what she does in bed? PMID:24786275

  16. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  17. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  18. 78 FR 37586 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Determination was published in the Federal Register on May 15, 2013 (78 FR 28628-28630). Workers at the subject... Employment and Training Administration Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite... former workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado...

  19. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases.

  20. Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

  1. Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal

    SciTech Connect

    Eshghi, M.; Schiff, R.G.; Smith, A.D.

    1989-02-01

    Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized and in 1 patient who had a postoperative ureteropelvic junction stricture. The creation of more than one nephrostomy tract did not affect the results. In the absence of serious complications, percutaneous nephrostomy does not have a significant effect on renal function.

  2. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  3. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet plan should a person follow to prevent future kidney stones? A dietitian can help a person ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  4. KIDNEY STONE INCIDENCE AND METABOLIC URINARY CHANGES AFTER MODERN BARIATRIC SURGERY: REVIEW OF CLINICAL STUDIES, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with increased metabolic kidney stone risk and post-operative stone formation. A MEDLINE search, performed for articles published between January 2005 and November 2013, identified 24 pertinent studies containing 683 bariatric patients with 24-hour urine profiles, 6,777 bariatric patients with kidney stone incidence, and 7,089 non-stone forming controls. Of all procedures reviewed, only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was linked to post-operative kidney stone development, increasing stone incidence two-fold in non-stone formers (8.5%) and four-fold in patients with previous stone history (16.7%). High quality evidence from 7 studies (n=277 patients) before and after RYGB identified the following post-RYGB urinary lithogenic risk factors: 30% reduction in urine volume (the main driver of urinary crystal saturation), 40% reduction in urinary citrate (a potent stone inhibitor), and 50% increase in urinary oxalate (a stone promotor). Based on this, a summary of strategies to reduce calcium oxalate stone risk following RYGB is provided. Furthermore, recent experimental RYGB studies are assessed for insights into the pathophysiology of oxalate handling, and the literature in gut anion (oxalate) transport is reviewed. Finally, as a potential probiotic therapy for hyperoxaluria, primary data from our laboratory is presented, demonstrating a 70% reduction in urinary oxalate levels in four experimental RYGB animals after colonization with Oxalobacter formigines, a non-pathogenic gut commensal that uses oxalate as an energy source. Overall, urine profiles and kidney stone risk following bariatric surgery appear modifiable by dietary adjustments, appropriate supplementation, and lifestyle changes. For hyperoxaluria resistant to dietary oxalate restriction and calcium binding, well-designed human investigations are needed to identify additional means of lowering urinary oxalate, such as Oxalobacter colonization or empiric pyridoxine therapy

  5. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  6. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  7. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Hamid; Shahandeh, Zahra; Heidari, Behzad; Sedigiani, Farahnaz; Ramaji, Arsalan Ali; Pasha, Yousef Reza Yousefnia; Kassaeian, Ali Akbar; Pasha, Abazar Akbarzadeh; Mir, Mir Muhammad Reza Aghajani

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%), uric acid in 12 patients (26.6%) and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%). In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021) and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006). E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be facilitated

  8. Dual energy micro CT SkyScan 1173 for the characterization of urinary stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, L. A.; Asyana, V.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.; Latief, F. D. E.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the composition of urinary stones is an essential part to determine suitable treatments for patients. The aim of this research is to characterize the urinary stones by using dual energy micro CT SkyScan 11173. This technique combines high-energy and low- energy scanning during a single acquisition. Six human urinary stones were scanned in vitro using 80 kV and 120 kV micro CT SkyScan 1173. Projected images were produced by micro CT SkyScan 1173 and then reconstructed using NRecon (in-house software from SkyScan) to obtain a complete 3D image. The urinary stone images were analysed using CT analyser to obtain information of internal structure and Hounsfield Unit (HU) values to determine the information regarding the composition of the urinary stones, respectively. HU values obtained from some regions of interest in the same slice are compared to a reference HU. The analysis shows information of the composition of the six scanned stones obtained. The six stones consist of stone number 1 (calcium+cystine), number 2 (calcium+struvite), number 3 (calcium+cystine+struvite), number 4 (calcium), number 5 (calcium+cystine+struvite), and number 6 (calcium+uric acid). This shows that dual energy micro CT SkyScan 1173 was able to characterize the composition of the urinary stone.

  9. Expectant Management of Ureter Stones: Outcome and Clinical Factors of Spontaneous Passage in a Single Institution's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tchey, Dong-Un; Ha, Yun Sok; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Kim, Wun Jae

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ureter stones with expectant management and the clinical factors associated with stone passage in Koreans. Materials and Methods We reviewed the charts of patients who visited the emergency room or urological office of our institution with acute renal colic between 2001 and 2008. A total of 656 ureter stone formers were enrolled in this study who had decided to be treated by expectant management. Clinical data such as gender, age, size and location of the stone, body mass index, and previous stone history were analyzed to find the factors related to spontaneous passage of ureter stones. Results Of the 656 ureter stones, 566 stones (86.3%) were spontaneously expelled. Mean duration of follow-up was 17.5 days (range, 1 to 100 days). Mean time to stone passage was 6.8 days for stones less than 2 mm in size, 12.6 days for stones 2 to 4 mm, 14.8 days for stones 4 to 6 mm, and 21.8 days for stones 6 to 8 mm (p<0.001). The cumulative spontaneous passage rate was 55.3% in 7 days, 73.7% in 14 days, 88.5% in 28 days, and 97.7% in 60 days after the first attack. A total of 90 patients (13.7%) required interventions because of symptom relapse or renal deterioration that was related to the location and size of the stone (each, p<0.001). The more proximal the location and the larger the stone was than 6 mm, the less the chance of spontaneous passage (each, p<0.001). Conclusions Size and location of ureter stones are the most important factors for predicting the spontaneous passage of the stone. If a patient has a distal ureter stone of less than 6 mm in size, it is acceptable for the urologist to observe for spontaneous passage for 2 months. PMID:22216398

  10. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Analysis of urinary stone based on a spectrum absorption FTIR-ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asyana, V.; Haryanto, F.; Fitri, L. A.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.

    2016-03-01

    This research analysed the urinary stone by measuring samples using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and black box analysis. The main objective of this study is to find kinds of urinary stone and determine a total spectrum, which is a simple model of the chemical and mineral composition urinary stone through black box analysis using convolution method. The measurements result showed that kinds of urinary stone were pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate, a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with calcium phosphate, a mixture of ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate,pure uric acid, ion amino acid uric acid, and a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with ion amino acid uric acid. The results of analysis of black box showed characteristics as the most accurate and precise to confirm the type of urinary stones based on theregion absorption peak on a graph, the results of the convolution, and the shape of the total spectrum on each urinary stones.

  12. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  13. Mechanisms for the atmospheric corrosion of carbonate stone

    SciTech Connect

    Graedel, T.E.

    2000-03-01

    The physical and chemical phenomena responsible for the atmospheric corrosion of carbonate stone are presented. Corrosion product formation, morphology, and chemical makeup are discussed in the context of calcium-containing minerals and other crystalline structures that thermodynamics and kinetics suggest are likely to be present. Formation pathways for the minerals most often reported to occur in carbonate corrosion layers are shown in schematic diagrams. The dominant corrosion products are sulfates and oxalates, the former resulting from interactions with atmospheric sulfur dioxide or sulfate ions, the latter from oxalate secretions from the biological organisms. present (and perhaps to some extent from oxalate deposited from the atmosphere). The degradation processes are enhanced by the catalytic action of transition metal ions present in the stone and of soot deposited from the atmosphere.

  14. Changes in Urinary Stone Composition in the Tunisian Population: A Retrospective Study of 1,301 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Abdellatif; Belgith, Mohsen; Saad, Hammadi; Jouini, Riadh; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies that evaluate the effect of age on stone composition are scarce. The aim of this study was to highlight the changes in epidemiological characteristics (stone composition and location) of urolithiasis according to patients' age. Methods We studied 1,301 urolithiasis patients with age ranging from 6 months to 92 yr (781 males and 520 females). Stone analysis was performed using a stereomicroscope and infrared spectroscopy to determine the morphological type and molecular composition of each stone. Results The annual average incidence of new stone formation was 31.7 per 100,000 persons. In 71.8% of cases, calculi were located in the upper urinary tract. Compared to other age groups, children and old men were more affected by bladder stones. Calcium oxalate monohydrate was the most frequent stone component, even though its frequency decreased with age (59.5% in young adults and 43.7% in the elderly, P<0.05) in favor of an increase in uric acid stones (11.5% in young adults and 36.4% in the elderly, P<0.05). Struvite stones were rare (3.8%) and more frequent in children than in adults. Conclusions The analysis of these data showed that urinary stones in Tunisian patients are tending to evolve in the same direction as the stones in patients from industrialized countries. PMID:22563551

  15. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight.

    PubMed

    Whitson, P A; Pietrzyk, R A; Pak, C Y; Cintrón, N M

    1993-09-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity. PMID:8345588

  16. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.; Cintron, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity.

  17. Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

  18. The use of non-contrast computed tomography and color Doppler ultrasound in the characterization of urinary stones - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Tefik, Tzevat; Akbulut, Fatih; Örmeci, Mehmet Tolgahan; Beşe, Caner; Şanlı, Öner; Oktar, Tayfun; Salmaslıoğlu, Artür

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of density value in computed tomography (CT) and twinkling artifact observed in color Doppler analysis for the prediction of the mineral composition of urinary stones. Material and methods A total of 42 patients who were operated via percutaneous or endoscopic means and had undergone abdominal non-contrast CT and color Doppler ultrasonography examinations were included in the study. X-ray diffraction method was utilized to analyze a total of 86 stones, and the correlations between calculated density values and twinkling intensities with stone types were investigated for each stone. Results Analyses of extracted stones revealed the presence of 40 calcium oxalate monohydrate, 12 calcium oxalate dihydrate, 9 uric acid, 11 calcium phosphate, and 14 cystine stones. The density values were calculated as 1499±269 Hounsfield Units (HU) for calcium oxalate monohydrate, 1505±221 HU for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 348±67 HU for uric acid, 1106±219 HU for calcium phosphate, and 563±115 HU for cystine stones. The artifact intensities were determined as grade 0 in 15, grade 1 in 32, grade 2 in 24, and grade 3 in 15 stones. Conclusion In case the density value of the stone is measured below 780 HU and grade 3 artifact intensity is determined, it can be inferred that the mineral composition of the stone tends to be cystine. PMID:26623143

  19. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  20. Determination of acidic sulfate aerosols in urban atmospheres in Erfurt (F.R.G.) and Sokolov (Former C.S.S.R.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrys, J.; Gutschmidt, K.; Brauer, M.; Dumyahn, T.; Heinrich, J.; Spengler, J. D.; Wichmann, H. E.

    Acidic sulfate aerosols were sampled from the atmosphere with the Harvard Impactor-Honeycomb Denuder System. This sampler incorporates a citric-acid-coated denuder to remove NH 3 and an impactor with a 50% size cutoff of 2.5 μm ( da). Fine particles were collected on a Teflon filter. The sampling (24 h) lasted from December 1990 until June 1992. The sampling sites were in Erfurt and Sokolov, two eastern European cities with high SO 2 concentrations. At the same time approximately 230 asthmatic children and adults were followed by daily peak flow measurements and symptom diaries. Despite the high SO 2 pollution with daily averages of 62 μg m -3 and peaks of nearly 500 jug m -3, the mean SO 4-2 concentration for Erfurt, 9.8 μg m -3, and that for Sokolov, 8.9 μg m -3, were moderate. In addition, the average H + concentration over the entire period was low in Erfurt (0.3 μg m -3, H + as H 2SO 4) as well as in Sokolov (0.4 μg m -3). H + concentrations tended, however, to be higher during the cold winter months and the hot summer months. In Sokolov, there were three episodes in the winter when measurements exceeded 3.5 μg m -3. The measurements suggest that the environmental conditions in Erfurt and Sokolov produce a low SO 2 oxidation rate and have a high H 2SO 4 neutralization potential. Daily PM 10 concentrations (59.90 μg m -3 in Erfurt and 53.8 μg m -3 in Sokolov) were in the same range for both cities with higher values in winter. Of note was the decrease of all pollutants during the period of observation.

  1. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  2. [Endoscopic management of biliary stones].

    PubMed

    Barinagarrementería, R

    1990-07-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is one of the more effective therapeutic procedures for the management of some biliary tree abnormalities. In choledocolitiasis, a 90% succesfull rate has been obtained. Complications include bleeding, perforation, cholangitis, and pancreatitis. Mortality rates between 1.0 to 1.3% are informed. Contraindications are the same as for panendoscopy as well as the presence of stones greater than 2.5 cms. In giant stones, some other endoscopic approaches can be used, including mechanical lithotripsy, chemical treatment, electrohydraulic shockwaves, laser and biliary stent application. Endoscopic sphincterotomy is also indicated as an adjuvant therapy previous to extracorporeal lithotripsy. PMID:19256137

  3. Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000186.htm Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms ...

