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Sample records for acid storage shed

  1. 2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Storage Shed, North of launch area, northwest of earthen berm of Acid Fueling Station, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  2. 13. VIEW OF S202(PERHAPS AN ACID STORAGE SHED), LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF S-202(PERHAPS AN ACID STORAGE SHED), LOOKING SOUTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 1. SOUTH FACE AND WEST SIDE OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH FACE AND WEST SIDE OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 773) LOCATED ON SLC-3W IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Storage Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. The shower house is adjacent to the storage sheds and just south of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  5. 2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST SEED STORAGE BUILDING (1963) BEHIND - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  8. View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is in background - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Storage Shed, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. 19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST PROPERTY LINE ADJACENT TO TREE AND RUNS ALONG SIDE OF SHED. LOOKING NORTH AND SLIGHTLY EAST FROM ADJOINING PROPERTY. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  10. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Explosive Storage, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  11. 17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied from a photograph by Thomas S. Bronson, 'Group at Whitney Factory, 5 November 1906,' NHCHSL. The most reliable view of the fuel storage sheds and foundry, together with a view of the forge building. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE FAR RIGHT. DOCKSIDE STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. LAKE WORTH INLET AND THE TOWN OF PALM BEACH ARE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  13. 25. View of storage shed and motor house for tramway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of storage shed and motor house for tramway, looking southwest. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. 29. View of oil storage shed, looking northeast. Photo by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of oil storage shed, looking northeast. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  15. 16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. Hondius Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STORAGE SHED DOOR DETAIL, SOUTH FRONT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  16. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. 16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, c.1918 Photocopied from a photograph in the collection of William F. Applegate, 43 Grandview Avenue, Wallingford, Connecticut. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with circular, cattle watering pond in left foreground and coffee mill in background right. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-1 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid treatment improves differentiation and immunomodulation of SHED.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Chen, C; Liu, S; Liu, D; Xu, X; Chen, X; Shi, S

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) possess multipotent differentiation and immunomodulatory properties. They have been used for orofacial bone regeneration and autoimmune disease treatment. In this study, we show that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment is able to significantly improve SHED-mediated osteogenic differentiation and immunomodulation. Mechanistically, ASA treatment upregulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)/Wnt/β-catenin cascade, leading to improvement of SHED-mediated bone regeneration, and also upregulates TERT/FASL signaling, leading to improvement of SHED-mediated T-cell apoptosis and ameliorating disease phenotypes in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis mice. These data indicate that ASA treatment is a practical approach to improving SHED-based cell therapy. PMID:25394850

  20. 62. TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTION STATION FOR SLC3W MST. STORAGE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTION STATION FOR SLC-3W MST. STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 773) IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  2. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish.

    PubMed

    Setlow, Richard B

    2002-03-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma. PMID:11906839

  3. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  4. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates thrombomodulin lectin-like domain shedding in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Hualin; Lin ChiIou; Huang Yuanli; Chen, Pin-Shern; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Shing; Wu, G.C.-C.; Shi, G.-Y.; Yang, H.-Y.; Lee Hsinyu

    2008-02-29

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anticoagulant glycoprotein highly expressed on endothelial cell surfaces. Increased levels of soluble TM in circulation have been widely accepted as an indicator of endothelial damage or dysfunction. Previous studies indicated that various proinflammatory factors stimulate TM shedding in various cell types such as smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator present in biological fluids during endothelial damage or injury. In the present study, we first observed that LPA triggered TM shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By Cyflow analysis, we showed that the LPA-induced accessibility of antibodies to the endothelial growth factor (EGF)-like domain of TM is independent of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while LPA-induced TM lectin-like domain shedding is MMP-dependent. Furthermore, a stable cell line expressing TM without its lectin-like domain exhibited a higher cell proliferation rate than a stable cell line expressing full-length TM. These results imply that LPA induces TM lectin-like domain shedding, which might contribute to the exposure of its EGF-like domain for EGF receptor (EGFR) binding, thereby stimulating subsequent cell proliferation. Based on our findings, we propose a novel mechanism for the exposure of TM EGF-like domain, which possibly mediates LPA-induced EGFR transactivation.

  5. Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Dierick, Noël; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), the positive control (challenged, basal diet), and six treatments similar to the positive control but supplemented with the following active ingredients (dose excluding essential oils or natural extracts): triglycerides with butyric acid (1.30 g kg(-1)); formic and citric acids and essential oils (2.44 g kg(-1)); coated formic, coated sorbic, and benzoic acids (2.70 g kg(-1)); salts of formic, sorbic, acetic, and propionic acids, their free acids, and natural extracts (2.92 g kg(-1)); triglycerides with caproic and caprylic acids and coated oregano oil (1.80 g kg(-1)); and caproic, caprylic, lauric, and lactic acids (1.91 g kg(-1)). On day 6, half the piglets (seeder pigs) in each group were orally challenged with a Salmonella Typhimurium nalidixic acid-resistant strain (4 × 10(9) and 1.2 × 10(9) log CFU per pig in replicate experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Two days later, they were transferred to pens with an equal number of contact pigs. Salmonella shedding was determined 2 days after challenge exposure and then on a weekly basis. On day 34 or 35, piglets were euthanized to sample tonsils, ileocecal lymph nodes, and ileal and cecal digesta contents. The two additives, both containing short-chain fatty acids and one of them also containing benzoic acid and the other one also containing essential oils, and supplemented at more than 2.70 g kg(-1), showed evidence of reducing Salmonella fecal shedding and numbers of coliforms and Salmonella in cecal digesta. However, colonization of tonsils and ileocecal lymph nodes by Salmonella was not affected. Supplementing butyric acid and medium-chain fatty acids at the applied dose failed to inhibit

  6. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  7. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  8. Optical Data Storage in Acid Red Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.

    High-density optical data storage is a current field gaining importance where research work is done in abundance to bring about holographic CDs to light. Dye-doped gelatin films are promising candidates as recording materials for holographic data storage because of the ease of preparation and low cost. In this report we suggest some acid red dyes as useful recording materials for optical data storage. Acid red dyes namely Acid Red 73 and Acid Red 114 that are completely water-soluble are used to sensitize gelatin thin films for data storage. These dyes have their absorption peak around 514 nm. Two coherent beams of Argon ion laser (514.5 nm) are used to form the grating in the dye-sensitized gelatin films. The grating formed is found to be permanent. The diffraction efficiency of each material as a function of different parameters like dye concentration, writing beam intensities and their ratios and spatial frequency has been studied and presented. An attempt to store data in the sample has been made.

  9. Effect of Organic Acids on Salmonella Shedding and Colonization in Pigs on a Farm with High Salmonella Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Tagliabue, M; Missotten, J; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on the results of a previous study in which six commercial feed products based on organic acids were evaluated with respect to Salmonella contamination of piglets in an artificially challenged seeder model. In the present study, the efficacy of three of these commercial products was assessed for Salmonella reduction in fattening pigs on one closed farm with a natural high Salmonella prevalence. In each of four fattening compartments, one of the following feed treatments was evaluated during two consecutive fattening rounds: (i) butyric acid (active ingredients at 1.3 kg/ton of feed; supplement A1), (ii) a combination of short-chain organic acids (mixture of free acids and salts) and natural extracts (2.92 kg/ton; supplement A4), (iii) a 1:1 blend of two commercial products consisting of medium-chain fatty acids, lactic acid, and oregano oil (3.71 kg/ton; supplement A5+A6), and (iv) a control feed. On the farm, the Salmonella status of the fattening pigs was evaluated by taking fecal samples twice during the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, samples were collected from the cecal contents and the ileocecal lymph nodes. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This farm had a particularly high number of pigs shedding Salmonella with a wide variety of sero- and pulsotypes. Only the feed blend based on the medium-chain fatty acids was able to significantly reduce Salmonella prevalence both on the farm and at the slaughterhouse. With this combined supplement, the Salmonella reduction in the feces at slaughter age, in cecal contents at slaughter, and the lymph nodes was 50, 36, and 67%, respectively, compared with the control animals. This promising finding calls for further investigation including cost-efficiency of this combined feed product and its effect on the animals. PMID:26735029

  10. A mollusk retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ortholog sheds light on the evolution of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Lima, Daniela; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Santos, Miguel M; Castro, L Filipe C; Bourguet, William; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. Surprisingly, we also find that NlRAR does not bind all-trans retinoic acid or any other retinoid we tested. Furthermore, NlRAR is unable to activate the transcription of reporter genes in response to stimulation by retinoids and to recruit coactivators in the presence of these compounds. Three-dimensional modeling of the ligand-binding domain of NlRAR reveals an overall structure that is similar to vertebrate RARs. However, in the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of the mollusk receptor, the alteration of several residues interacting with the ligand has apparently led to an overall decrease in the strength of the interaction with the ligand. Accordingly, mutations of NlRAR at key positions within the LBP generate receptors that are responsive to retinoids. Altogether our data suggest that, in mollusks, RAR has lost its affinity for all-trans retinoic acid, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity of its LBP. When put in an evolutionary context, our results reveal new structural and functional features of nuclear receptors validated by millions of years of evolution that were impossible to reveal in model organisms. PMID:25116705

  11. A Mollusk Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Ortholog Sheds Light on the Evolution of Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Lima, Daniela; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W.; Kane, Maureen; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Santos, Miguel M.; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Bourguet, William

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. Surprisingly, we also find that NlRAR does not bind all-trans retinoic acid or any other retinoid we tested. Furthermore, NlRAR is unable to activate the transcription of reporter genes in response to stimulation by retinoids and to recruit coactivators in the presence of these compounds. Three-dimensional modeling of the ligand-binding domain of NlRAR reveals an overall structure that is similar to vertebrate RARs. However, in the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of the mollusk receptor, the alteration of several residues interacting with the ligand has apparently led to an overall decrease in the strength of the interaction with the ligand. Accordingly, mutations of NlRAR at key positions within the LBP generate receptors that are responsive to retinoids. Altogether our data suggest that, in mollusks, RAR has lost its affinity for all-trans retinoic acid, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity of its LBP. When put in an evolutionary context, our results reveal new structural and functional features of nuclear receptors validated by millions of years of evolution that were impossible to reveal in model organisms. PMID:25116705

  12. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were dist...

  13. Caffeoylquinic Acids in Storage Roots of Sixteen Sweetpotato Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contents of chlorogenic acid and the 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5- isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) in the storage root tissues of sixteen sweetpotato genotypes were determined. Averaged over genotypes, the contents of the four compounds were highest in the cortex, intermediate in the stele and lo...

  14. Effect of shed type and sunflower supplementation of fatty acid profile and nutritional implications in lamb tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from Small Tail Han sheep is an important dietary component of people in western China. Five-mo-old Small Tail Han ewe lambs (n=40) were used to study the effect of sunflower seed (160 g/d) and protected fat (30 and 60 g/d) supplementation and type of shelter (conventional shed vs. greenhouse s...

  15. Accumulation of Oxygenated Fatty Acids in Oat Lipids During Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids were identified in oat grain by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. We hypothesized that most of these were the results of lipoxygenase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring concentrations of these compounds after hydrothermal treatments and storage of oat groa...

  16. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  17. The manipulation of auxin in the abscission zone cells of Arabidopsis flowers reveals that indoleacetic acid signaling is a prerequisite for organ shedding.

