Science.gov

Sample records for acid storage battery

  1. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  2. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  3. Snap-through anti-ignition vent cap for lead acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, E.M.; Heiser, J.I.

    1980-11-11

    A vented battery cap is provided which is adapted to engage at least one of a plurality of fill holes in an automotive storage battery or similar lead acid battery and which has pressure release means for venting the combustible gases produced within that storage battery under conditions such as overcharge conditions into the atmosphere. The cap itself is comprised of substantially two portions, a base member which fits into at least one of the fill holes and a top member which snap-fits through the base member. The pressure release means comprises a plurality of extremely narrow slits on both the top and underside of the cap which have widths in the order of 0.003 to 0.005 of an inch. The remainder of the battery cap is tightly sealed to prevent any extraneous leaks of battery gases received from the automotive battery from leaking into the atmosphere. The slits are so constructed to facilitate the safe expulsion of any volume of gas normally produced by an automotive storage battery, while virtually eliminating the likelihood that ignition of gases within the atmosphere will result in explosive consequences either within the battery cap or within the battery itself.

  4. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  5. Battery energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  6. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1269, in the Federal Register on March 12, 2013 (78 FR 15753), for a... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  7. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  8. An analytical study of a lead-acid flow battery as an energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alex; Mukerjee, Santanu; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, Dong-Ha; Park, Sam

    2014-03-01

    The most important issue with our current clean energy technology is the dependence on environmental conditions to produce power. To solve this problem a wide range of energy storage devices are being explored for grid-scale energy storage including soluble lead-acid flow batteries. Flow batteries offer a unique solution to grid-scale energy storage because of their electrolyte tanks which allow easy scaling of storage capacity. This study seeks to further understand the mechanisms of a soluble lead acid flow battery using simulations. The effects of varies changes to operating conditions and the system configuration can be explored through simulations. The simulations preformed are 2D and include the positive electrode, negative electrode, and the flow space between them. Simulations presented in this study show Pb(II) surface concentration, external electric potential, and PbO/PbO2 surface concentration on the positive electrode. Simulations have shown increasing cell temperature can increase external electric potential by as much as 0.2 V during charge. Simulations have also shown electrolyte velocity is an important aspect when investigating lead deposition onto the electrodes. Experimental work was performed to validate simulation results of current density and voltage. Good correlation was found between experimental work and simulation results.

  9. Storage battery market: profiles and trade opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonfer, D.

    1985-04-01

    The export market for domestically produced storage batteries is a modest one, typically averaging 6 to 7% of domestic industry shipments. Exports in 1984 totalled about $167 million. Canada and Mexico were the largest export markets for US storage batteries in 1984, accounting for slightly more than half of the total. The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands round out the top five export markets. Combined, these five markets accounted for two-thirds of all US exports of storage batteries in 1984. On a regional basis, the North American (Canada), Central American, and European markets accounted for three-quarters of total storage battery exports. Lead-acid batteries accounted for 42% of total battery exports. Battery parts followed lead-acid batteries with a 29% share. Nicad batteries accounted for 16% of the total while other batteries accounted for 13%.

  10. Storage battery systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

  11. Vehicle storage battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, B.I.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a vehicle storage battery system. Included in this system is a storage battery which has three separate storage battery portions. The main battery portion has a capacity for starting the vehicle under normal circumstances. The first and second standby portions of the battery when connected in a series have a rated capacity sufficient to transfer enough charge to the main battery portion when in a discharged state to start the engine of the vehicle. Another integral component of the system is a battery control having a circuit for connecting the two standby portions in series for charging the main battery portion when it is in a discharged state. This circuit also includes a means for restricting a charging current flow from the standby portions to the main portion to a predetermined safe level. An analogous circuit connects the standby portions in parallel for recharging from the main battery portion with a means for restricting a recharge current flow to a predetermined safe level. The last component is a switch means to switch between the above circuits.

  12. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  13. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  14. Nonlinear phenomenon in monocrystalline silicon based PV module for low power system: Lead acid battery for low energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amrani, A.; El Amraoui, M.; El Abbassi, A.; Messaoudi, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, we report the indoor photo-electrical measurements of monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic (PV) module associated with 4 Ah lead acid battery as a storage unit for low power PV system applications. Concerning the PV module, our measurements show, at low illumination regime, that the short circuit current ISC increases linearly with the illumination power levels. Moreover, for high illumination levels, the mechanism of bimolecular recombination and space charge limitation may be intensified and hence the short current of the PV module ISCMod depends sublinearly on the incident optical power; the behavior is nonlinear. For the open circuit voltage of the PV module VOCMod measurements, a linear variation of the VOCMod versus the short circuit current in semi-logarithmic scale has been noticed. The diode ideality factor n and diode saturation current Is have been investigated; the values of n and Is are approximately of 1.3 and 10-9 A, respectively. In addition, we have shown, for different discharging-charging currents rates (i.e. 0.35 A, 0.2 A and 0.04 A), that the battery voltage decreases with discharging time as well as discharging battery capacity, and on the other hand it increases with the charging time and will rise up until it maximized value. The initial result shows the possibility to use such lead acid battery for low power PV system, which is generally designed for the motorcycle battery.

  15. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems.

  16. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process. PMID:23859360

  17. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  18. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  19. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  20. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  1. Quick release storage battery closure assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, R.R.

    1984-10-16

    A quick release storage battery closure assembly for removably engaging the inspection opening defining bosses on a storage battery, the one that replaces the individual caps that normally are used for closing the inspection openings. The closure assembly is particularly adapted for use where the storage batteries are arranged as a group, such as on a golf cart or industrial vehicle.

  2. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  3. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  4. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  5. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  6. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  7. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  8. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  9. Multi-cell storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Brohm, Thomas; Bottcher, Friedhelm

    2000-01-01

    A multi-cell storage battery, in particular to a lithium storage battery, which contains a temperature control device and in which groups of one or more individual cells arranged alongside one another are separated from one another by a thermally insulating solid layer whose coefficient of thermal conductivity lies between 0.01 and 0.2 W/(m*K), the thermal resistance of the solid layer being greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell. The individual cell is connected, at least in a region free of insulating material, to a heat exchanger, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger in the direction toward the neighboring cell being selected to be greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell and, in addition, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger toward the temperature control medium being selected to be smaller by at least a factor of about 10 than the thermal resistance of the individual cell, and .lambda. being the ratio of the energy content of the individual cell to the amount of energy that is needed to trigger a thermally induced cell failure at a defined upper operating temperature limit.

  10. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  11. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  12. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  13. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  14. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  15. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  16. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  17. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  18. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  19. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  20. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  1. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven; Nelson, Austin; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  2. Electrolyte for lead plate storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.

    1981-01-13

    An electrolyte for lead plate storage battery is disclosed comprising selenic acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) in aqueous solution at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.3 grams to approximately 4.0 grams of selenic acid per liter of electrolyte; the preferred embodiment of said electrolyte containing additional material selected from the group consisting of ferrous sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/) at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.1 grams to approximately 8.0 grams per liter of electrolyte, sodium chloride (NaCl) at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.1 grams to approximately 4.0 grams per liter of electrolyte, and manganous sulfate (MnSO/sub 4/) at concentrations ranging from approximately 005 grams to approximately 0.1 grams per liter of electrolyte.

  3. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  4. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  5. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  6. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  7. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  8. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  9. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Holden, L. S.; May, G. J.; Newnham, R. H.; Peters, K.

    Given the growing importance of valve-regulated lead/acid technology in many existing and emerging market areas, an expert panel was assembled at the Sixth Asian Battery Conference to answer questions from delegates on various technical and operational aspects of such batteries. Key issues included: advantantages; performance and reliability; thermal runaway; and failure modes. The interaction between the audience and the panel was both vigorous and informative. Overwhelmingly, it was agreed that valve-regulated technology has come of age and offers a dynamic solution to many of the world's energy-storage requirements and opportunities.

  10. Bipolar Membranes for Acid Base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Roddecha, Supacharee; Jorne, Jacob; Coughlan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries can provide grid-scale electricity storage to match power generation with consumption and promote renewable energy sources. Flow batteries offer modular and flexible design, low cost per kWh and high efficiencies. A novel flow battery concept will be presented based on acid-base neutralization where protons (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions react electrochemically to produce water. The large free energy of this highly reversible reaction can be stored chemically, and, upon discharge, can be harvested as usable electricity. The acid-base flow battery concept avoids the use of a sluggish oxygen electrode and utilizes the highly reversible hydrogen electrode, thus eliminating the need for expensive noble metal catalysts. The proposed flow battery is a hybrid of a battery and a fuel cell---hydrogen gas storing chemical energy is produced at one electrode and is immediately consumed at the other electrode. The two electrodes are exposed to low and high pH solutions, and these solutions are separated by a hybrid membrane containing a hybrid cation and anion exchange membrane (CEM/AEM). Membrane design will be discussed, along with ion-transport data for synthesized membranes.

  11. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  16. Batteries for storage of wind-generated energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Cost effectiveness characteristics of conventional-, metal gas-, and high energy alkali metal-batteries for wind generated energy storage are considered. A lead-acid battery with a power density of 20 to 30 watt/hours per pound is good for about 1500 charge-discharge cycles at a cost of about $80 per kilowatt hour. A zinc-chlorine battery that stores chlorine as solid chlorine hydrate at temperatures below 10 C eliminates the need to handle gaseous chlorine; its raw material cost are low and inexpensive carbon can be used for the chlorine electrode. This system has the best chance to replace lead-acid. Exotic alkali metal batteries are deemed too costly at the present stage of development.

  17. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  18. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the

  19. Overview of the US Department of Energy Utility Battery Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.; Akhil, A.; Butler, P.C.; Hurwitch, J.

    1993-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories and its contractors. This program is specifically aimed at developing battery energy storage systems for electric utility applications commencing in the mid to late 1990s. One factory-integrated utility battery system and three battery technologies: sodium/sulfur, zinc/bromine, and lead-acid are being developed under this program. In the last few years the emphasis of this program has focused on battery system development. This emphasis has included greater interactions with utilities to define application requirements. Recent activities have identified specific applications of battery energy storage in certain utility systems and quantified the value of these applications to these utility companies. In part due to these activities, battery energy storage is no longer regarded by utilities as a load-leveling resource only, but as a multifunction, energy management resource.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75761, December 2, 2011. (a) Each storage battery must be designed...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  5. Energy storage: Redox flow batteries go organic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vince

    2016-03-01

    The use of renewable resources as providers to the electrical grid is hampered by the intermittent and irregular nature in which they generate energy. Electrical energy storage technology could provide a solution and now, by using an iterative design process, a promising anolyte for use in redox flow batteries has been developed.

  6. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to

  7. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  8. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  9. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A sealed, low maintenance battery (10, 100) is formed of a casing (14, 102) having a sealed lid (12, 104) enclosing cell compartments (22, 110) formed by walls (24, 132). The cells comprise a stack (26) of horizontally disposed negative active plates (30) and positive active plates (28) interspersed with porous, resilient separator sheets (30). Each plate has a set of evenly spaced tigs (40, 41) disposed on one side thereof; like polarity tigs being disposed on one side and opposite polarity tigs on the other. Columns of tigs are electrically and mechanically joined by vertical bus bars (46). The bus bars contain outwardly projecting arms (56) of opposite polarity which are electrically joined at each partition wall (24) to electrically connect the cells in series. The stack is compressed by biasing means such as resilient pad (58) attached to the lid or by joining the tigs (52) to the post (48) at a distance less than the thickness of the mat (124). The end bus bars (46) are joined to straps (60, 62) which connect to the terminals (16, 18). The negative plates contain more capacity than the positive plates and the starved electrolyte imbibed in the separator sheets permits pressurized operation during which oxygen diffuses through the separator sheet to the negative plate where it recombines. Excess pressure is relieved through the vent and pressure relief valve (20).

  10. Overview of Sandia's storage battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Grothaus, K. R.

    The primary mission of Sandia National Laboratories is the design and development of the non-nuclear components and systems for nuclear weapons. To a lesser degree, Sandia is also involved in a variety of other programs; such as, energy projects with the Department of Energy, conventional military projects with the Department of Defense, and nuclear waste management and reactor safety with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Over the years, Sandia has evolved a considerable expertise in the areas of specialty primary, reserve, and more recently, secondary battery systems. This paper focuses on the status of the storage or secondary battery programs. These programs are divided into those battery systems being developed for energy applications and those being developed for military applications.

  11. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  12. Failure modes of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpin, B.; Rand, D. A. J.

    The delivery and storage of electrical energy in lead/acid batteries via the conversion of lead dioxide and lead to, and from, lead sulphate is deceptively simple. In fact, battery performance depends upon the cell design, the materials of construction, a complex interplay between the multitudinous parameters involved in plate preparation, the chemical composition/structure of the active materials, and the duty/conditions of battery operation. It is not surprising, therefore, that the factors responsible for the degradation of battery performance, and eventual failure, are many and varied. Apart from occasional field surveys of automotive batteries in the U.S.A., comprehensive failure analyses of units removed from service are rarely published. In general, the information is kept proprietary, or appears as a post mortem report that is subsidiary to some other topic of interest. By contrast, the literature abounds with detailed laboratory investigations of phenomena that are likely to contribute, wholly or in part, to the demise of batteries. In broad terms, this review draws together the fragmented and scattered data presently available on the failure mechanisms of lead/acid batteries in order to provide a platform for further exploration of the phenomena, and for the planning of remedial strategies. The approach taken is to classify, first, the different lead/acid technologies in terms of required duty (i.e., float, cycling and automotive applications), unit design (i.e., flat or tubular plate, flooded or immobilized electrolyte), and grid alloy (i.e., leadantimony or leadcalcium system). A distinction is then made between catastrophic failure, as characterized by a sudden inability of the battery to function, and progressive failure, as demonstrated by some more subtle deviation from optimum performance. Catastrophic failure is attributed to incorrect cell design, poor manufacturing practice, abuse, or misuse. These problems are obvious and, accordingly

  13. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  14. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  15. Prospects for lead-acid batteries in the new millenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razelli, Eugenio

    The European lead-acid battery industry has been adversely affected by the collapse of the telecommunications and information technology expansion of the last several years and by general economic conditions in other sectors. This has had a substantial effect on the industrial battery market, particularly standby batteries, but the automotive business has been less affected. The industry has reacted to these continuing changes by consolidation and specialisation within the different sectors but this alone is insufficient to ensure future success. The industry faces significant challenges to improve efficiencies through better manufacturing systems, but the development of new products for both existing and future applications is the greater priority. Advanced automotive batteries for Powernet applications and for hybrid electric vehicles, new types of standby and traction batteries and improvements to automotive batteries can all be achieved with lead-acid technology. This is a system with enormous potential for further improvement building on current strengths. This is a challenge to which the industry must respond in order to underpin the lead-acid battery as the most important electrical energy storage system.

  16. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  17. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  18. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  20. Electrical characterization of the Magellan batteries after storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Perrone, D.; Distefano, Sal; Timmerman, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Two 22 cell batteries designed by Martin Marietta were tested. The batteries were rated at 26.5 Amp-Hr. The battery design is characterized by the following: Gates Aerospace 42B030AB15, 11 pos/12 neg, Pellon 2536 separator, passivated pos/teflonated neg. The tests can be summarized as follows: (1) no noticeable capacity loss after storage period; and (2) batteries exhibited larger non-uniformity of cell voltages during constant current charge.

  1. Lead-acid battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.

  2. Additive for electrolyte of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.M.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a lead-acid storage battery containing as an electrolyte for each cell, an aqueous sulfuric acid solution containing an activating amount of an additive comprising a mixture of an iron chelate and a magnesium salt or chelate. The chelates for the iron and magnesium are formed from the chelating agents which form 4 to 6 membered rings with the iron and magnesium and which contain a member of the group consisting of amine groups, phenol groups and aldehyde groups.

  3. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  4. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  5. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  6. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  7. The UltraBattery-A new battery design for a new beginning in hybrid electric vehicle energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A.; Furakawa, J.; Lam, L.; Kellaway, M.

    The UltraBattery, developed by CSIRO Energy Technology in Australia, is a hybrid energy storage device which combines an asymmetric super-capacitor and a lead-acid battery in single unit cells. This takes the best from both technologies without the need for extra, expensive electronic controls. The capacitor enhances the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer during high-rate discharging and charging, thus enabling it to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The initial performance of the prototype UltraBatteries was evaluated according to the US FreedomCAR targets and was shown to meet or exceed these in terms of power, available energy, cold cranking and self-discharge set for both minimum and maximum power-assist hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other laboratory cycling tests showed a fourfold improvement over previous state-of-the-art lead-acid batteries under the RHOLAB test profile and better life than commercial nickel/metal hydride (NiMH) cells used in a Honda Insight when tested under the EUCAR HEV profile. As a result of this work, a set of twelve 12 V modules was built by The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd. in Japan and were fitted into a Honda Insight instead of the NiMH battery by Provector Ltd. The battery pack was fitted with full monitoring and control capabilities and the car was tested at Millbrook Proving Ground under a General Motors road test simulation cycle for an initial target of 50 000 miles which was extended to 100 000 miles. This was completed on 15th January 2008 without any battery problems. Furthermore, the whole test was completed without the need for any conditioning or equalisation of the battery pack.

  8. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  9. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  10. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future. PMID:26996438

  11. Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Bruce; Kamath, Haresh; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-18

    The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage. PMID:22096188

  12. 30. Lower level, back up, shockmounted storage batteries, front and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Lower level, back up, shock-mounted storage batteries, front and top, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. 29. Lower level, back up, shockmounted storage batteries, front, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Lower level, back up, shock-mounted storage batteries, front, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. The development of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Szymborski, J.; Jungst, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Technical advances in lead-acid battery design have created new opportunities for battery systems in telecommunications, computer backup power and vehicle propulsion power. Now the lead-acid battery has the opportunity to become a major element in the mix of technologies used by electric utilities for several power quality and energy and resource management functions within the network. Since their introduction into industrial applications, Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries have received widespread acceptance and use in critical telecommunications and computer installations, and have developed over 10 years of reliable operational history. As further enhancements in performance, reliability and manufacturing processes are made, these VRLA batteries are expanding the role of battery-based energy storage systems within utility companies portfolios. This paper discusses the rationale and process of designing, optimizing and testing VRLA batteries for specific utility application requirements.

  15. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  16. The effects of lead sulfate on new sealed lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cleland, M J; Maloney, J P; Rowe, B H

    2000-04-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) rely on batteries to power external cardiac defibrillators. While maintenance protocols should be followed to ensure that batteries possess adequate capacity to power their defibrillator, they are not often applied to new batteries. This study examines the effects of prolonged storage on sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries, the number of batteries that are affected by lead sulfate, and the ability of a protocol to restore the capacity in SLA batteries. A prospective cohort of new batteries was subjected to testing and discharge protocols. Initial battery capacities were measured using a battery analyzer. An "over-discharge" protocol fully discharged the battery over a 24-h period, and batteries were recharged and reanalyzed. Capacity measurements were repeated twice. Sulfate buildup was defined a priori as final capacity measurements greater than predischarge measurements. There were 126 batteries studied, a mean of 14 months after manufacture. Overall, 47 batteries (36.5%) had measured capacity that was insufficient (< 65% capacity). Batteries possessing very low initial capacities (< 55%) responded with a significant improvement on average of 54.7% compared with batteries within a normal capacity range (> 65%) whose average improvement was 9.3%. After discharge, there was an average of 17% improvement in the measured capacity, with no differences in the final capacity readings in each battery type. In conclusion, sealed lead acid batteries are affected by prolonged storage. The loss of capacity created by accumulation of lead sulfate can be reversed if battery maintenance protocols are used as part of EMS quality assurance programs. PMID:10729667

  17. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints. PMID:26262660

  18. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-01-01

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg−1, close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times). PMID:26365600

  19. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-01-01

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation "beyond-lithium" battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new "multivalent ion" battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), or La(3+) ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni(2+) ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni(2+) ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg(-1), close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times). PMID:26365600

  20. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-01

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg-1, close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  1. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  2. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  3. Design and commissioning of a valve-regulated lead/acid battery energy-storage system for backing up critical environmental loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    Momentary and sustained electrical power interruptions and voltage depressions represent two of the most difficult and important power quality and delivery problems that face many industrial and commercial users. There is a definite need at many industrial processing plants and commercial users of electrical power to have a dependable, efficient and controllable source of real and reactive power that is available instantly to support large electrical loads (greater than 5 MVA), even if the incoming utility a.c. connection is lost. When power is interrupted or lost, the results can be extremely disruptive for critical processes and cause lost production, costly downtime and loss of customer good will, and in certain industries, can lead to environmental damage through the release of toxic emissions into the air. Recently, this challenge was faced by GNB Technologies at its lead reclaiming and smelting facility in Vernon, CA, USA. This study describes a versatile, cost-effective, workable solution to the problem that has resulted in the design and installation of a 5 MVA, 3.5 MWh battery energy storage system (BESS) which provides uninterruptible power to the critical environmental control equipment throughout the plant. The BESS at Vernon provides the required power, combined with both voltage and frequency control, to allow the plant to tolerate disconnection from the utility grid without suffering unacceptable impacts on critical loads. The system also provides the company with a demand-side energy management system for conducting daily peak shaving of energy demand and, thereby, reduces its electrical bills.

  4. Gas and liquid tight pole seal for electric storage batteries, particularly lead storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Iblmann, J.; Gummelt, K.

    1985-06-11

    A hermetic pole seal for lead storage batteries which averts the customary use of lead sleeves, involves a first ring-shaped molding surrounding the pole shaft with a rubber-elastic synthetic plastic (thermoplastic rubber) and a second molding covering the former with a less elastic synthetic, which is preferably identical to the case material (e.g. polypropylene), followed by mirror welding to the lid. The sealing of the pole lead-through results from material shrinkage following the molding. In so doing, the different plastics mesh from opposite sides.

  5. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  6. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  7. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore » electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  8. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueous electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.

  9. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Newmiller, Jeff; Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  10. Battery energy storage and superconducting magnetic energy storage for utility applications: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Butler, P.; Bickel, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management for an objective comparison of the merits of battery energy storage with superconducting magnetic energy storage technology for utility applications. Conclusions are drawn regarding the best match of each technology with these utility application requirements. Staff from the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program and the superconductivity Programs at Sandia National contributed to this effort.

  11. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  12. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Larcher, D; Tarascon, J-M

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed. PMID:25515886

  13. Recycling of waste lead storage battery by vacuum methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deqiang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-07-01

    Waste lead storage battery is the most important recyclable lead material not only in various European and other OECD countries but also in China. Pollution control of lead has become the focus of people's attention in the world. A vacuum process for recycling waste lead storage battery was developed in this work. The experimental results showed that all the valuable materials in waste lead storage battery could be satisfactorily recycled by vacuum technologies. The vacuum melting of lead grids and the vacuum reduction of lead pastes produce the lead bullion with the direct recovery ratio of 96.29% and 98.98%, respectively. The vacuum pyrolysis of plastics can produce pyrolysis oil with yield of more than 93 wt.%. These vacuum recycling technologies offer improvements in metallurgical and environmental performance. PMID:21419616

  14. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, D.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with gelled electrolyte appeared as a niche market during the 1950s. During the 1970s, when glass-fiber felts became available as a further method to immobilize the electrolyte, the market for VRLA batteries expanded rapidly. The immobilized electrolyte offers a number of obvious advantages including the internal oxygen cycle which accommodates the overcharging current without chemical change within the cell. It also suppresses acid stratification and thus opens new fields of application. VRLA batteries, however, cannot be made completely sealed, but require a valve for gas escape, since hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion are unavoidable secondary reactions. These reactions result in water loss, and also must be balanced in order to ensure proper charging of both electrodes. Both secondary reactions have significant activation energies, and can reduce the service life of VRLA batteries, operated at elevated temperature. This effect can be aggravated by the comparatively high heat generation caused by the internal oxygen cycle during overcharging. Temperature control of VRLA batteries, therefore, is important in many applications.