  4. Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

    2012-06-01

    In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

  5. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  6. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  7. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  8. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  9. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  10. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  11. Optimizing Stone-free Rates With Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Thanmaya G; Assimos, Dean G

    2015-01-01

    Ureteroscopy is being increasingly utilized in the treatment and management of patients with renal and ureteral stones. Improving stone-free rates with ureteroscopy decreases the need for ancillary procedures and improves patient outcomes and satisfaction. This article reviews contemporary literature regarding the efficacy of a wide range of currently available techniques for improving stone-free rates with this procedure. PMID:26543430

  12. Lithogenic activity and clinical relevance of lipids extracted from urines and stones of nephrolithiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Boonla, Chanchai; Youngjermchan, Phantip; Pumpaisanchai, Somkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2011-02-01

    We investigated contents and classes of urinary and stone matrix lipids, and evaluated their clinical relevance in nephrolithiasis patients. Lithogenic role of major lipid classes was explored. Urine (24 h) and stone samples were collected from 47 patients with nephrolithiasis. Control urines were obtained from 29 healthy subjects. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and total proteins were measured. Total lipids were extracted from centrifuged urines (10,000 rpm, 30 min) and stones by chloroform/methanol method. Major classes of lipids were identified using multi-one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (MOD-TLC). Influence of each lipid class purified from stone matrices on stone formation was evaluated using crystallization and crystal aggregation assays. Urinary NAG activity and 8-OHdG were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients. Total lipids in centrifuged urines of the patients were not significantly different from that of controls. In nephrolithiasis, urinary excretion of total lipids was linearly correlated to urinary MDA, 8-OHdG, NAG activity and total proteins. Lipid contents in stone matrices varied among stone types. Uric acid stone contained lower amount of total lipids than calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones. MOD-TLC lipid chromatograms of healthy urines, nephrolithiasis urines and stone matrices were obviously different. Triacylglyceride was abundant in urines, but scarcely found in stone matrices. Stone matrices were rich in glycolipids and high-polar lipids (phospholipids/gangliosides). Partially purified glycolipids significantly induced crystal aggregation while cholesterol was a significant inducer of both crystal formation and agglomeration. In conclusion, total lipids in centrifuged urines did not differ between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. Our finding suggests that the significant sources of lipids in patients' urine may be

  13. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  14. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  15. Ultrasonic destruction of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brannen, G E; Bush, W H

    1984-02-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction.Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. PMID:6730470

  16. Unusually large submandibular gland stone.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussona, Aws Adel

    2015-01-01

    Submandibular gland calculi is the most common disease of the gland. In this article, we report a case with unusually large stone located at the hilum of the gland causing necrosis of the overlying duct and the oral mucosa (floor of mouth). PMID:25934409

  17. From stones to rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  18. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  19. Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

  20. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  1. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  2. Hippuric Acid as a Significant Regulator of Supersaturation in Calcium Oxalate Lithiasis: The Physiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Atanassova, Stoyanka S.; Gutzow, Ivan S.

    2013-01-01

    At present, the clinical significance of existing physicochemical and biological evidence and especially the results we have obtained from our previous in vitro experiments have been analyzed, and we have come to the conclusion that hippuric acid (C6H5CONHCH2COOH) is a very active solvent of Calcium Oxalate (CaOX) in physiological solutions. Two types of experiments have been discussed: clinical laboratory analysis on the urine excretion of hippuric acid (HA) in patients with CaOX lithiasis and detailed measurements of the kinetics of the dissolution of CaOX calculi in artificial urine, containing various concentrations of HA. It turns out that the most probable value of the HA concentration in the control group is approximately ten times higher than the corresponding value in the group of the stone-formers. Our in vitro analytical measurements demonstrate even a possibility to dissolve CaOX stones in human urine, in which increased concentration of HA have been established. A conclusion can be that drowning out HA is a significant regulator of CaOX supersaturation and thus a regulation of CaOX stone formation in human urine. Discussions have arisen to use increased concentration of HA in urine both as a solubilizator of CaOX stones in the urinary tract and on the purpose of a prolonged metaphylactic treatment. PMID:24307993

  3. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  4. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for management of large proximal ureteric stones. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for proximal ureteral stones ≥2 cm were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, stone characteristics, perioperative and follow-up data were studied. Patients with stones <2 cm in size, previous transperitoneal surgical procedure, or follow-up duration <6 months were excluded from the study. Results: Twelve patients (mean age = 52.9 ± 12 years) with large upper ureteric stones (mean stone largest diameter = 39 ± 13 mm) were included. Nine patients had single stone, 2 patients had two stones, and 1 patient had large impacted stone with 2 small stones floating above. Mean operative time was 107 ± 49.5 min with mean blood loss of 60.5 ± 19.2 cc. Mean total pain score was 38.4 ± 5.5 (100 point scale) and mean time till resuming oral intake was 3.6 ± 0.5 h. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.6 ± 1.4 days and mean duration of stenting was 7.3 ± 2 weeks. Throughout a mean duration of follow-up of 14.8 ± 7.6 months, 100% stone clearance rate was achieved with no recurrence. One patient developed a ureteric stricture treated by laser endoureterotomy and stenting for 6 weeks and responded without re-stricture formation. Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones. PMID:22346099

  5. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  6. Non-invasive differentiation of kidney stone types using X-ray dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. PMID:25873414

  7. Non-invasive Differentiation of Kidney Stone Types using X-ray Dark-Field Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. PMID:25873414

  8. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-01-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators’ experience, patients’ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed. PMID:19468497

  9. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  10. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  11. Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

    2005-01-01

    The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. PMID:16985812

  12. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  13. Computational stoning method for surface defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ninshu; Zhu, Xinhai

    2013-12-01

    Surface defects on outer panels of automotive bodies must be controlled in order to improve the surface quality. The detection and quantitative evaluation of surface defects are quite difficult because the deflection of surface defects is very small. One of detecting methods for surface defects used in factories is a stoning method in which a stone block is moved on the surface of a stamped panel. The computational stoning method was developed to detect surface low defect by authors based on a geometry contact algorithm between a stone block and a stamped panel. If the surface is convex, the stone block always contacts with the convex surface of a stamped panel and the contact gap between them is zero. If there is a surface low, the stone block does not contact to the surface and the contact gap can be computed based on contact algorithm. The convex surface defect can also be detected by applying computational stoning method to the back surface of a stamped panel. By performing two way stoning computations from both the normal surface and the back surface, not only the depth of surface low defect but also the height of convex surface defect can be detected. The surface low defect and convex surface defect can also be detected through multi-directions. Surface defects on the handle emboss of outer panels were accurately detected using the computational stoning method and compared with the real shape. A very good accuracy was obtained.

  14. An integrated fiber and stone basket device for use in Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative laser lithotripter to the Holmium:YAG laser. The TFL's superior near-single mode beam profile enables higher power transmission through smaller fibers with reduced proximal fiber tip damage. Recent studies have also reported that attaching hollow steel tubing to the distal fiber tip decreases fiber degradation and burn-back without compromising stone ablation rates. However, significant stone retropulsion was observed, which increased with pulse rate. In this study, the hollow steel tip fiber design was integrated with a stone basket to minimize stone retropulsion during ablation. A device was constructed consisting of a 100-μm-core, 140-μm-OD silica fiber outfitted with 5-mm-long stainless steel tubing at the distal tip, and integrated with a 1.3-Fr (0.433-mm-OD) disposable nitinol wire basket, to form an overall 1.9-Fr (0.633-mm- OD) integrated device. This compact design may provide several potential advantages including increased flexibility, higher saline irrigation rates through the ureteroscope working channel, and reduced fiber tip degradation compared to separate fiber and stone basket manipulation. TFL pulse energy of 31.5 mJ with 500 μs pulse duration and pulse rate of 500 Hz was delivered through the integrated fiber/basket device in contact with human uric acid stones, ex vivo. TFL stone ablation rates measured 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg/s, comparable to 1.7 +/- 0.3 mg/s (P > 0.05) using standard bare fiber tips separately with a stone basket. With further development, this device may be useful for minimizing stone retropulsion, thus enabling more efficient TFL lithotripsy at higher pulse rates.

  15. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  16. Teaching about the Former Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Teaching students about the former Yugoslavia can be difficult--so much diversity, so much conflict, so much culture. Yet, teaching students about the country matters for two reasons: (1) because the former Yugoslavia is an essential part of understanding World War I and the reemergence of nationalism in a postwar era, and (2) because a study of…

  17. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  18. [Multiple calcium oxalate stone formation in a patient with glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and renal tubular acidosis type I: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, A; Segawa, T; Kakehi, Y; Takeuchi, H

    1993-07-01

    A case of multiple urinary stones in a patient with glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1) is reported. In spite of the presence of hyperuricemia, these stones did not consist of uric acid, but mainly of calcium oxalate. Laboratory studies revealed distal renal tubular acidosis and hypocitraturia, but no significant abnormality in calcium metabolism. We discussed the mechanism of calcium stone formation in our case, and its prophylactic treatment by oral administration of citrate compound. PMID:8362684

  19. A Lion of a Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

    This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  20. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  1. Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

  2. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

  3. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  4. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  5. Extraction of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Microwave Assisted Sulfation Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyu; Xian, Pengfei; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Bowen

    2015-02-01

    The extraction of vanadium from stone coal was investigated by microwave-assisted sulfation roasting followed by water leaching. The results showed that this process is an effective method for the extraction of vanadium from stone coal. Microwave-assisted sulfation roasting promotes the reaction of sulfuric acid with vanadium oxides and decreases roasting time. Under optimized conditions (roasting temperature 200°C, heating rate of 10°C/min, 25% sulfuric acid addition, water leaching at 75°C for 1 h, and liquid/solid ratio of 1.5 ml/g), the leaching rate of vanadium reached 92.6%.

  6. Microwave-assisted autohydrolysis of Prunus mume stone for extraction of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, S; Ozaki, Y; Azuma, J

    2010-03-01

    Stone of Prunus mume (P. mume) is a by-product of pickled P. mume industry. Stones of native and pickled P. mume, mainly composed of holocellulose (83.8 +/- 1.8% and 65.1 +/- 0.3%, respectively) and acid-insoluble lignin (25.3 +/- 2.2% and 30.6 +/- 0.9%, respectively), were autohydrolyzed by microwave heating to extract polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. By heating at 200 to 230 degrees C, 48.0% to 60.8% of polysaccharide and 84.1% to 97.9% of phenolic compound were extracted in water along with partial degradation of hemicelluloses and lignin. The extracted liquors showed antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical originated from phenolic compounds. The pickled P. mume stone showed higher autohydrolyzability and microwave absorption capacity than the native stone due to absorbed salts and acids during pickling in fruit juice of P. mume with external addition of sodium chloride. Pickling process in salty and weak acidic juice seemed to be a kind of pretreatment for softening the stones prior to autohydrolysis induced by microwave heating. PMID:20492219

  7. Predicting the mineral composition of ureteral stone using non-contrast computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Kakizoe, Manabu; Kato, Yoshitake; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Uemura, Hiroji; Yao, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the correlation between computed tomography (CT) density of ureteral stones and their mineral composition. A total of 346 patients who underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy for calculi all fragments of which were acquired at a single institution from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed. The maximum and mean CT densities were measured preoperatively. A mineral analysis revealed calcium oxalate in 203 (58.7 %), mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 78 (23.0 %), calcium phosphate in 18 (5.2 %), uric acid in 8 (2.3 %), struvite in 3 (0.9 %), and cysteine in 5 (1.4 %). The mean Hounsfield units (HUs) of the CT density were 1046 HUs in calcium oxalate, 1101 HUs in mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, 835 HUs in calcium phosphate, 549 HUs in uric acid, 729 HUs in struvite, and 698 HUs in cystine. The HUs in calcium oxalate were significantly higher than those in uric acid (p < 0.01) and struvite (p < 0.01). Those in monohydrate stones were significantly higher, compared with dehydrate stones (p < 0.05). We analyzed the largest number of stones than each published study to correlate their mineral composition and CT density. Calcium component stones showed significantly higher CT densities than other types. PMID:26427864

  8. Urinary stone differentiation in patients with large body size using dual-energy dual-source computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Mingliang; Jaramillo-Alvarez, Giselle; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan C.; Liu, Yu; Duan, Xinhui; Wang, Jia; Vrtiska, Terri J; Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of 100/Sn140 kV (Sn, tin filter) dual-energy CT to differentiate urinary stone types in a patient cohort with a wide range of body sizes. Methods 80 human urinary stones were categorised into four groups (uric acid; cystine; struvite, oxalate and brushite together; and apatite) and imaged in 30–50-cm wide water tanks using clinical 100/Sn140 kV protocols. The CT number ratio (CTR) between the low- and high-energy images was calculated. Thresholds for differentiating between stone groups were determined using ROC analysis. Additionally, 86 stones from 66 patients were characterised using the size-adaptive CTR thresholds determined in the phantom study. Results In phantoms, the area under the ROC curve for differentiating between stone groups ranged from 0.71 to 1.00, depending on phantom size. In patients, body width ranged from 28.5 to 50.0 cm, and 79.1% of stones were correctly characterised. Sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying the stone category were 100% and 100% (group 1), 100% and 95.3% (group 2), 85.7% and 60.9% (group 3), and 52.6% and 92.5% (group 4). Conclusion Dual-energy CT can provide in vivo urinary stone characterisation for patients over a wide range of body sizes. PMID:23263603

  9. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  10. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  11. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  12. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

  13. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  14. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  15. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough. PMID:17583792

  16. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  17. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  18. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  19. Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, David S.

    2012-03-14

    Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

  20. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  1. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone.../FONSI on the planning Web site at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/BigStoneNWR/index.html . A...

  2. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  3. Adenoid Stones – “Adenoliths”

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Hitomi; Thaker, Ameet I.; Davis, Greg E.

    2015-01-01

    Stones made of bacterial aggregates can be found in chronically inflamed lymphoid tissue such as hypertrophied tonsils. Although it is common to find tonsilloliths in cryptic tonsils, it is rare to find stones in adenoid tissue. Here we present an interesting case of a patient who underwent adenoidectomy for adenoid hypertrophy, recurrent malaise and upper respiratory infections. Intraoperatively we found numerous bright green stones in the crypts of the adenoid tissue, reminiscent of tonsilloliths in tonsillar crypts. Pathology revealed polymicrobial bacterial aggregates surrounded by neutrophils. Our findings suggest that the pathophysiology is similar to that of tonsillolith formation. Thus, we should at least consider the presence of adenoid stones and consider adenoidectomy for symptoms often attributed to tonsilloliths. We have coined the term “adenoliths” to describe this interesting finding and present it as a potential source of recurrent infection. PMID:26798664

  4. Pulmonary function tests in stone crushers.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Sachin B; Mane, Satish B; Handergulle, Sunita S; Kekan, Dinkar

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional type of observational study was conducted at 7 various stone crusher units on 120 male stone crushers and 120 healthy male controls. Values of FEF25-27% and PEFR were recorded on computerized spirometer and were compared between workers and age matched controls group. The value of FEF25-75% and PEFR was significantly reduced in stone crushers as compared to controls. Also as the duration of exposure increases the values of flow rates goes on decreasing among workers. Stone crushers of Marathwada region of Maharashtra exposed to silica dust were prone to develop lung disorders as indicated by reduced value of FEF25-75% and PEFR. PMID:25906617

  5. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stone].