    PubMed

    Basu, Manojit M; González-Carranza, Zinnia H; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A

    2013-05-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place. PMID:23509178

  18. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  19. 21. Public Works Department Drawing 461M8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Storage Tank Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, South of Launch Area Entrance Drive, near security fence, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  1. 3. EAST FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757); DOORS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757); DOORS FOR STORAGE ROOMS. SECURITY FENCE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 5. PERSONNEL ROOM ON WEST SIDE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSONNEL ROOM ON WEST SIDE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) STORAGE LOCKER ON EAST WALL; PADDED TABLE ON SOUTH WALL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. 20. Public Works Department Drawing 461M7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Building 463 Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 29. Public Works Department Drawing 461S18 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Public Works Department Drawing 461-S-18 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Details Of Tank Platform' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Ester; Foresti, Fabio; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Fustini, Mattia; Zanoni, Maria G; Pasquali, Paolo; Callaway, Todd R; Piva, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding level of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were separated in 4 isolation units (6 piglets/isolation unit). Each unit received either a basal diet (no treatment) or a microencapsulated mixture of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol at 1, 2, or 5 g/kg of feed. After 21 d, pigs were orally challenged with 6 log10 colony-forming units of Salmonella Typhimurium. Blood samples and feces from rectal ampullae were collected every week. On d56 of the study, pigs were euthanized and necropsied to collect intestinal contents (jejunum through colon) and ileocecal lymph nodes. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella Typhimurium and serological analysis was also conducted. In the second study, an all-in-all-out multisite pig farm that was positive for monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was followed throughout a production cycle from weaning to slaughter. Pigs received either a basal diet or the basal diet including 5 g/kg of the microencapsulated additive. Environmental, fecal, and blood samples were collected monthly, and cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes were collected at slaughter to isolate and enumerate Salmonella. The results indicate that the additive at 5 g/kg tended to reduce Salmonella fecal prevalence in both a controlled challenge (p=0.07) and in production conditions (p=0.03). Nevertheless, the additive did not reduce the number of pigs seropositive for Salmonella, nor it reduced the Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. The data indicate that these additives are not effective alone but must be used in conjunction with appropriate containment measures at lairage in order to prevent reinfection in pigs and to reduce the number of pigs carrying Salmonella entering the food chain. PMID:26203634

  7. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  8. A GRB tool shed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Hakkila, Jon; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Mallozzi, Robert

    2000-09-01

    We describe the design of a suite of software tools to allow users to query Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) data and perform data mining expeditions. We call this suite of tools a shed (SHell for Expeditions using Datamining). Our schedule is to have a completed prototype (funded via the NASA AISRP) by February, 2002. Meanwhile, interested users will find a partially functioning tool shed at http:/grb.mankato.msus.edu. .

  9. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  10. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

  11. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  12. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23722089

  13. 11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & O STORAGE FACILITY ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. TURNTABLE LIES OUT OF VIEW BEHIND TRAIN SHED. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  14. Content and potential biological activity of dicaffeoylquinic acids in sweetpotato storage roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-DCQA) were identified in sweetpotato (USPI 399163) storage root cortex by methanol extraction followed by preparative-reversed phase and silicic acid column chromatography. Structures were confirmed by HPLC-MS. DCQAs were quantified in the st...

  15. Content and Potential Biological Activity of Dicaffeoylquinic Acids in Sweetpotato Storage Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-DCQA) were identified in sweetpotato (USPI 399163) storage root cortex by methanol extraction followed by preparative-reversed phase and silicic acid column chromatography. Structures were confirmed by HPLC-MS. DCQAs were quantified in the st...

  16. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  17. GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  18. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing redwood dry storage building located inside. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  19. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  20. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  1. 13. Relationship of east tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Relationship of east tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and privy to each other and immediate surroundings, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  2. 12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and chicken house to each other and immediate surroundings, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  3. 11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, and residence to overall farmstead site, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  4. Hydrogen Storage in the Carbon Dioxide - Formic Acid Cycle.

    PubMed

    Fink, Cornel; Montandon-Clerc, Mickael; Laurenczy, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes. PMID:26842324

  5. Long term storage of dilute acid pretreated corn stover feedstock and ethanol fermentability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Bao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study reported a new solution of lignocellulose feedstock storage based on the distributed pretreatment concept. The dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DDAP) was conducted on corn stover feedstock, instead of ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment. Then the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover was stored for three months during summer season with high temperature and humidity. No negative aspects were found on the physical property, composition, hydrolysis yield and ethanol fermentability of the long term stored pretreated corn stover, plus the additional merits including no chemicals recovery operation, anti-microbial contaminant environment from stronger acid and inhibitor contents, as well as the mild and slow hydrolysis in the storage. The new pretreatment method expanded the distributed pretreatment concept of feedstock storage with potential for practical application. PMID:26639616

  6. Formic acid as a hydrogen storage material - development of homogeneous catalysts for selective hydrogen release.

    PubMed

    Mellmann, Dörthe; Sponholz, Peter; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    Formic acid (FA, HCO2H) receives considerable attention as a hydrogen storage material. In this respect, hydrogenation of CO2 to FA and dehydrogenation of FA are crucial reaction steps. In the past decade, for both reactions, several molecularly defined and nanostructured catalysts have been developed and intensively studied. From 2010 onwards, this review covers recent advancements in this area using homogeneous catalysts. In addition to the development of catalysts for H2 generation, reversible H2 storage including continuous H2 production from formic acid is highlighted. Special focus is put on recent progress in non-noble metal catalysts. PMID:27119123

  7. Plasma free fatty acid metabolism during storage of platelet concentrates for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Cesar, J; DiMinno, G; Alam, I; Silver, M; Murphy, S

    1987-01-01

    New containers allow storage of platelet concentrates (PC) at 22 degrees C for up to 7 days, during which glycolytic and oxidative metabolism is vigorous. Recent evidence suggests that 85 percent of adenosine triphosphate regeneration is based on oxidative metabolism and that substrates other than glucose may be used. Because platelets can oxidize free fatty acids (FFA) as a possible source of energy during storage, the authors studied their availability, distribution, and turnover. Plasma FFA concentration was unchanged after 1 day of PC storage but significantly increased on Days 3, 5, and 7. Platelet-free plasma (PFP) stored under the same conditions as PC demonstrated a progressive increase in FFA, suggesting that some of the FFA accumulating in PC were derived from plasma rather than platelets. Indeed, during PC storage, plasma triglycerides decreased significantly, suggesting that they are a possible source of the increased levels of FFA found on Day 3 and thereafter. Thus, PC have a plasma FFA pool available continuously for oxidation during storage. Studies with radiolabeled palmitate suggested that FFA oxidation by platelets occurs during storage. The current findings show that plasma FFA could be a significant substrate for oxidative metabolism during storage of PC and that the oxidized FFA are replenished at least in part from plasma. These results may allow platelet storage to be improved, particularly in synthetic media. PMID:3629676

  8. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity. PMID:25466074

  9. Effect of storage time and temperature on the survival of Clostridium botulinum spores in acid media.

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

    1977-01-01

    Clostridium-botulinum type A and type B spores were stored in tomato juice (pH 4.2) and citric acid-phosphate buffer (pH 4.2) at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C for 180 days. The spore count was determined at different intervals over the 180-day storage period. There was no significant decrease in the number of type A spores in either the tomato juice or citric acid-phosphate buffer stored for 180 days at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C. The number of type B spores did not decrease when storage was at 4 degrees C, but there was an approximately 30% decrease in the number of spores after 180 days of storage at 22 and 32 degrees C. PMID:18990

  10. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1269, in the Federal Register on March 12, 2013 (78 FR 15753), for a... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  11. Electricity storage in biofuels: selective electrocatalytic reduction of levulinic acid to valeric acid or γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Xin, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qi, Ji; Chadderdon, David J; Qiu, Yang; Warsko, Kayla M; Li, Wenzhen

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we report an effective approach to electricity storage in biofuels by selective electrocatalytic reduction of levulinic acid (LA) to high-energy-density valeric acid (VA) or γ-valerolactone (gVL) on a non-precious Pb electrode in a single-polymer electrolyte membrane electrocatalytic (flow) cell reactor with a very high yield of VA (>90 %), a high Faradaic efficiency (>86 %), promising electricity storage efficiency (70.8 %), and a low electricity consumption (1.5 kWhL(VA)(-1) ). The applied potential and electrolyte pH can be used to accurately control the reduction products: lower overpotentials favor the production of gVL, whereas higher overpotentials facilitate the formation of VA. A selectivity of 95 % to VA in acidic electrolyte (pH 0) and 100 % selectivity to gVL in neutral electrolyte (pH 7.5) are obtained. The effect of the molecular structure on the electrocatalytic reduction of ketone and aldehyde groups of biomass compounds was investigated. Whereas LA can be fully electroreduced to VA though a four-electron transfer, the C-O groups are only electroreduced to -OH by a two-electron-transfer process when glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid serve as feedstocks. PMID:23457116

  12. Type 304L stainless steel surface microstructure: Performance in hydride storage and acid cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    The performance of stainless steel as the container in hydride storage bed systems has been evaluated, primarily using scanning electron microscopy. No adverse reaction between Type 304L stainless steel and either LaNi{sub 5{minus}x},Al{sub x}, or palladium supported on Kieselguhr granules (silica) during exposure in hydrogen was found in examination of retired prototype storage bed containers and special compatibility test samples. Intergranular surface ditching, observed on many of the stainless steel surfaces examined, was shown to result from air annealing and acid cleaning of stainless steel during normal fabrication. The ditched air annealed and acid cleaned stainless steel samples were more resistant to subsequent acid attack than vacuum annealed or polished samples without ditches.

  13. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  14. An analytical study of a lead-acid flow battery as an energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alex; Mukerjee, Santanu; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, Dong-Ha; Park, Sam

    2014-03-01

    The most important issue with our current clean energy technology is the dependence on environmental conditions to produce power. To solve this problem a wide range of energy storage devices are being explored for grid-scale energy storage including soluble lead-acid flow batteries. Flow batteries offer a unique solution to grid-scale energy storage because of their electrolyte tanks which allow easy scaling of storage capacity. This study seeks to further understand the mechanisms of a soluble lead acid flow battery using simulations. The effects of varies changes to operating conditions and the system configuration can be explored through simulations. The simulations preformed are 2D and include the positive electrode, negative electrode, and the flow space between them. Simulations presented in this study show Pb(II) surface concentration, external electric potential, and PbO/PbO2 surface concentration on the positive electrode. Simulations have shown increasing cell temperature can increase external electric potential by as much as 0.2 V during charge. Simulations have also shown electrolyte velocity is an important aspect when investigating lead deposition onto the electrodes. Experimental work was performed to validate simulation results of current density and voltage. Good correlation was found between experimental work and simulation results.

  15. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    PubMed Central

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH favored the development and metabolism of these species. PMID:16346581

  16. The effect of fermentation and storage on free amino acids of tarhana.

    PubMed

    Erbas, M; Ertugay, M F; Erbas, M O; Certel, M

    2005-08-01

    A study on the evaluation of free amino acids (FAAs) in tarhana during fermentation and storage was performed. The FAAs in tarhana were determined by RP-HPLC with a fluorescence detector following extraction from the sample and derivatization with dansyl chloride. The amount of FAAs increased significantly (p<0.01) during fermentation and storage. The increase in the content of total free amino acids (TFAAs) and total free essential amino acids (TFEAAs) of fermented tarhana, which was used with yogurt bacteria and baker's yeast, was 57% and 93%, respectively. The amino acids primarily responsible for the increase were valine and tryptophan followed by methionine, alanine, isoleucine + leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, proline, and lysine. The TFAA content of tarhana at the end of fermentation was found to be 8% of total protein (16.8%). The ratio of TFEAAs/TFAAs was initially 0.46 and increased to 0.57 at the end of fermentation. The TFAA content of wet tarhanas was higher than that of the dry counterpart. It was found that the TFAA content of dry tarhana was 25% lower than the fresh wet tarhana (FWT), at the end of fermentation. It was concluded that the decrease in FAAs in dry tarhana was due to the Maillard reaction and partial degradation of FAAs during dehydration. PMID:16236596

  17. Acid-leached α-MnO2 nanowires for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byles, Bryan; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina

    2014-09-01

    We present synthesis, acid-leaching, characterization and electrochemistry of α-MnO2 nanowires with tunnel crystal structure. This material is used as a matrix for lithium ions intercalation to provide insights into the effects of postsynthesis treatment on charge storage properties. Hydrothermal treatment of precursors produced 20 - 200 nm thick and tens of microns long nanowires. Acid leaching was carried out in the concentrated nitric acid at room temperature and resulted in the change of material composition and surface area. Original α-MnO2 nanowires showed initial discharge specific capacity of 96 mAh/g, while acid-leached material exhibited higher capacity values. This work forms the basis for future study aimed at understanding of correlation between crystal structure, composition and morphology of the "host" matrix and nature of the "guest" ions for beyond lithium electrochemical energy storage. In addition, we demonstrate single nanowire electrochemical cells for the study of electrochemically-correlated mechanical properties of the nanowires.