  15. Developments in lead/acid stationary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, Don

    1993-05-01

    Valve-regulated designs of the lead/acid system are securing significant shares of the markets for stationary batteries. This paper discusses the major problems that have been encountered with the introduction of valve-generated technology. Areas that have provided particular difficulties include: (1) acid leakage (container-cover, post-seal and vent leaks); (2) adverse effects of ripple current; (3) variations in float voltage, and (4) initial value of recharge current.

  16. Stibine/arsine emissions from lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Cook, G. M.; Yao, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Antimonial lead alloys, which also contain some arsenic, have traditionally been used for the fabrication of lead-acid battery electrodes. The possible generation of arsine and stibine during battery operation must be considered in the development of batteries for electric vehicles, utility load-leveling, and solar electricity storage. Research on generation of arsine and stibine is summarized, and exposure limits are given. Published analytical procedures for determination of arsine and stibine and their sensitivities are discussed. The design and testing of a stibine/arsine monitoring field kit are described. A hydrogen-oxygen recombination device can recombine stoichiometric H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ with about 97% efficiency while scavenging the charge gas of much of the SbH/sub 3/ and AsH/sub 3/; its principles are illustrated. Experiments to estimate exposure of drivers to AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/ from lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles are under way. 4 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  17. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  18. Recent developments in lead-acid battery technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, K.

    1987-12-01

    Japan ranks second to the US in the free world in battery manufacturing. This is a result of the rapid growth in production volume resulting from quick acceleration of equipment investment and manpower reduction to meet the market demand. It has also gotten closer to the development activities to open new markets for battery applications, since the lead-acid battery industry has been bolstered and has benefited from the explosion in demand and production within recent years. Keeping pace with a wide diversity of customized requirements, a demanding schedule has been started in order to promote high-energy-density lead-acid battery development. This article reviews the battery situation in Japan in sections devoted to the following: automotive lead-acid batteries; industrial lead-acid batteries; electric-vehicle batteries; and load-leveling batteries. 9 references, 7 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Computer aided design of a bipolar lead/acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong

    Statistical design of experiments, coupled with the proprietary mathematical lead/acid model of Johnson Controls, Inc., were used to derive the design of a very high power bipolar lead/acid battery for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The effects of some battery component factors and discharge rate on the battery performance, predicted by the lead/acid model, were evaluated. The strategy to derive the optimum battery design, the roles of each battery component, limitations of the system, and the directions to improve the battery performance are discussed.

  20. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.

    2014-05-07

    The current electric grid is an inefficient system that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage systems (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage system. Battery management systems (BMS) control how the storage system will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage system. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, system architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-scale applications is outlined.

  1. Magnesium-Antimony Liquid Metal Battery for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bradwell, DJ; Kim, H; Sirk, AHC; Sadoway, DR

    2012-02-01

    Batteries are an attractive option for grid: scale energy storage applications because of their small footprint and flexible siting. A high-temperature (700 degrees C) magnesium antimony (MgllSb) liquid metal battery comprising a negative electrode of Mg, a molten salt electrolyte (MgCL2-KCl-NaCl), and a positive electrode of Sb is proposed and characterized. Because of the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases, they stratify by density into three distinct layers. Cells were cycled at rates ranging from 50 to 200 mA/cm(2) and demonstrated up to 69% DC-DC energy efficiency. The self-segregating nature of the battery components and the use Of low-cost materials results in a promising technology for stationary energy storage applications.

  2. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  3. Status of the lead/acid battery industry in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Richard

    Since 1985, the marked appreciation of the Taiwanese currency has exerted a strong influence on the local lead/acid battery industry. In particular, imports of automotive and motorcycle batteries have risen steadily. By contrast, there has been a significant increase in the production of small sealed batteries. The battery industry has recognized the need both to satisfy new environmental requirements and to invest in advanced equipment for battery manufacture.

  4. Progress in electrochemical storage for battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.; Hennigan, T. J.; Palandati, C. F.; Cohn, E.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to improve electrochemical systems for space use relate to: (1) improvement of conventional systems; (2) development of fuel cells to practical power systems; and (3) a search for new systems that provide gains in energy density but offer comparable life and performance as conventional systems. Improvements in sealed conventional systems resulted in the areas of materials, charge control methods, cell operations and battery control, and specific process controls required during cell manufacture. Fuel-cell systems have been developed for spacecraft but the use of these power plants is limited. For present and planned flights, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium systems will be used. Improvements in nickel-cadmium batteries have been applied in medical and commercial areas.

  5. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  6. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  7. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Baker, Frederick S.; Armstrong, Beth L.

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  8. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  9. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  10. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  11. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  12. Hybrid energy storage: the merging of battery and supercapacitor chemistries.

    PubMed

    Dubal, D P; Ayyad, O; Ruiz, V; Gómez-Romero, P

    2015-04-01

    The hybrid approach allows for a reinforcing combination of properties of dissimilar components in synergic combinations. From hybrid materials to hybrid devices the approach offers opportunities to tackle much needed improvements in the performance of energy storage devices. This paper reviews the different approaches and scales of hybrids, materials, electrodes and devices striving to advance along the diagonal of Ragone plots, providing enhanced energy and power densities by combining battery and supercapacitor materials and storage mechanisms. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects are considered regarding the possible hybrid combinations and tactics for the fabrication of optimized final devices. All of it aiming at enhancing the electrochemical performance of energy storage systems. PMID:25623995

  13. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  14. Lead-acid battery performance and technology in commercial electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weinlein, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The lead-acid battery system is promoted for energy storage in electric vehicles for these reasons: the industry is in place, it has the lowest material costs, it is recyclable, it has demonstrated the greatest performance improvements, and it has had more field experience than other batteries. Globe Battery has demonstrated its ability to meet state-of-the-art standards set by Argonne Laboratories in a recent program. The design approach included computerized battery modelling, use of lightweight materials, extensive internal insulation, a single-point watering and venting system, and a unique electrolyte circulation system. The water venting minimizes high electrolyte specific gravities. The electrolyte circulation eliminates a condition known as electrolyte stratification. With these improvements the lead-acid battery is again proving itself to be a tough competitor.

  15. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  16. A universial gas absorber for sealed alkaline storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tsenter, B.I.; Laurenov, V.M.

    1986-02-01

    The authors describe a universal gas absorber for all types of sealed alkaline storage batteries. The absorber is illustrated and consists of matrix-type nickel-gas cells which are connected in series, have a common gas compartment, and are electrolytically insulated from each other. The gas electrode of the nickel gas cell is bifunctional; it functions in oxygen ionization and in hydrogen ionization. The solid-phase nickel-oxide electrode is a powder-metallurgical design. Absorbers of the present type are universal, both in the sense that they will absorb oxygen, hydrogen, or a mixture of these gases, and in the sense that they can be used for sealed alkaline storage batteries of any type.

  17. Composite electrode for storage batteries and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, P.

    1980-09-16

    A metal/synthetic-resin composite electrode for a storage battery or the like is comprised of a perforate metal support which is flanked on both sides by openworks of polyolefin, e.g., partially fluorinated polyolefin, which are welded together within the openings of the support and carry the active material. The polyolefin openworks, together with the active material, are covered in turn with polyester fabric or polyester felt permeable fine porous cover layers.

  18. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  19. Relativity and the lead-acid battery.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Blomqvist, Andreas; Larsson, Peter; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V of this standard voltage arise from relativistic effects, mainly from PbO2 but also from PbSO4. PMID:21231773

  20. Automotive lead/acid battery separators: a global overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, W.

    This paper describes the present status and the future trends for separators for automotive lead/acid batteries. During the past decade, the design of modern automotive batteries has undergone a fundamental change. Whereas in 1980 almost all batteries used leaf separators, nowadays already two-thirds of the batteries produced worldwide have microporous polyethylene pocket separators. The extent of this conversion is quantified for the geographical regions. The impetus behind the change, as well as the future development trends, are outlined.

  1. Second Use of PEV Batteries: A Massive Storage Resource for Revolutionizing the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Wood, Eric; Smith, Kandler

    2015-05-27

    The market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are both presently impeded by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies-in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market-could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary repurposed PEV batteries to serve grid applications for energy storage. The authors view this as of significant importance, as our expectation is that such batteries will be both cheap and plentiful. Understanding the dynamics of B2U will be important for customers and utilities in need of storage to understand when and where such batteries will be applicable. It will also be important for suppliers of other energy storage technologies, as repurposed PEV batteries could pose a significant threat to their business model.

  2. Development of new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  3. Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, R. A.; Arnold, C., Jr.

    Zinc/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/bromine battery is that modest amounts of bromine and negatively charged bromine moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced bromine permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance.

  4. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  5. Transition from supercapacitor to battery behavior in electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, B.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    In this paper the storage of electrochemical energy in battery, supercapacitor, and double-layer capacitor devices is considered. A comparison of the mechanisms and performance of such systems enables their essential features to be recognized and distinguished, and the conditions for transition between supercapacitor and battery behavior to be characterized. Supercapacitor systems based on two-dimensional underpotential deposition reactions are highly reversible and their behavior arises from the pseudocapaccitance associated with potential-dependence of two-dimensional coverage of electroactive adatoms on an electrode substrate surface. Such capacitance can be 10-100 times the double-layer capacitance of the same electrode area. An essential fundamental difference from battery behavior arises because, in such systems, the chemical and associated electrode potentials are a continuous function of degree of charge, unlike the thermodynamic behavior of single-phase battery reactants. Quai-two-dimensional systems, such as hyperextended hydrous RuP{sub 2}, also exhibit large pseudocapacitance which, in this case, is associated with a sequence of redox redox processes that are highly reversible.

  6. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-03-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents.

  7. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  8. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage.

    PubMed

    Vlad, A; Singh, N; Rolland, J; Melinte, S; Ajayan, P M; Gohy, J-F

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles--bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  9. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  10. "Stratifiability index" - A quantitative assessment of acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Ebner, Ellen; Börger, Alexander; Gose, Sven; Wenzl, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A methodology is presented to quantify acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries and compare different types of batteries regardless of their design features and size by means of the proposed "stratifiability index". This index describes to what degree acid stratification develops in flooded lead acid batteries. Different test procedures are proposed which induce severe acid stratification within 48 h and lead to significantly different degrees of acid stratification. The test procedures are intended to assist in the development and selection of batteries which are less prone to develop severe acid stratification.

  11. Dynamic analysis of a photovoltaic power system with battery storage capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.; Blaha, R. J.; Pickrell, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A photovolataic power system with a battery storage capability is analyzed. A dual battery current control concept is proposed, which enables the battery to either supply or accept power depending upon system environment and load conditions. A simulation of the power system, including the battery current control, is developed and evaluated. The evaulation demonstrate the visbility of the battery control concept of switch the battery from a charge to discharge mode and back as required by load and environmental conditions. An acceptable system operation is demonstrated over the entire insolation range. Additionally, system sensitivity, bandwidth, and damping characteristics of the battery control are shown to be acceptable for a projected hardware implementation.

  12. Progress in polyethylene separators for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, T.; Hirashima, T.

    The types and properties of separators used for lead-acid batteries are reviewed. Attention is focused on the pocket-type polyethylene (PE) separator as this is widely used in present-day automotive batteries, i.e. in low-maintenance batteries with expanded lead-calcium grids. An improved PE separator has been developed by using a PE resin of high molecular weight. The resistance of the separator to attack by hot sulphuric acid is increased by a factor of 1.5. Batteries using the improved separator show a 40% increase in lifetime under the SAE 75 °C life-cycle test.

  13. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  14. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  15. Method and apparatus for storage battery electrolyte circulation

    DOEpatents

    Inkmann, Mark S.

    1980-09-09

    An electrolyte reservoir in fluid communication with the cell of a storage battery is intermittently pressurized with a pulse of compressed gas to cause a flow of electrolyte from the reservoir to the upper region of less dense electrolyte in the cell. Upon termination of the pressure pulse, more dense electrolyte is forced into the reservoir from the lower region of the cell by the differential pressure head between the cell and reservoir electrolyte levels. The compressed gas pulse is controlled to prevent the entry of gas from the reservoir into the cell.

  16. Modelling challenges for battery materials and electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Richard P.; Schultz, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    Many vital requirements in world-wide energy production, from the electrification of transportation to better utilization of renewable energy production, depend on developing economical, reliable batteries with improved performance characteristics. Batteries reduce the need for gasoline and liquid hydrocarbons in an electrified transportation fleet, but need to be lighter, longer-lived and have higher energy densities, without sacrificing safety. Lighter and higher-capacity batteries make portable electronics more convenient. Less expensive electrical storage accelerates the introduction of renewable energy to electrical grids by buffering intermittent generation from solar or wind. Meeting these needs will probably require dramatic changes in the materials and chemistry used by batteries for electrical energy storage. New simulation capabilities, in both methods and computational resources, promise to fundamentally accelerate and advance the development of improved materials for electric energy storage. To fulfil this promise significant challenges remain, both in accurate simulations at various relevant length scales and in the integration of relevant information across multiple length scales. This focus section of Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering surveys the challenges of modelling for energy storage, describes recent successes, identifies remaining challenges, considers various approaches to surmount these challenges and discusses the potential of these methods for future battery development. Zhang et al begin with atoms and electrons, with a review of first-principles studies of the lithiation of silicon electrodes, and then Fan et al examine the development and use of interatomic potentials to the study the mechanical properties of lithiated silicon in larger atomistic simulations. Marrocchelli et al study ionic conduction, an important aspect of lithium-ion battery performance, simulated by molecular dynamics. Emerging high

  17. Maintenance free lead acid batteries with immobilized electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Tuphorn, H.

    1984-10-01

    The reducing of antimony in lead-acid batteries in the last 10 years to optimize the maintenance of the batteries on the other hand was to the detriment of the cycle life. In contrast to antimonyfree batteries in conventional construction the immobilization of the electrolyte by gelatinizing permits the production of sealed batteries with highly improved cycle life, high charge acceptance and deep dischargeability. Moreover those batteries do not have a problem of electrolyte stratification. During charging the O/sub 2/-recombination is approximately 75% depending upon the battery size. Because of the O/sub 2/-recombination in this system a wider range of charging potentials of single cells in the battery takes place, which is characteristic of this system.

  18. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  19. Ocular trauma from lead-acid vehicle battery explosions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, S

    1982-02-01

    Ocular trauma caused by lead-acid car battery explosions has been seen in a number of cases presenting to the major teaching hospitals in Adelaide. Injuries range from superficial acid burns to penetrating eye injury and retinal haemorrhage. The cause of the explosions has been ignition of the hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture generated by lead-acid batteries. The risk of explosion is known to battery manufacturing and distributing bodies and methods of avoiding explosions are well known to the industry. It is suggested that efforts should be made to design safe car batteries, and that there is an urgent need to educate the public to the risks involved with the present batteries. PMID:7103864

  20. Lightweight, High-Energy Lead/Acid Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1991-01-01

    Concept for lead/acid battery calls for woven-grid bipolar electrodes. Stack of bipolar cells form lead/acid battery. Each cell contains pair of folded electrodes, negative on one side of fold, positive on other. In high-voltage configuration, battery has higher specific energy and power. Rugged, longlived, and maintenance-free. Made from readily available, low-cost materials by standard lead/acid production methods, well suited for use in electronic equipment, aircraft, and electric vehicles for industrial and passenger service.

  1. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K.

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  2. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  3. Micromechanical Modeling of Storage Particles in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi Tarun

    The effect of stress on storage particles within a lithium ion battery, while acknowledged, is not understood very well. In this work three non-dimensional parameters were identified which govern the stress response within a spherical storage particle. These parameters are developed using material properties such as the diffusion coefficient, particle radius, partial molar volume and Young's modulus. Stress maps are then generated for various values of these parameters for fixed rates of insertion, applying boundary conditions similar to those found in a battery. Stress and concentration profiles for various values of these parameters show the coupling between stress and concentration is magnified depending on the values of the parameters. These maps can be used for different materials, depending on the value of the dimensionless parameters. The value of maximum stress generated is calculated for extraction as well as insertion of lithium into the particle. The model was then used to study to ellipsoidal particles in order to ascertain the effect of geometry on the maximum stress within the particle. By performing a parameter study, we can identify those materials for which particular aspect ratios of ellipsoids are more beneficial, in terms of reducing stress. We find that the stress peaks at certain aspect ratios, mostly at 2 and 1/ 2 . A parameter study was also performed on cubic particle. The values of maximum stresses for both insertion and extraction of lithium were plotted as contour plots. It was seen that the material parameters influenced the location of the maximum stress, with the maximum stress occurring either at the center of the edge between two faces or the point at the center of a face. Newer materials such as silicon are being touted as new lithium storage materials for batteries due to their higher capacity. Their tendency to rapidly loose capacity in a short period of time has led to a variety designs such are the use of carbon nanotubes or

  4. Sodium-Beta Batteries for Grid-Scale Storage: Planar Sodium-Beta Batteries for Renewable Integration and Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: EaglePicher is developing a sodium-beta alumina (Na-Beta) battery for grid-scale energy storage. High-temperature Na-Beta batteries are a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but existing approaches are expensive and unreliable. EaglePicher has modified the shape of the traditional, tubular-shaped Na-Beta battery. It is using an inexpensive stacked design to improve performance at lower temperatures, leading to a less expensive overall storage technology. The new design greatly simplifies the manufacturing process for beta alumina membranes (a key enabling technology), providing a subsequent pathway to the production of scalable, modular batteries at half the cost of the existing tubular designs.

  5. A sealed bipolar lead acid battery for small electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, J.L.; Harbaugh, D.L.; Drake, E.D.; Boughn, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    Arias Research Associates (ARA) has been developing it`s sealed bipolar lead-acid (SBLA) battery technology since 1990 for eventual application in electric vehicles (EVs). The successful development of small SBLA batteries (up to 48V, 10Ah) for use in small electric vehicles (electric powered bicycles, motor scooters, wheelchairs, etc), is reported together with specifications and preliminary test data. Performance and cost comparisons are made with commercially available sealed lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery packs for an electric power-assist bicycle.

  6. The LABAT '99 international conference on lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    LABAT'99, the fourth in the series of lead-acid battery conferences held every three years and organized by Professor Pavlov and his Committee from the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (Bulgarian Academy of Science) was held in Sofia on 7--10 June, 1999. Many excellent papers were presented over the four days, reporting the latest achievements in the theory, design and technology of lead-acid batteries as well as new findings, elucidating the processes during battery operation. The full texts of 25 selected papers will be included in a special volume of the Journal of Power Sources, dedicated to the Conference.

  7. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  8. Development status of a sealed bipolar lead/acid battery for high-power battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. L.; Rowlette, J. J.; Drake, E. D.

    A sealed bipolar lead/acid (SBLA) battery is being developed by Arias Research Associates (ARA) which will offer a number of important advantages in applications requiring high power densities. These applications include electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), electrically-heated catalysts (EHCs) for automobiles, utility-power peak-shaving, and others. The advantages of the SBLA over other types of batteries will by significantly higher power density, together with good energy density, high cycle life, high voltage density, low production cost and zero maintenance. In addition, the lead/acid battery represents a technology which is familiar and accepted by Society, is recyclable within the existing infrastructure, and does not raise the safety concerns of many other new batteries (e.g., fire, explosion and toxic gases). This paper briefly reviews the basic design concepts and issues of the SBLA battery technology, various quasi-bipolar approaches and the results of ARA's development work during the past four years. Performance data are given based on both in-house and independent testing of ARA laboratory test batteries. In addition, performance projections and other characteristics are given for three ARA SBLA battery designs, which are compared with other batteries in three example applications: UPS, EHCs, and EVs. The most notable advantages of the SBLA battery are substantial reductions in product size and weight for the UPS, smaller packaging and longer life for the EHC, and higher vehicle performance and lower cost for the EV, compared to both existing and advanced EV batteries.

  9. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  10. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  11. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  12. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  13. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  14. SLA battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.

    1986-10-01

    Since they first appeared in the early 1970's, sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries have been a rapidly growing factor in the battery industry - in rechargeable, deep-cycle, and automotive storage systems. The key to these sealed batteries is the binderless, absorptive glass microfiber separator which permits the electrolyte to recombine after oxidation. The result is no free acid, no outgassing, and longer life. The batteries are described.

  15. Individual Battery-Power Control for a Battery Energy Storage System Using a Modular Multilevel Cascade Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Tsukasa; Maharjan, Laxman; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper focuses on a battery energy storage system that can be installed in a 6.6-kV power distribution system. This system comprises a combination of a modular multilevel cascade converter based on single-star bridge-cells (MMCC-SSBC) and multiple battery modules. Each battery module is connected to the dc side of each bridge-cell, where the battery modules are galvanically isolated from each other. Three-phase multilevel line-to-line voltages with extremely low voltage steps on the ac side of the converter help in solving problems related to line harmonic currents and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. This paper proposes a control method that allows each bridge-cell to independently adjust the battery power flowing into or out of each battery module. A three-phase energy storage system using nine nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) battery modules, each rated at 72V and 5.5Ah, is designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  16. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  17. An empirically based electrosource horizon lead-acid battery model

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Eshani, M.

    1996-09-01

    An empirically based mathematical model of a lead-acid battery for use in the Texas A and M University`s Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) computer simulation is presented. The battery model is intended to overcome intuitive difficulties with currently available models by employing direct relationships between state-of-charge, voltage, and power demand. The model input is the power demand or load. Model outputs include voltage, an instantaneous battery efficiency coefficient and a state-of-charge indicator. A time and current depend voltage hysteresis is employed to ensure correct voltage tracking inherent with the highly transient nature of a hybrid electric drivetrain.

  18. High-Performance Positive Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong

    1992-01-01

    Newly formulated paste for application to positive plates of lead/acid batteries imparts higher discharge currents and higher specific energy. Other disadvantages of paste, designated F2: contains no acid or free lead, no extra curing process required, and paste has high porosity, high surface area, and good strength.

  19. Durable Bipolar Plates For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, Thomas J.; Pinsky, Naum

    1990-01-01

    New structure for positive faces of bipolar plates increases longevity of lead/acid batteries. Divides positive-electrode layer into many isolated segments so defects cannot spread across layer. Surfaces treated before assembly to promote adhesion. Ridges on body divide possible electrode into isolated squares, each typically 1 in. on side. Materials supporting electrochemically active components lightweight and resistant to acid.

  20. Toroidal cell and battery. [storage battery for high amp-hour load applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, W. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A toroidal storage battery designed to handle relatively high amp-hour loads is described. The cell includes a wound core disposed within a pair of toroidal channel shaped electrodes spaced apart by nylon insulator. The shape of the case electrodes of this toroidal cell allows a first planar doughnut shaped surface and the inner cylindrical case wall to be used as a first electrode and a second planar doughnut shaped surface and the outer cylindrical case wall to be used as a second electrode. Connectors may be used to stack two or more toroidal cells together by connecting substantially the entire surface area of the first electrode of a first cell to substantially the entire surface area of the second electrode of a second cell. The central cavity of each toroidal cell may be used as a conduit for pumping a fluid through the toroidal cell to thereby cool the cell.

  1. Sodium-sulfur batteries for spacecraft energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dueber, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Power levels for future space missions will be much higher than are presently attainable using nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries. Development of a high energy density rechargeable battery is essential in being able to provide these higher power levels without tremendous weight penalties. Studies conducted by both the Air Force and private industry have identified the sodium-sulfur battery as the best candidate for a next generation battery system. The advantages of the sodium-sulfur battery over the nickel-cadmium battery are discussed.