    PubMed

    Hara, Noboru; Koike, Hiroshi

    2004-05-01

    An 18-year-old female, who had undergone antireflux surgery for bilateral vesicoureteral reflux 5 years ago, was admitted to our department with complaints of fever and left-sided back pain. Bilateral renal stones and pyelonephritis were diagnosed after roentgenography, ultrasonography and urinalysis. Pyelonephritis was successfully treated with antibiotics and the left renal stone was completely disintegrated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the stone was composed of pure ammonium urate (AU). The patient had not experienced any episodes of urinary tract infection from the antireflux surgery until the present event, but had lost 20 kg in body weight during the last year due to a low-caloric diet and laxative abuse. AU urinary stones have been infrequently reported in Japan, and they are supposed to be associated with a low-caloric diet, laxative abuse, and anorexia nervosa. PMID:15237492

  6. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  7. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease.

    PubMed

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving - not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

  8. The role of open stone surgery

    PubMed Central

    El-Husseiny, Tamer; Buchholz, Noor

    2012-01-01

    Objective To highlight the role of open stone surgery in the management of urolithiasis in the current era of minimally invasive therapies. The introduction and continuous development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) over the past 30 years have led to a significant change in the current management of urolithiasis, where the indications for open stone surgery have been narrowed significantly, making it a second- or third-line treatment option. Methods We reviewed the most recent guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association, and reviewed reports through a MEDLINE search to identify the indications and current role of open stone surgery. Results From the MEDLINE search, it was obvious that the number of papers published on open renal stone surgery has decreased during the last three decades, soon after the introduction of ESWL and PCNL. Conclusion Although currently most patients with stones can be managed by minimally invasive therapy, we believe that open surgery still has a role, and therefore it is of great importance to recognise that a small group of patients with complex stone disease, and those with anatomical and physiological anomalies, will benefit from this treatment option. PMID:26558038

  9. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for isolated calyceal stones: How important is the stone location?

    PubMed Central

    Özgör, Faruk; Küçüktopcu, Onur; Şimşek, Abdulmuttalip; Sarılar, Ömer; Binbay, Murat; Gürbüz, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous access site on the success and complication rates of isolated calyceal stones. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated 2700 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in our clinic between October 2002 and August 2014. We selected only the patients with isolated lower, middle or upper calyceal stones and we grouped the patients according to the location of their stones. Successful operation was defined as complete stone clearence or retention of stone fragments smaller than 4 mm which do not lead to infection, obstruction or pain requiring treatment. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results Totally 360 patients underwent PNL for their isolated upper, middle and lower calyceal stones. Access sites for those patients were selected based on stone location. The stones were localized in the lower (n=304), middle (n=14), and upper (n=42) calices. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to operation and scopy times. Hemoglobin drop was seen more frequently in the upper calyceal access group, without any significant intergroup difference. Thoracic complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax and pleural effusion were more common in the upper calyceal access group (11.9%; p<0.001). Complete stone clerance was accomplished in 81.9%, 92.9% and 78.6% of the patients with lower, middle and upper calyceal stones respectively without any significant intergroup difference (p=0.537). Conclusion PNL is an effective and safe treatment modality for isolated calyceal kidney stones and upper calyceal access causes thoracic complications more than other access sites. PMID:26623144

  10. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  11. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  12. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  13. Postprandial hyperoxaluria and intestinal oxalate absorption in idiopathic renal stone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schwille, P.O.; Hanisch, E.; Scholz, D.

    1984-10-01

    Calcium and oxalate were studied in daily, fasting and postprandial urine specimens from healthy subjects and patients with idiopathic renal calcium stones in response to a test meal free of oxalate, and supplemented with calcium and 14carbon-oxalic acid. The data showed that the amount of oxalate in fasting urine of patients with stones did not differ from that in controls. Generally, patients with stones had considerable postprandial hyperoxaluria in terms of excretion and concentration, associated with a significantly higher degree of supersaturation with regard to calcium oxalate compared to controls. These findings were paralleled by decreased intestinal absorption of 14carbon-oxalate and by unchanged 24-hour urinary oxalate. Although the source of increased p

  14. A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research. PMID:19878912

  15. Medical and dietary therapy for kidney stone prevention.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  16. Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  17. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  18. Analysis of stone-column reinforced foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Pande, G. N.

    1998-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to analyse elastic as well as elastoplastic behaviour of stone-column reinforced foundations. The stone-columns are assumed to be dispersed within the in situ soil and a homogenization technique is invoked to establish equivalent material properties for in situ soil and stone-column composite. The difficulties encountered in carrying out elastoplastic analyses of composite materials are overcome by adopting a separate yield function for each of the constituent materials and a sub-iteration procedure within an implicit backward Euler stress integration scheme. In the proposed procedure, equilibrium as well as kinematic conditions implied in the homogenization procedure are satisfied for both elastic as well as elastoplastic stress states.The proposed model is implemented in an axi-symmetric finite element code and numerical prediction is made for the behaviour of model circular footings resting on stone-column reinforced foundations. This prediction indicates good agreement with experimental observation. Finally, a new scheme in which the length of stone-column is variable is proposed and its behaviour is examined through a numerical example.

  19. Alcohol dispersions of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for stone conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Suzuki, Amelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2013-09-10

    Alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the so-called nanolimes, are emerging as an effective conservation material for the consolidation of stone, mortars, and plasters present in old masonry and/or mural paintings. To better understand how this treatment operates, to optimize its performance and broaden its applications, here we study the nano and microstructural characteristics, carbonation behavior, and consolidation efficacy of colloidal alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles produced by both homogeneous (commercial nanolime) and heterogeneous phase synthesis (aged slaked lime and carbide lime putties). We observe that the alcohol not only provides a high colloidal stability to Ca(OH)2 particles, but also affects the kinetics of carbonation and CaCO3 polymorph selection. This is due to the pseudomorphic replacement of Ca(OH)2 particles by calcium alkoxides upon reaction with ethanol or 2-propanol. The extent of this replacement reaction depends on Ca(OH)2 size and time. Hydrolysis of alkoxides speeds up the carbonation process and increases the CaCO3 yield. The higher degree of transformation into calcium alkoxide of both the commercial nanolime and the carbide lime fosters metastable vaterite formation, while calcite precipitation is promoted upon carbonation of the aged slaked lime due its lower reactivity, which limits calcium alkoxide formation. A higher consolidation efficacy in terms of strength gain of treated porous stone is achieved in the latter case, despite the fact that the carbonation is much faster and reaches a higher yield in the former ones. Formation of alkoxides, which has been neglected in previous studies, needs to be considered when applying nanolime treatments. These results show that the use Ca(OH)2 nanoparticle dispersions prepared with either aged slaked lime or carbide lime putties is an economical and effective conservation alternative to commercial nanolimes produced by homogeneous phase synthesis. Ultimately, this

  20. Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

  1. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  2. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  3. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  4. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  5. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  6. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  7. 3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. 1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. 2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  10. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  11. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  12. 1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. 3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  14. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  15. 2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  2. Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  3. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  4. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  5. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  6. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  7. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  8. A Radiographic Correlation between Renal and Pulp Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ertas, E Tarim; Inci, M; Demirtas, A; Ertas, H; Yengil, E; Sisman, Y; Gokce, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pulp stones and renal stones. This study also aimed to report associations between the presence of pulp stone and gender, age, tooth type, dental arches and sides. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through examination of bitewing radiographs of 116 kidney stone patients and a similar number of age-matched controls, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University. Two oral radiologists examined the radiographs to identify pulp stones. The Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to investigate the correlations between the presence of pulp chamber calcification and age, gender, dental status and kidney stone. Results: Pulp chamber opacities were detected in 199 (19.3%) out of the 1031 examined teeth, and in 84 (72.4%) out of the 116 kidney stone patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control group (p = 0.882). The occurrence of pulp stones was significantly higher in molars than premolars and similar prevalences were found between dental arches and sides. Conclusion: In this study, no correlation was found between the presence of pulp stones and kidney stones in the investigated group. Therefore, the presence of pulp stones does not seem to be correlated with that of kidney stones. PMID:25803378

  9. Single puncture percutaneous nephrolithomy for management of complex renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abdalla, Medhat A; Aboul-Ella, Hassan A; El-haggagy, Abdel-Monem A; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to assess the safety and efficacy of single lower pole access for multiple and branched renal calculi. A prospective non randomized clinical study included 26 patients with complex renal stones (9 patients had branched renal stones and the other 17 had multiple renal stones) in the period from May 2003 to May 2004. Mean patient age was 42 years ± 13.2 (range 18 to 67 years). All patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) via a single lower calyceal puncture. Small stones were intactly extracted by a range of stone graspers while large stones (smallest diameter more than 1 cm) were disintegrated using either the pneumatic EMS Swiss lithoclast or Holmium YAG laser. Flexible nephroscope was used for stones inaccessible by the rigid instruments. Findings Overall stone-free rate was 74.8%. Patients with residual stones were managed by one session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Mean operative time was (80 minutes ± 27.4) for branched stones and (49.1 minutes ± 15.9) for multiple stones. No significant blood loss reported. Perforation of pelvicalyceal system occurred in 2 patients (11.5%) with no serious sequelae. Only 1 patient developed secondary hemorrhage which necessitated blood transfusion and selective angio-embolization. Conclusion In our hands, the efficacy and safety of single lower calyceal puncture PCNL in management of complex renal stones are comparable to those of the general procedure stated in literature. PMID:19379503

  10. Laboratory exposure systems to simulate atmospheric degradation of building stone under dry and wet deposition conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Haneef, S. J.; Hepburn, B. J.; Hutchinson, A. J.; Thompson, G. E.; Wood, G. C.

    The design philosophy, construction and use of two exposure test systems are described, in which the objective is to simulate the degradation of stone samples under, respectively, the 'dry' and 'wet' deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Some element of realistic acceleration is possible in certain experiments. Particular emphasis is placed upon using known presentation rates of the pollutants, both in respect of typical depositions of pollutants and their oxidation products appropriate for an industrial atmosphere. In the dry deposition rig, SO 2, NO 2, NO, HCl and the oxidant O 3 are presented individually or together at realistic deposition rates. In the wet deposition apparatus, SO 2-4, NO -3 and Cl - at a pH of 3.5, simulating 'acid rain' but in a more concentrated form, are deposited. The dry deposition chamber can be operated at constant relative humidity (typically 84%) with pre-dried or precisely wetted stones to simulate episodic rain wetting, or using other methods of wet/dry cycling, which are also a feature of the wet deposition chamber. Heating and cooling of the samples is also possible, as is the use of shaped or coupled stones of different kinds such as are found in a building facade. The results are illustrated in terms of data on the weight change, the anion content of stone and run-off, the pH change of run-off and the total calcium reacted, using Portland stone, as a prelude to later papers in which behaviour of a whole matrix of stone types and environments is presented and discussed. Such an approach permits the eventual production of 'pollutant-material response' relationships and damage functions for comparison with and prediction of external exposure results.

  11. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  12. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  13. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. Some foods may ... consume of the following: • liquids • sodium • animal protein • calcium • oxalate Drinking enough liquids each day is the best ...

  14. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  15. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  16. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Footprints in Stone and Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, H. Murray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the movie "Footprints in Stone," providing background information about the footprints. Notes that the rules for establishing knowledge in science are different from those in other fields, such as religion, and emphasizes the need for biology teachers to be aware of the tactics of creationists. (JM)

  18. Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.

    PubMed

    Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

  19. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Considerations on the European Standard EN 14157 Test Methods: Abrasion Resistance of Natural Stones Used for Flooring in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, Z.; Günes Yılmaz, N.; Goktan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, the Wide Wheel abrasion (WWA) test and the Böhme abrasion (BA) test are among the most widely used standard test methods for determining abrasion resistance of natural stones, the former being the reference test method in EN 14157 Standard. However, it is stated in the Annex-A (Informative) of EN 14157 Standard that very limited data are available to provide correlations between these two test methods. To be able to fill this gap, in this study, 25 different natural stones belonging to sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous groups were tested for their abrasion resistance as well as physico-mechanical properties. Also, for a better interpretation of abrasion resistance characteristics of the tested stone materials, relationships between abrasion resistance and physico-mechanical properties were statistically examined. A statistically significant linear correlation ( R 2 = 0.85; P value = 0.000) was established between the WWA test and the BA test, which could be used in practice for converting the measured abrasion resistance values from one testing method to another. It was also found that the correlation between these two test methods improved significantly ( R 2 = 0.93; P value = 0.001) when relatively high-porosity stone materials (porosity ≥1%) were separately evaluated. Both methods of abrasion resistance employed in the present study showed statistically significant linear correlations with uniaxial compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength, the former proving to be a more influencing parameter on resistance to abrasion. Also, from the point view of representing actual abrasion mechanism of stone materials in practice, the necessity of simulating multi-directional foot traffic in abrasion testing methods was discussed. In this respect, the reference test method in the EN 14157 Standard was criticized for not fully meeting this requirement. It was also pointed out that the reference method could have some drawbacks when applied to coarse

  1. Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; LeRoy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments <3 mm were more likely to recur and to recur earlier than patients rendered entirely stone free at time of PCNL (p = 0.015). Stone recurrences were associated with the late development of renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

  2. Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

  3. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  4. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  5. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  6. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis. PMID:25318444

  7. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  8. Coherent signal-subspace transformation beam former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.-F.; Kaveh, M.

    1990-08-01

    A family of coherent signal-subspace transformation (CST) preprocessors for improving the performance of beam formers is presented. The proposed beam former includes a CST preprocessor followed by a frequency-independent mulling procedure. If the exact CST preprocessor is used, it is shown that the steering and nulling responses of the CST beam former become frequency independent. This CST beam former is also interpreted as a wideband minimum-variance distortionless response (MVDR) beam former for minimizing the total interference and noise powers. Several classes of the CST matrix are proposed and discussed. Unlike the traditional linearly constrained beam formers, the CST beam former effectively nulls the narrowband and wideband correlated interfences(s). Simulation results show that even low-order approximate CST preprocessors substantially improve the nulling and the steering bandwidth of general arrays.