  18. Shedding light on prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Glatzel, Markus; Linsenmeier, Luise; Dohler, Frank; Krasemann, Susanne; Puig, Berta; Altmeppen, Hermann C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteolytic processing regulates key processes in health and disease. The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is subject to at least 3 cleavage events, α-cleavage, β-cleavage and shedding. In contrast to α- and β-cleavage where there is an ongoing controversy on the identity of relevant proteases, the metalloprotease ADAM10 represents the only relevant PrP sheddase. Here we focus on the roles that ADAM10-mediated shedding of PrPC and its pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) might play in regulating their physiological and pathogenic functions, respectively. As revealed by our recent study using conditional ADAM10 knockout mice (Altmeppen et al., 2015), shedding of PrP seems to be involved in key processes of prion diseases. These aspects and several open questions arising from them are discussed. Increased knowledge on this topic can shed new light on prion diseases and other neurodegenerative conditions as well. PMID:26186508

  19. Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and Spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

    1998-01-01

    Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistant trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs).

  20. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks. PMID:24840090

  1. Lactic acid is a sperm motility inactivation factor in the sperm storage tubules

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kohsaka, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Yoshinobu; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Although successful fertilization depends on timely encounters between sperm and egg, the decoupling of mating and fertilization often confers reproductive advantages to internally fertilizing animals. In several vertebrate groups, postcopulatory sperm viability is prolonged by storage in specialized organs within the female reproductive tract. In birds, ejaculated sperm can be stored in a quiescent state within oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs), thereby retaining fertilizability for up to 15 weeks at body temperature (41 °C); however, the mechanism by which motile sperm become quiescent within SSTs is unknown. Here, we show that low oxygen and high lactic acid concentrations are established in quail SSTs. Flagellar quiescence was induced by lactic acid in the concentration range found in SSTs through flagellar dynein ATPase inactivation following cytoplasmic acidification (acid in promoting sperm quiescence in SSTs and opened up a new opportunity for technological improvement in prolonging sperm longevity at ambient or body temperature. PMID:26619826

  2. Lactic acid is a sperm motility inactivation factor in the sperm storage tubules.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kohsaka, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Yoshinobu; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Although successful fertilization depends on timely encounters between sperm and egg, the decoupling of mating and fertilization often confers reproductive advantages to internally fertilizing animals. In several vertebrate groups, postcopulatory sperm viability is prolonged by storage in specialized organs within the female reproductive tract. In birds, ejaculated sperm can be stored in a quiescent state within oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs), thereby retaining fertilizability for up to 15 weeks at body temperature (41°C); however, the mechanism by which motile sperm become quiescent within SSTs is unknown. Here, we show that low oxygen and high lactic acid concentrations are established in quail SSTs. Flagellar quiescence was induced by lactic acid in the concentration range found in SSTs through flagellar dynein ATPase inactivation following cytoplasmic acidification (acid in promoting sperm quiescence in SSTs and opened up a new opportunity for technological improvement in prolonging sperm longevity at ambient or body temperature. PMID:26619826

  3. 58. LOOKING WEST AT EAST END OF LUMBERSTORAGE SHED AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING WEST AT EAST END OF LUMBER-STORAGE SHED AS TWO FORKLIFTS CARRY STACK OF LONGEST TIMBERS CUT BY HULL-OAKES LUMBER CO. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1959. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  4. Survival of acid adapted and non-acid adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in pasteurized orange juice and yogurt under different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Valdés, Lorena; Bernardo, Ana; Prieto, Miguel; López, Mercedes

    2013-10-01

    The survival capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells was monitored in pasteurized yogurt (pH 4.1) and orange juice (pH 3.6) during storage at different temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 37 ). Acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells were obtained by means of their growth for 36 h in Brain Heart Infusion broth acidified at pH 4.8 with citric acid and buffered (pH 7.0) Brain Heart Infusion broth, respectively. S. typhimurium showed a great ability to survive in both foodstuffs and, especially, in yogurt, where both acid adapted and non-acid adapted populations suffered only a reduction of about 1.3-1.9 log10 cycles after 43 days of storage in the range of temperatures 4-25 . At 37  a higher bacterial inactivation was observed (4.0-4.4 log10 cycles). In orange juice, a different behaviour was observed for acid-adapted and non-acid adapted cells. Whereas non-acid adapted cells survived better than acid adapted cells at 4 and 10 , acid adapted cells showed enhanced survival abilities at higher temperatures (25 and 37 ). Thus, the times required to achieve a 5 log10 cycles reduction for non-acid adapted and acid adapted cells were 10.2 and 6.0 (4 ), 6.3 and 4.2 (10 ), 0.6 and 1.0 (25 ) and 0.10 and 0.15 (37 ) days, respectively. Evidence found in this study demonstrates that refrigeration temperatures protect S. typhimurium from inactivation in acid foods and indicates that S. typhimurium acid tolerance response (ATR) is determined by storage temperature and food composition. PMID:23729421

  5. Citric acid demineralization of cementum and dentin: the effect of the storage medium.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C; Sterrett, J D; Russell, C

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if the root surface topography of teeth, stored in saline and subsequently treated with citric acid, differred from the root surface topography of teeth that were treated immediately upon extraction, 12 freshly extracted adult human permanent teeth, with proximal surfaces free of caries and periodontal disease, were treated in succession. The crowns were removed at the level of periodontal attachment, the teeth sectioned buccal-lingually and a treatment area deligniated on each proximal section. The treatment area of 6 teeth was root planed to expose dentin (D) and scaled to remove adherent tissue and leave a cementum surfaces (C) on the other 6 teeth. A coronal-apical groove down the middle of the treatment area divided it into approximately equal parts or experimental regions. One proximal section of each tooth was placed in physiologic saline (S) and treated after 6 weeks of storage while the other proximal section was freshly treated (F). Treatment consisted of applying a 30% citric acid (CA) solution (pH = 1.60) for 5 min. Cotton pellets soaked in the citric acid solution were placed (P) on one half of the experimental area and heavily burnished (B) on the other half. Treatment areas were subsequently prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. Assessment was made of (i) the % of surface area tufted, (ii) fibril tufting depth (0.3) and (iii) fibril tufting density (1.3). Similarities were found in the data for both storage methods (F and S) across each application technique (P or B) and each tooth surface (D or C) with respect to the (i) % area tufted and (ii) frequency distribution of tufting depth scores. As for the application techniques, the data for burnishing was greater than placed across each storage method (F or S) and each tooth surface (D or C) for the same two parameters. The results of the study indicated that 6-week physiologic saline storage does not affect root surface demineralization by citric acid

  6. The Impact of Enzyme Characteristics on Corn Stover Fiber Degradation and Acid Production During Ensiled Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L.; Moore, Kenneth J.

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commerical enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C ∶ H). The highest C ∶ H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  7. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production. PMID:27596402

  8. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  9. Furan formation from fatty acids as a result of storage, gamma irradiation, UV-C and heat treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furan is a possible human carcinogen that has been found in many thermally processed foods. The effects of thermal processing, gamma and UV-C irradiation on formation of furan from different fatty acids was studied. In addition, formation of furan from fatty acid emulsions during storage at 25C and...

  10. Snap-through anti-ignition vent cap for lead acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, E.M.; Heiser, J.I.

    1980-11-11

    A vented battery cap is provided which is adapted to engage at least one of a plurality of fill holes in an automotive storage battery or similar lead acid battery and which has pressure release means for venting the combustible gases produced within that storage battery under conditions such as overcharge conditions into the atmosphere. The cap itself is comprised of substantially two portions, a base member which fits into at least one of the fill holes and a top member which snap-fits through the base member. The pressure release means comprises a plurality of extremely narrow slits on both the top and underside of the cap which have widths in the order of 0.003 to 0.005 of an inch. The remainder of the battery cap is tightly sealed to prevent any extraneous leaks of battery gases received from the automotive battery from leaking into the atmosphere. The slits are so constructed to facilitate the safe expulsion of any volume of gas normally produced by an automotive storage battery, while virtually eliminating the likelihood that ignition of gases within the atmosphere will result in explosive consequences either within the battery cap or within the battery itself.

  11. The change of fatty acids composition of Polish biscuits during storage.

    PubMed

    Koczoń, Piotr; Lipińska, Edyta; Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Ewa; Mikuła, Małgorzata; Bartyzel, Bartłomiej J

    2016-07-01

    Commercially available Polish biscuits were stored for 10months under different storage conditions i.e. in temperatures of 5°C and 20°C. The chemical quality alteration caused by chemical reactions occurring within biscuits were studied in terms of change of composition of fat extracted from studied samples in one-month intervals. Correlation of data from standard methods e.g. gas chromatography or classic titration with FT-IR spectroscopy, was followed by calculation of four statistical models that accurately predicted peroxide value, oxidative stability, polar fraction content and unsaturated trans fatty acid content in any samples. On the basis of data obtained, scheme of chemical reactions involved in oxidation process was suggested. A critical time of storage was proposed as an indicator of the period of the highest rate of chemical changes. Among factors considered to influence oxidative stability, the following had the greatest impact: initial water content, initial fat content, and time of storage. PMID:26920303

  12. Spillover of Fatty Acids During Dietary Fat Storage in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Almandoz, Jaime P.; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A.; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T.; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A.; Nelson, Robert H.; Miles, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [3H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-13C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P < 0.0001) and an ∼23% decrease in oleate flux (P = 0.007). Fractional spillover did not change (P = NS). At baseline, there was a strong negative correlation between spillover and leg fat (r = −0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = −0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = −0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23349503

  13. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  14. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. PMID:25529719

  15. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker

    PubMed Central

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O.; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M.; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S.; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J.; Wraith, James E.; Porter, Forbes D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

  16. View Shed - Version 1.0

    2014-09-18

    The View Shed library is a collection of Umbra modules that are used to calculate areas of visual coverage (view sheds). It maps high and low visibility areas and calculates sensor (camera placement for maximum coverage and performance. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (ViewShedWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  17. Influence of Citric Acid on the Pink Color and Characteristics of Sous Vide Processed Chicken Breasts During Chill Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    Chicken breast dipped with citric acid (CA) was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d. A non-dipped control group (CON) and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed (0.5%, 0.5CIT; 2.0%, 2CIT and 5.0%, 5CIT; w/v). Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. While the redness of the juice and meat in all groups showed significant increase during storage, the redness of the citric acid groups was reduced compared to the control group (p<0.05). The percentage of myoglobin denaturation (PMD) of the CA groups was also increased according to the level of CA during storage. Total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were generally lower in the citric acid-treated samples than in untreated ones, indicating extended shelf life of the cooked chicken breast dipped in citric acid solution. The shear force of the 2CIT and 5CIT groups was significantly lower (p<0.05). The findings indicated positive effects in the physicochemical properties and storage ability of sous vide chicken breast at 2% and 5% citric acid concentrations. PMID:26761885

  18. Effect of Frozen Storage on the Gel-Forming Ability of Surimi Treated by Acid and Alkaline Solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    Rheological changes during five months of frozen storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) surimi elaborated by acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) treatment, and their ability to form gels were evaluated. Frozen storage provoked a sligthly increase of rigidity and toughness in surimi B due to the loss of water holding capacity. This effect on surimi B disrupts the gel forming ability of muscle proteins, and the resulting gel experiments an increase of viscoelastic moduli, maximum stress and gel strength, showing a more increment in the network firmness after five months of frozen storage, however it is still better gel than that from method A.