  2. Impedance and self-discharge mechanism studies of nickel metal hydride batteries for energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenhua; Zhu, Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Nickel metal hydride battery packs have been found wide applications in the HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) through the on-board rapid energy conservation and efficient storage to decrease the fossil fuel consumption rate and reduce CO2 emissions as well as other harmful exhaust gases. In comparison to the conventional Ni-Cd battery, the Ni-MH battery exhibits a relatively higher self-discharge rate. In general, there are quite a few factors that speed up the self-discharge of the electrodes in the sealed nickel metal hydride batteries. This disadvantage eventually reduces the overall efficiency of the energy conversion and storage system. In this work, ac impedance data were collected from the nickel metal hydride batteries. The self-discharge mechanism and battery capacity degradation were analyzed and discussed for further performance improvement.

  3. Advanced bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, Michel; Kleijnen, Christian; Schmal, Dick; ten Have, Peter

    A large size 80 V bipolar lead acid battery was constructed and tested successfully with a drive cycle especially developed for a HEV. The bipolar battery was made using the bipolar plate developed at TNO and an optimised paste developed by Centurion. An empirical model was derived for calculating the Ragone plot from the results from a small size 12 V bipolar lead-acid battery. This resulted in a specific power of 340 W/kg for the 80 V module. The Ragone plot was calculated at t=5 and t=10 s after the discharge started for current densities varying from 0.02 to 1.2 A/cm 2. A further development of the bipolar lead-acid battery will result in a specific power of 500 W/kg or more. From the economic analysis we estimate that the price of this high power battery will be in the order of 500 US$/kWh. This price is substantially lower than for comparable high power battery systems. This makes it an acceptable candidate future for HEV.

  4. Lead-acid battery industry in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Riensubdee, T.

    1988-06-01

    The Thia Automotive Industry experienced a bad period in the last two years, and this has created a chain effect to the battery industry. The battery industry has also suffered from the poor economic condition in 1985-1986, when there was no growth in the total demand. This has created a highly competitive situation in the battery industry. As a result, market price was suppressed during the last three years. Moreover, the raw materials prices have been increasing gradually and steadily. Consequently, the industry was forced to the direction of self sufficiency, and to operate in the most efficient way. It is envisioned that the industry will be geared to the areas of higher technology and productivity improvement. Obsolete machinery will eventually be replaced. Production capacity will be increased to achieve economy of scale to serve both local and export demand.

  5. SUNRAYCE 93: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-11-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems, and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use, and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  6. SUNRAYCE 1993: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have 'hands-on' contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  7. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  8. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  9. Benefits of battery storage as spinning reserve: Quantitative analysis: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1987-07-01

    This analysis evaluated the previously unquantified economic benefits of replacing spinning reserve with electricity stored in batteries. According to the calculations, day-to-day operations for a typical 2000-MW generating system with 100 MW of battery storage yielded annual production cost savings of $4.35 million.

  10. Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  11. Balancing autonomy and utilization of solar power and battery storage for demand based microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  12. High-power lead-acid batteries for different applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Rainer

    High-power lead-acid batteries have been used for a rather long time in various applications, especially for uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and starting of automobiles. Future automotive service requires, in addition to cold-cranking performance, the combination of high-power capability, a very good charge-acceptance, and an excellent cycle-life. Such applications include stop-start, regenerative braking, and soft, mild and full hybrid vehicles. For UPS, there has been a clear tendency to shorter discharge times and higher discharge rates. During the past decades, the specific power of lead-acid batteries has been raised steadily and there is still, room for further improvement. This paper gives an overview of the progress made in the development of high-power lead-acid batteries and focuses on stationary and automotive applications.

  13. Technical trends in industrial lead/acid batteries in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Masashi; Tagawa, Yahachiro

    1994-02-01

    Although there have been only a few major technological changes in stationary lead/acid batteries in the past, some rapid and remarkable developments have occurred recently. The latter have included the introduction of catalyst plugs and valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRBs). Catalyst plugs have been used to avoid water addition with stationary lead/acid batteries. By virtue of their advantages (i.e., the elements retain electrolyte and equalizing charging and water addition are unnecessary), VRBs are being developed up to a maximum capacity of 3000 Ah. These designs have now captured about 50% of the stationary lead/acid battery market. The VRB technology has excellent characteristics, such as plate construction that can accommodate grid growth, explosion-resistant plugs, good discharge characteristics, and minimal electrolyte stratification. In addition, by utilizing the benefits of VRBs, horizontal and multistoried systems can be assembled, though in early stages of development the construction was only for interchangeability with flooded-electrolyte type batteries.

  14. An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B; Hoober-Burkhardt, L; Wang, F; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-05-21

    We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for Meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery. Redox couples such as quinones are particularly attractive for this application. No precious metal catalyst is needed because of the fast proton-coupled electron transfer processes. Furthermore, in acid media, the quinones exhibit good chemical stability. These properties render quinone-based redox couples very attractive for high-efficiency metal-free rechargeable batteries. We demonstrate the rechargeability of ORBAT with anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid on the negative side, and 1,2-dihydrobenzoquinone- 3,5-disulfonic acid on the positive side. The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a battery can be charged and discharged multiple times at high faradaic efficiency without any noticeable degradation of performance. We show that solubility and mass transport properties of the reactants and products are paramount to achieving high current densities and high efficiency. The ORBAT configuration presents a unique opportunity for developing an inexpensive and sustainable metal-free rechargeable battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  15. 2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Storage Shed, North of launch area, northwest of earthen berm of Acid Fueling Station, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  16. Research on valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyu; Duan, Shuzhen

    This paper introduces design technology for automotive valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries, such as grid alloy separator, container, positive and negative plate additives, and grid frame. Compared with conventional flooded-electrolyte lead/acid batteries, automotive VRLA batteries are influenced by high charge voltage and by high temperature. If the voltage of the automotive charging system is reduced and the battery is located outside the engine compartment of the automobile, VRLA batteries will enjoy longer service lives than flooded-electrolyte counterparts. The same assembly line can produce both automotive VRLA batteries and polyethylene envelope batteries. This reduces the production costs for automotive VRLA batteries.

  17. Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Liu, Nian; Nelson, Johanna; McDowell, Matthew T.; Huggins, Robert A.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.

  18. Strategies for enhancing lead-acid battery production and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, D. W. H.; Manders, J. E.; Nelson, R. F.; Peters, K.; Rand, D. A. J.; Stevenson, M.

    This paper is a record of the replies given by an expert panel to questions asked by delegates to the Eighth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Analysis of lead and lead compounds: accuracy; critical aspects of sampling. Grid alloys: influence of tin on microstructure and grain size; optimum combination of grid-alloy technologies for automotive batteries. Battery manufacture and design: quality-assurance monitoring; acid-spray treatment of plates; efficiency of tank formation; control of α-PbO 2/β-PbO 2 ratio; PbO 2 conversion level; positive/negative plate ratio; amount and type of separator for valve-regulated technology. Battery performance: use of cadmium reference electrode; influence of positive/negative plate ratio; local action; negative-plate expanders; gas-recombination catalysts; selective discharge of negative and positive plates.

  19. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  20. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  1. Aging mechanisms and service life of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    In lead-acid batteries, major aging processes, leading to gradual loss of performance, and eventually to the end of service life, are: Anodic corrosion (of grids, plate-lugs, straps or posts). Positive active mass degradation and loss of adherence to the grid (shedding, sludging). Irreversible formation of lead sulfate in the active mass (crystallization, sulfation). Short-circuits. Loss of water. Aging mechanisms are often inter-dependent. For example, corrosion of the grids will lead to increased resistance to current flow, which will in turn impede proper charge of certain parts of the active mass, resulting in sulfation. Active mass degradation may lead to short-circuits. Sulfation may be the result of a loss of water, and so forth. The rates of the different aging processes strongly depend on the type of use (or misuse) of the battery. Over-charge will lead to accelerated corrosion and also to accelerated loss of water. With increasing depth-of-discharge during cycling, positive active mass degradation is accelerated. Some aging mechanisms are occurring only upon misuse. Short-circuits across the separators, due to the formation of metallic lead dendrites, for example, are usually formed only after (excessively) deep discharge. Stationary batteries, operated under float-charge conditions, will age typically by corrosion of the positive grids. On the other hand, service life of batteries subject to cycling regimes, will typically age by degradation of the structure of the positive active mass. Starter batteries are usually aging by grid corrosion, for instance in normal passenger car use. However, starter batteries of city buses, making frequent stops, may age (prematurely) by positive active mass degradation, because the batteries are subject to numerous shallow discharge cycles. Valve-regulated batteries often fail as a result of negative active mass sulfation, or water loss. For each battery design, and type of use, there is usually a characteristic

  2. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-05-15

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m{sup 2}. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). (author)

  3. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  4. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  5. Battery energy storage. Another option for load-frequency-control and instantaneous reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Kunisch, H.J.; Kramer, K.G.; Dominik, H.

    1986-09-01

    Energy storage plants utilizing batteries and thyristor power converters can be operated like pumped hydrostorage units. Under the conditions actually prevailing in Europe, load leveling operation of such plants is not economical. Nevertheless, a battery energy storage plant promises both operational and economical advantages for load-frequency-control and instantaneous reserve operation. Queries according to this unconventional operation of batteries have been settled in a test facility in Berlin (West). After two years of test operation a decision was made to build up a full-scale demonstration plant, which will be commissioned in early 1987.

  6. Development of maintenance-free dry calcium (MFDC) lead-acid battery for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tsunenori; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    A maintenance-free, dry calcium (MFDC) developed by the Panasonic Battery (Thailand) Co. Ltd. The battery is designed for automotive applications and is ready for use upon injection of the electrolyte. The MFDC battery employs grids made from a lead-calcium-based alloy. This feature suppresses undesirable loss of electrolyte and enables good recovery of capacity after a long time of storage or a long cycle-life. Moreover, the batteries is a dry-charged type and requires only a low frequency of recharging due to its suppressed self-discharge during storage. Transportation costs are reduced as the battery contains only a small amount of electrolyte during storage.

  7. Optical Data Storage in Acid Red Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.

    High-density optical data storage is a current field gaining importance where research work is done in abundance to bring about holographic CDs to light. Dye-doped gelatin films are promising candidates as recording materials for holographic data storage because of the ease of preparation and low cost. In this report we suggest some acid red dyes as useful recording materials for optical data storage. Acid red dyes namely Acid Red 73 and Acid Red 114 that are completely water-soluble are used to sensitize gelatin thin films for data storage. These dyes have their absorption peak around 514 nm. Two coherent beams of Argon ion laser (514.5 nm) are used to form the grating in the dye-sensitized gelatin films. The grating formed is found to be permanent. The diffraction efficiency of each material as a function of different parameters like dye concentration, writing beam intensities and their ratios and spatial frequency has been studied and presented. An attempt to store data in the sample has been made.

  8. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  9. Computer formation of sealed lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, John A.

    The desire of many companies to enter the growing market of valve-regulated batteries (also known as sealed lead/acid) requires a higher level of control in virtually all the stages of manufacture. Formation charging and charge conditioning is a particular case in point. Whether the valve-regulated battery is of the starved-electrolyte or gelled-electrolyte type, the final stages of formation and charge conditioning require careful attention to control the cell voltage. Charge rates that exceed the oxygen-recombination rate will cause excess gassing and thus reduce the available electrolyte. This, in turn, reduces battery life and, in the case of gelled-electrolyte batteries, causes improper cracking of the gell and concomitant reduction in capacity, performance and life. Valve-regulated batteries require charging equipment that can automatically regulate charge/discharge current and voltage. Given the requirement for multiple steps of battery conditioning, computer control provides a totally effective way to control the voltage, current, time, ampere hours and charge/discharge functions without operator assistance.

  10. Maintenance-free, deep-discharge, lead-acid battery for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymborski, J.

    1982-04-01

    Progress in the development, design, fabrication, and testing of totally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid batteries suitable for the deep-discharge regimes of solar photovoltaic applications is reported. The 6-volt, 100-ampere-hour battery was designed to meet these additional key design goals: 6-h nominal discharge rates; 80% depth-of-discharge daily duty cycle; 2000 cycles to an 80% depth-of-discharge; recharge in less than 8 h; 80% roundtrip energy efficiency; and self-discharge rate of less than 1% per week. Totally maintenance-free sealed operation was achieved by designing the cells so that only oxygen is generated on charge. The cells in this battery are fabricated with positive grids cast from a low antimony alloy in order to achieve both maintenance-free operation and good deep cycle performance. Various cycle life tests and tests to determine the tolerance of the battery to operation and storage at various states-of-charge and over a wide range of temperatures were performed. The charging parameters to adequately recharge the battery while minimizing overcharge and gassing were extensively studied.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIII, BATTERY SERVICE AND TESTING PROCEDURES--PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE THE TRAINEE WITH PROCEDURES FOR SERVICING LEAD-ACID STORAGE BATTERIES USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) ELECTROLYTE AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, (2) BATTERY CHARGING, (3) STORAGE BATTERY TYPES AND DESIGN, (4) BATTERY CAPACITY RATINGS, (5) BATTERY INSTALLATION, SERVICING, AND…

  12. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  13. Integrated li-ion ultracapacitor with lead acid battery for vehicular start-stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manla, Emad

    Advancements in automobile manufacturing aim at improving the driving experience at every level possible. One improvement aspect is increasing gas efficiency via hybridization, which can be achieved by introducing a feature called start-stop. This feature automatically switches the internal combustion engine off when it idles and switches it back on when it is time to resume driving. This application has been proven to reduce the amount of gas consumption and emission of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. However, the repeated cranking of the engine puts a large amount of stress on the lead acid battery required to perform the cranking, which effectively reduces its life span. This dissertation presents a hybrid energy storage system assembled from a lead acid battery and an ultracapacitor module connected in parallel. The Li-ion ultracapacitor was tested and modeled to predict its behavior when connected in a system requiring pulsed power such as the one proposed. Both test and simulation results show that the proposed hybrid design significantly reduces the cranking loading and stress on the battery. The ultracapacitor module can take the majority of the cranking current, effectively reducing the stress on the battery. The amount of cranking current provided by the ultracapacitor can be easily controlled via controlling the resistance of the cable connected directly between the ultracapacitor module and the car circuitry.

  14. Physical Property Requirements of Ion-exchange Polymer Membranes for Acid-base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Thayer, Peter; Jorne', Jacob; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2013-03-01

    Flow batteries offer feasible solutions to grid-scale storage of intermittent power. We are developing a new type of flow battery that reversibly controls an acid-base neutralization reaction. The battery consists of two highly reversible hydrogen gas electrodes that are exposed to low and high pH process streams. A brine solution runs between the acid and base streams and is separated by cationic and anionic exchange membranes. For both charge and discharge phases, hydrogen gas is produced at one electrode and consumed at the other. During charging, an external potential is applied across the two electrodes to electrochemically produce acid and base from the fed brine solution. Discharge involves electrochemical neutralization of acid and base streams, resulting in current flow through an external load. Several charge and discharge cycles were performed to demonstrate proof of concept. Experiments were conducted to determine the physical property requirements of the ionic exchange polymer layers. Properties including ion conductivity, permselectivity, and membrane stability will be discussed.

  15. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  16. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  17. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed. PMID:26265165

  19. Simulation of lead-acid battery using model order reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Ansari, Amir Babak; Torabi, Farschad

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has been applied to the coupled one-dimensional electrochemical transport equations in order to efficiently simulate lead-acid batteries, numerically. The governing equations, including conservation of charge in solid and liquid phases and conservation of species are solved simultaneously. The POD-based method for a lead-acid cell is used to simulate a discharge process to show the capability of the present method. The obtained results show that not only the POD-based ROM of lead-acid battery significantly decreases the computational time but also there is an excellent agreement with the results of previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models.

  20. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  1. Optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system

    SciTech Connect

    Tsungying Lee; Nanming Chen

    1993-12-01

    Due to the cyclical human life, utility loads appear to be cyclical too. During daytime when most factories are in operation, the electricity demand is very high. On the contrary, when most people are sleeping from midnight to daybreak, the electric load is very low, usually only half of the peak load amount. To meet this large gap between peak load and light load, utilities must idle many generation plants during light load period while operating all generation plants during peak load period no matter how expensive they are. This low utilization factor of generation plants and uneconomical operation have sparked utilities to invest in energy storage devices such as pumped storage plants, compressed air energy storage plants, battery energy storage systems (BES) and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) etc. Among these, pumped storage is already commercialized and is the most widely used device. However, it suffers the limit of available sites and will be saturated in the future. Other energy storage devices are still under research to reduce the cost. This paper investigates the optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system. Taiwan Power Company System is used as the example system to test this algorithm. Results show that the maximum economic benefit of the battery energy storage in a power system can be achieved by this algorithm.

  2. Innovative valve-regulated battery designs rekindle excitement inlead/acid battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, John R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.; Johnson, Richard T.

    Recent innovative approaches to the extension of valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology have led to thedevelopment of several unique products that possess performance attributes not previously achieved in lead/acid technologies, namely: (i)starting, lighting, ignition (SLI) VRLA batteries; (ii) StackPack ™ foil batteries, and (iii) spiral-wound Thin Metal Film (TMF ™) batteries.TheVRLA automotive product has been demonstrated to be capable of improving on the durability of conventional flooded designs in extreme high-temperature climate and extreme drive-cycle operating conditions. In uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications, the StackPack ™ battery, at a 15-min discharge rate has delivered 23.3 Wh kg -1 and 1090 Wh 1 -1 as compared with 16.0 Wh kg -1 and 595 Wh 1 -1 for traditional designs. TMF ™ prototypes have exhibited power capability of an order of magnitude higher than conventional VRLA designs and have been utilized successfully in a vehicle for seven months and over 31 000 km (19 200 miles).

  3. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  4. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  5. Hybrid Vehicle Comparison Testing Using Ultracapacitor vs. Battery Energy Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2010-02-01

    With support from General Motors, NREL researchers converted and tested a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with three energy storage configurations: a nickel metal-hydride battery and two ultracapacitor (Ucap) modules. They found that the HEV equipped with one Ucap module performed as well as or better than the HEV with a stock NiMH battery configuration. Thus, Ucaps could increase the market penetration and fuel savings of HEVs.

  6. Electroville: Grid-Scale Batteries: High Amperage Energy Storage Device—Energy for the Neighborhood

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MIT’s battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt don’t mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MIT’s battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

  7. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air and electromechanical batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  8. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air, and electromechanical batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  9. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qizhao, Huang; Qing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e- and h+) and ionic species (Li+) at the electrode-electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li+ storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Project supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Competitive Research Program (CRP Award No. NRF-CRP8-2011-04).

  10. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  11. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  12. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  13. Resource constraints on the battery energy storage potential for grid and transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Albertus, Paul; Srinivasan, Venkat

    Batteries have great promise for facilitating the grid integration of renewable energy and powering electric vehicles. One critical concern for the scale-up of battery production is the availability of the elements used in battery couples. We provide the first systematic comparison of supply limits and extraction costs of the elements in battery couples against short- and long-term scaling goals. Several couples can scale well beyond short- and long-term grid-storage goals, including: Na/S, Zn/Cl 2, and FeCl 2/CrCl 3. Li-based couples currently have the performance characteristics most suitable for electric vehicles, yet scaling beyond 10 MM vehicles per year will demand significant increases in Li production. We also provide a framework to evaluate new couples, such as those based on Mg, which may be an alternative to Li-based couples. While the extraction costs of the elements used in current battery couples are, in many cases, below 10 kWh -1, the cost of finished battery cells is in the range of 150-1000 kWh -1, well above cost targets of 100 kWh -1 for both grid and transportation applications. Currently high costs remain a critical barrier to the widespread scale-up of battery energy storage.

  14. SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  15. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  16. Testing and evaluation of tubular positive lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Salvador, J.P.

    1995-07-01

    The possibility of using lead-acid batteries in tandem with fuel cells in applications such as submarine propulsion require a strong understanding of the transient behavior of the lead-acid battery. One simple yet accurate method of describing the response at a given state-of-charge is as a resistor-capacitor model. Preliminary testing supports the model`s ability to describe the voltage response to load changes at a given state-of-charge. Furthermore, analysis of the steady state characteristics of the cells supports claims in the literature that the charge transfer resistance is partially a function of the inverse of the current. Once complete, the empirical relationship describing the circuit elements will be a useful tool to monitor the gassing effects during pulse charging.

  17. Comparing the net cost of CSP-TES to PV deployed with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Jennie; Mehos, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of renewable energy in that its energy can be shifted over time and it can provide the electricity system with dependable generation capacity. In this study, we provide a framework to determine if the benefits of CSP-TES (shiftable energy and the ability to provide firm capacity) exceed the benefits of PV and firm capacity sources such as long-duration battery storage or conventional natural gas combustion turbines (CTs). The results of this study using current capital cost estimates indicate that a combination of PV and conventional gas CTs provides a lower net cost compared to CSP-TES and PV with batteries. Some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with batteries for even the lowest battery cost estimate. Using projected capital cost targets, however, some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with either option for even the lowest battery cost estimate. The net cost of CSP-TES varies with configuration, and lower solar multiples coupled with less storage are more attractive at current cost levels, due to high component costs. However, higher solar multiples show a lower net cost using projected future costs for heliostats and thermal storage materials.

  18. Towards the year 2000 — the prospects for lead/acid batteries in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, G.

    A review is presented of lead/acid battery production in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe (except CIS), based on statistics for lead consumption in lead/acid batteries. The breakdown between automotive and industrial batteries is also detailed. The foreseeable development of the various markets for lead/acid batteries towards the year 2000 is described. The analysis uses a broad range of published forecasts. Emphasis is given to the accuracy of the forecasts, as it is common for the latter to be based on forecasts for other industrial activities and to rely heavily on assumptions that are made about the evolution of battery service life. The range of forecasts obtained for each battery market is discussed, especially in Eastern Europe, where many different scenarios are still possible. It is concluded that quantitative growth of the lead/acid battery market should be higher in Western than in Eastern Europe, and higher for industrial than for automotive batteries.

  19. Hydrogen electrode in lead-hydrogen storage batteries. Influence of macroscopic electrode structure on the electrode's electrochemical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Burmistrov, O.A.; Lyzlov, N.Yu.

    1988-03-01

    Optimum matrix materials and features of a hydrogen gas electrode of lead-hydrogen storage batteries were examined. Carbon materials AG-3, SKT-6A and acetylene black were used as the current-collecting base of the electrode in contact with the sulfuric acid electrolyte. High-pressure polyethylene powder or fluoropolymer were used as wetproofing agents and as electrode binders. Platinum was applied to the electrodes, tested in a gaseous hydrogen saturated cell and linear-scan voltammograms of the electrodes were recorded. Polarization comparable with that found for the lead-dioxide electrode was produced when current was drawn from the hydrogen electrodes.

  20. Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

  1. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  2. A solar powered vaccine storage refrigerator that can be powered by a single truck battery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlussler, L.

    1999-07-01

    In developing countries, kerosene powered vaccine storage refrigerators are gradually being replaced by PV powered units. The weak link in these solar powered systems is typically the deep cycle battery bank. When the batteries fail, replacements will probably have to be imported. Often the logistics of funding, recycling and transportation of these batteries may be difficult to arrange. Sun Frost has developed a vaccine refrigerator that will run on a single 100 amp battery, an automotive battery if need be. Vaccine is stored in the refrigerator section of these units, while the freezer section is used to freeze ice packs to transport the vaccine. This new dual compressor model keeps the battery bank in a shallow cycle mode by shutting off the freezer compartment when the battery is significantly discharged. The PV system can then keep the refrigerator compartment running while shallow cycling the battery even during the most severe weather conditions. The system operation has been simulated by using daily solar data. Results show that the operation of the freezer will rarely be interrupted. Another advantage is that if this system is installed in a location where insolation levels are lower than expected, the refrigerator compartment will maintain reliable operation for keeping the vaccines cold, while only the freezer's ice making capabilities would be effected.