  9. Similarity of urinary risk factors among stone-forming patients in five regions of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, J. A.; Hill, K. D.; Pak, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Study Objective: To compare urinary biochemical risk factors among stone-forming patients in the Southeast (SE) or "stone belt" versus four other regions of the United States. Design: Prospective biochemical survey for regional comparisons. Setting: Referral-based nephrolithiasis clinics, urologists, nephrologists, and family practitioners. Patients: Consecutive sample of 3473 stone-forming patients who submitted 24-hour urine collections for biochemical analyses of stone-forming risk factors. Interventions: None. Subjects taking medication known to interfere with stone-forming risk factors were deleted from the final data compilation. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, the mean values for each urinary parameter spanned a narrow range without significant difference between the five regions. Among "metabolic" factors, 40% in the SE had hypercalciuria (> 6.25 mmol/d), compared to 35%-43% in other regions, and hyperuricosuria (> 4.2 mmol/d) was found in 16% in the SE versus 17%-19% elsewhere. Among "environmental" factors, low urine volume ( < 2 L/d) was found in 77% patients in the SE compared to 69%-78% elsewhere, and high sodium was encountered in 27% in the SE versus 24%-29% elsewhere. No differences were noted in occurrence of other abnormal risk factors: hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, low pH, high sulfate, high phosphorus, or low magnesium. Conclusions: Despite expected regional differences in nutritional and environmental influences, the results of this study showed a striking similarity in urinary biochemical risk factor profiles of stone-formers in all five regions of the United States.

  10. Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.7±13.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.4±9.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.0±63.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications. PMID:25045447

  11. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  12. Benjamin Franklin's risk factors for gout and stones: from genes and diet to possible lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Hagemann, Ian S

    2008-06-01

    Benjamin Franklin's medical history shows that he suffered from repeated attacks of gout and a large bladder stone. These conditions caused him considerable pain, markedly decreased his mobility, and likely contributed in indirect ways to his decline and eventual death from a pulmonary disorder. This article examines Franklin's risk factors for gout and stones, both as Franklin understood them and as we know them today. Significantly, both of these disorders are associated with high blood levels of uric acid, a metabolic by-product. Franklin's risk factors included his gender, genetics, diet, drinking, advanced age, psoriasis, and exposure to lead. Although it is impossible to assign a weight to each of these factors, it can be shown that a number of factors, each capable of raising uric acid levels, converged and conspired against him. PMID:19244863

  13. In vitro dissolution of gallbladder stone by edible leaves, fruits and homoeopathic medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ishwar; Singh, Yogendra; Ansari, Shoeb A.; Agrawal, Namita R.

    2005-10-01

    Gallbladder stone sample of a female patient was analysed by diagnostic, spectroscopic methods and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Besides cholesterol as the major constituent, bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea were also found to be present in the sample. Bile acid (ursodeoxycholic acid) was used to study its effect on the dissolution of cholestrol present in the stone. Extracts of edible leaves and fruits (amla, lemon and mausammi) and the homoeopathic medicines Berberis vulgaris Q. Dioscorea Q. and Calcarea carb 200 in the concentration range 0-3% (v/v) were found to be effective in the dissolution process in the following sequences: B. vulgaris Q. and Dioscorea Q.> C. carb 200, lemon>mausammi, amla was found to be more effective than jamun and tulsi leaf extracts in the given concentration range.

  14. The risk of renal stone formation during and after long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Morukov, B. V.; Sams, C. F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The formation of a renal stone during space flight may have serious negative effects on the health of the crewmember and the success of the mission. Urinary biochemical factors and the influence of dietary factors associated with renal stone development were assessed during long duration Mir Space Station missions. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected prior to, during and following long duration space flight. The relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were determined. RESULTS: Changes in the urinary biochemistry of crewmembers during long duration spaceflight demonstrated increases in the supersaturation of the stone-forming salts. In-flight hypercalciuria was evident in a number of individual crewmembers and 24-hour dietary fluid intake and urine volume were significantly lower. During flight, there was a significant increase in brushite supersaturation. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest acute effects of space flight and postflight changes in the urinary biochemistry favoring increased crystallization in the urine. The effects of dietary intake, especially fluid intake, may have a significant impact on the potential for renal stone formation. Efforts are now underway to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate the increased risk. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function. PMID:22038359

  16. Safety and efficacy of using the stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Waleed; Teleb, Mohamed; Dawod, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of using a stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device (N-Trap®, Cook Urological, Bloomington, IN, USA) to avoid stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones. Patients and methods This retrospective comparative study included 436 patients treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy for a single ureteric stone from February 2011 to January 2014. The diagnosis of a stone was confirmed by plain spiral computed tomography in all cases. Patients were divided according to the ureteric occlusion device applied to avoid stone retropulsion during pneumatic lithotripsy into three groups; group 1 (156) had no instruments used, group 2 (140) in whom the stone cone was applied, and group 3 (140) in whom the N-Trap was used. Patient demographics, stone criteria, operative duration and complications, and success rates (complete stone disintegration with no upward migration) were reported and analysed statistically. Results The stone was in the lower ureter in >55% of patients in all groups. The mean (SD) of maximum stone length was 9.8 (2.5), 10.4 (2.8) and 9.7 (2.9) in groups 1–3, respectively. The use of the stone cone or N-Trap did not significantly increase the operative duration (P = 0.13) or complication rates (P = 0.67). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) favouring groups 2 and 3 for retropulsion and success rates, being 83.3% in group 1, 97.1% in group 2 and 95.7% in group 3. Conclusion The stone cone and N-Trap gave high success rates in preventing stone retropulsion during ureteric pneumatic lithotripsy. Both devices caused no increase in operative duration or complications when used cautiously. PMID:26413324

  17. External Validation of the STONE Score, a Clinical Prediction Rule for Ureteral Stone: An Observational Multi-institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ralph C.; Rodriguez, Robert M.; Moghadassi, Michelle; Noble, Vicki; Bailitz, John; Mallin, Mike; Corbo, Jill; Kang, Tarina L.; Chu, Phillip; Shiboski, Steve; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Study objective The STONE score is a clinical decision rule that classifies patients with suspected nephrolithiasis into low-, moderate-, and high-score groups, with corresponding probabilities of ureteral stone. We evaluate the STONE score in a multi-institutional cohort compared with physician gestalt and hypothesize that it has a sufficiently high specificity to allow clinicians to defer computed tomography (CT) scan in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis. Methods We assessed the STONE score with data from a randomized trial for participants with suspected nephrolithiasis who enrolled at 9 emergency departments between October 2011 and February 2013. In accordance with STONE predictors, we categorized participants into low-, moderate-, or high-score groups. We determined the performance of the STONE score and physician gestalt for ureteral stone. Results Eight hundred forty-five participants were included for analysis; 331 (39%) had a ureteral stone. The global performance of the STONE score was superior to physician gestalt (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.78 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.74 to 0.81] versus 0.68 [95% CI 0.64 to 0.71]). The prevalence of ureteral stone on CT scan ranged from 14% (95% CI 9% to 19%) to 73% (95% CI 67% to 78%) in the low-, moderate-, and high-score groups. The sensitivity and specificity of a high score were 53% (95% CI 48% to 59%) and 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), respectively. Conclusion The STONE score can successfully aggregate patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups and predicts ureteral stone with a higher specificity than physician gestalt. However, in its present form, the STONE score lacks sufficient accuracy to allow clinicians to defer CT scan for suspected ureteral stone. PMID:26440490

  18. A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

  19. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  20. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, E.M. )

    1987-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the ricks permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of th causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between dissolution, crack-corrosion, and the expansion-contraction cycles triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  1. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  2. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  5. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  6. [A Case of Atazanavir Urolithiasis Diagnosed by Stone Analysis].

    PubMed

    Noma, Yasuhiro; Tambo, Mitsuhiro; Kitamura, Junji; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital for right back pain. His past history included human immunodeficiency virus infection, which had been treated with atazanavir for 7 years. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic scan showed right hydronephrosis due to a strongly suspected right ureteral radiolucent stone. He underwent indwelling of a right ureteral stent because of obstructive pyelonephritis due to the ureteral stone. After improvement of the pyelonephritis, he underwent transurethral ureterolithotripsy for the right ureteral stone. Stone analysis showed the atazanavir stone. He has been followed up for 8 months without evidence of recurrence. Herein, we report this rare case of an atazanavir stone in Japan, which was confirmed by calculus analysis, and present a review of the literature. PMID:26932333

  7. Development of latent fingermarks from rocks and stones.

    PubMed

    Hefetz, Ido; Cohen, Amit; Cohen, Yaron; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, stones have been used in the commission of crimes due to their widespread availability. Stones can be used as a lethal weapon that sometimes might be the only evidence in a serious case. The common perception, even in professional fingermark circles, is that stones do not yield identifiable latent fingermarks. The authors of this research paper examined the feasibility of developing fingermarks from seven types of stones using three latent fingermark techniques: magnetic powder, cyanoacrylate fuming, and ninhydrin. The paper will demonstrate that by classifying stones and rocks according to their natural properties (porosity, permeability, and the nature of surface area), even application of the simplest development techniques can produce good results. In conclusion, chert and limestone yielded the most qualitative and quantitative results using magnetic powder. The time factor is also important in recovering latent fingermarks on stones and rocks. PMID:24502220

  8. WPW syndrome: the 'Rosetta stone' of rhythmology. The history of the Rosetta stone.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2009-03-01

    Prior to the 'discovery' of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, interpreting the respective phenomena was akin to reading hieroglyphic characters; thus a clear pathophysiological understanding and practical clinical diagnosis were impossible. The epochal work by Wolff, Parkinson, and White, which resulted in the electrophysiologically correct interpretation of circus movements as the cause of tachycardic rhythm disorders, can therefore indeed be compared to the deciphering of hieroglyphic writing by Champollion in 1822 with the aid of the Rosetta stone. After intensive archaeological and graphological examinations by the Society of Antiquaries, the Rosetta stone finally made its way to the British Museum, where it can still be viewed and admired today. PMID:19131345

  9. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  10. Milk of calcium stones: radiological signs and management outcome.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M

    2015-06-01

    Milk of calcium (MOC) is a rare type of stone that was first described in 1940 by Ludin and Howald who reported MOC in renal cysts. Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts. Stasis, obstruction and infection are important predisposing factors. Due to a layering effect, characteristic radiological signs especially in CT can help in diagnosis to avoid unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. This is the largest reported case series, in which radiological signs by CT scan to predict renal MOC stones, clinical picture and management outcome are described in detail. Cases with suspected renal milk of calcium stones were studied over 7 years (2008-2015). All cases were diagnosed preoperatively by non-contrast CT. Urine cultures were performed in all patients preoperatively. Intra-operative and postoperative findings were reported. Stones retrieved were sent for chemical analysis using an infrared method. Seven cases of milk of calcium renal stones were included in this study. These stones were faint radio-opaque in two cases and radiolucent in five cases. All cases were diagnosed preoperatively with non-contrast CT. Their Hounsfield units (HU) ranged from 114 to 612. All stones were located in a dependent position (gravitational effect) in the posterior aspect of dilated calyces. Five cases exhibited the typical fluid level and two cases demonstrated semilunar (half moon) pattern in the anterior surface of the stones. All cases underwent PCNL with suction and retrieval of soft stones without the need for disintegration. When stones demonstrate a low Hounsfield unit, are arranged in dependent positions within dilated calyces and exhibit fluid level or semilunar pattern on non-contrast CT, milk of calcium stones should be considered. PCNL is an effective modality for management of renal milk of calcium stones. PMID:25820293

  11. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  12. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  14. [Medical therapy for ureteral stones: high versus low fluid intake].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Johannes; Caviezel, Alessandro; Iselin, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    The mainstays of renal colic medical treatment are first to provide efficient pain relief, and second to facilitate migration of the ureteral stone or dissolve it. In the ambulatory setting, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the treatment of choice of pain relief. To facilitate stone migration, the debate between hydric restriction and hyperhydration remains somewhat open. Besides that, alpha-blockers and anti-calcic agents appear to speed up stone explusion, whereas stone chemolysis acts on a longer time scale. PMID:21290866

  15. 7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  16. Can the manipulation of urinary pH by beverages assist with the prevention of stone recurrence?

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha

    2016-02-01

    The formation of various types of stones in the urinary tract is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An acidic urinary pH promotes the crystallization of uric acid and cystine, respectively. Moreover, changes in systemic acid-base homeostasis alter urinary excretion of citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium oxalate stone formation. The effect of beverages on urinary pH and citrate excretion is mainly determined by the presence of bicarbonate and citrate. The bicarbonate content of mineral water can replace alkalization therapy with potassium citrate and contribute to urine inhibitory power by increasing urinary pH and citrate excretion. Citrus juices are rich sources of citrate. Oral citrate is absorbed in the intestine and nearly completely metabolized to bicarbonate, providing an alkali load, which in turn increases urinary pH and citrate excretion. However, data from observational and interventional studies on the effect of different types of citrus juices on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. In conclusion, favourable changes in urinary pH and citrate excretion can be attained by various beverages. However, the long-term efficacy of certain beverages for the recurrence prevention of different types of stones has yet to be determined. PMID:26614113

  17. 46 CFR 201.26 - Former employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or has a direct and substantial interest and in which the former officer or employee participated personally and substantially as an officer or employee of the Maritime Administration through decision... former officer or employee of the Administration, after his or her employment with the Administration...

  18. Role of insulin resistance in uric acid nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanhan; Klett, Dane E; Littleton, Raymond; Elder, Jack S; Sammon, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of uric acid stones. Although not completely understood, its role is supported by many studies demonstrating increased prevalence of uric acid stones in patients with metabolic syndrome and in particular insulin resistance, a major component of metabolic syndrome. This review presents epidemiologic studies demonstrating the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis in general as well as the relationship between insulin resistance and uric acid stone formation, in particular. We also review studies that explore the pathophysiologic relationship between insulin resistance and uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25374817

  19. Effect of pH on the morphology of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Neelesh; Sova, Stacey; Singh, N. B.; Arnold, Brad; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian; Su, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The process for the formation of kidney stone is very complex phenomena and has some similarity to the crystal growth from a solution. It is very much dependent on the acidity pH of the fluids. This pH variation affects the content and amount of filtering residue and its morphology. In this study we have performed experiments using carbonate, oxides and urea to simulate and understand the morphologies of the residue filtered and coarsened in different conditions. We observed that different of morphologies of kidney stones can be explained on the basis of acidity and hydration conditions. At lower pH fat prism crystals are observed and as pH increases, long fat needle crystals with large aspect ratio are observed. The coarsening experiments showed further growth of crystals. The remelting experiments showed that during dissolution of kidney stones the joining material breaks first leaving the large faceted crystals undissolved when attempts are made to dissolve into small crystallites. However, the morphology did not change. It was also observed that impurities such as magnesium oxide (MgO) affect the morphology significantly.