  19. Effect of storage temperature in a Cambodian field setting on the fatty acid composition in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nurhasan, M; Roos, N; Aristizabal Henao, J J; Chamnan, C; Stark, K D; Lauritzen, L

    2015-05-01

    Fatty acid analysis requires standardized collection and storage of samples, which can be a challenge under field conditions. This study describes the effect of storage temperature on fatty acid composition in two sets of whole blood samples collected from 66 children in a rural area in Cambodia. The samples were stored with butylated hydroxytoluene at -20 °C and -80 °C and the latter required extra transfers due to storage facility limitation. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by high-throughput gas-chromatography and evaluated by paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Total amounts of fat in -20 °C and -80 °C samples did not differ, but there was relatively more highly unsaturated fatty acids (15.8 ± 2.7 vs. 14.4 ± 2.5%, p < 0.001) and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio (6.4 ± 1.4 vs. 6.9 ± 1.4, p < 0.001) in the -20 °C samples. Our results indicate that the importance of storage temperature should be evaluated in the context of storage facility availability and risk of temperature fluctuations during transport. PMID:25753812

  20. Chemical stabilization of oils rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage.

    PubMed

    Pop, F

    2011-04-01

    During the microencapsulation process, the fish oil undergoes multiple changes in its physical properties such as bulkiness and dispersibility in aqueous phase and dry matrix. Autoxidation already occurred in the first stages of the microencapsulation process itself during emulsification and spray-drying. An efficient stabilization was achieved using a ternary combination of lipophilic antioxidants, synergistic compounds and a trace metal chelator, e.g. a combination of tocopherols, rich in the δ-derivative and low in the α-derivative, with ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin. Trace metal chelation by, e.g. Citrem or lecithin in combination with ascorbyl palmitate proved to be of particular importance in the emulsion, but not during the storage of the microencapsulated oil. In the microencapsulated oil, the addition of rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid to ternary blends of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin or Citrem significantly retarded autoxidation. PMID:21447601

  1. Radiation and storage-induced ageing of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappen, P.; Brack, N.; Hale, P. S.; Prissanaroon, W.; Welter, E.; Pigram, P. J.

    2005-04-01

    The effects of storage and exposure to X-rays on the surface chemistry of electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For irradiation, different photon sources (lab source and synchrotron radiation) and energies (1.4-9 keV) were chosen. This covers an energy range of relevance for many X-ray based investigations (e.g. XPS or X-ray absorption spectroscopy) of PPy[DBSA], PPy-metal interfaces, and transition metals embedded into PPy. The DBSA doping level and the concentration ratio of sulfonate species are discussed as a function of storage and irradiation times, and links between both ageing parameters are given. New sulfur species are found to emerge upon repeated soft X-ray irradiation. Severe changes in the polaron/bipolaron structure of PPy[DBSA] during exposure to high energy (several keV) synchrotron radiation are observed, and the results are discussed in the light of photon absorption and photoelectron generation in the polymer surface.

  2. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived. PMID:26028753

  3. Shed syndecan-2 inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Rossi, Giulia; Evans, Alun R.; Kay, Emma; Woodfin, Abigail; McKay, Tristan R.; Nourshargh, Sussan; Whiteford, James R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Angiogenesis is essential for the development of a normal vasculature, tissue repair and reproduction, and also has roles in the progression of diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-2 is expressed on mesenchymal cells in the vasculature and, like the other members of its family, can be shed from the cell surface resulting in the release of its extracellular core protein. The purpose of this study was to establish whether shed syndecan-2 affects angiogenesis. We demonstrate that shed syndecan-2 regulates angiogenesis by inhibiting endothelial cell migration in human and rodent models and, as a result, reduces tumour growth. Furthermore, our findings show that these effects are mediated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD148 (also known as PTPRJ) and this interaction corresponds with a decrease in active β1 integrin. Collectively, these data demonstrate an unexplored pathway for the regulation of new blood vessel formation and identify syndecan-2 as a therapeutic target in pathologies characterised by angiogenesis. PMID:25179601

  4. Selection for low erucic acid and genetic mapping of loci affecting the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in meadowfoam seed storage lipids.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, S D; Kishore, V K; Crane, J M; Slabaugh, M B; Knapp, S J

    2009-06-01

    Erucic acid (22:1(13)) has been identified as an anti-nutritional compound in meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) and other oilseeds in the Brassicales, a classification which has necessitated the development of low erucic acid cultivars for human consumption. The erucic acid concentrations of meadowfoam wild types (8%-24%) surpass industry standards for human consumption (acid lines and identify loci affecting the accumulation of 22:1(13) and other very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in meadowfoam seed storage lipids. LE76, a low erucic acid line, was developed by 3 cycles of selection in an ethyl methanesulfonate-treated wildtype population. LE76 produced 3% 22:1(13), threefold less than the M0 population. Wildtype x LE76 F2 populations produced continuous, approximately normal erucic and dienoic acid distributions. Loss-of-function mutations apparently did not segregate and individuals with low 22:1(13) concentrations (storage lipids by genotyping and phenotyping wildtype x low erucic acid F2 progeny. Composite interval mapping identified 3 moderately large-effect erucic acid QTL. The low erucic acid parent transmitted favorable alleles for 2 of 3 QTL, suggesting low erucic acid cultivars can be developed by combining favorable alleles transmitted by wildtype and low erucic acid parents. PMID:19483773

  5. A NOVEL PNYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID (DMA): THE LUNG AS A STORAGE COMPARTMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A NOVEL PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID (DMA): THE LUNG AS A STORAGE COMPARTMENT. Evans, M.V., Hughes, M.F., and Kenyon, E.M. USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    DMA is the major methylated metabolite of inorganic arsenic, a kno...

  6. Identification and quantification of the oxidation products derived from α-acids and β-acids during storage of hops ( Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Ozaki, Hiromi; Nishimura, Koichi; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2013-03-27

    α-Acids and β-acids, two main components of hop resin, are known to be susceptible to oxygen and degraded during hop storage, although the oxidation products in stored hops have not been fully identified. In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method suitable for separation and quantification of the oxidation products. This HPLC analysis clearly proved, for the first time, that humulinones and hulupones are major products in oxidized hops. We are also the first to identify novel 4'-hydroxy-allohumulinones, suggested to be oxidative products of humulinones, by means of NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Using the developed analytical method, changes in α- and β-acids and their oxidation products during hop storage were clearly revealed for the first time. PMID:23469991

  7. Filter Paper-based Nucleic Acid Storage in High-throughput Solid Tumor Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Stachler, Matthew; Jia, Yonghui; Sharaf, Nematullah; Wade, Jacqueline; Longtine, Janina; Garcia, Elizabeth; Sholl, Lynette M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular testing of tumors from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks is central to clinical practice; however, it requires histology support and increases test turnaround time. Prospective fresh frozen tissue collection requires special handling, additional storage space, and may not be feasible for small specimens. Filter paper-based collection of tumor DNA reduces the need for histology support, requires little storage space, and preserves high-quality nucleic acid. We investigated the performance of tumor smears on filter paper in solid tumor genotyping, as compared with paired FFPE samples. Whatman FTA Micro Card (FTA preps) smears were prepared from 21 fresh tumor samples. A corresponding cytology smear was used to assess tumor cellularity and necrosis. DNA was isolated from FTA preps and FFPE core samples using automated methods and quantified using SYBR green dsDNA detection. Samples were genotyped for 471 mutations on a mass spectrophotometry-based platform (Sequenom). DNA concentrations from FTA preps and FFPE correlated for untreated carcinomas but not for mesenchymal tumors (Spearman σ=0.39 and σ=-0.1, respectively). Average DNA concentrations were lower from FTA preps as compared with FFPE, but DNA quality was higher with less fragmentation. Seventy-six percent of FTA preps and 86% of FFPE samples generated adequate DNA for genotyping. FTA preps tended to perform poorly for collection of DNA from pretreated carcinomas and mesenchymal neoplasms. Of the 16 paired DNA samples that were genotyped, 15 (94%) gave entirely concordant results. Filter paper-based sample preservation is a feasible alternative to FFPE for use in automated, high-throughput genotyping of carcinomas. PMID:25221956

  8. A review of room temperature storage of biospecimen tissue and nucleic acids for anatomic pathology laboratories and biorepositories

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jerry J; Mirsadraei, Leili; Sanchez, Desiree E; Wilson, Ryan W; Shabihkhani, Maryam; Lucey, Gregory M; Wei, Bowen; Singer, Elyse J; Mareninov, Sergey; Yong, William H

    2014-01-01

    Frozen biospecimens are crucial for translational research and contain well preserved nucleic acids and protein. However, the risk for catastrophic freezer failure as well as space, cost, and environmental concerns argue for evaluating long-term room temperature storage alternatives. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues have great value but their use is limited by cross-linking and fragmentation of nucleic acids, as well as loss of enzymatic activity. Stabilization solutions can now robustly preserve fresh tissue for up to 7 days at room temperature. For longer term storage, commercial vendors of chemical matrices claim real time stability of nucleic acids of over 2 years and their accelerated aging studies to date suggest stability for 12 years for RNA and 60 years for DNA. However, anatomic pathology biorepositories store mostly frozen tissue rather than nucleic acids. Small quantities of tissue can be directly placed on some chemical matrices to stabilize DNA, however RNA and proteins are not preserved. Current lyophilization approaches can preserve histomorphology, DNA, RNA, and proteins though RNA shows moderate degradation after 1–2 years. Formalin free fixatives show improved but varying abilities to preserve nucleic acids and face validation as well as cost barriers in replacing FFPE specimens. The paraffin embedding process can degrade RNA. Development of robust long-term room temperature biospecimen tissue storage technology can potentially reduce costs for the biomedical community in the face of growing targeted therapy needs and decreasing budgets. PMID:24362270

  9. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage. PMID:26213007

  10. Low and moderate concentrations of lysobisphosphatidic acid in brain and liver of patients affected by some storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Kahma, K; Brotherus, J; Haltia, M; Renkonen, O

    1976-07-01

    The relative amount of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), known also as bis(monoacylglycerly)phosphate, among the total phospholipids was analyzed in post mortem samples of brain and liver of patients affected by four storage diseases. In spite of the extensive accumulation of storage lysosomes, none of the samples revealed a highly evelated LBPA content comparable to that found in the liver in Niemann-Pick disease and in the liver in lipidosis induced by 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol. We conclude that, although LBPA is often present in high concentration in lysosomes of many types of cells, it is not always a major component of these organelles. PMID:948249

  11. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: diagnosis and treatment of Wolman and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Diseases.

    PubMed

    Porto, Anthony F

    2014-09-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. LAL is coded by the LIPA gene on chromosome 10q23.31. Its deficiency leads to two autosomal recessive disorders, Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). WD has an estimated incidence of 1 in 500,000 live births and is the result of a complete loss of LAL and presents in infancy with vomiting, diarrhea, poor weight gain and hepatomegaly subsequently leading to death. CESD is the result of partial loss of LAL and its presentation is more variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases and dystipidemia which may be confused with the diagnosis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. CESD is currently underdiagnosed and has an estimated prevalence as high as I in 40,000 individuals. Radiologic findings in WD is calcification of the adrenal glands. Hepatomegaly is noted on CT scan in both WD and CESD. MRI may demonstrate accumulation of cholesterol esters and may be useful to study effects of potential medical therapies. The diagnosis of WD and CESD is based on LIPA gene sequencing and the measurement of LAL levels in peripheral blood leukocytes. Treatment of LAL deficiency is currently limited to control of cholesterol levels and to prevent premature atherosclerosis. Use of enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human LAL in short-term studies has shown to be safe and effective. PMID:25345094

  12. High sensitivity vortex shedding flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring fluid flows. It comprises: a flowmeter body including a flow passage; a vortex generator of an elongated cylindrical shape disposed across a cross section of the flow passage, wherein at lest one extremity of the vortex generator is secured to the flowmeter body; a transducer contained in a container vessel secured to the flowmeter body, wherein the transducer is pressed onto a thin wall of the container vessel; and a flexible coupling connecting the thin wall of the container vessel to a deflective portion of the vortex generating, wherein the flexible coupling enhances relative deflection between the vortex generator and the container vessel. Wherein fluctuating fluid dynamic forces resulting from vortices shed from the vortex generator and experienced by vortex generator generate fluctuating electrical signals from the transducer as a measure of fluid flow through the flow passage.