  3. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  4. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  5. Battery cycle life balancing in a microgrid through flexible distribution of energy and storage resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawneh, Hussam J.; Illindala, Mahesh S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a microgrid consisting of four fuel cell-battery hybrid Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is devised for an industrial crusher-conveyor load. Each fuel cell was accompanied by a Li-ion battery to provide energy storage support under islanded condition of the microgrid since the fuel cells typically have poor transient response characteristics. After carrying out extensive modeling and analysis in MATLAB®, the battery utilization was found to vary significantly based on the DER's 'electrical' placement within the microgrid. This paper presents, under such conditions, a variety of battery life balancing solutions through the use of the new framework of Flexible Distribution of EneRgy and Storage Resources (FDERS). It is based on an in-situ reconfiguration approach through 'virtual' reactances that help in changing the 'electrical' position of each DER without physically displacing any component in the system. Several possible approaches toward balancing the battery utilization are compared in this paper taking advantage of the flexibility that FDERS offers. It was observed that the estimated battery life is dependent on factors such as cycling sequence, pattern, and occurrence.

  6. Integrating a Photocatalyst into a Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery for Direct Storage of Solar Energy.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Yarong; Tang, Daiming; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-01

    Direct capture and storage of abundant but intermittent solar energy in electrical energy-storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries is of great importance, and could provide a promising solution to the challenges of energy shortage and environment pollution. Here we report a new prototype of a solar-driven chargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, in which the capture and storage of solar energy was realized by oxidizing S(2-) ions to polysulfide ions in aqueous solution with a Pt-modified CdS photocatalyst. The battery can deliver a specific capacity of 792 mAh g(-1) during 2 h photocharging process with a discharge potential of around 2.53 V versus Li(+)/Li. A specific capacity of 199 mAh g(-1), reaching the level of conventional lithium-ion batteries, can be achieved within 10 min photocharging. Moreover, the charging process of the battery can proceed under natural sunlight irradiation. PMID:26096640

  7. A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Chen, Feng; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Guanguang; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-04-01

    A redox flow battery using Fe2+/Fe3+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples in chloric/sulphuric mixed acid supporting electrolyte was investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The Fe/V redox flow cell using mixed reactant solutions operated within a voltage window of 0.5-1.35 V with a nearly 100% utilization ratio and demonstrated stable cycling over 100 cycles with energy efficiency > 80% and no capacity fading at room temperature. A 25% improvement in the discharge energy density of the Fe/V cell was achieved compared with the previous reported Fe/V cell using pure chloride acid supporting electrolyte. Stable performance was also achieved in the temperature range between 0 C and 50 C as well as using microporous separator as the membrane. The improved electrochemical performance at room temperature makes the Fe/V redox flow battery a promising option as a stationary energy storage device to enable renewable integration and stabilization of the electrical grid.

  8. The emerging chemistry of sodium ion batteries for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Dipan; Talaie, Elahe; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-03-01

    Energy storage technology has received significant attention for portable electronic devices, electric vehicle propulsion, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and load leveling of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Lithium ion batteries have dominated most of the first two applications. For the last two cases, however, moving beyond lithium batteries to the element that lies below-sodium-is a sensible step that offers sustainability and cost-effectiveness. This requires an evaluation of the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, their electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of ion mobility based on computational methods. The Review considers some of the current scientific issues underpinning sodium ion batteries. PMID:25653194

  9. A Novel Approach of Battery Energy Storage for Improving Value of Wind Power in Deregulated Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Y. Minh; Yoon, Yong Tae

    2013-06-01

    Wind power producers face many regulation costs in deregulated environment, which remarkably lowers the value of wind power in comparison with the conventional sources. One of these costs is associated with the real-time variation of power output and being paid in frequency control market according to the variation band. In this regard, this paper presents a new approach to the scheduling and operation of battery energy storage installed in wind generation system. This approach depends on the statistic data of wind generation and the prediction of frequency control market prices to determine the optimal charging and discharging of batteries in real-time, which ultimately gives the minimum cost of frequency regulation for wind power producers. The optimization problem is formulated as the trade-off between the decrease in regulation payment and the increase in the cost of using battery energy storage. The approach is illustrated in the case study and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  10. Manufacturing and operational issues with lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Boden, D. P.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Nelson, R. F.; Prengaman, R. D.

    An expert panel replies to questions on lead-acid technology and performance asked by delegates to the Ninth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Grid alloys: effects of calcium and tin levels on microstructure, corrosion, mechanical and electrochemical properties; effect of alloy-fabrication process on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance; low dross-make during casting of lead-calcium-tin alloys; future of book-mould casting; effect of increasing levels of silver; stability of continuously processed grids at high temperature. Negative-plate expanders: function of lignosulfonates and barium sulfate; benefits of pre-blended expanders; optimum expander formulations. Valve-regulated batteries: effect of oxygen cycle; optimum methods for float charging; charging and deep-cycle lifetimes; reliability testing.

  11. Bidirectional Five-Level Power Processing Interface for Low Voltage Battery Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jain-Yi; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Wu, Kuen-Der; Lin, You-Si; Wu, Jinn-Chang

    A bidirectional five-level power processing interface for low voltage battery energy storage system (BESS) is developed in this paper. This BESS consists of a bidirectional five-level DC-AC converter, a bidirectional dual boost/buck DC-DC converter and a battery set. This five-level DC-AC converter includes a bidirectional full-bridge converter and a bidirectional dual buck DC-DC converter. The five-level power processing interface can charge power to the battery set form the utility or discharge the power from the battery set to the utility depending on the demanded operation of user. A hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of this BESS. Experimental results show the performance of the developed BESS is as expected.

  12. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  13. Oxide for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Lim, O. V.; Haigh, N. P.; Rand, D. A. J.; Manders, J. E.; Rice, D. M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth (Bi)-bearing oxide has been manufactured (Barton-pot method) from this soft lead and is characterized in terms of phase composition, particle size distribution, BET surface area, and reactivity. An investigation is also made of the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from the Bi-bearing oxide. For comparison, the characteristics and performance of a Bi-free (Barton-pot) oxide, which is manufactured in the USA, are also examined. Increasing the level of bismuth and lowering those of the other impurities in soft lead produces no unusual changes in either the physical or the chemical properties of the resulting Bi-bearing oxide compared with Bi-free oxide. This is very important because there is no need for battery manufacturers to change their paste formulae and paste-mixing procedures on switching to the new Bi-bearing oxide. There is little difference in the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from Bi-bearing or Bi-free oxides. On the other hand, these rates increase on the former electrodes when the levels of all the other impurities are made to exceed (by deliberately adding the impurities as oxide powders) the corresponding, specified values for the Bi-bearing oxide. The latter behaviour is particularly noticeable for hydrogen evolution, which is enhanced even further when a negative electrode prepared from Bi-bearing oxide is contaminated through the deposition of impurities added to the sulfuric acid solution. The effects of impurities in the positive

  14. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  15. Deep discharge reconditioning and shorted storage of batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterman, P. F.

    1982-05-01

    The identification and measurement of hydrogen recombination in sealed nickel-cadium cells makes deep reconditioning on a battery basis safe and feasible. Deep reconditioning improves performance and increases life of nickel-cadium batteries in geosynchronous orbit applications. The hydrogen mechanism and supporting data are presented. Parameter cell design experiments are described which led to the definition of nickel-cadium cells capable of high rate overdischarge without detriment to specific energy. Nickel-cadium calls of identical optimum design were successfully cycled for 7 seasons in simulation of geosynchronous orbit at 75 percent depth-of-discharge with extensive midseason and end-of-season overdischarge at rates varying from C/20 to C/4. Destructive physical analysis and cyclin data indicated no deterioration or the development of dangerous pressures as a result of the cycling with overdischarge.

  16. A Techno-Commercial Assessment of Residential and Bulk Battery Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

  17. Sealed NiCad vs. sealed lead acid batteries - Charge control and monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    A control regime for NiCad and lead acid batteries which can evaluate the available energy deliverable by the battery at any time is reported. The use of battery cell impedance, state of charge, incremental slope tests, a charge control regime, discharge monitor, and charge control circuit to monitor the battery is discussed. It is shown how the battery state of readiness can be established with reasonable accuracy for both types of batteries and how the control regime can be continually optimized for best performances.

  18. The sealed lead-acid battery: performance and present aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmons, John; Kurian, Raju; Goodman, Alan; Johnson, William R.

    The United States Navy has flown valve-regulated lead-acid batteries (VRLA) for approximately 22 years. The first VRLA aircraft batteries were of a cylindrical cell design and these evolved to a prismatic design to save weight, volume, and to increase rate capability. This paper discusses the evolution of the VRLA aircraft battery designs, present VRLA battery performance, and battery size availability along with their aircraft applications (both military and commercial). The paper provides some of the reliability data from present applications. Finally, the paper discusses what future evolution of the VRLA technology is required to improve performance and to remain the technology of choice over other sealed aircraft battery designs.

  19. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Corbus, D.

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  20. Unraveling the storage mechanism in organic carbonyl electrodes for sodium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Jin, Shifeng; Zhang, Zhizhen; Jiang, Liwei; Mu, Linqin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Chen, Xiaolong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbonyl compounds represent a promising class of electrode materials for secondary batteries; however, the storage mechanism still remains unclear. We take Na2C6H2O4 as an example to unravel the mechanism. It consists of alternating Na-O octahedral inorganic layer and π-stacked benzene organic layer in spatial separation, delivering a high reversible capacity and first coulombic efficiency. The experiment and calculation results reveal that the Na-O inorganic layer provides both Na+ ion transport pathway and storage site, whereas the benzene organic layer provides electron transport pathway and redox center. Our contribution provides a brand-new insight in understanding the storage mechanism in inorganic-organic layered host and opens up a new exciting direction for designing new materials for secondary batteries. PMID:26601260

  1. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  2. Handbook for handling and storage of nickel-cadmium batteries: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Floyd E.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Yi, Thomas Y.

    1994-01-01

    The handbook provides guidelines for the handling and storage of conventional NiCd flight batteries. The guidelines are based on many years of experience with ground and in-flight handling of batteries. The overall goal is to minimize the deterioration and irreversible effects of improper handling of NiCd flight batteries on flight performance. A secondary goal is to provide the reader with an understanding, in nonanalytical terms, of the degradation mechanisms of NiCd cells and how these mechanisms are affected by improper ground handling of flight hardware. Section 2 provides the reader with a brief introduction to NiCd cells. The effects of the environment on NiCd batteries are discussed in Section 3, and Section 4 contains 12 guidelines for battery handling and storage with supporting rationale for each guideline. The appendix provides a synopsis of NiCd cell design and evolution over 30 years of space flight on Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) satellites, along with a chronological review of key events that influenced the design of NiCd cells being flown today.

  3. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  4. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material. PMID:26726470

  5. Research results from the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium point the way to longer life and higher specific energy for lead/acid electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, P. T.

    Amidst the welter of publicity devoted to the newer battery chemistries, the remarkable progress made by lead/acid battery technologists in response to the needs of the emerging electric-vehicle market has tended to be overlooked. The flooded design of battery, launched by Gaston Planté around 1860, has given way to a valve-regulated variant which has a history dating only from the 1970s. The key parameters of this `maintenance free' battery have been improved markedly during the course of the development programme of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), and it is likely that lead/acid will continue to feature strongly in motive-power applications as a result of its cost advantage and of its enhanced effectiveness.

  6. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. the reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  7. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  8. Lead-acid battery research and development—a vital key to winning new business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Battery strings are operated in a partial-state-of-charge mode (PSoC) in several new and changing applications for lead-acid batteries, in which the battery is seldom, if ever, fully charged or discharged. The lead battery industry faces new challenges as additional failure modes become evident in these PSoC applications. Without overcharge, cell imbalances caused by variations in cell temperature will cause premature failures. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are especially susceptible because of the heat generated by oxygen recombination at the negative plate. Improved thermal properties are shown by a proprietary battery design that combines absorptive glass mat and gelled acid technologies. Well-designed power systems are also required to reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations and, thereby, increase battery life.

  9. Effects of phosphoric acid on the lead-acid battery reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Iwakura, Chiaki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tamura, Hideo

    1986-10-01

    The addition of a small amount of phosphoric acid to 5 M H2SO4 (commercial electrolyte of lead-acid batteries) results in various positive effects on the lead-acid battery reactions: (1) depression of the corrosion rate of the lead substrate through a preferential formation of alpha-PbO2 on the substrate surface; (2) retardation of hard sulfate formation or of deactivation of active materials; and (3) change in the crystal morphology of PbSO2 formed on the discharge of PbO2. Most of these effects results from chemisorption of phosphoric acid on PbSO4 crystals produced in the discharge process of PbO2.

  10. Deep Discharge Reconditioning and Shorted Storage of Batteries. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The identification and measurement of hydrogen recombination in sealed nickel-cadium cells makes deep reconditioning on a battery basis safe and feasible. Deep reconditioning improves performance and increases life of nickel-cadium batteries in geosynchronous orbit applications. The hydrogen mechanism and supporting data are presented. Parameter cell design experiments are described which led to the definition of nickel-cadium cells capable of high rate overdischarge without detriment to specific energy. Nickel-cadium calls of identical optimum design were successfully cycled for 7 seasons in simulation of geosynchronous orbit at 75 percent depth-of-discharge with extensive midseason and end-of-season overdischarge at rates varying from C/20 to C/4. Destructive physical analysis and cyclin data indicated no deterioration or the development of dangerous pressures as a result of the cycling with overdischarge.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XII, LEARNING ABOUT BATTERY SERVICING AND TESTING (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THID MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF LEAD-ACID STORAGE BATTERIES USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) BATTERY COMPONENTS AND CONSTRUCTION, (2) CHEMICAL ACTION IN BATTERIES, (3) THE BATTERY AND THE CHARGING CIRCUIT, (4) BATTERY CHARGING VOLTAGE, (5) EFFECTS OF…

  12. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  13. The development of a new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, A. I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  14. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan

    Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage. This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) and hydrogen chemical-looping component. The RSOFC serves as the "electrical functioning unit", alternating between the fuel cell and electrolysis mode to realize discharge and charge cycles, respectively, while the hydrogen chemical-looping component functions as an energy storage unit (ESU), performing electrical-chemical energy conversion in situ via a H2/H2O-mediated metal/metal oxide redox reaction. One of the distinctive features of the new battery from conventional storage batteries is the ESU that is physically separated from the electrodes of RSOFC, allowing it to freely expand and contract without impacting the mechanical integrity of the entire battery structure. This feature also allows an easy switch in the chemistry of this battery. The materials selection for ESU is critical to energy capacity, round-trip efficiency and cost effectiveness of the new battery. Me-MeOx redox couples with favorable thermodynamics and kinetics are highly preferable. The preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that Fe-based redox couples can be a promising candidate for operating at both high and low temperatures. Therefore, the Fe-based redox-couple systems have been selected as the baseline for this

  15. Hydrogen storage materials, batteries, and electrochemistry; Proceedings of the Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, Oct. 14-17, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, D.A.; Srinivasan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on hydrogen storage materials, batteries, and electrode chemistry are presented. Individual topics addressed include: development of hydrogen-absorbing alloys for nickel metal hydride secondary batteries, capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys, sealed metal-hydride batteries for aerospace applications, nickel-hydrogen battery self-discharge mechanism and methods for its inhibition, studies on the self-discharge mechanism of Ni/H2 cells. Also discussed are: characterization of IPV nickel electrodes by means of an integrated cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique, characterization of IPV nickel electrodes by means of an integrated electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique, low cost electrocatalytic gas diffusion membrane electrodes of metal-hydrogen batteries, potentiostatic and ac impedance studies of the hydrogen electrodes used in Ni/H2 batteries.

  16. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  17. Process for the extended use of strip acid employed in the reclamation of battery acid fluid from expanded lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, R.A.; Bricker, M.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a method for recycling contaminated sulfuric acid from lead acid batteries to reclaimed sulfuric acid for reuse in the batteries by removing contaminating iron impurities. It includes diluting the contaminated sulfuric acid to a concentration between 150 and 230 grams per liter; filtering the sulfuric acid through a first filter means to remove solid impurities; oxidizing the sulfuric acid to assure that the iron contaminants are substantially in a ferric form; removing the iron contaminants from the sulfuric acid through liquid-liquid extracting using an extraction agent comprising mixture of a mono- or di-alkyl phosphoric acid and a metal chelation collector selected from the group consisting of a 8- hydroxyquinoline substituted in the No. 7 position with a long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon radical and an oil-soluble 2-hydroxy benzophenoneoxime, a modifier which maintains solubility of the phosphoric acid and the metal chelation collector and enhances phase disengagement, and a water immiscible carrier, the molar ratio of the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the phosphoric acid being between 1:1::1:4, respectively; wherein the ratio of extraction agent to water immiscible carrier is greater than 10:90; the extraction performed at a volumetric ratio between 4:1::1:4, and repeated until the contaminating iron impurities are substantially reduced.

  18. Development of a high-performance lead-acid battery for new-generation vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Allan

    The ultimate objective of this project is to demonstrate that a valve-regulated lead-acid battery of dual-tab design can be successfully substituted for the nickel-metal hydride battery pack in a Honda Insight hybrid electric vehicle. While the realization of the construction of the battery modules, the battery management system and the associated software has been more complex and time-consuming than was originally envisaged, the battery has now been fitted into the vehicle. With the initial system integration work now complete, the project plan is to test the vehicle with its lead-acid battery for up to 50,000 miles over a combination of the high speed, hill and urban circuits at the Millbrook Proving Grounds in the UK, as well as in general road driving. Prior to this, the developmental battery will have new cells fitted because of the uncertain cycling history of the original cells during the prolonged development period.

  19. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes. PMID:23500418

  20. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  1. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  2. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  3. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  4. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  5. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-01

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems. PMID:26102317

  6. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.

  7. Sodium nickel chloride battery technology for large-scale stationary storage in the high voltage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benato, Roberto; Cosciani, Nicola; Crugnola, Giorgio; Dambone Sessa, Sebastian; Lodi, Giuseppe; Parmeggiani, Carlo; Todeschini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of Sodium-Nickel Chloride (Na-NiCl2) secondary batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles, in which the safety requirements are more restrictive than these of stationary storage applications, depicts the Na-NiCl2 technology as perfectly suitable for the stationary storage applications. The risk of fire is negligible because of the intrinsic safety of the cell chemical reactions, related to the sodium-tetrachloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) content into the cell, which acts as a secondary electrolyte (the primary one being the ceramic β″-alumina as common for Na-Beta batteries). The 3 h rate discharge time makes this technology very attractive for load levelling, voltage regulation, time shifting and the power fluctuation mitigation of the renewable energy sources in both HV and EHV networks.

  8. Experimental testing procedures and dynamic model validation for vanadium redox flow battery storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per; Silvestro, Federico

    2014-05-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing procedure consists of analyzing the voltage and current values during a power reference step-response and evaluating the relevant electrochemical parameters such as the internal resistance. The results of different tests are presented and used to define the electrical characteristics and the overall efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs are compared with experimental measurements during a discharge-charge sequence.

  9. A new valve-regulated lead/acid automotive battery for use in original equipment and supply to the replacement market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, S.; Douady, J. P.; Fossati, G.; Pascon, C.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries have been available since the beginning of the 1970s for stationary applications. Nevertheless, the development and the commercialization of VRLA starter batteries have been very slow and mainlyrestricted to certain niche markets. This is due to the difficulty in designing products that comply with the technical specificationsrequired by the operating conditions of modern cars, and that have both a high level of reliability and a cost in accordance with the needs ofthe automotive market. The STR (sealed technology with gas recombination) battery has been developed in order to place on the automotiveoriginal equipment and replacement markets a battery with the benefits of the VRLA technology, namely: absolutely no maintenance; cleanand safe; good open-circuit storage; good cycling ability; performance comparable with that of flooded batteries (i.e., cranking powerand reserve capacity, charge acceptance, rechargeability, and life). Due to the technical choices made for the components and forthe manufacturing process, the STR battery is today manufactured on a production line very similar to that for a flooded battery, with agood level of productivity and the same reliability as the best flooded batteries. For all these reasons, the STR battery is producedat a cost that is acceptable for automotive applications.

  10. Development of a valve-regulated lead/acid battery for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calasanzio, D.; Cecchinato, G.; Marchetto, M.

    The use of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRLA) in automotive applications provides some important advantages with respect to traditional flooded designs. Difficulties are reported for flooded lead/acid batteries that use PbCa alloys in the positive grids with respect to recovery of capacity after deep discharge. This problem is no longer valid for recombinant batteries using absortive glass-mat (AGM) separators. Further, this truly maintenance-free battery can be installed in any position, even outside the engine compartment, because of the absence of gas emission or electrolyte spillage. The shelf life is very long and the battery can be stored at open circuit for 12 months with no significant loss of performance. The cold-cranking capacity is higher than the equivalent conventional lead/acid battery due to the reduced internal resistance.

  11. Gelled-electrolyte lead/acid batteries for stationary and traction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, G. J.; Lenain, P.

    The development of new ranges of valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries for stationary and traction applications is described. These batteries are gas recombining and use gelled electrolyte, tubular positive plates cast in lead-calcium-tin alloys and a specially-designed pressure relief valve. For stationary service, comparisons are made with VRLA batteries using absorptive glass mat separators. For traction applications, the relative merits of gel technology against alternative approaches to the achievement of lower maintenance for traction batteries are discussed. Operational experience with these batteries is outlined and guidelines indicated for correct application.

  12. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  13. Flow-Assisted Alkaline Battery: Low-Cost Grid-Scale Electrical Storage using a Flow-Assisted Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Battery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-15

    GRIDS Project: Traditional consumer-grade disposable batteries are made of Zinc and Manganese, 2 inexpensive, abundant, and non-toxic metals. But these disposable batteries can only be used once. If they are recharged, the Zinc in the battery develops filaments called dendrites that grow haphazardly and disrupt battery performance, while the Manganese quickly loses its ability to store energy. CUNY Energy Institute is working to tame dendrite formation and to enhance the lifetime of Manganese in order to create a long-lasting, fully rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. CUNY Energy Institute is also working to reduce dendrite formation by pumping fluid through the battery, enabling researchers to fix the dendrites as they’re forming. The team has already tested its Zinc battery through 3,000 recharge cycles (and counting). CUNY Energy Institute aims to demonstrate a better cycle life than lithium-ion batteries, which can be up to 20 times more expensive than Zinc-based batteries.

  14. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  15. Simulation of the Interaction Between Flywheel Energy Storage and Battery Energy Storage on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederic J.; Dravid, Narayan V.; Li, Ponlee

    2000-01-01

    Replacement of one module of the battery charge discharge unit (BCDU) of the International Space Station (ISS) by a flywheel energy storage unit (FESU) is under consideration. Integration of these two dissimilar systems is likely to surface difficulties in areas of system stability and fault protection. Other issues that need to be addressed include flywheel charge and discharge profiles and their effect on the ISS power system as well as filter sizing for power Ability purposes. This paper describes a SABER based simulation to study these issues.

  16. A cerium-lead redox flow battery system employing supporting electrolyte of methanesulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Zhaolin; Xu, Shengnan; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2015-11-01

    A novel cerium-lead redox flow battery (RFB) employing Ce(IV)/Ce(III) and Pb(II)/Pb redox couples in the supporting electrolyte of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is developed and preliminarily investigated. The RFB requires no additional catalyst and uses kinetically favorable reactions between low-cost reactants, and provides a desirable discharge voltage of approximately 1.7 V, with high average coulombic efficiency (CE) of 92% and energy efficiency (EE) of 86% over 800 cycles at 298 K. Stable cycling with an acceptable performance is achieved for a board operating temperature range of 253 K-313 K. The excellent performance obtained from the preliminary study suggests that the cerium-lead RFB promises to be applicable to large-scale energy storage for electricity grids.

  17. Porosity measurements of electrodes used in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, E. E.; Loyson, P.; Rust, N.