  20. Acid rain and weathering damage to carbonate building stone

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.M.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-07-01

    Marble and limestone specimens were exposed to atmospheric conditions at four eastern US sites. A number of methods were used for damage assessment; this paper describes the results of chemical and physical measurements of material loss. Good agreement was observed among the results obtained with different methods. A surface recession rate near 15 ..mu..m/y was observed for skyward surfaces of marble tested in NC, and comparable results were obtained at the other test sites. The response of the porous limestone was assessed with greater difficulty; a loss rate similar to that of marble was inferred. Initial correlations of material loss with environmental factors are briefly discussed.

  1. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  2. [Specific features of the development of Siberian stone pine megagametophytes and embryos in vitro].

    PubMed

    Tret'iakova, I N; Novoselova, N V

    2003-01-01

    Seedlings were grown in vitro from fertilized eggs and immature embryos of the Siberian stone pine. Cultivation of megagametophytes on a hormone-containing Murashige-Skoog medium from the egg formation until the globular embryo stage made it possible to manipulate fertilization and embryogenesis. Immature embryos are the most promising for in vitro cultivation. Their maturation and germination proceed within seven days of cultivation. When zygotic embryos were cultivated, adventitious buds were formed from cells at the cotyledon base and tips. When adventitious buds were subcultivated on a medium containing benzylaminopurine and naphthylacetic acid, organogenic callus and shoots were formed. Thus, cultivation of megagametophytes and embryos of the Siberian stone pine led to the completion of embryogenesis and formation of viable of seedlings. PMID:12942739

  3. An Unusual Type of Kidney Stone.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Maes, Heleen; Verstraete, Alain Gaston; Stove, Veronique; Delanghe, Joris Richard

    2016-01-01

    A very rare case of acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis is presented in a 54-year-old female patient who had been prescribed sulfasalazine (6 x 500 mg/day) because of psoriatic arthritis for the last 9 years. The patient's renal function was only slightly impaired. Reflectance infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of the chemical nature of the stone. As acetylsulfapyridine is a metabolite of sulfasalazine, administration of the latter drug was the cause of the nephrolithiasis. PMID:27012055

  4. George Chester Stone (1924-2013).

    PubMed

    Adler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    George Chester Stone was born February 21, 1924, and died on July 13, 2013. A quiet revolutionary, George was a founder of the field of health psychology. George played critical roles conceptualizing the field of health psychology, charting its bounds and potential, promulgating guidelines for training, founding the first doctoral program in health psychology, editing influential volumes defining the new field, launching the flagship journal for the field, and establishing a home for the field within APA. He was able to accomplish all this through his talent for working collaboratively. PMID:25046719

  5. Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Charles D.; Smith, Alexandria C.; Hanley, Janet M.; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. Objective Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007–2010 NHANES (n = 12 110). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Results and limitations The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4–11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4–7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0–12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8–7.4], respectively; p < 0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28–0.49], p < 0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49–0.73], p < 0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. Conclusions Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. PMID:22498635

  6. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  7. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  8. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  9. DETAIL OF MORTARLAID STONE AT THE BASE OF THE LIMEKILN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MORTAR-LAID STONE AT THE BASE OF THE LIMEKILN AND AROUND THE ARCH OPENING AND DRY-LAID STONE ABOVE. STRONG OBLIQUE TO THE WEST. 63 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Limekiln, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  11. DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

  12. 4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE OF THE ROCK WALL. WALL PHOTOGRAPHED IS THE NORTHERNMOST WALL TAKEN FROM THE INTERIOR OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  14. Diagnosis and management of bile stone disease and its complications.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Anneline; Arvanitakis, Marianna

    2016-03-01

    Bile stone disease is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological diseases with a considerable geographical and ethnic variation. Bile stones can be classified according their origin, their localization and their biochemical structure. Development and clinical expression depend on a complex interaction between congenital and acquired risk factors. Indeed, bile stones can be either asymptomatic, or cause biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis, jaundice, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging techniques and correct identification of symptomatic gallstone patients is essential before cholecystectomy. Transabdominal ultrasonography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gallstones. However, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intraoperative cholangiography may also play a role in the diagnosis of bile stones. Management includes prevention measures against modifiable risk factors. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are common indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stone extraction is the gold standard for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. Timing of ERCP and cholecystectomy are of critical importance in the management. Lithotripsy modalities are generally reserved for patients with technically difficult CBD stone removal. Percutaneous access combined with lithotripsy may be helpful for complicated intrahepatic stones. PMID:26771377

  15. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  16. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  17. 26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles grafted on stone surface.

    PubMed

    Bellissima, F; Bonini, M; Giorgi, R; Baglioni, P; Barresi, G; Mastromei, G; Perito, B

    2014-12-01

    Microbial colonization has a relevant impact on the deterioration of stone materials with consequences ranging from esthetic to physical and chemical changes. Avoiding microbial growth on cultural stones therefore represents a crucial aspect for their long-term conservation. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively investigated in recent years, showing that they could be successfully applied as bactericidal coatings on surfaces of different materials. In this work, we investigated the ability of AgNPs grafted to Serena stone surfaces to inhibit bacterial viability. A silane derivative, which is commonly used for stone consolidation, and Bacillus subtilis were chosen as the grafting agent and the target bacterium, respectively. Results show that functionalized AgNPs bind to stone surface exhibiting a cluster disposition that is not affected by washing treatments. The antibacterial tests on stone samples revealed a 50 to 80 % reduction in cell viability, with the most effective AgNP concentration of 6.7 μg/cm(2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on antimicrobial activity of AgNPs applied to a stone surface. The results suggest that AgNPs could be successfully used in the inhibition of microbial colonization of stone artworks. PMID:24151026

  19. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  20. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  1. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and formation of calcium renal stones.

    PubMed

    Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M; Evan, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    The most common presentation of nephrolithiasis is idiopathic calcium stones in patients without systemic disease. Most stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate and form on a base of interstitial apatite deposits, known as Randall's plaque. By contrast some stones are composed largely of calcium phosphate, as either hydroxyapatite or brushite (calcium monohydrogen phosphate), and are usually accompanied by deposits of calcium phosphate in the Bellini ducts. These deposits result in local tissue damage and might serve as a site of mineral overgrowth. Stone formation is driven by supersaturation of urine with calcium oxalate and brushite. The level of supersaturation is related to fluid intake as well as to the levels of urinary citrate and calcium. Risk of stone formation is increased when urine citrate excretion is <400 mg per day, and treatment with potassium citrate has been used to prevent stones. Urine calcium levels >200 mg per day also increase stone risk and often result in negative calcium balance. Reduced renal calcium reabsorption has a role in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Low sodium diets and thiazide-type diuretics lower urine calcium levels and potentially reduce the risk of stone recurrence and bone disease. PMID:27452364

  2. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  3. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  4. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  5. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  6. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  7. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  8. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland. PMID:25441870

  9. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  10. Superconducting Cable Having A Felexible Former

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-03-15

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  11. Superconducting Cable Having A Flexible Former

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-08-30

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  12. Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER

  13. Semi-rigid ureteroscopy: Proximal versus distal ureteral stones

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mahmoud; Azab, Mohamad M.; Nassir, Anmar A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of semi-rigid ureteroscopy in proximal and distal ureteral stones, and to compare the operative and perioperative characteristics between the two stone groups. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent semi-rigid ureteroscopy for management of ureteral stones at the International Medical Center between June 2007 and September 2012. All stones were fragmented using Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripter. Stones located above the pelvic brim are considered proximal and below it are distal. Results: One hundred and ninety-one patients were included. One hundred and three patients (54%) underwent ureteroscopy for proximal stones and 88 (46%) for distal stones. The stone size in the proximal group was 10 mm (±5.5) versus 8.6 mm (±5) in the distal group. The initial stone-free rate for proximal and distal calculi were 89–98.2%, respectively. The perioperative complication rate was higher in the proximal group 10% compared to the distal group which is 1.5% (P = 0.06). Both groups have the same average of hospital stay 1.2 days. Conclusion: Although there is a clinical difference between proximal and distal calculi groups in terms of complication and stone-free rates, this difference remained statistically insignificant (P = 0.06). Using a smaller caliber semi-rigid ureteroscopy combined with Holmium-YAG laser can be carried out as a day care procedure and showed a slightly higher risk in patients with proximal ureteral calculi which should be explained to the patient PMID:26834409

  14. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  15. Pathophysiological and physicochemical basis of ammonium urate stone formation in dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cynthia R.; Poindexter, John R.; Meegan, Jennifer M.; Bobulescu, I. Alexandru; Jensen, Eric D.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nephrolithiasis has been increasingly reported in bottlenose dolphins, with all cases to date being ammonium urate nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods A case-control study was conducted in dolphins with and without evidence of nephrolithiasis, aiming to identify biomarkers and risk factors associated with stone formation in a managed population. Dolphins were sampled in both fasting and postprandial states in order to study the effect of dietary factors on serum and urinary biochemistry. Urine was continuously collected over a 6-hr period via catheter and divided into three 2-hour collections, with a bolus fish meal given after completion of the first collection. Blood was sampled at the beginning of the fasting period and end of the postprandial period. Results There were no significant differences in serum and urine chemistries and acid base profiles between dolphins with and without stones, at baseline or postprandially, suggesting that case and control animals in this study represent a continuum of stone risk. In analyses combining the case and control dolphins in a single cohort, we noted significant postprandial increases in urinary uric acid, sulfate and net acid excretion, accompanied by increased urinary ammonium excretion and a commensurate rise in urine pH. The supersaturation index of ammonium urate increased postprandially by more than twofold. Conclusion These findings suggest that dolphins are susceptible to ammonium urate nephrolithiasis at least in part because a high dietary load of acid and purines results in a transient but marked increase in the urinary supersaturation of the sparingly soluble ammonium urate salt. PMID:24518786

  16. Synthesis and analytical characterisation of copper-based nanocoatings for bioactive stone artworks treatment.

    PubMed

    Ditaranto, Nicoletta; Loperfido, Sabrina; van der Werf, Inez; Mangone, Annarosa; Cioffi, Nicola; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2011-01-01

    Biological agents play an important role in the deterioration of cultural heritage causing aesthetic, biogeophysical and biogeochemical damages. Conservation is based on the use of preventive and remedial methods. The former aims at inhibiting biological attack, and the latter aims at eradicating the biological agents responsible for biodeterioration. Here, we propose the preparation and the analytical characterisation of copper-based nanocoating, capable of acting both as a remedy and to prevent microbial proliferation. Core-shell CuNPs are mixed with a silicon-based product, commonly used as a water-repellent/consolidant, to obtain a combined bioactive system to be applied on stone substrates. The resulting coatings exert a marked biological activity over a long period of time due to the continuous and controlled release of copper ions acting as biocides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a multifunctional material is proposed, combining the antimicrobial properties of nanostructured coatings with those of the formulations applied to the restoration of stone artworks. A complete characterisation based on a multi-technique analytical approach is presented. PMID:20972773

  17. [Mineralogical and spectral characteristics of "Gaozhou stone" from Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Shi, Guang-hai; Lou, Fa-sheng; Wu, Shi-jin; Shi, Miao; Huang, An-jie

    2015-01-01

    The seal stone is a kind of artwork with historical and cultural characteristics of China, which has been playing an important role in Chinese traditional culture. "Gaozhou stone", a new kind of the seal stone, has been found in the market recently. To investigate the mineralogical and spectral characterastics of "Gaozhou stone", samples were studied by using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM and DTA. Measurements by XRD reveal that kaolin minerals (kaolinite, dickite), pyrophyllite and minor sericite and illite occur in the ores. When kaolinite and dickite are associated, it is not easy to differentiate them from each other. Although some reflections overlap others, kaolin polytypes can be differentiated by XRD patterns in the range 18°-40° (2θ), the reflections at 0. 395, 0. 379, 0. 343, 0. 326, 0. 294, 0. 280, 0. 232 and 0. 221 nm are diagnostic of dickite. The XRD results indicate the presence of transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in these samples. The main chemical components of "Gaozhou stone" are SiO2 and Al2O3 with minor Fe2O3, K2O and Na2O, corresponding with that of kaolin minerals. The OH groups in kaolin group minerals have attracted considerable attention as a sensitive indicator of structural disorder. In principle, dickite has three bands, whereas kaolinite has four bands at the OH-stretching region. According to the results of FTIR, transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in "Gaozhou stone" has 3 absorption bands of 3 670, 3 650 and 3 620 cm-1 in high frequency region. The intensity of 3 670 cm-1 band that belongs to outer layer hydroxyl vibration is approximately equal to the intensity of 3 620 cm band ascribing to inner layer OH vibration. This value will only have subtle changes due to the different component ratio of kaolinite and dickite layers. Micro-morphology viewed by SEM presents irregular platy or pseudo-hexagonal platy particles with an average diameter of 0. 5-4 µm of "Gaozhou stone". Such morphologies are quite similar to other

  18. Pneumatic v electrokinetic lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral stones.

    PubMed

    Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Heidenreich, A; Nayal, W; Engelmann, U

    1998-06-01

    Recently, a new device (Combilith) for electrokinetic lithotripsy (EKL) has become available which is very similar to the well-known device for pneumatic (ballistic) lithotripsy (Swiss Lithoclast). The Lithoclast uses air pressure to push a projectile within the handpiece against the end of a metal probe, which is thereby accelerated and thrown like a jackhammer against the stone. In principle, the same stroking movement of a small metal probe is provided by EKL; the difference is that instead of a projectile, a magnetic core within the handpiece is accelerated by the electromagnetic principle. This paper compares the clinical efficacy and the features of the two devices. Testing the devices on a stone model, taking into account stone propulsion, the systems turned out to equally effective regarding stone disintegration. However, stone displacement was more pronounced with the Lithoclast applied on easily breaking stones. In a second experiment, an optoelectronic movement-measuring apparatus (Zimmer camera) was employed to measure the range and velocity of the movement of the probe tip without any contact. The linear acceleration velocity ranged from 5 to a maximum of 12.5 m/sec with both systems, but the maximum height of the stroke was 2.5 mm with the Lithoclast and 1 mm with EKL. After the initial break-up of soft stones, further impact of the probe tip against the stone resulted merely in propulsion; thus, the greater probe stroke height is the cause of the stone displacement. In a clinical trial, 22 ureteral stones were treated with the Lithoclast and 35 with the EKL. The two devices were equally effective in terms of stone disintegration and safety margin. Fixation using a Dormia basket was necessary in 12 cases (8 Lithoclast, 4 EKL). Although a difference in probe stroke height was noted when comparing pneumatic and electrokinetic lithotripsy, there were no clinically significant differences in the efficacy of stone fragmentation or stone-free rates. At the

  19. Sex differences in proximal and distal nephron function contribute to the mechanism of idiopathic hypercalcuria in calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Benjamin; Bergsland, Kristin; Gillen, Daniel L; Evan, Andrew P; Clark, Daniel L; Baylock, Jaime; Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M

    2015-07-01

    Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is a common familial trait among patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Previously, we have demonstrated that hypercalciuria is primarily due to reduced renal proximal and distal tubule calcium reabsorption. Here, using measurements of the clearances of sodium, calcium, and endogenous lithium taken from the General Clinical Research Center, we test the hypothesis that patterns of segmental nephron tubule calcium reabsorption differ between the sexes in IH and normal subjects. When the sexes are compared, we reconfirm the reduced proximal and distal calcium reabsorption. In IH women, distal nephron calcium reabsorption is decreased compared to normal women. In IH men, proximal tubule calcium reabsorption falls significantly, with a more modest reduction in distal calcium reabsorption compared to normal men. Additionally, we demonstrate that male IH patients have lower systolic blood pressures than normal males. We conclude that women and men differ in the way they produce the hypercalciuria of IH, with females reducing distal reabsorption and males primarily reducing proximal tubule function. PMID:25947170

  20. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    PubMed

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22909910

  1. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Samuel Pepys and his bladder stone.