  13. Vortex shedding and Maxwell's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2006-11-01

    The coupled problem of a flow around a solid body has applications from the fall of objects in a fluid to the computation of forces on wind-exposed structures. A simplified 2D model is proposed here for the interaction between solid bodies and potential flows. Potential flows over sharp edges generate singular velocities at the edges. To satisfy the Kutta condition, vorticity sheets must be shed from the edges to remove these singularities. Here 2D vorticity sheets are represented as discrete point-vortices with monotically varying intensity. From the fluid momentum conservation, an equation of motion for these vortices, the Brown and Michael equation, is derived and mechanical efforts applied by the fluid on the body are computed. The set of dynamical equations obtained for the fluid-body system is closed and is applied to Maxwell's problem of the 2D fall of a plate in an inviscid fluid initially at rest.

  14. Quantum dots increased fat storage in intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans by influencing molecular basis for fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuli; Zhi, Lingtong; Qu, Yangyang; Wang, Dayong

    2016-07-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model animal for fat storage study. In nematodes, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) induced an increase in fat storage in intestine that is partially due to prolonged defecation cycle length, and not attributed to altered feeding or cadmium ion released from CdTe QDs. Moreover, CdTe QDs altered the molecular basis of both synthesis and degradation of fatty acid; however, CdTe QDs did not influence that of degradation of phospholipids. CdTe QDs increased expression of fasn-1 and pod-2 genes encoding enzymes required for fatty acid synthesis, and decreased expression of acs-2 and ech-1 genes encoding enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. The altered molecular basis of fatty acid synthesis or degradation by CdTe QDs acted in intestine to regulate fat storage. Our study highlights the potential of CdTe QDs in influencing lipid metabolism in certain organs or tissues in animals. PMID:26956412

  15. Effect of acid adaptation on inactivation of Salmonella during drying and storage of beef jerky treated with marinades.

    PubMed

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Samelis, John; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C

    2003-12-15

    This study evaluated the influence of pre-drying marinade treatments on inactivation of acid-adapted or nonadapted Salmonella on beef jerky during preparation, drying and storage. The inoculated (five-strain composite, 6.0 log CFU/cm2) slices were subjected to the following marinades (24 h, 4 degrees C) prior to drying at 60 degrees C for 10 h and aerobic storage at 25 degrees C for 60 days: (1) no marinade, control (C), (2) traditional marinade (TM), (3) double amount of TM modified with added 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce with 5% ethanol (MM), (4) dipping into 5% acetic acid and then TM (AATM), and (5) dipping into 1% Tween 20 and then into 5% acetic acid, followed by TM (TWTM). Bacterial survivors were determined on tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate and xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. Results indicated that drying reduced bacterial populations in the order of pre-drying treatments TWTM (4.8-6.0 log CFU/cm2)> or =AATM> or =MM>TM> or =C (2.6-5.0 log CFU/cm2). Nonadapted Salmonella were significantly (P<0.05) more resistant to inactivation during drying than acid-adapted Salmonella in all treatments. Bacterial populations decreased below the detection limit (-0.4 log CFU/cm2) as early as 7 h during drying or remained detectable even after 60 days of storage, depending on acid adaptation, pre-drying treatment, and agar media. The results indicated that acid adaptation may not cause increased resistance of Salmonella to the microbial hurdles involved in jerky processing and that use of modified marinades in manufacturing jerky may improve the effectiveness of drying in inactivating Salmonella. PMID:14580973

  16. Furan formation from fatty acids as a result of storage, gamma irradiation, UV-C and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong

    2015-05-15

    The effects of gamma and UV-C irradiation in comparison with thermal processing and storage at 25°C on formation of furan from different fatty acids were investigated. Results showed that furan was generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acid during thermal (120°C, 25 min) and UV-C (11.5 J/cm(2)) treatments. Gamma irradiation (up to 20 kGy) did not induce formation of significant amounts of furan from any of the fatty acids studied. Storage of unsaturated fatty acid emulsions at 25°C for 3 days led to the formation of furan (7-11 ng/mL) even without prior thermal or non-thermal treatments. pH significantly impacted furan formation with >3.5 times more furan formed at pH 9 than at pHs 3 or 6 during 3 days at 25°C. The addition of Trolox, BHA, and propyl gallate had no significant effect on furan formation from linolenic acid while α-tocopherol and FeSO4 promoted furan formation. PMID:25577103

  17. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3

  18. Hyaluronic acid uptake in the assessment of sinusoidal endothelial cell damage after cold storage and normothermic reperfusion of rat livers.

    PubMed

    Reinders, M E; van Wagensveld, B A; van Gulik, T M; Frederiks, W M; Chamuleau, R A; Endert, E; Klopper, P J

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of hyaluronic acid (HA) was used to assess preservation damage to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) during cold storage and subsequent normothermic reperfusion of rat livers. After 8, 16, 24, and 48 h storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, livers were gravity-flushed via the portal vein with a standard volume of cold UW solution containing 50 micrograms/l HA. The effluent was collected for analysis of HA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mean uptake of HA at 0 h was 59.1% +/- 4.6% (mean +/- SEM). After 8 h of storage, HA uptake was similar (55.5% +/- 7.3%), whereas after 16 h of storage it was reduced to 34.7% +/- 5.8%. At 24 and 48 h of storage, no uptake of HA was found. In a second series of experiments, livers were stored in UW solution and subsequently reperfused for 90 min with a Krebs-Henseleit solution (37 degrees C) in a recirculating system containing 150 micrograms/l HA. Following 8 h of storage, 34.6% +/- 8.0% of the initial HA concentration was taken up from the perfusate. After 16 and 24 h of storage, no uptake of HA was found. The results of this study indicate that damage to SEC occurs progressively during storage, leading to zero uptake of HA by the rat livers at 24 h of cold ischemia time. Additional reperfusion injury to the SEC was demonstrated by the reduced ability of the SEC to take up HA following normothermic reperfusion. The uptake of exogenous HA in preserved livers, used as a tool to assess SEC injury, enables the detection of early preservation damage. PMID:8875786

  19. Generation of a Functional Non-Shedding Collagen XVII Mouse Model: Relevance of Collagen XVII Shedding in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Jacków, Joanna; Schlosser, Andreas; Sormunen, Raija; Nyström, Alexander; Sitaru, Cassian; Tasanen, Kaisa; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Franzke, Claus-Werner

    2016-02-01

    Collagen XVII is a hemidesmosomal anchorage molecule of basal keratinocytes that promotes stable epidermal-dermal adhesion. One unique feature of collagen XVII is that its collagenous ectodomain is constitutively released from the cell surface by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) through cleavage within its juxtamembranous linker domain. The responsivity of shedding to environmental stimuli and the high stability of the released ectodomain in several tissues suggests functions in cell detachment during epidermal morphogenesis, differentiation, and regeneration, but its physiologic relevance remained elusive. To investigate this, we generated knock-in mice, which express a functional non-sheddable collagen XVII mutant, with a 41 amino acid deletion in the linker domain spanning all ADAM cleavage sites. These mice showed no macroscopic phenotypic changes, were fertile, and had a normal lifespan. Prevention of collagen XVII shedding interfered neither with skin development nor with epidermal adhesion and differentiation. However, it led to faster wound closure due to accelerated re-epithelialization at the wound edges where shedding of wild-type collagen XVII was strongly induced. Taken together, we have successfully generated a functional non-shedding collagen XVII mouse model, which represents a powerful tool to investigate the pathophysiologic relevance of ectodomain shedding during wound regeneration and cancer invasion. PMID:26967482

  20. Implications of modifying membrane fatty acid composition on membrane oxidation, integrity, and storage viability of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marie-Louise R W; Petersen, Mikael A; Risbo, Jens; Hümmer, Magdalena; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering the fatty acid profile of the lipid membrane on storage survival of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, as well as study the membrane integrity and lipid oxidation. The fatty acid composition of the lipid membrane of L. acidophilus La-5 was significantly different upon growth in MRS (containing Tween 80, an oleic acid source), or in MRS with Tween 20 (containing C12:0 and C14:0), linoleic, or linolenic acid supplemented. Bacteria grown in MRS showed the highest storage survival rates. No indications of loss of membrane integrity could be found, and membrane integrity could therefore not be connected with loss of viability. Survival of bacteria grown with linoleic or linolenic acid was more negatively affected by the presence of oxygen, than bacteria grown in MRS or with Tween 20 supplemented. A small, but significant, loss of linolenic acid during storage could be identified, and an increase of volatile secondary oxidation products during storage was found for bacteria grown in MRS, or with linoleic, or linolenic acid supplemented, but not for bacteria grown with Tween 20. Overall, the results indicate that lipid oxidation and loss of membrane integrity are not the only or most important detrimental reactions which can occur during storage. By altering the fatty acid composition, it was also found that properties of oleic acid gave rise to more robust bacteria than more saturated or unsaturated fatty acids did. PMID:25823709

  1. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  2. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  3. Fatty acid composition in double and multilayered microcapsules of ω-3 as affected by storage conditions and type of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Antequera Rojas, Teresa; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2016-03-01

    Spray-dried microcapsules from double (DM) and multilayered (MM) fish oil emulsions were produced to evaluate the effect of type of emulsion on the fatty acid composition during the microencapsulation process and after one month of storage at refrigeration (4°C) and room (20°C) temperature. Encapsulation efficiency, loading and loading efficiency were significantly higher in MM than in DM. C20:5 n-3 (EPA) and C22:6 n-3 (DHA) showed higher proportions in MM than in DM. Some differences in microstructural features were detected, with DM showing cracks and pores. The influence of the storage was significant, decreasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both MM and DM, above all at 20°C. This decrease was more notable in DM. Multilayered emulsions are more suitable to encapsulate fish oil in terms of quantity of encapsulated oil, microstructure of the microcapsules and protection of fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, during storage. PMID:26471582

  4. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  5. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  6. Natural/passive solar heating and cooling for poultry sheds

    SciTech Connect

    Abd El-Salam, E.M.

    1980-12-01

    Arid climates, as in Egypt and the Middle-East regions, are characterized by large durinal and seasonal temperature variation coupled with clear skies and ample sunshine duration. Partial stabilization of indoor thermal environment in habitation is of great comfort for human and have large effects on animals or birds productivities. In case of poultry or animal sheds, can have some economical turn over in terms of increased egg or animal productivity and reduction of mortality rates if their indoor thermal environment is favorably controlled. Poultry birds are sensitive to changes of ambient temperatures, humidity and other environmental variables. This investigation describes an unconventional method of maintaining moderate thermal environment within poultry sheds by using the roof for storage of heat and coolness in appropriate seasons. During winter, underground water is circulated through specially designed pipe matrix imbeded in the roof slab and through radiant wall panels.

  7. Comparative Study of Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide Binary and Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide/Titanium-Oxide Ternary for Use as Energy Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andiarto, Rizky; Khalish Nuryadin, Muhammad; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a series of stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites for thermal energy storage (TES) system were synthesized through a two-step process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites were first prepared using sol-gel methods and then both samples were mixed into stearic acid by dispersion technique at three different weight % ratio to stearic acid: 5%, 10% and 15% to obtain stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. Morphologies and structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), while thermal properties of the sample were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fhermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns demonstrate, that stearic acid/Fe3O4 contained characteristic peaks of Fe3O4 and stearic acid structures, while peaks corresponded to anatase TiO2 structures appear in stearic acid/ Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. From the DSC measurements, it is found that the maximum latent heat was found at samples with weight ratio of 5%. Moreover, the enhancement up to 20% of latent heat in solidifying as well as melting processes was observed. TGA measurements show high degradation temperature in the range of 246 - 251°C. The TGA results also shows that the residual mass of the sample matches the composition of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/TiO2 which is added to the stearic acid.