    A method is presented that determines the porosity of a complete electrode plate used in lead-acid batteries. It requires only elementary equipment and is simple to operate, so that laboratory workers can use it as a routine method during manufacturing to determine the complete electrode's average porosity over a range of electrode sizes and types of both flat plate and tubular configuration. The method makes use of Archimedes' principle and uses glycerol as displacement medium. This allows for the porosity determination of both cured and formed positive and negative electrodes, without the detrimental effect of lead oxidation, which is common when using water as a displacement medium. The study showed that the method of using glycerol as a displacement medium gave on average, good repeatable results for both cured and formed positive and negative electrode plates used in the manufacture of automotive lead-acid batteries. The porosity results of the method were compared to the results obtained using Hg porosimetry, where a statistical paired t-test showed the two techniques to produce comparable results for all types of plates analyzed. The porosity of various plates was compared to the surface area of the respective active material of both positive and negative electrodes. These results showed unusual trends in that, depending on the manufacturing conditions, the surface area of formed positive electrodes could vary significantly from sample to sample of different batches without little change in its respective porosity. The surface area of different formed negative electrodes, however, would only vary slightly with significant changes in their corresponding porosity. The glycerol displacement method was also shown to be suitable to determine the effective porosity of cured and formed positive tubular electrodes.

  18. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  19. Bipolar lead-acid batteries for electrical actuation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Douglas C.; Gentry, William O.; Hall, David

    1994-02-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format information on bipolar battery development at Johnson Controls, Incorporated. The organization structure, goals, progress to date, future plans, and battery parameters and electrical properties are given.

  20. Bipolar lead-acid batteries for electrical actuation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Douglas C.; Gentry, William O.; Hall, David

    1994-01-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format information on bipolar battery development at Johnson Controls, Incorporated. The organization structure, goals, progress to date, future plans, and battery parameters and electrical properties are given.

  1. Idling-stop vehicle road tests of advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Ken; Ohmae, Takao; Suwaki, Hironori; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu

    The results of road tests on valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in an idling-stop (stop and go) vehicle are reported. Idling-stop systems are simple systems to improve fuel economy of automobiles. They are expected to spread widely from an environmental perspective. Performances of a conventional flooded battery, a conventional VRLA battery, and an improved VRLA battery were compared in road tests with an idling-stop vehicle. It was found that the improved VRLA battery was suited to idling-stop applications because it had a smaller capacity loss than the conventional flooded battery during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation. The positive grid was corroded in layers, unlike the usual grain boundary corrosion of SLI battery grid. It is because the corrosion proceeded mainly under PSoC conditions. The corrosion rate could be controlled by potential control of positive plates.

  2. Materials Challenges and Opportunities of Lithium-ion Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-03-01

    Electrical energy storage has emerged as a topic of national and global importance with respect to establishing a cleaner environment and reducing the dependence on foreign oil. Batteries are the prime candidates for electrical energy storage. They are the most viable near-term option for vehicle applications and the efficient utilization of intermittent energy sources like solar and wind. Lithium-ion batteries are attractive for these applications as they offer much higher energy density than other rechargeable battery systems. However, the adoption of lithium-ion battery technology for vehicle and stationary storage applications is hampered by high cost, safety concerns, and limitations in energy, power, and cycle life, which are in turn linked to severe materials challenges. This presentation, after providing an overview of the current status, will focus on the physics and chemistry of new materials that can address these challenges. Specifically, it will focus on the design and development of (i) high-capacity, high-voltage layered oxide cathodes, (ii) high-voltage, high-power spinel oxide cathodes, (iii) high-capacity silicate cathodes, and (iv) nano-engineered, high-capacity alloy anodes. With high-voltage cathodes, a critical issue is the instability of the electrolyte in contact with the highly oxidized cathode surface and the formation of solid-electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layers that degrade the performance. Accordingly, surface modification of cathodes with nanostructured materials and self-surface segregation during the synthesis process to suppress SEI layer formation and enhance the energy, power, and cycle life will be emphasized. With the high-capacity alloy anodes, a critical issue is the huge volume change occurring during the charge-discharge process and the consequent poor cycle life. Dispersion of the active alloy nanoparticles in an inactive metal oxide-carbon matrix to mitigate this problem and realize long cycle life will be presented.

  3. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  4. Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J.

    1996-04-01

    The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

  5. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. PMID:26941209

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance. PMID:25798660

  7. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  8. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  9. Introduction Effect of the Load Leveling System with Solar Cell and Storage Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Sadayuki; Tani, Tatsuo

    In our country, the peak demand load is increasing and the load factor of utility is decreasing year after year. However constructing the new power plant is not easy from the restrictions in respect of environment. Consequently operation of electric power systems is becoming more difficult. In order to solve this problem, introducing the LLS using photovoltaic (PV) power generation system or battery (BT) storage system is examined by the utility side. Since neither PV nor BT has the restrictions in respect of environment, it can be installed also in a city area. On the other hand, since a contract electric power can be reduced, introducing the LLS is advantageous also for a customer. However the system, characteristics and effect of LLS is not clear. This paper deals with the operational benefit of LLS with solar cell and storage battery from customer side. The following became clear from the simulation results. 1) If the price of battery system reaches a target price, introducing the LLS becomes advantageous than introducing the PV system. 2) There is the best LLS corresponding to the electric power contract. 3) The operational benefit changes with the capacity of PV and BT.

  10. Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Matthew; Bean, Thomas; Woodland, Travis; Canning, John; Cheng, I. Frank; Edwards, Dean B.

    2014-11-01

    Porous, hollow, glass microspheres (PHGMs) can be used to increase porosity in lead acid battery electrodes to improve the battery's power and energy performance at higher discharge rates. As reported in this paper, the PHGM additives did improve electrolyte storage and porosity in the electrodes. However, the nonconductive PHGMs do reduce the critical volume fraction (CVF) of the electrodes as predicted from conductivity models. The increase in electrode performance due to increased porosity may therefore be partially offset by the drop in capacity due to a lower critical volume fraction. Empirical equations are developed that relate the CFV and porosity of an electrode to the amount, size, and porosity of the additives in that electrode. The porosity estimates made from the empirical equations compare favorably with the experimental data from plates fabricated with these additives. The performance of electrodes with additives is estimated from computer models using the electrode's CVF and porosity as provided by the equations. Tests were performed on plates having volume loadings of PHGMs from 11% to 44% of total solids in positive electrodes to determine their effect on active material utilizations. The results from these discharge tests are reported and compared with theoretical models.

  11. Charge regimes for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries: Performance overview inclusive of temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. S.; Hurley, W. G.; Wölfle, W. H.

    The main battery type employed in standby applications is the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Float charging is normally used to maintain the battery in its fully charged state, however, float charging has limitations that can damage the battery and shorten its life. New charge regimes have evolved in recent years to tackle the intrinsic problems of float charging. The intermittent charge (IC) regime and the interrupted charge control (ICC) regime have been developed to prolong the service life of the battery in standby applications. The battery is normally maintained in the standby mode for a long period of time and there are infrequent discharge tests to verify the efficacy of the battery. Hence, the service life of the battery is highly correlated to its charge regime. This paper reviews the charge regimes for VRLA batteries, and assesses their charging performance and their impact on the service life of the battery. Recognising that temperature plays a significant role in battery operation, temperature compensation schemes are described for different charge regimes.

  12. Development and application of a battery energy storage system simulation program for rail transit systems. Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, C.E.; Uher, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    Under the Rail Transit Energy Management Program, a computer model was developed to assess the economic feasibility of applying battery energy storage to rail transit systems. This model was applied to the Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT) (Pittsburgh) light rail system and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority`s (WMATA) MetroRail. The results indicate that the payback periods for investment into battery energy storage and relatively long; 14 years for WMATA and 10 years for PAT. These payback periods are marginal and with the risk associated with implementing battery storage, it is doubtful whether transit management would be inclined to make such an investment. The capital cost of battery storage can be reduced by eliminating the power conditioning equipment and allowing the battery to be connected directly to the third rail catenary or trolley system. The model can easily be modified to assess the economic feasibility of other alternative energy sources such as cogeneration and other storage media, such as superconducting magnetic energy storage.

  13. The performance of Ebonex ® electrodes in bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Keith; Hill, Andrew; Hill, John; Loyns, Andrew; Partington, Tom

    Recent work by Atraverda on the production of an Ebonex ® material that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form bipolar substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries is described. In addition, data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory lead-acid batteries is presented indicating that weight savings of around 40% for a bipolar 36 V design (20 Ah capacity, 5 h rate, 9 kW) are potentially achievable in comparison to more conventional designs containing monopolar lead grids. Results indicate that their use as bipolar substrate materials will provide light-weight, long-lasting lead-acid batteries suitable for automotive, standby and power tool applications.

  14. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged. PMID:26341636

  15. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  16. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  17. A Capacity Design Method of Distributed Battery Storage for Controlling Power Variation with Large-Scale Photovoltaic Sources in Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Gunji, Keiko; Yamazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    A design method for distributed battery storage capacity has been developed for evaluating battery storage advantage on demand-supply imbalance control in distribution systems with which large-scale home photovoltaic powers connected. The proposed method is based on a linear storage capacity minimization model with design basis demand load and photovoltaic output time series subjective to battery management constraints. The design method has been experimentally applied to a sample distribution system with substation storage and terminal area storage. From the numerical results, the developed method successfully clarifies the charge-discharge control and stored power variation, satisfies peak cut requirement, and pinpoints the minimum distributed storage capacity.

  18. Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Tianfei; Chen, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Here, we adopted a lithium-carbon battery configuration. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. The induced fluorination of CNTA papers activated the reversible fluorination/defluorination reactions and lithium-ion storage/release at the CNTA paper cathodes, resulting in a dual-storage mechanism. The rechargeable battery with this dual-storage mechanism demonstrated a maximum discharging capacity of 2174 mAh gcarbon−1 and a specific energy of 4113 Wh kgcarbon−1 with good cycling performance. PMID:24931036

  19. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Hardin, J.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227). 8 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of composite membranes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Charles, Jr.; Assink, Roger A.

    Low coulombic efficiencies of zinc/bromine redox batteries were attributed to migration of bromine and negatively charged bromine moieties through the microporous separator used to separate the catholyte from the anolyte. While it was demonstrated that improvements in coulombic efficiency can be achieved by replacing the microporous separator with a cationic ion exchange membrane, these membranes are expensive and/or not sufficiently conductive to be practicable. It was found that the rate of bromine permeation can be reduced by two orders of magnitude with minimal decreases in conductivity by impregnating commercial microporous polyethylene type separators with sulfonated polysulfone, a cationic polyelectrolyte that was developed in earlier work for other redox storage batteries.

  1. Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chumyim, Porramate; Gowda, Sanketh R.; Pradhan, Padmanava; Jadhav, Swapnil R.; Dubey, Madan; John, George; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered. PMID:23233879

  2. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  3. Batteries: Converting to long stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seongmin; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are attractive energy storage technologies owing to their low cost and high safety, but suffer from poor electrochemical performance. Now, an aqueous mild-acid-based Zn/MnO2 battery that operates via a conversion mechanism is shown to have a long-term cycling stability.

  4. Analysis of the performance parameters of lead/acid batteries in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. U.; Bächler, M.; Bopp, G.; Höhe, W.; Mittermeier, J.; Sprau, P.; Willer, B.; Wollny, M.

    A systematic effort is made to define analysis and performance parameters for lead/acid batteries in photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this paper, results from the data analysis are presented, showing typical current and voltage profiles and time series of state-of-charge. Four major classes of battery operating conditions in PV systems and another four classes of temperature conditions are identified. Typical results from all classes are shown as examples. These results should help system engineers to choose the right control strategies and the battery industry to choose and develop appropriate batteries for PV applications especially for Central Europe, where most of the systems under investigation are located.

  5. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for SLI use in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoi, T.; Furukawa, H.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automotive applications have been on the market in Japan for more than ten years. Initially, the batteries were used only for a small-size motorcycle. Today, however, they are widely employed in all sizes of motorcycles. In the meantime, VRLA batteries have also been used for agricultural machines, and even for some types of passenger cars. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development and application of VRLA batteries for SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) use in Japan and discusses future expected trends.

  6. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  7. Results of chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.; Sidik, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A group of 108 state of the art nominally 6 volt lead acid batteries were tested in a program of one charge/discharge cycle per day for over two years or to ultimate battery failure. The primary objective was to determine battery cycle life as a function of depth of discharge (25 to 75 percent), chopper frequency (100 to 1000 Hz), duty cycle (25 to 87.5 percent), and average discharge current (20 to 260 A). The secondary objective was to determine the types of battery failure modes, if any, were due to the above parameters. The four parameters above were incorporated in a statistically designed test program.

  8. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  9. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  10. Effect of depth of discharge on lead-acid battery overcharge requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.

    1986-02-01

    The develop an optimal charge procedure, the relation between battery available capacity, applied overcharge, and the depth-of-discharge (DOD) level prior to charging needed to be established. Therefore, a series of parametric tests was conducted to measure the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries from initial DOD levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100%. Because the available capacity and charge acceptance of the lead-acid battery are dependent on operating temperature, all the charges and discharges were initiated at a fixed temperature. Also because of the typical variation in available capacity of the lead-acid battery with age, baseline performance measurements were periodically acquired for normalization of the charge acceptance test data. The results from these tests show that the amount of overcharge needed to obtain the maximum available capacity from an EV-3000 improved lead-acid battery (which uses electrolyte mixing) is greatly reduced from that needed for commercially available golf-car lead-acid batteries. This was true for all initial DOD levels. The overcharges needed by the EV-3000 battery was a function of the DOD level prior to charging, but the overcharge needed for the golf-car battery was independent of DOD level. The acquired data can be used to derive an optium charge algorithm that relates capacity, overcharge, and DOD level. Applying only the minimum overcharge level needed for full capacity offers advantages of: (1) reduced generation of gases, (2) reduced water consumption, (3) cleaner battery containers, (4) reduced maintenance, and (5) increased battery life.

  11. Techniques for jar formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weighall, M. J.

    The market for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is growing steadily and will be given a further boost as the market for 36-V batteries for the 42-V PowerNet develops over the next few years. The manufacture of VRLA batteries poses, however, a number of complex technical problems that are not experienced in the manufacture of conventional flooded batteries. For the large-scale manufacture of automotive batteries or other small VRLA batteries of 100 Ah or less, jar formation rather than plate formation and dry charge would seem to be a logical and economically sound decision. For this to be successful, however, a number of key issues need to be reviewed, starting with a detailed consideration of battery design. This paper reviews issues associated with the jar formation of VRLA batteries. Guidance is given concerning filling techniques (gravity or vacuum fill), the formation process, charging techniques, and formation algorithms. Battery design and separator optimisation is discussed. The properties of the separator, e.g. wicking rate, fibre composition, surface area and compression, may have a critical impact on acid filling and jar formation, and may partially determine the filling and formation conditions to be used. The control of temperature during formation is particularly important. Formation algorithms and temperature data are presented. Attention is drawn to the possible loss of plate-group compression during the formation process, and how this may be avoided.

  12. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  13. Manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    This paper introduces the manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China. The contents cover the following topics: (i) background development; (ii) materials; (iii) manufacturing technology and equipment; (iv) application and market prospects.

  14. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. PMID:21799983

  15. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  16. A mixed acid based vanadium-cerium redox flow battery with a zero-gap serpentine architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, P. K.; Mohamed, M. R.; Shah, A. A.; Xu, Q.; Conde-Duran, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of a vanadium-cerium redox flow battery using conventional and zero-gap serpentine architectures. Mixed-acid solutions based on methanesulfonate-sulfate anions (molar ratio 3:1) are used to enhance the solubilities of the vanadium (>2.0 mol dm-3) and cerium species (>0.8 mol dm-3), thus achieving an energy density (c.a. 28 Wh dm-3) comparable to that of conventional all-vanadium redox flow batteries (20-30 Wh dm-3). Electrochemical studies, including cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling, show that both vanadium and cerium active species are suitable for energy storage applications in these electrolytes. To take advantage of the high open-circuit voltage (1.78 V), improved mass transport and reduced internal resistance are facilitated by the use of zero-gap flow field architecture, which yields a power density output of the battery of up to 370 mW cm-2 at a state-of-charge of 50%. In a charge-discharge cycle at 200 mA cm-2, the vanadium-cerium redox flow battery with the zero-gap architecture is observed to discharge at a cell voltage of c.a. 1.35 V with a coulombic efficiency of up to 78%.

  17. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform "smart" charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR.

  18. Study on capacity fading of 18650 type LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liu-Qun; Li, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Lin, Hai-Jun; Miao, Yan-Yue; Chen, Shou-Wei; Liu, Hai-Bin

    2015-05-01

    The capacity fading of LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage was studied. The discharging capacity fading is attributed to the decreasing in the charging capacity at the constant current stage. After 300 cycles, the ratio of the charging capacity of batteries at the constant current stage to the total charging capacity decreases from 87.2 to 71.2%. The bounce-back voltage is closely related to the internal resistance when the battery is discharged to the cut-off voltage of 3.0 V. Batteries were disassembled in the fully discharged state, and then a assembled again in order to deeply understand the causes of the capacity fading of the cathode and anode. The results shows that the SEI film thickness increasing, breaking or repairing process at the anode could be responsible for the high bounce-back voltage, the increase of the internal resistance and the capacity fading during storage.

  19. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  20. The advanced lead-acid battery consortium—a worldwide cooperation brings rapid progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The development of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries has, in recent years, been carried forward rapidly through the collaborative efforts of a worldwide consortium of battery manufacturers and related elements of industry; the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). This group has set aside its competitive instincts in order to achieve acceptable goals in respect of those parameters that are key factors controlling the marketability of electric vehicles (EVs): cost, cycle life, specific energy, specific power and rate of recharge. This paper provides an overview of the principal themes of the ALABC research and development programme.

  1. Reinforced Positive Filler Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Rippel, Wally E.

    1991-01-01

    Lead-coated glass fibers extend battery life. Mixture of lead-coated glass fibers and positive paste form pellets of active material between grid wires of positive battery electrode. Fibers contribute to charge capacity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stability of electrode.

  2. Caffeoylquinic Acids in Storage Roots of Sixteen Sweetpotato Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contents of chlorogenic acid and the 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5- isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) in the storage root tissues of sixteen sweetpotato genotypes were determined. Averaged over genotypes, the contents of the four compounds were highest in the cortex, intermediate in the stele and lo...

  3. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g−1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles. PMID:27270184

  4. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g‑1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  5. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, M M; Yang, C C; Wang, C C; Wen, Z; Zhu, Y F; Zhao, M; Li, J C; Zheng, W T; Lian, J S; Jiang, Q

    2016-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world's dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials-hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g(-1), which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles. PMID:27270184

  6. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-02-01

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices.

  7. A new electrolyte formulation for low cost cycling lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcheux, L.; Lailler, P.

    This paper is devoted to the development of a new lead acid battery electrolyte formulation for cycling applications, especially for renewable energy markets in developing countries. These emerging markets, such as solar home systems, require lead acid batteries at very low prices and improved performances compared to automotive batteries produced locally. The new acid formulation developed is a mixture of sulphuric acid, liquid colloidal silica and other additives including phosphoric acid. The colloidal silica is used at a low concentration in order to decrease the acid stratification process during cycling at high depth of discharge. Phosphoric acid is used for the improvement of the textural evolution of the positive active material during cycling. After a description of the markets and of the additives used in the new acid formulation, this paper presents the results obtained with normalised photovoltaic cycle testing on low cost automotive batteries modified by the new electrolyte formulation. It is shown that the cycling life of such batteries is much increased in the presence of the new formulation. These results are explained by the improved evolution of positive active mass softening parameters (specific surface and β-PbO 2 crystallite size) and also by a more homogeneous sulphating process on both plates.

  8. Conceptual design of electrical balance of plant for advanced battery energy storage facility. Annual report, March 1979. [20-MW, 100 MWh

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale efforts are in progress to develop advanced batteries for utility energy storage systems. Realization of the full benefits available from those systems requires development, not only of the batteries themselves, but also the ac/dc power converter, the bulk power interconnecting equipment, and the peripheral electric balance of plant equipment that integrate the battery/converter into a properly controlled and protected energy system. This study addresses these overall system aspects; although tailored to a 20-MW, 100-MWh lithium/sulfide battery system, the technology and concepts are applicable to any battery energy storage system. 42 figures, 14 tables. (RWR)

  9. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  10. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  11. Rechargeable Metal–Air Proton‐Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rechargeable proton‐exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen‐storage media have the potential to serve as next‐generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen‐storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal‐ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn0.9In0.1P2O7‐based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V4+/V3+, V3+/V2+, and Sn4+/Sn2+ redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g−1 for VOSO4 and SnSO4, respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles. PMID:27525212

  12. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stop-and-go applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, G. J.

    Increasing levels of demand for electrical power for vehicles have prompted a considerable level of research into higher voltage systems. This has resulted in the definition of preliminary standards for 36/42 V systems. The implementation costs for these systems are high and this has led to improvements in 12/14 V power architectures. In particular, alternator power outputs at 14 V have increased and the need for lower emission levels and fuel economy is stimulating a demand for stop-and-go systems. In this type of application, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to a halt, and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. The duty cycle that this applies to the battery is quite onerous with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries are unable to meet the requirements and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are essential to meet the demands applied. The background to stop-and-go battery applications is considered and test results on practical batteries are presented to show that under a simulated duty cycle, good performance can be achieved. There is also a need for a higher level of battery management for stop-and-go systems. A practical approach to battery condition monitoring to assess the state-of-charge and state-of-health of the battery is described.

  13. Advances in recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM) separators for lead-acid batteries—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zguris, G. C.

    Microglass separators have been used in lead-acid batteries for more than 20 years with excellent results. This type of separator (known as recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM)) has allowed valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology to become a commercial reality. When the concept of the VRLA battery was developed, the requirements of the RBSM separator were not fully known nor appreciated. In many cases, the direction charted for the separator has not been the most beneficial path to follow for separator performance and battery life. In some cases, such as the density of the separator media, experience has shown that the most correct path (low density) does not give rise to long battery life. As VRLA battery technology matures, greater pressure on cost and quality has arisen, especially with the proposed transition to 42 V automotive applications. This paper reviews some of the advances and changes in the RBSM separator made over the last 20 years, and provides some thoughts on future directions for this essential component of the VRLA battery.

  14. Characterization of nano-lead-doped active carbon and its application in lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Xue, Haitao; Liu, Fangyang; Jia, Ming; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, nano-lead-doped active carbon (nano-Pb/AC) composite with low hydrogen evolution current for lead-acid battery was prepared by ultrasonic-absorption and chemical-precipitate method. The nano-Pb/AC composite was characterized by SEM, EDS and TEM. The electrochemical characterizations are performed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a three-electrode system. Since intermediate adsorption is the rate-determining step, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is markedly inhibited as the intermediate adsorption impedance of nano-Pb/AC increased. Meanwhile, the working potential of nano-Pb/AC is widened to the whole potential region of Pb negative plate (from -1.36 V to -0.86 V vs. Hg/HgSO4) in lead-acid battery. In addition, nano-Pb can improve the interfacial compatibility between AC and Pb paste, accordingly relieve the symptoms of carbon floatation. Finally, 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with 1.0 wt.% nano-Pb/AC or 1.0 wt.% AC addition in negative active materials are assembled. The cell performances test results show that the 3 h rate capacity, quick charging performance, high current discharging performance and cycling performance of nano-Pb/AC modified battery are all improved compared with regular lead-acid battery and AC modified lead-acid battery.

  15. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 3: Life cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE j227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system included a 108 volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited dc propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses.