    PubMed

    Urquhart-Hay, D

    1992-11-01

    Samuel Pepys, as a young man, developed a bladder stone and, by the age of 25 years, realised that only surgery could deliver him from his agony. The chances of success in an age that was ignorant of sepsis were slender, but he opted for surgery. The operation, carried out through the perineum without anaesthetic by a master barber surgeon, was successful and Pepys survived. Although left sterile, he was far from impotent and he went on to achieve fame and fortune as Secretary to the Navy and President of the Royal Society. His greatest fame came after his death with the publication of his diary, which was to become one of the best known and best loved books in the language. PMID:1467856

  4. Diagnosis and initial management of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Portis, A J; Sundaram, C P

    2001-04-01

    The diagnosis and initial management of urolithiasis have undergone considerable evolution in recent years. The application of noncontrast helical computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected renal colic is one major advance. The superior sensitivity and specificity of helical CT allow urolithiasis to be diagnosed or excluded definitively and expeditiously without the potential harmful effects of contrast media. Initial management is based on three key concepts: (1) the recognition of urgent and emergency requirements for urologic consultation, (2) the provision of effective pain control using a combination of narcotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in appropriate patients and (3) an understanding of the impact of stone location and size on natural history and definitive urologic management. These concepts are discussed with reference to contemporary literature, with the goal of providing tools that family physicians can use in the emergency department or clinic. PMID:11310648

  5. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  6. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  7. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  8. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-01-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  9. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  10. Diagnosis and management of postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy residual stone fragments.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2009-10-01

    Residual stone fragments can occur in up to 8% of patients who are treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When left untreated, approximately half of these patients will experience a stone-related event, for which more than half will need a secondary surgical intervention. Predictors of adverse events are a residual fragment larger than 2 mm that is located in the pelvis or ureter. Preventive measures for the creation of residual fragments include a carefully selected access giving exposure to the bulk of the stone, the creation of multiple tracts, the use of single pulse pneumatic lithotripsy, the prevention of stone migration with ureteral balloons or stone cones, and careful flushing of the stones from the collecting system. Plain radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, linear tomography, and ultrasonography have all been used to judge the result of PCNL and to detect the presence of residual fragments. Thin-slice, unenhanced helical CT, however, is more sensitive and should be performed at 1 month after surgery. While medical therapy and shockwave lithotripsy possess a minor role, second-look flexible nephroscopy and/or flexible ureterorenoscopy seem to be the treatments of choice for residual stone fragments after PCNL. PMID:19747041

  11. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  12. A mechanistic analysis of stone fracture in lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Maxwell, Adam D; MacConaghy, Brian; Bailey, Michael R

    2007-02-01

    In vitro experiments and an elastic wave model were used to analyze how stress is induced in kidney stones by lithotripsy and to test the roles of individual mechanisms-spallation, squeezing, and cavitation. Cylindrical U30 cement stones were treated in an HM-3-style lithotripter. Baffles were used to block specific waves responsible for spallation or squeezing. Stones with and without surface cracks added to simulate cavitation damage were tested in glycerol (a cavitation suppressive medium). Each case was simulated using the elasticity equations for an isotropic medium. The calculated location of maximum stress compared well with the experimental observations of where stones fractured in two pieces. Higher calculated maximum tensile stress correlated with fewer shock waves required for fracture. The highest calculated tensile stresses resulted from shear waves initiated at the proximal corners and strengthened along the side surfaces of the stone by the liquid-borne lithotripter shock wave. Peak tensile stress was in the distal end of the stone where fracture occurred. Reflection of the longitudinal wave from the distal face of the stone--spallation-produced lower stresses. Surface cracks accelerated fragmentation when created near the location where the maximum stress was predicted. PMID:17348540

  13. Stone culture retrieved during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Osman, Yasser; Elshal, Ahmed M; Elawdy, Mohamed M; Omar, Helmy; Gaber, Asaad; Elsawy, Essam; El-Nahas, Ahmed R

    2016-08-01

    Stone culture has been frequently investigated following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in the last decade. We aimed to crucially define the clinical role of stone culture in modifying the treatment plan in patients with postoperative sepsis. Between June 2012 and April 2013, a total of 79 consecutive PNL procedures were included. Perioperative data were prospectively maintained. Preoperative urine sample, retrieved stone fragments and postoperative nephrostomy tube urine sample were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The occurrence of at least two of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) events during their inpatient stay was diagnostic of SIRS. The antibiotic regimen utilized and its modifications were reported. The preoperative culture was positive in 26 patients (32.9 %). The culture of stone fragments showed significant bacterial growth in 23 (29.1 %) cases. Significant growth on stone culture was significantly associated with the presence of preoperative urinary catheters and positive preoperative urine culture (P = 0.001, 0.006 respectively). Postoperative culture was positive in only six patients (7.6 %). SIRS was diagnosed in the first postoperative day in 12 patients (15.2 %). Leukocytosis was the only predictor of SIRS. Neither preoperative culture, stone culture nor postoperative culture was predictor of SIRS. Stone culture was positive in four patients with SIRS. Stone culture changed the treatment plan in only one patient. Our data do not support the routine implementation of stone culture in the PNL workup, as it did not indicate a change of antibiotic regimen in most of the cases. PMID:26781741

  14. 5 CFR 838.733 - Rights of current and other former spouses after termination of a former spouse's entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rights of current and other former spouses after termination of a former spouse's entitlement. 838.733 Section 838.733 Administrative... former spouse's entitlement. (a) If a former spouse of a retiree loses entitlement to a former...

  15. Cardiovascular health in former elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J K; Kujala, U M; Sarna, S; Karanko, H; Puukka, P J; Jula, A M

    2016-05-01

    To increase our knowledge on the effects of previous and current physical activity on cardiovascular health, we studied a group of Finnish male former elite athletes (endurance, n = 49; power, n = 50) and their 49 age and area-matched controls, aged 64-89 years. Body mass index (BMI), fasting serum glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and ultrasonography of cardiac and carotid artery structure and function were measured. Former endurance athletes smoked less, had lower prevalence of hypertension, and had higher intensity and volume of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) than the controls. No difference was detected in cardiac or carotid artery structure and function between these groups. Former athletes performing high-intensity LTPA were slightly younger (possible selection bias), had lower BMI and waist circumference, lower use of antihypertensives, lower prevalence of diabetes, lower pulse wave velocity, and higher carotid artery elasticity than former athletes not performing high-intensity LTPA. In conclusion, former athletes had a higher intensity and volume of LTPA than the controls. Athletes performing vigorous LTPA had more elastic arteries than athletes performing moderately or no LTPA. Vigorous LTPA through the whole lifetime associates with good cardiovascular health, although the previous medical history may play an important role. PMID:25919653

  16. Radiation Dose Reduction in Dual-Energy CT: Does It Affect the Accuracy of Urinary Stone Characterization?

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Mingliang; Yu, Lifeng; Cardona, Daniel Gomez; Liu, Yu; Duan, Xinhui; Ai, Songtao; Leng, Shuai; Shiung, Maria; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to assess the effect of radiation dose reduction in dual-energy CT (DECT) on the performance of renal stone characterization using a patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS CT data from 39 unenhanced DECT examinations performed for stone characterization were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Reduced-dose images were simulated at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the routine dose using a previously validated noise-insertion algorithm. Differentiation between uric acid (UA) and non-UA stones was performed using a fixed cutoff value for the dual-energy ratio. ROC analysis was performed to determine optimal cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS Of the 206 stones found, 43 were UA and 163 were non-UA. The mean (± SD) volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) was 16.0 ± 4.0 mGy at the 100% dose level. The mean noise in 100-kV images increased from 40.9 ± 6.8 HU at 100% dose to 46.8 ± 8.8 HU, 57.7 ± 12.5 HU, and 85.4 ± 22.9 HU at 75%, 50%, and 25% dose levels, respectively. Using the default cutoff value, for stones 10 mm3 or larger, the sensitivity/specificity were 100.0%/98.8%, 82.8%/98.8%, and 89.3%/98.7%, at 75%, 50%, and 25% dose levels, respectively. ROC analysis showed varying optimal cutoff values at different dose levels. The sensitivity and specificity improved with use of these optimal cutoff values. Differentiation capability decreased for stones smaller than 10 mm3. CONCLUSION At 75% of the 16-mGy routine dose, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating UA from non-UA stones were minimally affected for stones 10 mm3 or larger. The use of optimal cutoff values for dual-energy ratio as dose decreased (and noise increased) provided improved performance. PMID:26204304

  17. Kidney Stones in Several Spinal Abnormalities: A Challenging Treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maximiliano Lopez; Sanguinetti, Horacio; Battiston, Santiago; Alvarez, Patricio; Bernardo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe skeletal deformities are a challenging group to treat. A female, white, 35-year-old presented with right kidney stones located in renal pelvis, lower calyx, and upper ureter. She was affected by severe spinal deformity with restrictive respiratory obstruction, caused by kyphoscoliosis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position was performed, achieving complete removal of kidney stones. The treatment of renal stones in this patient was complex, so special attention to respiratory function was mandatory; this was a challenging but feasible situation. PMID:27579402

  18. Cytogenetic damage and occupational exposure. I. Exposure to stone dust.

    PubMed

    Sobti, R C; Bhardwaj, D K

    1991-10-01

    Cytogenetic investigations were carried out on 50 workers exposed to stone dust in a stone crusher industry and on 25 control subjects never exposed to such dust. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in exposed individuals was significantly higher than that in controls (P less than 0.01). The cytogenetic indices demonstrated a clear dependence on the working environment. The effect of smoking and/or alcoholic habits coupled with exposure to stone dust has also been investigated. The results indicate that the mutagenic risk in the working environment is probably associated with silica dust in the area. PMID:1655400

  19. Kidney Stones in Several Spinal Abnormalities: A Challenging Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Horacio; Battiston, Santiago; Alvarez, Patricio; Bernardo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with severe skeletal deformities are a challenging group to treat. A female, white, 35-year-old presented with right kidney stones located in renal pelvis, lower calyx, and upper ureter. She was affected by severe spinal deformity with restrictive respiratory obstruction, caused by kyphoscoliosis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position was performed, achieving complete removal of kidney stones. The treatment of renal stones in this patient was complex, so special attention to respiratory function was mandatory; this was a challenging but feasible situation.

  20. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  1. Septic Shock Due to Biliary Stones in a Postcholecystectomy Patient.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Mohammad Feroz; Khan, Muhammad Faisal; Khursheed, Moazzum

    2015-10-01

    Septic shock leading to multi-organ failure is not uncommon. Early diagnosis to confirm the source is the distinctive attribute of sepsis management guidelines. Cholangitis as the source of sepsis can become a diagnostic dilemma in patients who have had cholecystectomy in the past. CT abdomen should be the investigation of choice in this group of patients. This report describes two postcholecystectomy patients who presented with septic shock secondary to biliary stones. The source of septic shock in both patients were biliary stones was confirmed with abdominal CT. Ultrasound abdomen failed to report biliary stones in these patients. Both improved on percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. PMID:26522207

  2. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in

  3. Mechanism of fragmentation of urinary stones by underwater shock wave.

    PubMed

    Kambe, K; Kuwahara, M; Orikasa, S; Takayama, K

    1988-01-01

    The focusing of an underwater shock wave, generated by an underwater microexplosion, has been studied by several methods, such as holography, pressure measurement and pressure print. It has been shown that the shock wave could be focused within the range of a few millimeters and with an amplitude of 1 kbar. The acoustic impedances of various kinds of urinary stones were measured by the original graphical method using holographic interferrometry. The process of breaking a stone by a focused underwater shock wave was observed with high-speed cinematography. It was supposed that the main mechanism of breaking the stone is the tensile stress at the solid-water acoustic interface. PMID:3201639

  4. Stone Columns - Determination of the soil improvement factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivarč, J.

    2011-09-01

    A stone column is one of the soil stabilizing methods that is used to increase strength, decrease the compressibility of soft and loose fine graded soils, accelerate a consolidation effect and reduce the liquefaction potential of soils. The columns consist of compacted gravel or crushed stone arranged by a vibrator. This paper deals with Priebe's theory (1976) on the design of an improvement factor, which belongs among the most used analytical methods and also describes the numerical and laboratory models of stone columns. The improvement factors calculated from numerical and laboratory models are compared with the improvement factors resulting from Priebe's theory.