  8. Effects of acid adaptation and modified marinades on survival of postdrying Salmonella contamination on beef jerky during storage.

    PubMed

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the survival of acid-adapted and nonadapted Salmonella cultures inoculated after drying on beef jerky that had been treated with marinades before drying at 60 degrees C for 10 h. Beef slices were (i) not treated prior to refrigeration at 4 degrees C for 24 h (control [C]); (ii) marinated with traditional marinade (TM), (iii) marinated with TM modified with 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce containing 5% ethanol (MM) at twice the amount used in the TM treatment; (iv) dipped into 5% acetic acid and then marinated with TM (AATM); and (v) dipped into 1% Tween 20, then dipped into 5% acetic acid, and then marinated with TM (TWTM); after each treatment, meat slices were refrigerated at 4 degrees C for 24 h prior to drying. Dried slices were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted Salmonella (ca. 5.7 log CFU/cm2) prior to aerobic storage at 25 degrees C for 60 days. Tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate, as well as xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar, was used to determine survivor counts. Bacterial decreases achieved with the different treatments were found to be in the following order: TWTM (5.4 to 6.3 log units) > or = AATM > or = MM > C > or = TM (2.9 to 5.1 log units). Acid-adapted Salmonella decreased faster than nonadapted Salmonella for all treatments. Bacterial populations decreased to below the detection limit (-0.4 log CFU/cm2) in as few as 14 days or remained detectable by direct plating after 60 days of storage, depending on acid adaptation, treatment, and agar media. The results of this study indicate that the modified marinades used in jerky processing and the low water activity of the dried product provide antimicrobial effects against possible postprocessing contamination with Salmonella, while the preparation of cultures under acid-adaptation conditions did not increase Salmonella survival during storage and may have reduced it. PMID:12636291

  9. Delineating resource sheds in aquatic ecosystems (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of spatially-explicit ecological phenomena in aquatic ecosystems is impeded by a lack of knowledge of, and tools to delimit, spatial patterns of material supply to point locations. Here we apply the concept of "resource sheds" to coasts and watersheds. Resource sheds ar...

  10. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  12. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  13. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  14. Reduction of volatile fatty acids and odor offensiveness by anaerobic digestion and solid separation of dairy manure during manure storage.

    PubMed

    Page, Laura H; Ni, Ji-Qin; Zhang, Hao; Heber, Albert J; Mosier, Nathan S; Liu, Xingya; Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Harrison, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) play an important role in the biodegradation of organic wastes and production of bioenergy under anaerobic digestion, and are related to malodors. However, little is known about the dynamics of VFA during dairy manure storage. This study evaluated the characteristics of VFA in dairy manure before and after anaerobic co-digestion in a laboratory experiment using eight lab-scale reactors. The reactors were loaded with four different types of dairy manure: (1) liquid dairy manure from a freestall barn, (2) mixture of dairy manure and co-digestion food processing wastes at the inlet of an anaerobic digester, (3) effluent from the digester outlet, and (4) the liquid fraction of effluent from a solid separator. Four VFA (acetic, propionic, butyric, and 2-methylbutyric acids) were identified and quantified in weekly manure samples from all reactors. Results showed that the dominant VFA was acetic acid in all four manure sources. The off-farm co-digestion wastes significantly increased the total VFA concentrations and the proportions of individual VFA in the influent. The dairy manure under storage demonstrated high temporal and spatial variations in pH and VFA concentrations. Anaerobic digestion reduced the total VFA by 86%-96%; but solid-liquid separation did not demonstrate a significant reduction in total VFA in this study. Using VFA as an indicator, anaerobic digestion exhibited an effective reduction of dairy manure odor offensiveness. PMID:25617873

  15. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  16. Vortex shedding flowmeter with fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, D. J.; Skuratovsky, E.

    Vortex shedding flow meters have proved over the last decade to be suitable for a wide variety of applications. They provide good accuracy, reliable flow measurement in a wide range of flow rates, and low pressure drop. Past performance was limited to operating pressures equivalent to ANSI Class 600 and process temperatures below 400 C. This paper presents a new design of vortex shedding flow meter with a fiber optic sensor capable of operating at pressures equivalent to ANSI Class 2500 and temperatures from -200 to 600 C. This device opens new horizons for vortex shedding flow meters in flow measurements and process control applications.

  17. Metabolic Encephalopathy and Lipid Storage Myopathy Associated with a Presumptive Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation Defect in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Biegen, Vanessa R.; McCue, John P.; Donovan, Taryn A.; Shelton, G. Diane

    2015-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurological examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful, and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurological signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging, and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis, and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy. PMID:26664991

  18. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  19. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process. PMID:23859360

  20. Vortex shedding by a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrini, M.; Beguier, C.; Chauvin, A.; Brun, R.

    1984-05-01

    A series of flow visualizations was performed to characterize the wake vortices of a Savonius rotor. The trials were undertaken in an attempt to account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimentally-derived power coefficients. The Savonius examined was two-bladed with a center offset. All tests were made in a water tunnel. Dye injection provided the visualization, and average velocities and velocity fluctuations were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer. A system of three vortices was found to be periodically shed by the rotor. Flow velocity fluctuation intensity peaked as a vortex was shed. The vortex shedding alternated from blade to blade, so that one was shed from a blade moving upstream.

  1. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  2. The fate of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes in an aquifer storage and recovery program, Las Vegas, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.M.; McKay, W.A.; Colec, E.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of disinfection byproducts during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is evaluated for aquifers in Southern Nevada. Rapid declines of haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations during ASR, with associated little change in Cl concentration, indicate that HAAs decline primarily by in situ microbial oxidation. Dilution is only a minor contributor to HAA concentration declines during ASR. Trihalomethane (THM) concentrations generally increased during storage of artificial recharge (AR) water and then declined during recovery. The decline of THM concentrations during recovery was primarily from dilution of current season AR water with residual AR water remaining in the aquifer from previous ASR seasons and native ground water. In more recent ASR seasons, for wells with the longest history of ASR, brominated THMs declined during storage and recovery by processes in addition to dilution. These conclusions about THMs are indicated by THM/Cl values and supported by a comparison of measured and model predicted THM concentrations. Geochemical mixing models were constructed using major-ion chemistry of the three end-member waters to calculate predicted THM concentrations. The decline in brominated THM concentrations in addition to that from dilution may result from biotransformation processes.

  3. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to <2 mg/kg at the other two temperatures. Storage at 10°C also resulted in an increase in trans-UCA after 3 days, only to decrease after 6 days. The concentration of cis-UCA increased nearly 13-fold after 15 days at 0 and 3°C, decreased at 10°C and remained unchanged at 23°C. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C. PMID:23561112

  4. Oenological characteristics, amino acids and volatile profiles of Hongqu rice wines during pottery storage: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Huang, Jiamei; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Luqiang; Zhuang, Weijin; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-07-15

    Hongqu rice wines were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200 MPa and 550 MPa at 25 °C for 30 min and effects on wine quality during pottery storage were examined. HHP treatment can significantly (p<0.05) decrease the content of fusel-like alcohols and maintain the concentration of lactones in these wines. After 18 months of storage, the HHP-treated wines exhibited a more rapid decrease in total sugars (9.3-15.3%), lower free amino acid content (e.g. lysine content decreased by 45.0-84.5%), and higher ketone content (e.g. 6- and 14-fold increase for 2-nonanone). These changes could be attributed to the occurrence of Maillard and oxidation reactions. The wines treated at 550 MPa for 30 min developed about twice as rapidly during pottery storage than untreated wines based on principal component analysis. After only 6 months, treated wines had a volatile composition and an organoleptic quality similar to that of untreated wines stored in pottery for 18 months. PMID:26948638

  5. Development of a mechanical mover device by compositing hydrogen storage alloy thin films with a perfluorosulfonic acid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Uchida, Haru-Hisa; Nishi, Yoshitake

    2007-01-01

    Perfluorosulfonic Acid (PFSA) film, commonly used in the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC), indicates conductance of proton and permeability of H IIO. In this study a mechanical composite mover device with this PFSA and hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) thin films was made up for expecting the movement driven by volume change in the course of hydrogen migration between PFSA and HSA layers. Hydrogen storage alloy, such as LaNi 5 indicates as much as 25% of volume change in the course of H II absorption in gas phase. Using this characteristics, a mechanical mover device was made of PFSA film of an electrolyte polymer sandwiched by hydrogen storage alloy thin films with Au-Pd intermediate layers. The mover device was operated by migrating hydrogen ions from the PFSA layer to the HSA layer, which were generated by electrolysis of H IIO in a PFSA layer. Electrical potential was given from the outsides lead wires. All experiments were carried out in the water. We confirmed large interesting movement generated by migration of hydrogen ion by applying electric potentials.

  6. Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of the coated ones, and the minimum WL was obtained with EGA coating. The mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the firmness of mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in L* value and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in a* and b* values occurred in the mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms. PMID:23175781

  7. Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ≥ 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This

  8. The Quality Changes of Postharvest Mulberry Fruit Treated by Chitosan-g-Caffeic Acid During Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Han, Beibei; Zheng, Yu; Liu, Lili; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of chitosan-g-caffeic acid (CTS-g-CA) on improving the quality and extending the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during storage at 4 °C for 18 d. CTS-g-CA was enzymatically synthesized using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The synergistic effects of CTS-g-CA treatment on mulberry fruit were evaluated using a co-toxicity factor (cf). The results showed that the rotting rate of CTS-g-CA-treated fruit was 37.67% (compared with that of the control at 97.67%) on day 18. The weight loss and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the CTS-g-CA-treated mulberry fruit were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control, CA, CTS, and CA+CTS treatments. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the CTS-g-CA treatment were both higher than those of the control. Furthermore, the CTS-g-CA treatment also maintained higher levels of main active substances, such as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and flavones, in mulberry fruit than the other treatments. Therefore, CTS-g-CA could be used to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during cold storage. PMID:26992122

  9. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jun; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joonho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg), and porous calcium silicate (25 mg) and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp) and disintegration time (14 minutes). The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity) over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27103789

  10. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Jun; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joonho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg), and porous calcium silicate (25 mg) and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp) and disintegration time (14 minutes). The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity) over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27103789

  11. Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Bogue (Boops boops) Fish during Storage at Different Temperatures by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ciampa, Alessandra; Picone, Gianfranco; Laghi, Luca; Nikzad, Homa; Capozzi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to obtain information about the changes occurring in Bogue (Boops boops) fish during storage. For this purpose, 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 600 MHz on trichloroacetic acid extracts of fish flesh stored over a 15 days period both at 4 °C and on ice. Such spectra allowed the identification and quantification of amino acids, together with the main organic acids and alcohols. The concentration of acidic and basic free amino acids was generally found to increase and decrease during storage, respectively. These concentration changes were slow during the first days, as a consequence of protein autolysis, and at higher rates afterward, resulting from microbial development. Two of the amino acids that showed the greatest concentration change were alanine and glycine, known to have a key role in determining the individual taste of different fish species. The concentration of serine decreased during storage, as highlighted in the literature for frozen fish samples. Differences in the amino acids concentration trends were found to be related to the different storage temperatures from day 4 onwards. PMID:22822452

  12. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from obese and nonobese adults for measures of GPAT and GPAT1 activities, ex vivo palmitate storage, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT) activities, and CD36 protein. Total GPAT and GPAT1 activities decreased as a function of adipocyte size in both omental (r = −0.71, P = 0.003) and subcutaneous (r = −0.58, P = 0.04) fat. The relative contribution of GPAT1 to total GPAT activity increased as a function of adipocyte size, accounting for up to 60% of GPAT activity in those with the largest adipocytes. We found strong, positive correlations between ACS, GPAT, and DGAT activities for both sexes and depots (r values 0.58–0.91) and between these storage factors and palmitate storage rates into TAG (r values 0.55–0.90). We conclude that: 1) total GPAT activity decreases as a function of adipocyte size; 2) GPAT1 can account for over half of adipose GPAT activity in hypertrophic obesity; and 3) ACS, GPAT, and DGAT are coordinately regulated. PMID:25738782

  13. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Martina D.; Kainz, Martin J.; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M.