  16. Automatic battery analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.J.; Frailing, C.E.

    1980-03-11

    Apparatus for automatically testing automotive-type, lead acid storage batteries is disclosed in which three separate tests are made and the results thereof compared to predetermined standards in a specified order to maximize the information obtained about the battery. The three tests measure (1) whether the battery meets its cold cranking rating by drawing a predetermined load current therefrom for a predetermined period of time and determining whether the battery terminal voltage is above a specified level at the end of that period, (2) whether the battery terminal voltage is above another specified level at the end of a predetermined period of time following the completion of the first test, and (3) whether the internal resistance is acceptably low. If the battery passes the first test, it is known to be acceptable. If the battery fails the first test and passes the second test, it is known to be unacceptable. If the battery fails the first and second tests, the third test is performed. If the battery then passes the third test, it is known to be acceptable but to require a recharge, whereas if the battery then fails the third test the acceptability of the battery is then not yet determined and it must be recharged and retested.

  17. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdátsy, G.; Benedek, F.; Kokavecz, J.; Szabó, G.; Kornis, J.

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/°C.

  18. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Gajdátsy, G; Benedek, F; Kokavecz, J; Szabó, G; Kornis, J

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/degrees C. PMID:20059171

  19. Diffusion battery sampling of sulfuric acid aerosols formed in oleum spill experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, I N; Wong, W T; Munkelwitz, H R

    1980-01-01

    Fuming sulfuric acid (oleum) is one of several hazardous chemicals routinely transported in bulk quantities on US waterways. In the event of a marine accident, a large amount of the cargo acid could suddenly be released into water, resulting in the formation of a dense sulfuric acid cloud. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory to study the factors controlling the extent of acid aerosol formation under conditions likely to occur in maritime spill accidents. A Sinclair-type diffusion battery was used for aerosol sizing. In this presentation, a brief discussion of an improved nonlinear iterative inversion method for the analysis of diffusion battery data is given. Experimental results obtained with monodisperse test aerosols and sulfuric acid aerosols formed during oleum spills are presented. It is shown that the diffusion battery, coupled with the inversion technique, is capable of sizing particles up to 0.8 ..mu..m in diameter.

  20. A Novel Integrated Magnetic Structure Based DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on a novel actively controlled hybrid magnetic battery/ultracapacitor based energy storage system (ESS) for vehicular propulsion systems. A stand-alone battery system might not be sufficient to satisfy peak power demand and transient load variations in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV, PHEV). Active battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS provides a better solution in terms of efficient power management and control flexibility. Moreover, the voltage of the battery pack can be selected to be different than that of the ultracapacitor, which will result in flexibility of design as well as cost and size reduction of the battery pack. In addition, the ultracapacitor bank can supply or recapture a large burst of power and it can be used with high C-rates. Hence, the battery is not subjected to supply peak and sharp power variations, and the stress on the battery will be reduced and the battery lifetime would be increased. Utilizing ultracapacitor results in effective capturing of the braking energy, especially in sudden braking conditions.

  1. Battery Energy Storage Systems to Mitigate the Variability of Photovoltaic Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurganus, Heath Alan

    Methods of generating renewable energy such as through solar photovoltaic (PV) cells and wind turbines offer great promise in terms of a reduced carbon footprint and overall impact on the environment. However, these methods also share the attribute of being highly stochastic, meaning they are variable in such a way that is difficult to forecast with sufficient accuracy. While solar power currently constitutes a small amount of generating potential in most regions, the cost of photovoltaics continues to decline and a trend has emerged to build larger PV plants than was once feasible. This has brought the matter of increased variability to the forefront of research in the industry. Energy storage has been proposed as a means of mitigating this increased variability --- and thus reducing the need to utilize traditional spinning reserves --- as well as offering auxiliary grid services such as peak-shifting and frequency control. This thesis addresses the feasibility of using electrochemical storage methods (i.e. batteries) to decrease the ramp rates of PV power plants. By building a simulation of a grid-connected PV array and a typical Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the NetLogo simulation environment, I have created a parameterized tool that can be tailored to describe almost any potential PV setup. This thesis describes the design and function of this model, and makes a case for the accuracy of its measurements by comparing its simulated output to that of well-documented real world sites. Finally, a set of recommendations for the design and operational parameters of such a system are then put forth based on the results of several experiments performed using this model.

  2. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  3. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  4. Amersorb: a new high-performance polymeric separator for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    Given the recent improvements in valve-regulated batteries, lead-acid technology is nowadays considered to be well-suited for stationary power applications. Gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are complementary technologies and provide reliability and efficiency due to progressive optimization of the design and components. Special attention has been paid to the separation system, as its influence on the battery performance has been fully demonstrated. Polymeric calendered ribbed separators are traditionally used in gel VRLA batteries. For this technology, the separator is required to have high pore volume, optimized pore size, low acid displacement and low electrical resistance. It must also support efficient and controlled oxygen transfer. Glass-microfibre separators are presently the preferred material for AGM batteries. In addition to the properties listed for the polymeric type, glass-microfibre separators must not allow any drainage or stratification of the liquid electrolyte, and be able to retain their initial thickness after filling and during the battery life in order to sustain the initial compression in each cell. The Amersorb separator is well adapted to both technologies, for example: (i) the ribbed and corrugated patterns provide improved porosity (pore volume and pore-size distribution); (ii) the flat membrane is not only able to wick and retain the acid, but has also optimal compression properties (low compressibility and excellent springiness).

  5. Hydrogen Storage in the Carbon Dioxide - Formic Acid Cycle.

    PubMed

    Fink, Cornel; Montandon-Clerc, Mickael; Laurenczy, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes. PMID:26842324

  6. Lead-acid batteries for micro- and mild-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenciano, J.; Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Sanz, L.

    Car manufactures have announced the launch in coming months of vehicles with reduced emissions due to the introduction of new functions like stop-start and regenerative braking. Initial performance request of automotive lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more demanding and, in addition to this, cycle life with new accelerated ageing profiles are being proposed in order to determine the influence of the new functions on the expected battery life. This paper will show how different lead-acid battery technologies comply with these new demands, from an improved version of the conventional flooded SLI battery to the high performance of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Different approaches have been studied for improving conventional flooded batteries, i.e., either by the addition of new additives for reducing electrolyte stratification or by optimisation of the battery design to extend cycling life in partial state of charge conditions. With respect to VRLA technology, two different battery designs have been compared. Spiral wound design combines excellent power capability and cycle life under different depth of discharge (DoD) cycling conditions, but flat plate design outperform the latter in energy density due to better utilization of the space available in a prismatic enclosure. This latter design is more adequate for high end class vehicles with high electrical energy demand, whereas spiral wound is better suited for high power/long life demand of commercial vehicle. High temperature behaviour (75 °C) is rather poor for both designs due to water loss, and then VRLA batteries should preferably be located out of the engine compartment.

  7. Design of an efficient electrolyte circulation system for the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuerk, D.

    The design and operation of an electrolyte circulation system are described. Application of lead acid batteries to electric vehicle and other repetitive deep cycle services produces a nondesirable state in the battery cells, electrolyte stratification. This stratification is the result of acid and water generation at the electrodes during cycling. With continued cycling, the extent of the stratification increases and prevents complete charging with low percentages of overcharge. Ultimately this results in extremely short life for the battery system. The stratification problem was overcome by substantially overcharging the battery. This abusive overcharge produces gassing rates sufficient to mix the electrolyte during the end portion of the charge. Overcharge, even though it is required to eliminate stratification, produces the undesirable results related to high voltage and gassing rates.

  8. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  9. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  10. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  11. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  12. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  13. Electrochemical energy — progress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  14. New developments on valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, M. L.; Hernández, J. C.; Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.

    The development of novel electrical systems for low emission vehicles demands batteries with specific cycling performance, especially under partial state of charge (PSOC) conditions. Moreover, according to the powertrain design, battery high power capability is demanded or this function can be assumed by a supercapacitor or a flywheel. This paper deals with the development of AGM and gel valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive applications. AGM VRLA battery development was based on previous work for short autonomy high power UPS applications and on active material formulations with specific additives to improve battery life under high rate partial state of charge cycling conditions. The 18 Ah batteries showed excellent high rate capability (9 kW 10 s discharge peaks and 4 kW 5 s regenerative charge acceptance at 60% state of charge) and 110,000 power assist microcycles at 60% SOC and 2.5% DOD were fulfilled. Moreover, as preliminary work in the development of a cost-effective and reliable gel battery to be used in combination of a supercapacitor in a 42 V mild-hybrid powertrain, VRLA batteries with conventional gel formulations have been tested according to novel automotive cycling profiles, mainly moderate cycling under partial state of charge conditions and simulating load management in a stop and start working profile.

  15. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  16. Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-12-01

    This chapter discusses two types of molten salt batteries. Both of them are based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte and molten sodium anode, i.e., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. The chapter first reviews the basic electrochemistries and materials for various battery components. It then describes the performance of state-of-the-art batteries and future direction in material development for these batteries.

  17. Testing and evaluation of an industrial lead-acid battery for utility load-leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Corp, D.; Folke, E.; Tillery, G.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Constant-power/constant-voltage charging, as well as constant-current/constant-voltage charging, was investigated. Electrolyte stratification observed in the battery during cycling indicates discharge of the battery from the top down. Uneven concentration of acid during charge may be avoided by mixing. This study shows that a minimization in cycle time can be achieved by proper choice of charge/discharge parameters.

  18. Study and application of several-step tank formation of lead/acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyu; Wei, Yongzhong; Luo, Yourong; Duan, Shuzhen

    A several-step tank formation method and related charging equipment have been developed for automotive lead/acid batteries. This process offers the advantages of reduced energy requirements, increased charging efficiency and reduced environmental problems. Results also suggest that several-step formation ameliorates the problem of premature capacity loss and extends the useful service-life of automotive batteries. This is thought to be due to the production of greater amounts of α-PbO 2 in the positive plates.

  19. Investigations of the factors causing performance losses of lead/acid traction batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberger, H.; Fabjan, Ch.; Gofas, N.

    A failure analysis is carried out with a lead/acid traction battery after a two-years' test run in an electric passenger car. A survey of the operational data, in combination with laboratory tests and chemical and physical analyses, reveals the main causes of battery damage and performance loss: insufficiencies of the charging procedure, inadequate maintainance (water-refilling system), antimony-contamination and loss of the active material due to grid corrosion and shedding of PbO 2.

  20. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  1. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and its application in microporous separators for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C.; Harvey, M. K.; Ng, J. C.; Scheunemann, U.

    The polyethylene (PE) used in separators for automotive lead/acid batteries is actually UHMW-PE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene). Microporous PE separators were commercialized in the early 1970s. Since then, they have gained in popularity in the lead/acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) automotive applications. This paper provides an introductory overview of the UHMW-PE polymer and its contributions to the PE battery separator manufacturing process, battery assembly and battery performance, in comparison with other conventional separators such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass fibre.

  2. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Joern; Meissner, Eberhard; Shirazi, Sepehr

    More and more vehicles hit the European automotive market, which comprise some type of micro-hybrid functionality to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Most carmakers already offer at least one of their vehicles with an optional engine start/stop system, while some other models are sold with micro-hybrid functions implemented by default. But these car concepts show a wide variety in detail-the term "micro-hybrid" may mean a completely different functionality in one vehicle model compared to another. Accordingly, also the battery technologies are not the same. There is a wide variety of batteries from standard flooded and enhanced flooded to AGM which all are claimed to be "best choice" for micro-hybrid applications. A technical comparison of micro-hybrid cars available on the European market has been performed. Different classes of cars with different characteristics have been identified. Depending on the scope and characteristics of micro-hybrid functions, as well as on operational strategies implemented by the vehicle makers, the battery operating duties differ significantly between these classes of vehicles. Additional laboratory investigations have been carried out to develop an understanding of effects observed in batteries operated in micro-hybrid vehicles pursuing different strategies, to identify limitations for applications of different battery technologies.

  3. Lead acid battery pulse discharge investigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dowgiallo, E

    1980-04-01

    The effects of high current pulses caused by electric vehicle silicon-controlled rectifier and transistor chopper controllers on battery energy, lifetime, and microstructure were studied. Test equipment and results are described. It was found that the energy of improved golf cart-type batteries deteriorated under pulsed conditions by about 10% with respect to dc conditions for pulses between 16 and 333 Hz - no difference was noted above 333 Hz. Frequencies and duty cycles characteristic of electric vehicle controllers produce ampere-hour capacities similar in magnitude to dc discharges of the same average currents. The amount of positive plate corrosion under pulsed conditions was about twice that ot the unpulsed. Unusually large lead sulfate crystals were found in isolated colonies in pulsed plates, whereas a battery that had been discharged each cycle at an equivalent steady state did not show these large crystals. 5 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  4. Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Boysen, DA; Ouchi, T; Sadoway, DR

    2013-11-01

    Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 degrees C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm(-2), the calcium bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98%. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, KT; Ridgway, P; Weber, AZ; Haussener, S; Battaglia, V; Srinivasan, V

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/bromine redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of bromine on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the bromine reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.018211jes] All rights reserved.

  6. Structure-property relationships of anionic permselective membranes. [Fe/Cr redox storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Anionic exchange membranes are used in Fe/Cr redox storage batteries to separate the anolyte from the catholyte and provide electrical continuity. Membranes with lower area resistivity, higher selectivity and reduced susceptibility toward fouling are required to improve the efficiency and lifetime of these batteries. In order to develop improved membrane, a better understanding of the relationships between these properties and such structural parameters as degree of crosslinking, ion exchange capacity and porosity were needed. The primary objective of this work was to define the structure-property relationships of anionic permselective membranes. A secondary goal was to develop empirical models which can be used to predict membrane performance. This kind of information should be useful for the development of improved membranes. To accomplish these goals a factorial study was carried out with model membranes. These membranes were designed in such a way that all three structural parameters could be varied independently. In this paper it will be shown how this approach not only provided models which could be used to predict membrane performance, but also how one of the model membrane exhibited better properties than state-of-the-art membranes.

  7. Development of a lead-acid battery for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A.

    In September 2000, a project reliable, highly optimized lead-acid battery (RHOLAB) started under the UK Foresight Vehicle Programme with the objective of developing an optimized lead-acid battery solution for hybrid electric vehicles. The work is based on a novel, individual, spirally-wound valve-regulated lead-acid 2 V cell optimized for HEV use and low variability. This cell is being used as a building block for the development of a complete battery pack that is managed at the cell level. Following bench testing, this battery pack is to be thoroughly evaluated by substituting it for the Ni-MH pack in a Honda Insight. The RHOLAB cell is based on the 8 Ah Hawker Cyclon cell which has been modified to have current take-off at both ends—the dual-tab design. In addition, a variant has been produced with modified cell chemistry to help deal with problems that can occur when these valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLA) cells operate in a partial-state-of-charge condition. The cells have been cycled to a specially formulated test cycle based on real vehicle data derived from testing the Honda Insight on the various test tracks at the Millbrook Proving Grounds in the UK. These cycling tests have shown that the lead-acid pack can be successfully cycled when subjected to the high current demands from the vehicle, which have been measured at up to 15 C on discharge and 8 C during regenerative recharging, and cycle life is looking very promising under this arduous test regime. Concurrent with this work, battery development has been taking place. It was decided early on to develop the 144 V battery as four 36 V modules. Data collection and control has been built-in and special steps taken to minimize the problems of interconnect in this complex system. Development of the battery modules is now at an advanced stage. The project plan then allows for extensive testing of the vehicle with its lead-acid battery at Millbrook so it can be compared with the benchmark tests which

  8. Battery energy storage sizing when time of use pricing is applied.

    PubMed

    Carpinelli, Guido; Khormali, Shahab; Mottola, Fabio; Proto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs. PMID:25295309

  9. Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied

    PubMed Central

    Khormali, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs. PMID:25295309

  10. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  11. Accumulation of Oxygenated Fatty Acids in Oat Lipids During Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids were identified in oat grain by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. We hypothesized that most of these were the results of lipoxygenase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring concentrations of these compounds after hydrothermal treatments and storage of oat groa...

  12. Lewis acid-base interactions between polysulfides and metal organic framework in lithium sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianming; Tian, Jian; Wu, Dangxin; Gu, Meng; Xu, Wu; Wang, Chongmin; Gao, Fei; Engelhard, Mark H; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-05-14

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity of 1675 mAh g(-1) based on sulfur. However, the rapid capacity degradation, mainly caused by polysulfide dissolution, remains a significant challenge prior to practical applications. This work demonstrates that a novel Ni-based metal organic framework (Ni-MOF), Ni6(BTB)4(BP)3 (BTB = benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate and BP = 4,4'-bipyridyl), can remarkably immobilize polysulfides within the cathode structure through physical and chemical interactions at molecular level. The capacity retention achieves up to 89% after 100 cycles at 0.1 C. The excellent performance is attributed to the synergistic effects of the interwoven mesopores (∼2.8 nm) and micropores (∼1.4 nm) of Ni-MOF, which first provide an ideal matrix to confine polysulfides, and the strong interactions between Lewis acidic Ni(II) center and the polysulfide base, which significantly slow down the migration of soluble polysulfides out of the pores, leading to the excellent cycling performance of Ni-MOF/S composite. PMID:24702610

  13. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  14. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  15. 7. General Viewacid storage tank to east of building with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General View-acid storage tank to east of building with accumulation vats in foreground. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Early results from a systems approach to improving the performance and lifetime of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaway, M. J.; Jennings, P.; Stone, D.; Crowe, E.; Cooper, A.

    Lead acid batteries offer important advantages in respect of unit cost and ease of recycling. They also have good power and low temperature performance. However, for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) duty with their extreme rates and continuous PSoC operation, improvements are required to significantly extend service life. The Reliable Highly Optimised Lead Acid Battery (RHOLAB) project is taking a radical approach to the design of a lead acid HEV battery pack to address this issue, taking a systems approach to produce a complete pack that is attractive to vehicle manufacturers. This paper describes the project at an intermediate stage where some testing has been completed and the construction of the complete pack system is well under way.

  17. The hydrogen economy: a threat or an opportunity for lead-acid batteries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Dell, R. M.

    There is mounting concern over the sustainability of global energy supplies. Among the key drivers are: (i) global warming, ocean surface acidification and air pollution, which imply the need to control and reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially emissions from transportation and thermal power stations; (ii) the diminishing reserves of oil and natural gas; (iii) the need for energy security adapted to each country, such as decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel imports (in particular, the vulnerability to volatile oil prices) from regions where there is political or economic instability; (iv) the expected growth in world population with the ever-increasing aspiration for an improved standard-of-living for all, especially in developing and poor nations. Hydrogen is being promoted world-wide as a total panacea for energy problems. As a versatile carrier for storing and transporting energy from any one of a myriad of sources to an electricity generator, it is argued that hydrogen will eventually replace, or at least greatly reduce, the reliance on fossil fuels. Not unexpectedly, the building of a 'hydrogen economy' presents great scientific and technological challenges in production, delivery, storage, conversion, and end-use. In addition, there are many policy, regulatory, economic, financial, investment, environmental and safety questions to be addressed. Notwithstanding these obstacles, it is indeed plausible that hydrogen will become increasingly deployed and will compete with traditional systems of energy storage and supply. Moreover, the case for hydrogen will be greatly strengthened if fuel cells, which are the key enabling technology, become more reliable, more durable, and less expensive. This paper examines the prospects for hydrogen as a universal energy-provider and considers the impact that its introduction might have on the present deployment of lead-acid batteries in mobile, stationary and road transportation applications.

  18. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories. PMID:22578522

  19. A comparative study of all-vanadium and iron-chromium redox flow batteries for large-scale energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.

    2015-12-01

    The promise of redox flow batteries (RFBs) utilizing soluble redox couples, such as all vanadium ions as well as iron and chromium ions, is becoming increasingly recognized for large-scale energy storage of renewables such as wind and solar, owing to their unique advantages including scalability, intrinsic safety, and long cycle life. An ongoing question associated with these two RFBs is determining whether the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) or iron-chromium redox flow battery (ICRFB) is more suitable and competitive for large-scale energy storage. To address this concern, a comparative study has been conducted for the two types of battery based on their charge-discharge performance, cycle performance, and capital cost. It is found that: i) the two batteries have similar energy efficiencies at high current densities; ii) the ICRFB exhibits a higher capacity decay rate than does the VRFB; and iii) the ICRFB is much less expensive in capital costs when operated at high power densities or at large capacities.

  20. Maintenance-free 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally mantenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizntal plae orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuraton as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminate preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated.

  1. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  2. Electrolyte depletion control laws for lead-acid battery discharge optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenno, R.; Nefedov, E.

    2014-12-01

    The technique described in this paper balances the power and energy withdrawn from a battery in galvanostatic discharge control that aims for stabilisation of the electrolyte concentration above the depletion level. This aim is achieved with relatively simple proportional feedback controls that are exponentially stabilising controls for a simple diffusion process that is the core part of battery processes. Although the full mapping of the proposed controls to state is rather complex, it has shown that the transformation works. In practice, these controls can be approximated either with the integrated past controls or with a simple exponential function that depends on a few parameters adjusted to the electrochemical processes in a battery under consideration. The battery control is tested in simulation on a detailed model developed for a lead-acid electrochemical cell.

  3. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  4. Rechargeable hybrid aqueous batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Gosselink, Denise; Chen, P.

    2012-10-01

    A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal (first order electrode) anode has been developed. The concept is demonstrated using LiMn2O4 and zinc metal electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte containing two electrochemically active ions (Li+ and Zn2+). The battery operates at about 2 V and preliminarily tests show excellent cycling performance, with about 90% initial capacity retention over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Use of cation-doped LiMn2O4 cathode further improves the cyclability of the system, which reaches 95% capacity retention after 4000 cycles. The energy density for a prototype battery, estimated at 50-80 Wh kg-1, is comparable or superior to commercial 2 V rechargeable batteries. The combined performance attributes of this new rechargeable aqueous battery indicate that it constitutes a viable alternative to commercial lead-acid system and for large scale energy storage application.

  5. A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li{sub 2}S{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg{sup -1} and 190 W h L{sup -1} for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li{sub 2}S{sub 8} catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg{sup -1} and 108 W h L{sup -1} can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO{sub 3} additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g{sup -1}. This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

  6. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    SciTech Connect

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  7. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  8. ANN modeling of water consumption in the lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Karami, Hassan; Mahdipour, Maryam

    Due to importance of the quantity of water loss in the life cycle of lead-acid batteries, water consumption tests were performed on 72 lead-acid batteries with low antimony grid alloy at different charge voltages and temperatures. Weight loss of batteries was measured during a period of 10 days. The behavior of batteries in different charge voltages and temperatures were modeled by artificial neural networks (ANNs) using MATLAB 7 media. Four temperatures were used in the training set, out of which three were used in prediction set and one in validation set. The network was trained by training and prediction data sets, and then was used for predicting water consumption in all three temperatures of prediction set. Finally, the network obtained was verified while being used in predicting water loss in defined temperatures of validation set. To achieve a better evaluation of the model ability, three models with different validation temperatures were used (model 1 = 50 °C, model 2 = 60 °C and model 3 = 70 °C). There was a good agreement between predicted and experimental results at prediction and validation sets for all the models. Mean prediction errors in modeling charge voltage-temperature-time behavior in the water consumption quantity for models 1-3 were below 0.99%, 0.03%, and 0.76%, respectively. The model can be simply used by inexpert operators working in lead-acid battery industry.

  9. ANN modeling of cold cranking test for sealed lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Mahdipour, Maryam

    A cold cranking test for 17 sealed lead-acid batteries with grids of lead-calcium alloy at -18 °C was performed at different discharge currents. Time-voltage behavior of the batteries during 10 s discharge, voltage values at discharge times of 30, 60 and 90 s, and time of discharge to reach a final voltage of 6 V are critical points in the cold cranking test. These were modeled by artificial neural networks in MATLAB 7 media. Nine discharge currents were used for the training set, five discharge currents for the prediction set and three discharge currents for the validation set. Maximum prediction errors in the modeling of the time-voltage behavior during a 10 s discharge (model 1), the voltage of critical points of 30, 60, 90 s (model 2) and the time to reach a final voltage of 6 V (model 3) were under 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.5%, respectively for each model. The results obtained showed that the models can be used in the battery industry for the prediction of the cold cranking behavior of lead-acid batteries at high discharge currents based on experimental cold cranking data at low discharge currents without the use of expensive and complex instruments. A file (EXE file) based on the model obtained by WinNN 32 was prepared to enable inexpert operators in the lead-acid battery industry to use the method.