  5. The early days of surgery for stones in the bladder.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Man has suffered from bladder stones since the earliest times. The oldest specimen of a bladder stone so far discovered was obtained at the excavation of a grave of a boy of about 16 in an ancient Egyptian burial ground and was dated at around 4800 BC. Of the triad of 'elective" operations first performed by our surgical forefathers--circumcision, trephination of the skull and cutting for the stone--only the last was for a purely surgical indication and not for religious or ritual reasons; it may safely be pronounced as the most ancient operation performed for a specific surgical pathology. PMID:21834290

  6. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  7. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  8. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  9. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  10. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  11. Balloon dilator versus telescopic metal dilators for tract dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn stones and calyceal stones

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Mohamed; Salem, Shady; Allam, Adel; Hathout, Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of balloon dilatation (BD) vs. telescopic metal dilators (TMDs) in establishing the tract for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with calyceal stones or staghorn stones, but with no hydronephrosis. Patients and methods Data from selected patients over 4 years were recorded retrospectively. Patients with complex staghorn stones, an undilated targeted calyx, or the stone filling the targeted calyx, were included in the study. In all, 97 patients were included, of 235 undergoing PCNL between March 2010 and March 2014, and were divided into two groups according to the technique of primary tract dilatation. Group A included patients who had BD and group B those treated using TMDs. Results In group A (BD, 55 patients) dilatation was successful in 34 (62%). The dilatation failed or there was a need for re-dilatation using TMD in 21 patients (38%). In one of these 21 patients the dilatation failed due to extravasation. In group B (TMD, 42 patients) dilatation was successful in 38 (90%) patients, with incomplete dilatation and a need for re-dilatation in four (10%) patients, and no failed procedures. Group A had a significantly higher failure rate than group B (P < 0.001). Differences in operative duration, blood loss, stone-removal success rate and complication rate were statistically insignificant. Conclusion BD has a higher failure rate than TMD when establishing access for calyceal stones or staghorn stones that have little space around them. PMID:26413325

  12. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  13. Co-melting technology in resource recycling of sludge derived from stone processing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Shen-Chih; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2012-12-01

    Stone processing sludge (SPS) is a by-product of stone-processing wastewater treatment; it is suitable for use as a raw material for making artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWAs). In this study, boric acid was utilized as a flux to lower sintering temperature. The formation of the viscous glassy phase was observed by DTA curve and changes in XRD patterns. Experiments were conducted to find the optimal combination of sintering temperature, sintering time, and boric acid dosage to produce an ALWA of favorable characteristics in terms of water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, compressive strength and weight loss to satisfy Taiwan's regulatory requirements for construction and insulation materials. Optimal results gave a sintering temperature of 850 degrees C for 15 min at a boric acid dosage of 15% by weight of SPS. Results for ALWA favorable characteristics were: 0.21% (water absorption), 0.35% (apparent porosity), 1.67 g/cm3 (bulk density), 66.94 MPa (compressive strength), and less than 0.1% (weight loss). PMID:23362764

  14. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Glass Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchenau, U.

    Neutron spectra below and above the glass transition temperature show a pronounced difference between strong and fragile glass formers in Angell's fragility scheme. The strong anharmonic increase of the inelastic scattering with increasing temperature in fragile substances is absent in the strongest glass former SiO2. That difference is reflected in the temperature dependence of Brillouin sound velocities above the glass transition. Coherent inelastic neutron scattering data indicate a mixture of sound waves and local modes at the low frequency boson peak. A relation between the fragility and the temperature dependence of the transverse hypersound velocity at the glass temperature is derived.

  15. Two Simple Models of Monoatomic Glass Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapko, Vitaliy; Matyushov, Dmitry; Angell, Austen

    2007-03-01

    Glass formation in one component systems remains a challenge for computer simulations, and therefore most studies to date have been done on binary mixtures. Here we explore the origin of resistance to crystallization of single component systems for two examples: modified silicon potential (Stillinger-Weber model) and Lenard-Jones ellipsoids (Gay-Berne model of liquid crystals). To produce glass formers these potentials were tuned by optimization of the parameter of three-body interaction (for the former) and aspect ratio (for the later). The kinetic properties and the potential energy landscapes of both models are studied.

  16. The visceral fat compartment is independently associated with changes in urine constituent excretion in a stone forming population.

    PubMed

    Fram, Ethan B; Agalliu, Ilir; DiVito, Joseph; Hoenig, David M; Stern, Joshua M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the independent effect of visceral fat on urine constituent excretion in a stone forming population. Using a database of 382 kidney stone patients with available visceral fat quantification, we created multiple linear regression models predicting changes in urinary solutes based on visceral fat area and body mass-index, divided by gender. Chi-square tests were used to compare stone composition by body mass-index and visceral fat area. Visceral fat predicts increases in urinary creatinine, sodium, and volume in men, but only urinary phosphate in women. In women, total body mass-index does not appear to modify this effect, but in men it is more pronounced in overweight patients for creatinine and volume only. Elevated visceral fat is associated with increased probability of uric acid stone composition. Different fat compartments likely effect urine composition in different ways. This effect appears to be different in men and women. Understanding and quantifying the effects of different fat compartments is probably important to understanding the metabolism of urolithiasis. PMID:25903669

  17. A Miniaturized, 1.9F Integrated Optical Fiber and Stone Basket for Use in Thulium Fiber Laser Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher R; Hutchens, Thomas C; Hardy, Luke A; Irby, Pierce B; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2015-10-01

    The thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative laser lithotripter to the standard holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The more uniform beam profile of the TFL enables higher power transmission through smaller fibers. In this study, a 100-μm core, 140-μm outer-diameter (OD) silica fiber with 5-mm length hollow steel tip was integrated with 1.3F (0.433-mm OD) nitinol wire basket to form a 1.9F (0.633-mm OD) device. TFL energy of 30 mJ, 500 μs pulse duration, and 500 Hz pulse rate was delivered to human uric acid stones, ex vivo. Stone ablation rates measured 1.5 ± 0.2 mg/s, comparable to 1.7 ± 0.3 mg/s using bare fiber tips separately with stone basket. With further development, this device may minimize stone retropulsion, allowing more efficient TFL lithotripsy at higher pulse rates. It may also provide increased flexibility, higher saline irrigation rates through the ureteroscope working channel, reduce fiber degradation compared with separate fiber and basket manipulation, and reduce laser-induced nitinol wire damage. PMID:26167738

  18. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK OF THE PARAPET WALL AND REMAINS OF 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  19. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE MASONRY, WING WALL AND WHAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE MASONRY, WING WALL AND WHAT REMAINS OF ORIGINAL WALKWAY RAILING. - Main Street Parker Pony Truss Bridge, Main Street (Route 170) spanning Yellow Creek, Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  20. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 5. Detail, date stone in belt course above keystone, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail, date stone in belt course above keystone, east portal of Tunnel 22, view to southeast, 380mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 22, Milepost 581.85, Oakridge, Lane County, OR

  3. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  4. 38. RECESSED ARCH DETAIL WITH STONE SCONCE ON FRONT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. RECESSED ARCH DETAIL WITH STONE SCONCE ON FRONT OF 1931 SECTION, PROJECTING SIDE BAY, TAKEN FROM THE NORTH. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  5. 1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at corner of Benjamin Carr Farm. Wall moved to current location in 1941-1942. - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  6. Detail of concrete and stone railings on staircase leading from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of concrete and stone railings on staircase leading from Shepperds Dell Bridge to trail. - Shepperds Dell Bridge, Spanning Young Creek at Columbia River Highway, Latourell, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 20. Detail, Pier 3, with large stone riprap showing depth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, Pier 3, with large stone riprap showing depth of scour which has taken place since bridge was completed; view to northwest. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  8. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK AT PETER SKENE OGDEN MEMORIAL PARK - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  9. 5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  10. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK BEAMS, STRINGERS AND DIAGONAL BRACING OF DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  12. 14. DETAIL, TYPICAL CUT STONE MASONRY FACING BLOCKS, AT BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, TYPICAL CUT STONE MASONRY FACING BLOCKS, AT BASE OF BRIDGE, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING MASONS MARKS, MOORING RING, AND PORTION OF SUBMERGED TIMBER GRILLAGE - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Lock 6 Detail of hinge stone with iron straps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 6 - Detail of hinge stone with iron straps and carved completion date (1830) located on ground at southeast corner of lock - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodríguez, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2008-09-01

    The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described. PMID:18160280

  15. Stone retaining wall with telegraph pole along canal, milepost 146 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stone retaining wall with telegraph pole along canal, milepost 146 vicinity, looking northeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  16. TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM BOARD-FACED PARTITION AND ORIGINAL TIMBER STRUCTURE - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  17. Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the Emmanuel Christian Community Church congregation - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Weathering of Stone Monuments in Cities: A Student Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography project for students limited to urban areas. Students investigate the rock-weathering process through library resources, then observe, collect, and analyze data about stone monuments. An individually written report concludes the project. (KC)

  19. 15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME AS SEEN THROUGH SIDE ARCHED OPENING - U.S. Soldiers Home, Scott Building, Rock Creek Church Road & Upshur Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. STONE RETAINING WALL IN CEMETERY CENTER, WITH BIVOUAC OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STONE RETAINING WALL IN CEMETERY CENTER, WITH BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD PLAQUE IN CENTER FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Mackinac Post Cemetery, Mackinac State Park, Mackinac Island, Mackinac County, MI

  1. 4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. EMPIRE TAILING PILE IS VISIBLE IN LOWER CENTER (SLOPE WITH ORE CHUTE IS HIDDEN BY TREES ABOVE TAILINGS), TIP TOP IS VISIBLE IN RIGHT THIRD AND SLIGHTLY UPHILL IN ELEVATION FROM UPPER EMPIRE TAILINGS,(TO LOCATE, FIND THE V-SHAPED SPOT OF SNOW JUST BELOW THE RIDGE LINE ON FAR RIGHT OF IMAGE. TIP TOP BUILDING IS VISIBLE IN THE LIGHT AREA BELOW AND SLIGHTLY LEFT OF V-SHAPED SNOW SPOT), AND STONE CABIN II IS ALSO VISIBLE, (TO LOCATE, USE A STRAIGHT EDGE AND ALIGN WITH EMPIRE TAILINGS. THIS WILL DIRECT ONE THROUGH THE EDGE OF STONE CABIN II, WHICH IS THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE POINT WHERE THE RIDGE LINE TREES STOP). STONE CABIN I IS LOCATED IN GENERAL VICINITY OF THE LONE TREE ON FAR LEFT RIDGE LINE. ... - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  3. Salivary Stone Pneumatic Lithotripsy in a Live Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Walvekar, Rohan R; Hoffman, Henry T; Kolenda, Jack; Hernandez, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic fragmentation and removal of artificial calculi in a live porcine model employing intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy. In this experimental study, 7 submandibular ducts were accessed and artificial calculi placed. A salivary pneumatic lithotripter probe was inserted through an interventional sialendoscope to fragment the calculi. A salivary duct catheter was then used to flush stone fragments, followed by endoscopy to assess complete fragmentation and ductal trauma. Ultimately, 7 artificial stones (3-10 mm, 4F/5F) were successfully fragmented without causing significant endoluminal trauma. Number of pulses for adequate stone fragmentation averaged 20 (range, 5-31). In all cases, stone fragments were successfully flushed out with the salivary duct catheter. Postprocedure endoscopy confirmed ductal integrity in all 7 ducts. While more studies are needed, this preliminary animal model demonstrates efficacy of endoscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for the management of sialolithiasis. PMID:27048662

  4. VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR (ON THE LEFT) AND SOUTH CONVEYOR. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  5. Kidney stones and crushed bones secondary to hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sreejith, G. Nair; Pranab, K. Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a 65-year-old woman with multiple brown tumors and renal stones secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. This case highlights the need for early recognition of parathyroid hyperactivity. PMID:26722166

  6. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  7. 10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS WHICH SUPPORT BRIDGE BEAMS FOR BRIDGE TREES; WEDGES FOR ADJUSTING HEIGHT OF BRIDGE TREE CAN BE SEEN - Shelter Island Windmill, Manwaring Road, Shelter Island, Suffolk County, NY

  8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. Cataract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  9. 41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE SAW (L TO R)-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  10. 12. View of stone work on original section of Armory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of stone work on original section of Armory Street Pump House. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site name and Great Seal of the United States. View looking northeast. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  12. 6. DETAIL OF WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, SHOWING STONE ENTABLATURE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, SHOWING STONE ENTABLATURE AND ENGAGED COLUMNS. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Paper Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. Building D interior, looking south showing same stone wall as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building D interior, looking south showing same stone wall as it attaches to the east wall of Building D - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building D, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW 'HEADS', HEX SIGNS (BLACK AND WHITE COLORS) AND PAINTED SCALLOP PATTERN (ON BOTTOM OF OVERHANG) - Decorated Red Barn, Alburtis, Lehigh County, PA

  15. Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

  16. 9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE NEAR GIANT SLIDE TRAIL MARKER ON AROUND-THE-MOUNTAIN LOOP. - Rockefeller Carriage Roads, Mount Desert Island, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  17. Topological anisotropy of stone-wales waves in graphenic fragments.

    PubMed

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. PMID:22174641

  18. 29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF DAM, USED TO STORE EXPLOSIVES DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSE MESA - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 4. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STONE LINING ON INSIDE BANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STONE LINING ON INSIDE BANKS OF CANAL TROUGH - Erie Canal (Enlarged), Oothout Culvert & Waste Weir, Lock No. 4 vicinity, near Maplewood village, Colonie, Albany County, NY

  1. [Renal stone ileus in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Schieroni, R; Dogliani, M; Acanfora, F; Gandini, G; Poy, F; Borello, G; Sancipriano, G

    2002-10-01

    A peculiar case of intestinal occlusion caused by a renal stone in a patient with nephroduodenal fistula due to previous xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is reported. Only few cases of nephroduodenal fistula are described in the literature, generally as a single case report or in small series. A nephroduodenal fistula as a result of chronic renal inflammatory disease such as xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, is usually associated with renal stones, recurrent urinary tract infections or endocrine disorders. Finally, renal stone as a cause of ileus is an event rarely described in the literature. In the case described, a correct preoperative diagnosis was possible with computerized tomography. During the operation a big renal stone was found and removed from the small bowel, but a limited resection was necessary because of the vascular impairment of the tract. At 8-month follow-up from operation, the patient was in good health, and no symptoms of renal or intestinal diseases were found. PMID:12370672

  2. 79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney mimicking the log cabins of the Southern Appalachians. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  4. 6. TERRACED, STONE RETAINING WALLS BEHIND HOUSE No. 16. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. TERRACED, STONE RETAINING WALLS BEHIND HOUSE No. 16. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  5. Renal stones on portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT: does intravenous contrast interfere with detection?