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  14. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Martina D; Kainz, Martin J; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  15. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  16. Effects of different steeping methods and storage on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in bag tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng-Jye; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Lin, Jau-Tien

    2007-07-13

    Bag teas, packed 3g of ground black, green, oolong, paochoung and pu-erh tea leaves (the particle size used was 1-2mm), were steeped in 150 mL of 70, 85 or 100 degrees C hot water to study the effects of the number of steeping (the same bag tea was steeped repeatedly eight times, 30s each time, as done in China for making ceremonial tea) and varied steeping durations (0.5-4 min) on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in tea infusions. The changes in tea infusions during storage at 4 or 25 degrees C for 0-48 h and the variations in these compounds of bag tea infused with 150 mL of 4 or 25 degrees C cold water for 0.5-16 h were also investigated. A HPLC method with a C18 column and a step gradient solvent system consisting of acetonitrile and 0.9% acetic acid in deionized water was used for analysis. Results for all kinds of tea samples showed that the second tea infusion contained the highest contents of caffeine, catechins and gallic acid when bag teas were steeped in 70 degrees C water. It was different from that steeped at 85 and 100 degrees C, the highest contents existed in the first infusion. These compounds decreased gradually in later infusions. Higher amounts of caffeine, catechins and gallic acid could be released from bag teas as hotter water was used. As steeping duration prolonged, these ingredients increased progressively, however, their levels were lower than that cumulated from the infusions with the identical bag tea prepared recurrently at the same temperature and time points. (-)-Gallocatechin gallate and (+)-catechin existed in these tea infusions rarely and could not be detected until a certain amount of them infusing. Except gallic acid that showed a significant increase and caffeine that exhibited no significant change, all kinds of catechins decreased appreciably after tea infusions were stored at 25 degrees C for 36 h; nevertheless, all of them showed no evident changes at 4 degrees C storage. The caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in tea

  17. 1. View south, metal shed (at left) and tool room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View south, metal shed (at left) and tool room shed (WV-268-C)) (at right), in front of wash house (WV-268-D) - 3240 Cyrus Road, Tool Room Shed, About 25 feet directly behind house, Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  18. Children who develop type 1 diabetes early in life show low levels of carnitine and amino acids at birth: does this finding shed light on the etiopathogenesis of the disease?

    PubMed Central

    la Marca, G; Malvagia, S; Toni, S; Piccini, B; Di Ciommo, V; Bottazzo, G F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with overt type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been found to show an altered carnitine profile. This pattern has not previously been analyzed in neonates before onset of the disease. Materials and methods: Fifty children who developed T1D during the first 6 years of life, born and living in the Tuscany and Umbria Regions of Italy, were identified and 200 controls were recruited into the study. All newborns were subjected to extended neonatal screening by mass spectrometry at 48–72 h of life. Four controls for each of the 50 index cases were taken randomly and blinded in the same analytical batch. The panel used for neonatal screening consists of 13 amino acids, free carnitine, 33 acyl-carnitines and 21 ratios. All Guthrie cards are analyzed within 2 days of collection. Results: Total and free carnitine were found to be significantly lower in neonates who later developed T1D compared with controls. Moreover, the concentrations of the acyl-carnitines – acetyl-L-carnitine (C2), proprionylcarnitine (C3), 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH), miristoylcarnitine (C4), palmitoylcarnitine (C16) and stearoylcarnitine (C18) – were also significantly low in the cases vs controls. Furthermore, total amino-acid concentrations, expressed as the algebraic sum of all amino acids tested, showed a trend toward lower levels in cases vs controls. Conclusions: We found that carnitine and amino-acid deficit may be evident before the clinical appearance of T1D, possibly from birth. The evaluation of these metabolites in the neonatal period of children human leukocyte antigen genetically at ‘risk' to develop T1D, could represent an additional tool for the prediction of T1D and could also offer the possibility to design new strategies for the primary prevention of the disease from birth. PMID:24166423

  19. Epithelial Cell Shedding and Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. M.; Duckworth, C. A.; Burkitt, M. D.; Watson, A. J. M.; Campbell, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical component of the gut barrier. Composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, this delicate structure prevents the transfer of harmful microorganisms, antigens, and toxins from the gut lumen into the circulation. The equilibrium between the rate of apoptosis and shedding of senescent epithelial cells at the villus tip, and the generation of new cells in the crypt, is key to maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, in both localized and systemic inflammation, this balance may be disturbed as a result of pathological IEC shedding. Shedding of IECs from the epithelial monolayer may cause transient gaps or microerosions in the epithelial barrier, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been observed in mouse models of inflammation and human intestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. This process may also be an important contributor to systemic and intestinal inflammatory diseases and gut barrier dysfunction in domestic animal species. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about intestinal epithelial cell shedding, its significance in gut barrier dysfunction and host-microbial interactions, and where research in this field is directed. PMID:25428410

  20. Vortex-induced vibrations under oblique shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguet, Remi; Karniadakis, George; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A slender flexible body with bluff cross-section placed at normal incidence within a current may be subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV). In practical applications, the structures (e.g. marine risers, towing cables) are often inclined with respect to the direction of the oncoming flow, sometimes at large angles. The vibrations that may appear in such configurations are investigated in the present work on the basis of direct numerical simulation results. We find that a flexible cylinder inclined at 80 degrees exhibits regular large-amplitude vibrations and that the structural responses are excited under the lock-in condition, i.e. synchronization between body oscillation and vortex formation, which is the central mechanism of VIV. We show that the lock-in condition may involve parallel vortex shedding, where the vortex rows are aligned with the body axis, but also oblique vortex shedding patterns. The excited structural wavenumber and the spanwise wavenumber of the obliquely shed vortices coincide; therefore, the flexible structure and the wake are locked both temporally and spatially. In addition, we find that the VIV occurring under oblique shedding may reach very high frequencies compared to the vibrations observed under parallel shedding.

  1. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  2. Storage of methane as volatile fatty acids for intermittent fuel use

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.; Mehta, K.; Callihan, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    A process for on-site production of methane from sweet potato canning wastes was developed. In this process methane is stored conveniently as a liquid in the form of organic acids which are produced in an acid pond. When methane is needed, the acids are pumped into a methane pond underneath a sludge blanket, where high rates of methane production begin shortly after feeding. A demonstration plant has been designed and is being constructed using the existing pond system and facilities in a sweet potato canning factory in Louisiana. The methane produced is burned on-site to generate process steam for use in the main plant. 14 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Synthesis, storage, and stability of (4-/sup 14/C)oxaloacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, M.D.; Heldt, H.W.

    1985-03-01

    A simple procedure for preparing (4-/sup 14/C)oxaloacetic acid based on the reaction between (/sup 14/C)HCO-3 and phosphoenolpyruvate catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is described. A simple method for preparing highly purified phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from maize leaves is described and the degradation of oxaloacetate under conditions of varying pH and divalent metal ion concentration is reported. (4-/sup 14/C)Oxaloacetic acid is stable for several months in 0.1 M HCl solution at -80 degrees C.

  4. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. PMID:27060992

  5. A Proteomic Approach to Characterize Protein Shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Wunschel, David S.; Springer, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Shedding (i.e., proteolysis of ectodomains of membrane proteins) plays an important pathophysiological role. In order to study the feasibility of identifying shed proteins, we analyzed serum-free media of human mammary epithelial cells by mass spectrometry following induction of shedding by the phorbol ester, 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Different means of sample preparation, including biotinylation of cell surface proteins, isolation of glycosylated proteins, and preparation of crude protein fraction, were carried out to develop the optimal method of sample processing. The collected proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The resulting peptide spectra were interpreted using the program SEQUEST. Analyzing the sample containing the crude protein mixture without chemical modification or separation resulted in the greatest number of identifications, including putatively shed proteins. Overall, 93 membrane-associated proteins were identified including 57 that contain at least one transmembrane domain and 36 that indirectly associate with the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane. Of the 57 transmembrane proteins, 43 were identified by extracellular peptides providing strong evidence for them originating from regulated proteolysis or shedding processes. We combined results from the different experiments and used a peptide count method to estimate changes in protein abundance. Using this approach, we identified 2 proteins, syndecan-4 and hepatoma-derived growth factor, whose abundances increased in media of cells treated with PMA. We also detected proteins whose abundances decreased after PMA treatment such as 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein and calreticulin. Further analysis using immunoblotting validated the abundance changes for syndecan-4 and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein as a result of PMA treatment. These results demonstrate that mass

  6. A proteomic approach to characterize protein shedding.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N; Auberry, Deanna L; Wunschel, David S; Springer, David L

    2005-01-01

    Shedding (i.e. proteolysis of ectodomains of membrane proteins) plays an important pathophysiological role. In order to study the feasibility of identifying shed proteins, we analyzed serum-free media of human mammary epithelial cells by mass spectrometry following induction of shedding by the phorbol ester, 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Different means of sample preparation, including biotinylation of cell surface proteins, isolation of glycosylated proteins, and preparation of crude protein fractions, were carried out to develop the optimal method of sample processing. The collected proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The resulting peptide spectra were interpreted using the program SEQUEST. Analyzing the sample containing the crude protein mixture without chemical modification or separation resulted in the greatest number of identifications, including putatively shed proteins. Overall, 45 membrane-associated proteins were identified including 22 that contain at least one transmembrane domain and 23 that indirectly associate with the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane. Of the 22 transmembrane proteins, 18 were identified by extracellular peptides providing strong evidence they originate from regulated proteolysis or shedding processes. We combined results from the different experiments and used a peptide count method to estimate changes in protein abundance. Using this approach, we identified two proteins, syndecan-4 and hepatoma-derived growth factor, whose abundances increased in media of cells treated with PMA. We also detected proteins whose abundances decreased after PMA treatment such as 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein and lactate dehydrogenase A. Further analysis using immunoblotting validated the abundance changes for syndecan-4 and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein as a result of PMA treatment. These results demonstrate

  7. 77 FR 27574 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...Under section 215 of the Federal Power Act (FPA), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) approves Reliability Standards PRC-006-1 (Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding) and EOP- 003-2 (Load Shedding Plans), developed and submitted to the Commission for approval by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Electric Reliability Organization certified by the......

  8. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Ascorbic Acid Profiles in 'Delicious' and 'Honeycrisp' Apples During on-Tree Development and Cold Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in plants are involved in a number of processes both beneficial (signal transduction) and detrimental (induction of physiological disorders). ROS toxicity can be ameliorated by a number of metabolic systems or compounds in plant tissue including L-Ascorbic acid...

  10. Effects of abscisic acid and high osmoticum on storage protein gene expression in microspore embryos of Brassica napus

    SciTech Connect

    Wilen, R.W.; Mandel, R.M.; Pharis, R.P.; Moloney, M.M. ); Holbrook, L.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Storage protein gene expression, characteristic of mid- to late embryogenesis, was investigated in microspore embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus). These embryos, derived from the immature male gametophyte, accumulate little or no detectable napin or cruciferin mRNA when cultured on hormone-free medium containing 13% sucrose. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to the medium results in an increase in detectable transcripts encoding both these polypeptides. Storage protein mRNA is induced at 1 micromolar ABA with maximum stimulation occurring between 5 and 50 micromolar. This hormone induction results in a level of storage protein mRNA that is comparable to that observed in zygotic embryos of an equivalent morphological stage. Effects similar to that of ABA are noted when 12.5% sorbitol is added to the microspore embryo medium (osmotic potential = 25.5 bars). Time course experiments, to study the induction of napin and cruciferin gene expression demonstrated that the ABA effect occurred much more rapidly than the high osmoticum effect, although after 48 hours, the levels of napin or cruciferin mRNA detected were similar in both treatments. This difference in the rates of induction is consistent with the idea that the osmotic effect may be mediated by ABA which is synthesized in response to the reduced water potential. Measurements of ABA (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ({sup 2}H{sub 6})ABA as an internal standard) present in microspore embryos during sorbitol treatment and in embryos treated with 10 micromolar ABA were performed to investigate this possibility. Within 2 hours of culture on high osmoticum the level of ABA increased substantially and significantly above control and reached a maximum concentration within 24 hours. This elevated concentration was maintained for 48 hours after culturing and represents a sixfold increase over control embryos.