  10. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  11. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  12. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  13. Cathodes for lithium-air battery cells with acid electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Yangchuan; Huang, Kan; Li, Yunfeng

    2016-07-19

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides a layered metal-air cathode for a metal-air battery. Generally, the layered metal-air cathode comprises an active catalyst layer, a transition layer bonded to the active catalyst layer, and a backing layer bonded to the transition layer such that the transition layer is disposed between the active catalyst layer and the backing layer.

  14. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  15. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  16. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  17. 21. Public Works Department Drawing 461M8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Storage Tank Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.

    1980-09-01

    Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

  19. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  20. Durability of carbon-plastic electrodes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    In previous work, failure of early versions of the zinc/bromine battery was traced to degradation and warpage of the carbon-plastic electrode. These electrodes were fabricated from copolymers of ethylene and propylene (EP) containing structures that were found to be susceptible to degradation by the electrolyte. In this work, we evaluated two developmental electrodes from Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc., in which the EP copolymer was replaced with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that contained glass-fiber reinforcing fillers. The glass fiber content of these two electrodes was different (19 vs. 31 percent). We determined the effect of electrolyte on sorption behavior, dimensional stability, chemical stability, and thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties under real-time and accelerated aging conditions. We also characterized unaged samples of both electrodes to determine their chemical composition and physical structure. We found that high glass content in the electrode minimizes sorption and increases dimensional stability. Both high and low glass content electrodes were found to be chemically and thermally stable toward the electrolyte. A slight decrease in the storage modulus (G') of both electrodes was attributed to sorption of non-ionic and hydrophobic ingredients in the electrolyte. The electrical conductivity of both electrodes appeared to improve (increase) upon exposure to the electrolyte. No time or temperature trends were observed for the chemical, thermal, or mechanical properties of electrodes made from HDPE. Since decreases in these properties were noted for electrodes made from EP copolymers under similar conditions, it appears that the HDPE-based electrodes have superior long-term stability in the ZnBr2 environment.

  1. Rating batteries for initial capacity, charging parameters and cycle life in the photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, S.R.; Hund, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems typically depend on battery storage to supply power to the load when there is cloudy weather or no sun. Reliable operation of the load is often dependent on battery performance. This paper presents test procedures for lead-acid batteries which identify initial battery preparation, battery capacity after preparation, charge regulation set-points, and cycle life based on the operational characteristics of PV systems.

  2. Performance testing of 10 kW-class advanced batteries for electric energy storage systems in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futamata, M.; Higuchi, S.; Nakamura, O.; Ogino, I.; Takada, Y.; Okazaki, S.; Ashimura, S.; Takahashi, S.

    1988-09-01

    The results of the performance testing of 10 kW-class advanced batteries — Na-S, Zn-Cl 2, Zn-Br 2 and redox-flow type batteries — are summarized. Energy efficiency and capacity at three discharge rates are presented in addition to energy density, self-discharge rate, estimated short circuit current, etc. It was evident that the performance of the advanced batteries was adequate to achieve the project goals for electrical energy storage. Further improvements are needed in the areas of self-discharge, electric insulation, and auxiliary systems. Based on continued technical progress, there is reasonable expectation that pilot plants of 1 MW (8 MW h) will be constructed and demonstrated in the next phase of the project.

  3. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  4. Maintenance-free, 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally maintenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizontal plate orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuration as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminates preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated. Totally sealed operation was accomplished with oxygen gas recombination of starved electrolyte 100 AH batteries at charge rates of C/100 to C/20. The final design was a sealed, starved electrolyte 100 AH battery to provide oxygen gas recombination with the negative plate.

  5. Designing lead-acid batteries to meet energy and power requirements of future automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.; Rand, David A. J.; Monahov, Boris

    2012-12-01

    A review is given of the factors that mitigate against the successful use of lead-acid batteries in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duties experienced in hybrid electric vehicles, together with a consideration of successful remedies for those factors.

  6. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  7. History and current status of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Hiroto; Fuchida, Kyo

    The valve-regulated design of the sealed lead/acid battery (VRB), developed in the first half of the 1960s in Japan for use in portable television sets, has achieved successful market growth. This paper reviews the history of development of VRBs during the past thirty years, present production models, production quality, major applications, and technical problems.

  8. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  9. A multi-point sensor based on optical fiber for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana M; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  10. A Multi-Point Sensor Based on Optical Fiber for the Measurement of Electrolyte Density in Lead-Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana M.; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A.; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  11. The key to success: Gelled-electrolyte and optimized separators for stationary lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    The lead acid technology is nowadays considered one of the best suited for stationary applications. Both gel and AGM batteries are complementary technologies and can provide reliability and efficiency due to the constant optimization of the battery design and components. However, gelled-electrolyte batteries remain the preferred technology due to a better manufacturing background and show better performance mainly at low and moderate discharge rates. Especially, using the gel technology allows to get rid of the numerous problems encountered in most AGM batteries: drainage, stratification, short circuits due to dendrites, and mostly premature capacity loss due to the release of internal cell compression. These limitations are the result of the evident lack of an optimal separation system. In gel batteries, on the contrary, highly efficient polymeric separators are nowadays available. Especially, microporous separators based on PVC and silica have shown the best efficiency for nearly 30 years all over the world, and especially in Europe, where the gel technology was born. The improved performance of these separators is explained by the unique extrusion process, which leads to excellent wettability, and optimized physical properties. Because they are the key for the battery success, continuous research and development on separators have led to improved properties, which render the separator even better adapted to the more recent gel technology: the pore size distribution has been optimized to allow good oxygen transfer while avoiding dendrite growth, the pore volume has been increased, the electrical resistance and acid displacement reduced to such an extent that the electrical output of batteries has been raised both in terms of higher capacity and longer cycle life.

  12. Lead-acid bipolar battery assembled with primary chemically formed positive pasted electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, H.; Shamsipur, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Mousavi, M. F.

    Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO 2) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead-acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of β-PbO 2 to α-PbO 2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate charge transfer resistance of the lead dioxide obtained by mixing and dipping methods before and after electrochemical forming. Four types of bipolar lead-acid batteries were produced with: (1) lead substrate and conventional electroforming; (2) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with conventional electroforming; (3) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with chemical forming after curing and drying steps in oxidant bath, followed by electrochemical forming, and (4) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with primary chemical oxidation in mixing step, followed by conventional electroforming. The capacity and cycle-life tests of the prepared bipolar batteries were performed by a home-made battery tester and using the pulsed current method. The prepared batteries showed low weight, high capacity, high energy density and high power density. The first capacities of bipolar batteries of type 1-4 were found to be 152, 150, 180 and 198 mAh g -1, respectively. The experimental results showed that the prepared 6 V bipolar batteries of type 1-4 have power density (per cell unit) of 59.7, 57.4, 78.46 and 83.30 mW g -1 (W kg -1), respectively.

  13. Developments in absorptive glass mat separators for cycling applications and 36 V lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, V.; Lambert, U.

    The major markets for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are undergoing a radical upheaval. In particular, the telecommunications industry requires more reliable power supplies, and the familiar 12 V electrical system in cars will probably be soon replaced by a 36/42 V system, or by other electrical systems if part of the automotive market is taken over by hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In order to meet these new challenges and enable VRLA batteries to provide a satisfactory life in float and cycling applications in the telecommunication field, or in the high-rate-partial-state-of-charge service required by both 36/42 V automobiles and HEVs, the lead-acid battery industry has to improve substantially the quality of present VRLA batteries based on absorptive glass mat (AGM) technology. Therefore, manufacturing steps and cell components have to be optimized, especially AGM separators as these are key components for better production yields and battery performance. This paper shows how the optimal segregation of the coarse and fine fibres in an AGM separator structure can improve greatly the properties of the material. The superior capillarity, springiness and mechanical properties of the 100% glass Amerglass multilayer separator compared with commercial monolayer counterparts with the same specific surface-area is highlighted.

  14. Storage battery comprising negative plates of a wedge shaped configuration. [for preventing shape change induced malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. S.; Farris, C. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved silver-zinc battery particularly suited for use in an environment where battery operation is subjected to multiple charge/discharge cycling over extended periods is described. The battery seperator system, containing a highly absorbent material continguous with the surfaces of the plates and multiple semi-permeable membranes interposed between the plates, is also characterized.

  15. Interactive smart battery storage for a PV and wind hybrid energy management control based on conservative power theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Simões, Marcelo; Davi Curi Busarello, Tiago; Saad Bubshait, Abdullah; Harirchi, Farnaz; Antenor Pomilio, José; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents interactive smart battery-based storage (BBS) for wind generator (WG) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The BBS is composed of an asymmetric cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (ACMI) with staircase modulation. The structure is parallel to the WG and PV systems, allowing the ACMI to have a reduction in power losses compared to the usual solution for storage connected at the DC-link of the converter for WG or PV systems. Moreover, the BBS is embedded with a decision algorithm running real-time energy costs, plus a battery state-of-charge manager and power quality capabilities, making the described system in this paper very interactive, smart and multifunctional. The paper describes how BBS interacts with the WG and PV and how its performance is improved. Experimental results are presented showing the efficacy of this BBS for renewable energy applications.

  16. Development and testing of 100 kW/1 min Li-ion battery systems for energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, N. H.; Doughty, D. H.

    Two 100 kW min -1 (1.67 kW h -1) Li-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) are described. The systems include a high-power Li-ion battery and a 100 kW power conditioning system (PCS). The battery consists of 12 modules of 12 series-connected Saft Li-ion VL30P cells. The stored energy of the battery ranges from 1.67 to 14 kW h -1 and has an operating voltage window of 515-405 V (dc). Two complete systems were designed, built and successfully passed factory acceptance testing after which each was deployed in a field demonstration. The first demonstration used the system to supplement distributed microturbine generation and to provide load following capability. The system was run at its rated power level for 3 min, which exceeded the battery design goal by a factor of 3. The second demonstration used another system as a stand-alone uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The system was available (online) for 1146 h and ran for over 2 min.

  17. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-07-01

    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change. PMID:26784012

  18. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of β"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  19. Development and testing of 100-kW/ 1-minute Li-ion battery systems for energy storage applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Clark, Nancy H.

    2004-07-01

    Two 100 kW min{sup -1} (1.67 kW h{sup -1}) Li-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) are described. The systems include a high-power Li-ion battery and a 100 kW power conditioning system (PCS). The battery consists of 12 modules of 12 series-connected Saft Li-ion VL30P cells. The stored energy of the battery ranges from 1.67 to 14 kW h{sup -1} and has an operating voltage window of 515-405 V (dc). Two complete systems were designed, built and successfully passed factory acceptance testing after which each was deployed in a field demonstration. The first demonstration used the system to supplement distributed microturbine generation and to provide load following capability. The system was run at its rated power level for 3 min, which exceeded the battery design goal by a factor of 3. The second demonstration used another system as a stand-alone uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The system was available (online) for 1146 h and ran for over 2 min.

  20. Inverse opal-inspired, nanoscaffold battery separators: a new membrane opportunity for high-performance energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Keun-Ho; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Joo Sung; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-08-13

    The facilitation of ion/electron transport, along with ever-increasing demand for high-energy density, is a key to boosting the development of energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries. Among major battery components, separator membranes have not been the center of attention compared to other electrochemically active materials, despite their important roles in allowing ionic flow and preventing electrical contact between electrodes. Here, we present a new class of battery separator based on inverse opal-inspired, seamless nanoscaffold structure ("IO separator"), as an unprecedented membrane opportunity to enable remarkable advances in cell performance far beyond those accessible with conventional battery separators. The IO separator is easily fabricated through one-pot, evaporation-induced self-assembly of colloidal silica nanoparticles in the presence of ultraviolet (UV)-curable triacrylate monomer inside a nonwoven substrate, followed by UV-cross-linking and selective removal of the silica nanoparticle superlattices. The precisely ordered/well-reticulated nanoporous structure of IO separator allows significant improvement in ion transfer toward electrodes. The IO separator-driven facilitation of the ion transport phenomena is expected to play a critical role in the realization of high-performance batteries (in particular, under harsh conditions such as high-mass-loading electrodes, fast charging/discharging, and highly polar liquid electrolyte). Moreover, the IO separator enables the movement of the Ragone plot curves to a more desirable position representing high-energy/high-power density, without tailoring other battery materials and configurations. This study provides a new perspective on battery separators: a paradigm shift from plain porous films to pseudoelectrochemically active nanomembranes that can influence the charge/discharge reaction. PMID:24979037

  1. Advanced separator construction for long life valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. R.

    The performance of absorptive glass mat separators in valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is strongly influenced by the diameter of the fibres from which they are made. Coarser diameter fibres are beneficial for the compressive properties of separators while finer fibres maintain the uniform distribution of the electrolyte. Studies of cell compression and electrolyte stratification are reported using separators manufactured with segregated layers of fine and coarse fibres incorporated into a single sheet. This construction locates the different classes of fibre at their location of maximum effectiveness. Improvements in battery life in both cyclic and float charge applications are recorded, and compared with single layer separators.

  2. Development of 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmae, T.; Hayashi, T.; Inoue, N.

    A 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery used in a 42-V power system has been developed for the Toyota Hybrid System-Mild (THS-M) vehicle to meet the large electrical power requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the increasing power demands on modern automobile electrical systems. The battery has a longer cycle-life in HEV use through the application of ultra high-density active-material and an anti-corrosive grid alloy for the positive plates, special additives for the negative plates, and absorbent glass mat with less contraction for the separators.

  3. Development of sealed lead/acid battery 'SB60-S4' for automobile use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takashi; Nakazawa, Yoshio; Tsujino, Naohiro

    The construction and characteristics of a new sealed, automotive lead/acid battery are discussed and results from two years of field testing are presented. The starved-electrolyte design has virtually the same initial performance as a conventional flooded-electrolyte counterpart of the same size. A longer life is obtained, however, at low temperatures. The sealed batteries have generally exhibited good performance in field tests but there is a small decline in the operational characteristics at high temperatures and/or high voltage charging conditions.

  4. Computer-aided optimization of grid design for high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Maeda, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Hirasawa, Tokiyoshi

    Several high-power lead-acid batteries have been developed for automotive applications. A computer-aided optimization (CAO) technique has been used to obtain a low-resistance grid design. Unlike conventional computer simulation, the CAO technique does not require an unduly large number of designs to yield a good result. After introducing a pair of differential equations that are expected to be valid for the optimized design, the grid thickness is optimized by solving the boundary value problem of coupled differential equations. When applied for the grids of JIS B-size batteries, this technique reduces the potential drop of electrical resistance in a electrode by 11-14%.

  5. Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shen, Zheng; Ray, Asok; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2014-12-01

    This short paper presents a recently reported dynamic data-driven method, Symbolic Dynamic Filtering (SDF), for real-time estimation of the state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) in lead-acid batteries, as an alternative to model-based analysis techniques. In particular, SOC estimation relies on a k-NN regression algorithm while SOH estimation is obtained from the divergence between extracted features. The results show that the proposed data-driven method successfully distinguishes battery voltage responses under different SOC and SOH situations.

  6. Chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraml, J. J.; Ames, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    State-of-the-art 6 volt lead-acid golf car batteries were tested. A daily charge/discharge cycling to failure points under various chopper controlled pulsed dc and continuous current load conditions was undertaken. The cycle life and failure modes were investigated for depth of discharge, average current chopper frequency, and chopper duty cycle. It is shown that battery life is primarily and inversely related to depth of discharge and discharge current. Failure mode is characterized by a gradual capacity loss with consistent evidence of cell element aging.

  7. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plant and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.

  8. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices. PMID:25650133

  9. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices. PMID:25650133

  10. Lithium barium titanate: A stable lithium storage material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaoting; Li, Peng; Shao, Lianyi; Shui, Miao; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2015-03-01

    A series of Li2BaTi6O14 samples are synthesized by a traditional solid-state method by calcining at different temperatures from 800 to 1000 °C. Structural analysis and electrochemical evaluation suggest that the optimum calcining temperature for Li2BaTi6O14 is 950 °C. The Li2BaTi6O14 calcined at 950 °C exhibits a high purity phase with an excellent reversible capacity of 145.7 mAh g-1 for the first cycle at a current density of 50 mA g-1. After 50 cycles, the reversible capacity can be maintained at 137.7 mAh g-1, with the capacity retention of 94.51%. Moreover, this sample also shows outstanding rate property with a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g-1 at 300 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the stable lithium storage host structure, decreased electrochemical resistance and improved lithium-ion diffusion coefficient. In-situ and ex-situ structure analysis shows that the electrochemical reaction of Li2BaTi6O14 with Li is a highly reversible lithiation-delithiation process. Therefore, Li2BaTi6O14 may be a promising alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Interfacial Architecture for Extra Li+ Storage in All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Bum Ryong; Nam, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Young-Gi; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-01-01

    The performance of nanocomposite electrodes prepared by controlled ball-milling of TiS2 and a Li2S–P2S5 solid electrolyte (SE) for all-solid-state lithium batteries is investigated, focusing on the evolution of the microstructure. Compared to the manually mixed electrodes, the ball-milled electrodes exhibit abnormally increased first-charge capacities of 416 mA h g−1 and 837 mA h g−1 in the voltage ranges 1.5–3.0 V and 1.0–3.0 V, respectively, at 50 mA g−1 and 30°C. The ball-milled electrodes also show excellent capacity retention of 95% in the 1.5–3.0 V range after 60 cycles as compared to the manually mixed electrodes. More importantly, a variety of characterization techniques show that the origin of the extra Li+ storage is associated with an amorphous Li–Ti–P–S phase formed during the controlled ball-milling process. PMID:25001392

  12. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods. PMID:24883374

  13. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage.

    PubMed

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods. PMID:24883374

  14. NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

  15. Design of an efficient electrolyte circulation system for the lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Thuerk, D.

    1982-01-01

    Application of lead-acid batteries to electric vehicle and other repetitive deep-cycle services produces a non-desirable state in the battery cells, electrolyte stratification. This stratification is the result of acid and water generation at the electrodes during cycling. Water, which is generated during discharge, rises to the electrolyte surface due to gravity differences, whereas the concentrated sulfuric acid generated during charge falls to the bottom of the container. With continued cycling, the extent of the stratification increases and prevents complete charging with low percentages of overcharge. Ultimately this results in extremely short life for the battery system. The industry presently overcomes the stratification problem by substantially overcharging the battery. This abusive overcharge produces gassing rates sufficient to mix the electrolyte during the end portion of the charge. The amount of recharge typically used to mix the electrolyte ranges from 120% to 140% of the prior discharge. Overcharge, even though it is required to eliminate stratification, produces the undesirable results related to high voltage and gassing rates. The design and operation of an electrolyte circulation system are described. (WHK)

  16. Present and future of lead/acid battery manufacturer in the Commonwealth of Independent States (formerly the USSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusin, A. I.; Leonov, V. N.; Gerasimov, A. G.; Volinkin, V. T.

    The production of lead/acid batteries in the former USSR, and now in the CIS, is concentrated in eight manufacturing plants (seven in Russia, one in Kazakhstan). The batteries that are manufactured include: automotive, aircraft, stationary, traction, diesel locomotive, railway car, boat, motorcycle, low-capacity sealed, and submersible designs. These activities involve the annual processing of 230 000 tonnes of lead. A brief review is given of the technology used in each of the battery designs.

  17. Effects of cobalt in lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagshaw, N. B.

    The effects of cobalt additions (0.1-1 g/1) to the electrolyte have been studied by anodic corrosion tests on sheets of various alloys, and by continuous charge, cycling and charge retention tests on thick plate automotive-type of batteries. Positive grid corrosion decreases with increase in cobalt concentration but the effect is less marked for alloys with high intrinsic corrosion resistance. Cobalt oxidizes some types of separator even at a relatively low concentration. The top-of-charge voltage is reduced by the presence of cobalt, the effect occurring mainly at the positive plate. Cobalt causes increased open-circuit losses but the effect is fairly small at low concentrations (0.1-0.15 g/1).

  18. Recycling the plastic components in today's lead/acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Feraudy, H.

    With production facilities first established in 1988 at Villefranche in the Rhone valley, the author's company aims to produce 40 tonnes of polypropylene granules from 50 000 scrap battery cases every day. Following a doubling of capacity in 1991, the company now has an annual sales turnover of 40 million FFand an output of 10 000 tonnes which makes the operation one of the largest in Europe for the production of recycled polypropylene. The technology developed and used by the Company enables the process to separate, reclaim and produce high-quality constituent materials that are suitable for use by the automotive industry at a price competitive with virgin materials. The new line, installed in 1991, has enabled the Company to add glass-fibre, rubber and other materials into the recycled product to prepare special types of high-quality material with added value. The overall process is carefully controlled and should soon be certified to ISO standard 9002.

  19. Aspects of lead/acid battery technology 4. Plate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prout, L.

    By design there is usually an excess of positive over negative material in plates. This compensates to an extent the lesser formation charge input required by positive and renders the mismatch when forming positive plate against negative plate of minor importance. Open tank and container formations are described and the dangers of imcomplete formation when 'no-burn' connections are used. The mechanism of material conversation is illustrated from microsections taken from a traction negative. Variations of container formation to suit factory conditions are detailed and economies in electrolyte usage in open-tank formation. The benefit of rest periods during charge are examined particularly for traction. The drying of the positive plates after formation requires careful control; when used in dry-charged automotive batteries poor initial starting can occur if the drying temperature exceeds 70 °C and the moisture content is below 0.25 wt.%.

  20. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification.

  1. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for use in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Electrochemical properties of silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for lead-acid batteries are described, and the following possible applications discussed: Determination of individual capacities of positive and negative plates. Monitoring individual electrode behavior during deep discharge and cell reversal. Optimization charge or discharge parameters, by controlling the current such that pre-determined limits of positive or negative half-cell potential are respected. Observation of acid concentration differences, for example due to acid stratification, by measuring diffusion potentials (concentration-cell voltages). Detection of defective cells, and defective plate sets, in a string of cells, at the end of their service life. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes, permanently installed in lead-acid cells, may be a means to improve battery management, and therewith to improve reliability and service life. In vented batteries, reference electrodes may be used to limit positive plate polarization during charge, or float-charge. Limiting the positive half-cell potential to an upper, pre-set value would permit to keep anodic corrosion as low as possible. During cycling, discharge could be terminated when the half-cell potential of the positive electrode has dropped to a pre-set limit. This would prevent excessive discharge of the positive electrodes, which could result in an improvement of cycle life. In valve-regulated batteries, reference electrodes may be used to adjust float-charge conditions such as to assure sufficient cathodic polarization of the negative electrodes, in order to avoid sulfation. The use of such reference electrodes could be beneficial particularly in multi-cell batteries, with overall voltages above 12 V, operated in a partial-state-of-charge.

  2. Capacity and peak power degradation of lead-acid battery under simulated electric vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Tummillo, A. F.; Miller, J. F.; Hornstra, F.; Christianson, C. C.

    In a program supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, controlled laboratory tests were conducted at Argonne to evaluate the effects of selected EV application factors on the performance and life of the EV-2300 lead-acid battery. These application factors included simulated driving profile discharges with different levels of peak power demands for vehicle acceleration, long rest times after charge or discharge, and different methods of recharging. The performance and life variations among cells and modules in a full-scale battery pack were also examined. Statistical methods were used to analyze the laboratory test data. The key factors affecting the performance and life of the battery were identified, and the rates of capacity and power degradation were quantified using multiple regression techniques. The analyses show that the most significant factors were peak power demand levels and cell location within the six-cell modules. The effects of charge method and rest times were found to be small.