    PubMed Central

    Dym, R. Joshua; Duncan, Dameon R.; Spektor, Michael; Cohen, Hillel W.; Scheinfeld, Meir H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity of portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT for the detection of renal stones. Methods This retrospective study included 97 CT examinations of the abdomen without and with intravenous contrast, including 85 (87.6%) examinations with at least one renal stone on the “gold standard” noncontrast images, as scored by a single radiologist. Three other radiologists each independently reviewed only the contrast-enhanced images from all 97 examinations and recorded all renal stones. Reviewer sensitivity for stones was categorized by stone diameter. Reviewer sensitivity and specificity for stone disease were also calculated on a per-kidney basis. Results The 97 cases included a total of 238 stones ≥1 mm, with a mean (±SD) of 1.2 ± 1.9 stones per kidney and a stone diameter of 3.5 ± 3.0 mm. Pooling data for the three reviewers, sensitivity for all stones was 81%; sensitivity for stones ≥2, ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5 mm was 88%, 95%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 94% when considering all stones; when considering only stones ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 mm, sensitivity was 96%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. Specificity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 98% overall, 99% when considering only stones ≥2 mm, and 100% when considering only stones ≥3 mm. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced CT is highly sensitive for the detection of renal stones ≥3 mm in diameter and less sensitive for smaller stones. In cases where the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and performance of a CT examination is being contemplated, intravenous contrast utilization would allow assessment for stone disease while also optimizing evaluation for other conditions. PMID:24504541

  6. 25. Otter Creek Bridge #2. View of the stone facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Otter Creek Bridge #2. View of the stone facing common on nearly all concrete box culverts. The stone faced arch mimics rigid frame structures. Culverts were used for a variety of purposes from small stream crossings to grade separation structures for farmers whose land was split by the parkway. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  8. 12. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING GRINDING STONES COVERED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING GRINDING STONES COVERED WITH VATS (RIGHT STONE RUN BY 35' LEFFAL VERTICAL TURBINE; LEFT BY 23' 1EFFAL VERTICAL TURBINE). THE HOPPER ON THE VAT TO THE LEFT FUNNELS THE GRAIN IN. THE CHUTE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTER VAT SENDS GROUND GRAIN TO THE CONVEYOR BELOW. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  9. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  10. Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

  11. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  12. Former ESO DG Adriaan Blaauw Turned 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    On April 12, former ESO DG professor Adriaan Blaauw reached his 90th birthday. Adriaan, together with many friends, family members, colleagues from The Netherlands and abroad, celebrated this occasion on April 17, during an informal get-together at the 19th-century country-mansion Nienoord in Leek, near Groningen.

  13. [The former soldiers becoming first aid trainers].

    PubMed

    Prieur, Joël

    2015-12-01

    The Order of Malta France is organising, through an innovative partnership with the French Army, the training of first aid instructors aimed at former soldiers injured in combat. One soldier, who received multiple wounds in Lebanon in 2011, describes his training experience. PMID:26654504

  14. Assessing Guilt toward the Former Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wietzker, Anne; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Divorce is often accompanied by feelings of guilt toward the former spouse. So far, no scale has been available to measure such feelings. For this purpose, the authors developed the Guilt in Separation Scale (GiSS). Content validity was assured by using experts and lay experts to generate and select items. Exploratory analyses were run on samples…

  15. Marathon Group Therapy with Former Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Mannion, John

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the effects of marathon group therapy on attitudes of former drug users in a residential drug treatment center. Experimental group members responded higher on the group counseling evaluative subscale and lower on the guilt evaluative subscale than control members. (Author)

  16. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  17. 46 CFR 502.32 - Former employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... personal presence at an appearance before the Government on a matter in which the former employee had... particular proceeding. (b) Prior consent for appearance. (1) Prior to making any appearance, representation... Chairman has delegated authority to make an initial decision (hereinafter referred to as “examiner”)....

  18. Socioeconomic Achievements of Former College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Pasacarella, Ernest T.

    1986-01-01

    A causal model is proposed and estimated to assess the relative influence of precollege attributes, institutional characteristics, and academic, social, and career-related collegiate experiences on the socioeconomic achievement of 2,118 former college students over a nine-year period. (Author/MLW)

  19. Second harmonic generation using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves in stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Margaret; Kim, Gun; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly; Jacobs, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    This research tests the potential application of the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) method using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to nondestructively quantify surface microstructural changes in thin stone. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) has been assessed as a meaningful indicator for characterizing the nonlinearity of civil engineering materials; additionally, Rayleigh waves offer the opportunity to isolate a material's near surface microstructural status. Sandstone was selected for testing due to its relative uniformity and small grain size compared to other stone types; the sample thickness was 2 inches to reflect the minimum panel thickness recommended by the Indiana Limestone Institute. For this research, initially fully non-contact generation and detection techniques are evaluated before a 100kHz wedge transmitter and a 200kHz air-coupled receiver are employed for generation and detection of nonlinear Rayleigh waves. Non-contact transmitters and receivers have advantages such as removing the irregularities associated with coupling as well as not leaving residues, which in stone applications can be considered aesthetically damaging. The experimental results show that the nonlinear parameter, β, can be effectively isolated using the wedge transmitter and non-contact set up and that too much of the signal strength is lost in the fully non-contact method to extract meaningful results for this stone and stones with slow wave speeds. This indicates that the proposed SHG technique is effective for evaluating the nonlinearity parameter, β, and can next be applied to characterize near surface microstructural changes in thin applications of dimensioned stone.

  20. The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.

    PubMed

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

  1. A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan B.; Zhong, Pei

    2013-01-01

    A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury. PMID:23927195

  2. The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

  3. Laparoscopic urinary stone surgery: an updated evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios G; Albanis, Stefanos; Assimos, Dean

    2010-10-01

    The treatment of urinary lithiasis has been revolutionized during the last three decades. Minimally invasive therapies in the form of endoscopic surgery in companion with the advent of shock wave lithotripsy have diminished the role of open stone surgery. Laparoscopy, another minimally invasive treatment, is continuously gaining place in the treatment of urinary stones, mainly replacing open surgery. We have tried to identify the level of the evidence and grade of recommendation, according to the evidence-based medicine criteria, in studies supporting the laparoscopic approach to stone extraction. The highest level of evidence (IIa) was found for laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. It is technically feasible with the advantage of being minimally invasive and having lower postoperative morbidity compared to open ureterolithotomy. It is mostly recommended (grade B) for large impacted stones or when endoscopic ureterolithotripsy or shock wave stone disintegration have failed. Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is feasible but rarely indicated in the present era (III/B). Laparoscopic nephrolithotomy may be indicated to remove a stone from an anterior diverticulum or when PNL or flexible ureteroscopy have failed (III/B). PMID:20396871

  4. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  5. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  6. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  7. Imaging of stone disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masselli, Gabriele; Derme, Martina; Laghi, Francesca; Polettini, Elisabetta; Brunelli, Roberto; Framarino, Maria Luisa; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2013-12-01

    Renal colic is the most frequent non-obstetric cause for abdominal pain and subsequent hospitalization during pregnancy. Intervention is necessary in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. Ultrasound (US) is widely used as the first-line diagnostic test in pregnant women with nephrolithiasis, despite it is highly nonspecific and may be unable to differentiate between ureteral obstruction secondary to calculi and physiologic hydronephrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be considered as a second-line test, when US fails to establish a diagnosis and there are continued symptoms despite conservative management. Moreover, MRI is able to differentiate physiologic from pathologic dilatation. In fact in the cases of obstruction secondary to calculi, there is renal enlargement and perinephric edema, not seen with physiological dilatation. In the latter, there is smooth tapering of the middle third of the ureter because of the mass effect between the uterus and adjacent retroperitoneal musculature. When the stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter is seen below this physiological constriction. MRI is also helpful in demonstrating complications such as pyelonephritis. In the unresolved cases, Computed tomography remains a reliable technique for depicting obstructing urinary tract calculi in pregnant women, but it involves ionizing radiation. Nephrolithiasis during pregnancy requires a collaboration between urologists, obstetricians, and radiologists. PMID:23771120

  8. Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Eldon A

    2006-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common: >700,000 cholecystectomies and costs of approximately 6.5 billion dollars annually in the U.S. The burden of disease is epidemic in American Indians (60-70%); a corresponding decrease occurs in Hispanics of mixed Indian origin. Ten to fifteen per cent of white adults in developed countries harbour gallstones. Frequency is further reduced in Black Americans, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, cholesterol gallstones predominate; 15% are black pigment. East Asians develop brown pigment stones in bile ducts, associated with biliary infection or parasites, or in intrahepatic ducts (hepatolithiasis). Certain risk factors for gallstones are immutable: female gender, increasing age and ethnicity/family (genetic traits). Others are modifiable: obesity, the metabolic syndrome, rapid weight loss, certain diseases (cirrhosis, Crohn's disease) and gallbladder stasis (from spinal cord injury or drugs like somatostatin). The only established dietary risk is a high caloric intake. Protective factors include diets containing fibre, vegetable protein, nuts, calcium, vitamin C, coffee and alcohol, plus physical activity. PMID:17127183

  9. EAARL topography: Thomas Stone National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains Lidar-derived topography (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for Thomas Stone National Historic Site in Maryland. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  10. E057: Renal Stone Risk Assessment During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment results in many metabolic and physiological changes to humans. Body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary biochemistry occur as early as flight day 3-4 in the short duration Shuttle crewmembers. Significant decreases were observed both in fluid intake and urinary output. Other significant changes were observed in the urinary pH, calcium, potassium and uric acid levels. During Shuttle missions, the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation increased early in the flight, continued at elevated levels throughout the flight and remained in the increased risk range on landing day. The calcium phosphate risk was significantly increased early in-flight and remained significantly elevated throughout the remainder of the mission. Results from the long duration Shuttle-Mir missions followed a similar trend. Most long duration crewmembers demonstrated increased urinary calcium levels despite lower dietary calcium intake. Fluid intake and urine volumes were significantly lower during the flight than during the preflight. The calcium oxalate risk was increased relative to the preflight levels during the early in-flight period and continued in the elevated risk range for the remainder of the space flight and through two weeks postflight. Calcium phosphate risk for these long duration crewmembers increased during flight and remained in the increased risk range throughout the flight and following landing. The complexity, expense and visibility of the human space program require that every effort be made to protect the health of the crewmembers and ensure the success of the mission. Results from our early investigations clearly indicate that exposure to the microgravity environment of space significantly increases the risk of renal stone formation. The early studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures

  11. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A

  12. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  13. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  14. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  16. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  17. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  18. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012... Retirement Benefits § 838.1012 Death of the former spouse. (a) Unless the qualifying court order expressly... the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee...

  19. How does stone-tool use emerge? Introduction of stones and nuts to naive chimpanzees in captivity.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Misato; Mizuno, Yuu; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-04-01

    Nut-cracking behavior has been reported in several communities in West Africa but not in East and Central Africa. Furthermore, even within nut-cracking communities, there are individuals who do not acquire the skill. The present study aimed to clarify the cognitive capability required for nut-cracking behavior and the process through which the the nut-cracking behavior emerges. To examine emergence, we provided three naive adult chimpanzees with a single opportunity to observe human models. A human tester demonstrated nut-cracking behavior using a pair of stones and then supplied stones and nuts to the chimpanzee subjects. Two out of three chimpanzees proceeded to hit a nut on an anvil stone using a hammer stone, one of whom succeeded in cracking open the nuts during the first test session. The third chimpanzee failed to crack open nuts. We used four variables (object, location, body part used, and action) to describe stone/nut manipulation in order to analyze further the patterns of object manipulation exhibited by the subjects. The analysis revealed that there were three main difficulties associated with nut-cracking behavior. (1) The chimpanzee who failed at the task never showed hitting action. (2) The chimpanzee who failed at the task manipulated nuts but rarely stones. (3) The combination of three objects was not commonly observed in the three chimpanzees. We also discuss our results with reference to the effect of enculturation in captivity and the social context of learning in the wild. PMID:15378423

  20. Thickness effect on flexural strength of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola; Castelletto, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Few scientific works deal with size effect on mechanical resistance in the case of stone, but for the concrete size effect has been widely verified. In fact, the stone size effect is not always ruled by well-known statistical laws as Weibull because of the intrinsic complex structure and features of the materials analysed. Previous studies on natural stone size effect have been made mainly taking into account compression strength. However, flexural strength test under concentrated load, according EN12372, is applied to assess the mechanical resistance of stone and it is well correlated with the petrographic properties of stone. For this reason, to further investigate the size effect on stone , this research analyses the variation of mechanical resistance in relation to thickness of the specimens, taking into account the petrographic characteristics (mineralogical composition, heterogeneity, anisotropy, porosity)of different kinds of rock. From previous studies on 15 different stones (Bellopede et al. 2015) it was observed a negligible values variation for different thickness and a data scattering caused by: intrinsic properties (porosity and structure), defects distribution (fractures, cracks, voids), heterogeneity characterizing each specimen. According to EN 12372:2006, the suggested dimensions for the determination of flexural strength under concentrated load are 50x50x300mm. Other dimensions are possible, but the following requirement need to be fulfilled. The thickness should be minimum 25mm and maximum 100 mm, the width should be within 50 mm and 3 times the thickness and the distance between the supporting rollers span should be 5 times the thickness. In this research, in order to further investigate the thickness effect even in relation with the stone structure and heterogeneity, eight different stones have been tested: four with anisotropic features and four homogeneous. The distance between the support knife was equal to 2/3 to specimens length. The