  3. Selection of pre-blended expanders for optimum lead/acid battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, D. P.

    Expanders are an essential component of lead/acid batteries. They prevent performance losses in negative plates that would otherwise be caused by passivation and structural changes in the active material. The functions of the components of modern negative-plate expanders are described and data are presented to show how the capacity and life of the battery are affected by the type and amount of barium sulfate and lignin incorporated in the expander blend. The differences between expanders for automotive, deep-cycle and standby-power batteries are illustrated and typical formulations shown for each application. There are several ways in which expanders can be incorporated into negative plates. These range from adding the individual components to the paste mix to adding a pre-blended formulation. The benefits of pre-blending are more uniform distribution of expander in the plate, simplification of paste mixing, and improved quality control.

  4. Tannic-Acid-Coated Polypropylene Membrane as a Separator for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Haibin; Wu, Chaolumen; Liao, Chenbo; Li, Lei

    2015-07-29

    To solve the wetting capability issue of commercial polypropylene (PP) separators in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we developed a simple dipping surface-coating process based on tannic acid (TA), a natural plant polyphenol. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron measurements indicate that the TA is coated successfully on the PP separators. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the TA coating does not destroy the microporous structure of the separators. After being coated with TA, the PP separators become more hydrophilic, which not only enhances the liquid electrolyte retention ability but also increases the ionic conductivity. The battery performance, especially for power capability, is improved after being coated with TA. It indicates that this TA-coating method provides a promising process by which to develop an advanced polymer membrane separator for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26177514

  5. Reducing the cost of maintaining valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in telecommunications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniveton, M. W.

    British Telecommunications has utilized valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology for 10 years and has considerable experience of varying product performance. A discussion is given of battery applications in telecommunications and includes experiences of typical failure modes such as group-bar corrosion and premature capacity loss, together with the detrimental effects of high temperature on service life. Specific maintenance requirements are also reviewed with particular attention to costs and reliability. Data are presented on the effectiveness of new methods of testing large numbers of VRLA batteries and, in particular, the reliability of conductance testing. An explanation is given of the role of conductance measurements, discharge testing and manufacturers' laboratory analysis in contributing to an effective maintenance programme. Specific requirements for the management of a battery-replacement programme are also included. Finally, BT user experience is described and solutions are provided to reduce the cost of VRLA maintenance while improving reliability.

  6. Leady oxide for lead/acid battery positive plates: scope for improvement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Among the many factors that determine and influence the performance of lead/acid batteries, one of the most important, and as yet not fully developed, is how to make the positive active mass more electrochemically reactive. The inherent characteristics of this active mass are the cumulative result of the four precursor stages of its production, namely, the leady oxide, paste mixing, curing and formation procedures. There is evidence to suggest that the method of pasting itself is also influential. Many recent studies have reported progress on techniques to increase active-material utilization, to improve plate conditioning, and to solve the vexagious problem of premature capacity loss. The purpose of this discussion is to focus attention on the role and the importance of leady oxide on battery design and performance. At present, the battery industry makes leady oxide by either the ball-mill or the Barton-pot process. It is difficult to conclude which of the two methods gives the best leady oxide. Each type of leady oxide has its champions but, in general, ball-mill and Barton-pot product both make effective automotive batteries. For deep-cycle batteries, however, many battery companies (especially in Europe and Japan) prefer ball-mill oxide; in North America, the Barton-pot variety is favoured. This investigation examines the present procedures for making leady oxide, the desirable properties of leady oxide, and the influence of the oxide on battery performance. Analysis shows that there is scope for the production of improved leady oxide—by using existing production techniques and/or by the development of new processing technology.

  7. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  8. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη) of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for ρη measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  9. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  10. Acidic leaching and precipitation of zinc and manganese from spent battery powders using various reductants.

    PubMed

    Sayilgan, E; Kukrer, T; Yigit, N O; Civelekoglu, G; Kitis, M

    2010-01-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reductive acidic leaching and further precipitation on the recovery of manganese and zinc from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon battery powders. Ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and oxalic acid (OA) were tested as the reductants. Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were used as precipitating agents. OA with H(2)SO(4) or HCl was not effective on the leaching of zinc due to the formation of zinc oxalate precipitates. However, the other reducing agents (CA and AA) tested under various experimental conditions were effective in the acidic leaching of both zinc and manganese. Leaching yields of both manganese and zinc were higher at leach temperature of 90 degrees C than those at 30 degrees C. Leach solutions were purified by the selective precipitation of manganese and zinc using KOH or NaOH. Complete precipitation was obtained for Mn at pH 9-10 and for Zn at pH 7-8. The use of ascorbic acid or citric acid as reductants in acidic leaching appears to be effective in the simultaneous leaching and further recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon battery powders. PMID:19744786

  11. DOE's near-term electric vehicle battery program. Status of improved lead-acid, nickel/iron, and nickel/zinc battery developments

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, N.P.; Christianson, C.C.; Elliott, R.C.; Lee, T.S.; Miller, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    From the inception of the DOE/ANL Near-Term eV Battery Program in 1978, significant progress in lead-acid, nickel/iron and nickel/zinc battery technology has been made towards achieving the technical performance goals necessary for widespread use of these battery systems in electric vehicle applications. The energy density of lead-acid eV batteries has advanced from 25 to 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg. The prospect for obtaining a lead-acid battery having both high energy density and long cycle life in a few years is very promising. Nickel/iron modules have demonstrated a specific energy of nearly 50 Wh/kg and a specific power of 100 W/kg, cycle lives of 300 have been achieved during early 1980 and testing continues, and the energy efficiency has been improved from less than 50% to over 65%. Nickel/zinc module test data have shown a specific energy of nearly 70 Wh/kg and a specific power of 130 W/kg. However, cycle life improvements are still needed. Cost reduction continues to receive major emphasis at developers of both nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries. Based on the continued demonstration of viable solutions to technical problems in the 1980 to 1983 time-frame, these near-term batteries will emerge as contenders for electric vehicle applications. The relative cost/performance/life tradeoff of these battery systems continues to receive emphasis in the DOE/ANL R and D Program. While it would be premature at the present time to select winning systems or specific technical approaches, it is the intent of the DOE/ANL program management to continue supporting the development of the most viable approaches in response to the 1986 commercialization goal.

  12. Battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, R.J.; Brittingham, D.C.; Basta, J.C.

    1993-07-06

    A battery pack is described, having a center of mass, for use with a medical instrument including a latch, an ejector, and an electrical connector, the battery pack comprising: energy storage means for storing electrical energy; latch engagement means, physically coupled to the energy storage means, for engaging the latch; ejector engagement means, physically coupled to the energy storage means, for engaging the ejector; and connector engagement means, physically coupled to the energy storage means, for engaging the connector, the latch engagement means, ejector engagement means, and connector engagement means being substantially aligned in a plane offset from the center of mass of the battery pack.

  13. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness. PMID:25475759

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  15. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  16. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  17. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  18. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  19. Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed

    Naha, Nibedita; Bhar, R B; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, Amal Roy

    2005-04-01

    Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P < 0.001) of sperm count, density, motility and semen volume along with an increase incidence of sperm abnormality and prolong liquefaction time. Structural alteration of sperm cell was prevalent among the exposed population as evidenced by significantly (P < 0.001) low sperm viability, low hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) percentage, high lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane with concomitant alterations of seminal plasma total and dehydro ascorbate level. Sharp depressions, membrane folding and granularity at sperm head surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both blood lead and semen lead was significantly (P < 0.001) higher among the factory workers. Thus it appears plausible that lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories. PMID:16170983

  20. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  1. Porous carbon-coated silica macroparticles as anode materials for lithium ion batteries: Effect of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kuk; Moon, Jong-Woo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Baek, Youn-Kyung; Hong, Seong-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    We report carbon-coated porous silica macroparticles (SiO2@C) prepared using polymeric templates and subsequent carbonization with sucrose for improved electrochemical energy storage in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, boron is introduced to improve the stability of electrochemical cells by pyrolyzing mixtures of sucrose and boric acid (SiO2@C + B) under inert atmosphere. The initially large surface area of porous SiO2 (SBET ∼ 658 m2 g-1) is reduced to 102 m2 g-1 after carbonization and introduction of boric acid. Surface of both SiO2@C and SiO2@C + B are covered with amorphous carbon. In particular, SiO2@C + B particles containing borosilicate (Si-O-B) phase and B-O bondings and Si-C-O bondings are also detected from the X-ray photoelectron spectra. The SiO2@C + B macroparticles shows high reversible charge capacity up to 503 mAh g-1 after 103 cycles of Li intercalation/de-intercalation although initial capacity was 200 mAh g-1. The improved charge capacity of SiO2@C + B is attributed to formation of advantageous microstructures induced from boric acid.

  2. Porous carbon-coated silica macroparticles as anode materials for lithium ion batteries: Effect of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kuk; Moon, Jong-Woo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Baek, Youn-Kyung; Hong, Seong-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    We report carbon-coated porous silica macroparticles (SiO2@C) prepared using polymeric templates and subsequent carbonization with sucrose for improved electrochemical energy storage in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, boron is introduced to improve the stability of electrochemical cells by pyrolyzing mixtures of sucrose and boric acid (SiO2@C + B) under inert atmosphere. The initially large surface area of porous SiO2 (SBET ˜ 658 m2 g-1) is reduced to 102 m2 g-1 after carbonization and introduction of boric acid. Surface of both SiO2@C and SiO2@C + B are covered with amorphous carbon. In particular, SiO2@C + B particles containing borosilicate (Si-O-B) phase and B-O bondings and Si-C-O bondings are also detected from the X-ray photoelectron spectra. The SiO2@C + B macroparticles shows high reversible charge capacity up to 503 mAh g-1 after 103 cycles of Li intercalation/de-intercalation although initial capacity was 200 mAh g-1. The improved charge capacity of SiO2@C + B is attributed to formation of advantageous microstructures induced from boric acid.

  3. First-principles studies of complex hydrides for lithium-ion battery and hydrogen storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Timothy Hudson

    We employ density functional theory in a computational study of two energy storage systems. In the first, we explore the thermodynamic viability of light metal hydrides as a high capacity Li-ion battery negative electrode. Given a set of solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble as a function of lithium electrochemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with predicted capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAhg-1 that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li4BN3H10 and compare with our theoretical prediction. The maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si, whose 400% expansion hinders its cyclability. In the second study, we attempt to gain understanding of recent experimental results of lithium borohydride nanoconfined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon. The carbon environment is modeled as a single sheet of graphene, and adsorption energies are calculated for nanoparticles of the constituent phases of LiBH 4 desorption processes (LiBH4, LiH, lithium and boron). We find good agreement with previous studies of a single lithium atom adsorbed onto graphene. We predict that infiltrated LiBH4 will decompose such that boron is trapped in carbon vacancies, and that the resulting boron doping is required to achieve negative wetting energies for the remaining LiBH4. Desorption enthalpies are found to increase with shrinking cluster sizes, suggesting that the observed lowering of desorption temperatures is a kinetic effect although interactions with the carbon surface itself are predicted to have an overall effect of decreasing the desorption enthalpy .

  4. Hybrid modeling of lead-acid batteries in frequency and time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Buller, S.; Sauer, D. U.; De Doncker, R. W.; Karden, E.

    This paper presents an improved impedance-based non-linear simulation model for lead-acid batteries. The parameterization of impedance-based models is difficult for operation profiles with high Ah throughput in short times. Such conditions result in non-steady-state conditions and do not allow precise measurements of impedance parameters. Therefore, the model has been extended by an electrolyte transport model which describes the generation and the transport of sulfuric acid inside the porous electrodes. This expands the model validity as higher Ah throughputs can be simulated now. A description of the Matlab/Simulink implementation and its parameterization in the time domain is given. Furthermore, the advantages and the limits of the improved model are discussed. The model allows for precise modeling of automotive batteries, both in conventional applications and in vehicles with electrically assisted propulsion. It is therefore an important tool for the design of automotive power nets.

  5. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  6. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  7. Effect of acid scavengers on electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries: Functional additives for utilization of LiPF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Taeeun; Kang, Kyoung Seok; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Ki Jae; Park, Min-Sik; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Goojin; Jo, Yong Nam; Im, Keun Yung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-08-01

    We investigated a novel approach for utilizing LiPF6 as the lithium salt for Li-S batteries and verifying its chemical reactivity with the main solvent. It is found that the main obstacle for the adoption of LiPF6 is the undesired acid-catalyzed, cascade-type polymerization reaction between cyclic ether components in the solvent and LiPF6. Therefore, several kinds of acid scavengers are proposed to enhance the chemical stability between the main solvent and LiPF6. Simple storage tests indicate that polymerization occurred as acid residue is removed from the electrolyte. Consequently, the cell with a modified electrolyte shows excellent discharge capacity and moderate retention based on its improved chemical stability. These results indicate that assuring the chemical stability is the most important factor to utilizing LiPF6 as the main lithium salt for a Li-S cell. Additionally, it is believed that an understanding of the nature of chemical reactivity will be beneficial to constructing more efficient electrolyte systems owing to enhanced electrochemical performance of many kinds of energy storage systems including Li-S, Li-air, and metal-air batteries.

  8. Wrought lead-calcium-tin alloys for tubular lead/acid battery grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead/acid batteries with tubular grids for the positive electrodes give flatter discharge curves and higher cycle life than batteries using flat plates. Most tubular grids for motive-power batteries contain 9-11 wt.% antimony. Recently, alloys with 1-6 wt.% antimony have been used for reduced maintenance batteries. Sealed, valve-regulated batteries with tubular positive grids for motive power, telecommunications, and UPS service are produced from cast lead-calcium-tin alloys. While these alloys permit the construction of such batteries, cast PbCaSn alloys are significantly inferior to cast PbSb alloys in mechanical properties. Wrought PbCaSn alloys, when used for tubular grids, permit the application of maintenance-free alloys with mechanical properties comparable with, or higher than, those of high-antimony alloys. Wrought materials increase life due to the absence of casting defects. Wrought lead-calcium alloys also offer a dramatic improvement in creep and corrosion resistance compared with conventional cast, tubular, PbCaSn alloys, as well as superior conductivity to cast PbSb. Wrought PbCaSn alloys permit the production of tubular grids at high speed in shapes and forms that are difficult to produce from cast materials. These grid shapes can lead to higher performance, higher discharge-rate, tubular plates. This paper discusses the mechanical properties, grain structure, and corrosion behaviour of cast and wrought PbCaSn and PbSb alloys for tubular grids. It also suggests manufacturing techniques for high performance, wrought, tubular plates.

  9. Enhancing the performance of lead-acid batteries with carbon - In pursuit of an understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.; Rand, David A. J.; Peters, Ken

    2015-11-01

    The inherently poor dynamic charge-acceptance of the lead-acid battery can be greatly improved by the incorporation of additional carbon to the negative plate. An analysis is undertaken of the various ways by which the carbon may be introduced, and of the proposed mechanisms whereby its presence proves to be beneficial. It is intended that such an investigation should provide a guide to the selection of the optimum carbon inventory.

  10. Separator for starved electrolyte lead/acid battery. [perlite and glass fiber mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Bilawsky, P.D.; Cain, C.W.; Gross, S.E.; Scheffel, N.B.

    1980-11-11

    Compositions and papers made therefrom useful as separator materials in starved electrolyte lead/acid batteries are described. The compositions comprise a mixture of 30% to 80% by weight of perlite and 20% to 70% by weight of glass fibers. The glass fibers have diameters in the range of from 0.3 to 1.0 micrometers while the perlite has particle sizes in the range of from about 3 to about 100 micrometers.

  11. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  12. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene. PMID:22512792

  13. High-performance positive paste for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.H.

    1996-09-01

    Positive lead-acid plates with high porosity and surface area, aiming to deliver a very high current density, about 1 A/cm{sup 2}, were developed. The high porosity and surface area were achieved by using a combination of fine particles of lead oxide and/or basic lead sulfates with an adequate amount of persulfate and water. The relationship between the positive paste phase composition and the high rate performance of the plate was studied. The highly porous plate is able to deliver a very high current owing to more acid being available in the plate structure. In the low rate applications when acid diffusion from the bulk becomes the limiting factor, the high-performance plate is not more advantageous than the conventional starting lighting, and ignition (SLI) plates. The cycle life of the high-performance plate is sensitive to depth of discharge. The deep discharge high rate capacity of the high-performance plates falls faster than that of the SLI plate. Nevertheless, the high-performance paste delivers at least 30% more energy, either to the same depth of discharge per cycle or for the entire service life with constant capacity removal in each cycle. One failure mode of the high-performance plates is the change of material morphology during deep discharge cycling, which results in material shedding.

  14. Final report on the development of a 2 MW/10 second battery energy storage system for power disturbance protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-11

    Voltage sags, swells and momentary power interruptions lasting a few cycles to several seconds are common disturbances on utility power distribution systems. These disturbances are a result of normal utility recloser switching activity due in part to distribution system short circuits from natural causes such as lightning, rodents, traffic accidents, and current overloads. Power disturbances pose serious problems for many customers with critical, voltage sensitive equipment. Faults can interrupt a manufacturing process, cause PLC`s to initialize their programmed logic and restart equipment out of sequence, create computer data errors, interrupt communications, lockup PC keyboards and cause equipment to malfunction. These momentary disturbances result in billions of dollars of lost productivity annually due to downtime, cleanup, lost production and the loss of customer confidence in the business. This report describes prototype development work for a factory assembled 2 MW/10 Second Battery Energy Storage System. The system design includes (1) a modular battery energy storage system comprised of several strings of batteries-each string provided with an integral Power Conversion System (PCS), (2) an Electronic Selector Device (ESD) comprised of a solid state static switch with sensing and power switching controls, and utility interconnection termination bus bars, and (3) a separate isolation transformer to step-up PCS output voltage to interface directly with the distribution transformer serving the industrial or commercial customer. The system monitors the utility distribution system voltage for voltage sags, swells, and interruptions, switches the customer`s critical loads from utility power to the energy stored in the systems batteries and provides up to 2 MVA until the disturbance clears or up to 10 seconds. Once the ESD sensing circuits have confirmed that the utility is again stable, it seamlessly returns the critical load to the utility. 22 figs., 1 tab.

  15. γ-Fe₂O₃ Nanocrystalline Microspheres with Hybrid Behavior of Battery-Supercapacitor for Superior Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Wu, Chao; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Lin, Ling-Piao; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Pan, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanocrystalline microspheres (MNMs) self-assembled with 52 nm nanocrystals bridged with FeOOH around grain boundaries were formed by solvothermal reaction and thermal oxidation. The unique architecture endows the MNMs with the lithium storage behavior of a hybrid battery-supercapacitor electrode: initial charge capacity of 1060 mAh g(-1) at the 100 mA g(-1) rate, stable cyclic capacity of 1077.9 mAh g(-1) at the same rate after 140 cycles, and rate capability of 538.8 mAh g(-1) at 2400 mA g(-1). This outstanding performance was attributed to the nanocrystal superiority, which shortens the Li(+) diffusion paths. The mechanism of this hybrid anode material was investigated with experimental measurements and structural analysis. The results indicate that at the first discharge, the MNM nanocrystal microsphere, whose structure can buffer the volume change that occurs during lithiation/delithiation, goes through four stages: Li(+) insertion in cation vacancies, spinel-to-rocksalt transformation, Li(+) intercalation of Li(1.75+x)Fe2O3 nanocrystals, and interfacial Li storage around nanocrystal boundaries. Only the latter two stages were reversible at and after the second charging/discharging cycle, exhibiting the hybrid behavior of a battery-supercapacitor with superior lithium storage. PMID:26548376

  16. A Bio-Inspired, Heavy-Metal-Free, Dual-Electrolyte Liquid Battery towards Sustainable Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2016-04-01

    Wide-scale exploitation of renewable energy requires low-cost efficient energy storage devices. The use of metal-free, inexpensive redox-active organic materials represents a promising direction for environmental-friendly, cost-effective sustainable energy storage. To this end, a liquid battery is designed using hydroquinone (H2 BQ) aqueous solution as catholyte and graphite in aprotic electrolyte as anode. The working potential can reach 3.4 V, with specific capacity of 395 mA h g(-1) and stable capacity retention about 99.7 % per cycle. Such high potential and capacity is achieved using only C, H and O atoms as building blocks for redox species, and the replacement of Li metal with graphite anode can circumvent potential safety issues. As H2 BQ can be extracted from biomass directly and its redox reaction mimics the bio-electrochemical process of quinones in nature, using such a bio-inspired organic compound in batteries enables access to greener and more sustainable energy-storage technology. PMID:26958787

  17. Gaston Planté and his invention of the lead-acid battery-The genesis of the first practical rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, P.

    In 1860, the Frenchman Gaston Planté (1834-1889) invented the first practical version of a rechargeable battery based on lead-acid chemistry-the most successful secondary battery of all ages. This article outlines Planté's fundamental concepts that were decisive for later development of practical lead-acid batteries. The 'pile secondaire' was indeed ahead its time in that an appropriate appliance for charging the accumulator was not available. The industrial success came after the invention of the Gramme machine. In 1879, Planté obtained acceptance for his work by publishing a book entitled Recherches sur l' Electricité. He never protected his inventions by patents, and spent much of his fortune on assisting impoverished scientists.

  18. Technology and application options for future battery power regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Carpenter, C.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, utilities have been interested in battery storage as an option to supply peak power through load leveling. Recently, other benefits of battery storage have been identified which potentially have equal or greater value to electric utilities. These benefits are power regulation functions including area regulation, area protection, spinning reserve, power factor correction, thermal unit minimum loading, and the ability to absorb qualifying facilities. Lead-acid batteries similar to those manufactured for automotive and industrial uses are currently being marketed for utility applications. Compared to the traditional fooded-cell battery that regulates routine watering and maintenance, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can meet many of the requirements or power regulation at significantly lower operating and maintenance costs. This paper presents an overview of future battery storage applications and technologies. Trends in the utility industry and the future role of battery storage will be addressed with an emphasis on power regulation options. Discussions on battery storage for specific power regulation applications are presented as well as the status of advanced battery development in Europe, Japan, and the United States.

  19. Life evaluation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for load-leveling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Miller, J. F.; Webster, C. E.; Hogrefe, R. L.

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has initiated a test program to evaluate the suitability of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for use in deep-discharge cycling applications. The program includes the examination of VRLA batteries of the gelled-electrolyte design and the absorbed-electrolyte type. This work is sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). While VRLA batteries have found use in standby and uninterruptable power source applications, insufficient data are available to determine their performance and life in repetitive cycling applications. The objectives of the ANL test plan are: (1) to use accelerated testing techniques to obtain evidence within a 6 month test period that indicate an expected life in a utility operating environment; (2) to determine VRLA battery life within a 2 to 3 year time period under conditions (temperature and depth-of-discharge) that closely simulate those encountered in load-leveling operations; and (3) to assess the applicability and usefulness of accelerated testing procedures for deep-discharge cycling applications.

  20. Technical and economic advantages of making lead-acid battery grids by continuous electroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warlimont, H.; Hofmann, T.

    A new continuous electroforming process to manufacture lead grids for automotive and industrial lead-acid batteries has been developed. A galvanic cell comprising a drum cathode for electroforming and a subsequent series of galvanic cells which form a strip galvanizing line are operating in a single, fully continuous, automatic process. Virgin lead or lead scrap may be used as the anode material. The product is grid strip of any specified thickness and design which can be fed into existing strip-pasting equipment. The composition and microstructure of the grid material can be varied to provide increased corrosion resistance and increased paste adherence. A unique feature of the material is its inherent layered composite structure that allows optimization of the properties according to particular functional requirements. Thus, both the specific power and the specific energy of the battery can be increased by reducing weight. The material properties increase the calendar life of the battery by increasing the corrosion resistance of the grid, and increase the cycle-life of the battery by improved adherence of the positive active material. The technical and economic features and competitive advantages of this new technology and product are presented in quantitative terms.