  11. Colour stabilities of sour cherry juice concentrates enhanced with gallic acid and various plant extracts during storage.

    PubMed

    Navruz, Ayşe; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA) and pomegranate rind extract (PRE), cherry stem extract (CSE) and green tea extract (GTE) were added to sour cherry juice concentrates (SCJCs) to enhance the colour. Effects of these copigment sources on anthocyanins, colour and turbidity were investigated during storage at -20, 4 and 20°C for 110 days. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (cyd-3-glu-rut, 75%) was the major anthocyanin, followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cyd-3-rut, 23%) and cyanidin-3-sophoroside (cyd-3-soph, 2%). While GA (37-53%), PRE (27-77%) and GTE (44-119%) increased the stabilities of cyd-3-rut and cyd-3-glu-rut, CSE reduced (12-24%) the stabilities of all anthocyanins. Polymeric colour and turbidity values increased after the addition of all extracts and GA. The lowest turbidity value after 110 days of storage at 20°C was determined in the SCJC enhanced with PRE. We recommend the addition of PRE to SCJC for the enhancement of anthocyanin stability and colour intensity, and the reduction in turbidity. PMID:26616935

  12. Characterization of CD200 Ectodomain Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Khatri, Ismat; Huo, Qiang; Spaner, David E.; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the existence of a soluble form of CD200 (sCD200) in human plasma, and found sCD200 to be elevated in the plasma of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients. CLL cells release CD200 at a constitutive level, which could be attenuated partially by ADAM28 silencing. In this study, we further explored mechanisms of CD200 shedding beyond that of ADAM28, and performed biochemical analysis of sCD200 using materials derived from purified CLL cells and Hek293 cells stably transfected with CD200, and antibodies generated specifically against either the extracellular or cytoplasmic regions of CD200. CD200 shedding was enhanced by PMA stimulation, and the loss of cell surface CD200 could be monitored as a reduction in CD200 cell surface expression by flow cytometry, in parallel with an increase in the detection of sCD200 in the supernatant. Western blot analyses and functional studies using CD200R1 expressing Hek293 cells showed that the shed CD200 detected in CLL and Hek293-hCD200 supernatants lacked the cytoplasmic domain of CD200 but retained the functional extracellular domain required for binding to, and phosphorylation of, CD200R. These data confirms that a functionally active CD200 extracellular moiety can be cleaved from the surface of CD200 expressing cells following ectodomain shedding. PMID:27111430

  13. 2. SOUTH FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) SHOWING SIGN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) SHOWING SIGN HOLDER ON LEFT AND ENTRANCE TO TEST CELL. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER AND METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) IN BACKGROUND ON LEFT; SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GPS AZIMUTH STATION (BLDG. 775) IN BACKGROUND BEHIND AND RIGHT OF PYROTECHNIC SHED. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Bioactive compounds during storage of fresh-cut spinach: the role of endogenous ascorbic acid in the improvement of product quality.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Antonella; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guidi, Lucia; Graziani, Giulia; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2009-04-01

    Spinach is rich in bioactive constituents such as vitamin C, flavonoids and phenolic acids. In this work, the biochemical modifications occurring during one week of storage at 4 degrees C were evaluated both in intact and in fresh-cut spinach. Results showed that vitamin C concentration is less affected by storage in fresh-cut spinach with respect to intact spinach. MS/MS analysis showed that the main flavonoids are not modified during storage in intact leaves, while some of them increased significantly during storage in the fresh-cut samples. Fresh-cut spinach did not show color alteration even if PPO activity increased significantly during storage. This finding was related to the high ascorbic acid content, which delays the subsequent polymerization events. This finding was confirmed by the unaltered concentration of phenolic compounds in fresh-cut spinach during storage. In conclusion, data about nutritional content and visual performance concurrently suggest that spinach is a suitable species for marketing as a fresh-cut product. PMID:19253961

  15. Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen when looking south (186°) from South Liquid Loop Road. Note the catch basin for retaining accidentally spilled substances. Wastes are stored in drums and other safety containers until disposal by burning at the Incinerator (4249/E-50) or by other means. Note the nearby sign warning of corrosive, flammable materials, and calling attention to a fire extinguisher; a telephone is provided to call for assistance in the event of an emergency. This structure is isolated to prevent the spread of fire, and it is lightly built so damage from a fire will be inexpensive to repair - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Waste Flammable Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Nonlinear phenomenon in monocrystalline silicon based PV module for low power system: Lead acid battery for low energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amrani, A.; El Amraoui, M.; El Abbassi, A.; Messaoudi, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, we report the indoor photo-electrical measurements of monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic (PV) module associated with 4 Ah lead acid battery as a storage unit for low power PV system applications. Concerning the PV module, our measurements show, at low illumination regime, that the short circuit current ISC increases linearly with the illumination power levels. Moreover, for high illumination levels, the mechanism of bimolecular recombination and space charge limitation may be intensified and hence the short current of the PV module ISCMod depends sublinearly on the incident optical power; the behavior is nonlinear. For the open circuit voltage of the PV module VOCMod measurements, a linear variation of the VOCMod versus the short circuit current in semi-logarithmic scale has been noticed. The diode ideality factor n and diode saturation current Is have been investigated; the values of n and Is are approximately of 1.3 and 10-9 A, respectively. In addition, we have shown, for different discharging-charging currents rates (i.e. 0.35 A, 0.2 A and 0.04 A), that the battery voltage decreases with discharging time as well as discharging battery capacity, and on the other hand it increases with the charging time and will rise up until it maximized value. The initial result shows the possibility to use such lead acid battery for low power PV system, which is generally designed for the motorcycle battery.

  17. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein. PMID:18298067

  18. A Portable, Pressure Driven, Room Temperature Nucleic Acid Extraction and Storage System for Point of Care Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Samantha; Fan, Andy; Trueb, Jacob; Jareczek, Francis; Mazzochette, Mark; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F.; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Many new and exciting portable HIV viral load testing technologies are emerging for use in global medicine. While the potential to provide fast, isothermal, and quantitative molecular diagnostic information to clinicians in the field will soon be a reality, many of these technologies lack a robust front end for sample clean up and nucleic acid preparation. Such a technology would enable many different downstream molecular assays. Here, we present a portable system for centrifuge-free room temperature nucleic acid extraction from small volumes of whole blood (70 µL), using only thermally stable reagents compatible with storage and transport in low resource settings. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of simulated samples demonstrate a lower limit of detection of 1000 copies/ml, with the ability to detect differences in viral load across four orders of magnitude. The system can also be used to store extracted RNA on detachable cartridges for up to one week at ambient temperature, and can be operated using only hand generated air pressure. PMID:23914255

  19. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

  20. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  1. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-02-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  2. Patterns of vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Keun-Shik; Sa, Jong-Youb

    1990-01-01

    Vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder was numerically investigated at Re = 100 with the Navier-Stokes equations and the new boundary conditions. The detailed shedding patterns are characterized by means of streakline plotting and lift-coefficient curves. A parameter map is presented which distinguishes the synchronized shedding from the asynchronous and the double vortices shedding from the single vortex shedding. The computational result is in good agreement with earlier experimental results.

  3. Dynamics of ascorbic acid in ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Gala’ apples during on-tree development and storage in atmospheres conducive to internal browning development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The underlying causes as well as chemical and biochemical alleviation for CO2-induced browning in apple fruit are poorly understood. Ascorbic acid (AsA) dynamics in ‘Braeburn,’ a susceptible cultivar, and ‘Gala,’ a resistant cultivar, were evaluated during on-tree development and storage at 0.5' C ...

  4. Imaging heterogeneity of membrane and storage lipids in transgenic Camelina sativa seeds with altered fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Silva, Jillian E; Anderson, Danielle; Fuchs, Johannes; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Nazarenus, Tara J; Shulaev, Vladimir; Cahoon, Edgar B; Chapman, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Engineering compositional changes in oilseeds is typically accomplished by introducing new enzymatic step(s) and/or by blocking or enhancing an existing enzymatic step(s) in a seed-specific manner. However, in practice, the amounts of lipid species that accumulate in seeds are often different from what one would predict from enzyme expression levels, and these incongruences may be rooted in an incomplete understanding of the regulation of seed lipid metabolism at the cellular/tissue level. Here we show by mass spectrometry imaging approaches that triacylglycerols and their phospholipid precursors are distributed differently within cotyledons and the hypocotyl/radicle axis in embryos of the oilseed crop Camelina sativa, indicating tissue-specific heterogeneity in triacylglycerol metabolism. Phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols enriched in linoleic acid (C18:2) were preferentially localized to the axis tissues, whereas lipid classes enriched in gadoleic acid (C20:1) were preferentially localized to the cotyledons. Manipulation of seed lipid compositions by heterologous over-expression of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, or by suppression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases, resulted in new overall seed storage lipid compositions with altered patterns of distribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol in transgenic embryos. Our results reveal previously unknown differences in acyl lipid distribution in Camelina embryos, and suggest that this spatial heterogeneity may or may not be able to be changed effectively in transgenic seeds depending upon the targeted enzyme(s)/pathway(s). Further, these studies point to the importance of resolving the location of metabolites in addition to their quantities within plant tissues. PMID:23808562

  5. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival. PMID:26777559

  6. Storage Stability of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Circulating Electrolyzed Water and Their Property Changes after Application.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Meng-Meng; Ahn, Juhee; Ma, Yan-Na; Chen, Shi-Guo; Ye, Xing-Qian; Liu, Dong-Hong; Ding, Tian

    2016-03-01

    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been recognized as an effective bactericidal agent with free chlorine, but its limitations include its instability and its great dependence on equipment. Newly developed circulating electrolyzed water (CEW) with a higher available chlorine concentration (ACC) could successfully overcome these limitations. In this study, SAEW (ACC of 20 mg/L), CEW1 (ACC of 200 mg/L), and CEW2 (ACC of 20 mg/L) were evaluated for changes in properties (pH, oxidization reduction potential [ORP], and ACC) during storage in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) and after washing pork and lettuce. Additionally, the washed pork and lettuce were evaluated for total viable counts, pH and general appearance. The results showed that CEW1 with a higher ACC has better stability than SAEW with a lower ACC for the storage and washing experiments, and CEW still remained stable after dilution with distilled water. The property indices of EW were greatly affected for the pork-washing experiments compared with the lettuce-washing experiments, probably due to the existence of alkaline and organic materials on the surface of pork. Furthermore, EWs were more effective for inactivating microbes in lettuce than in pork, while there was no significant difference in tissue pH and the general appearance of pork and lettuce. These findings indicated that CEW with a higher ACC shows potential for reducing foodborne pathogens on pork and lettuce without effects on their physicochemical characteristics, and it can be applied in a diluted form. PMID:26869019

  7. Vortex shedding from obstacles: theoretical frequency prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Benoît

    2001-11-01

    The existence of self-sustained oscillations in spatially developing systems is closely related to the presence of a locally absolutely unstable region. A recent investigation of a ``synthetic wake'' (a wake with no solid obstacle and no reverse flow region) has proved [Pier and Huerre, J. Fluid Mech. 435, 145 (2001)] that the observed Kármán vortex street is a nonlinear elephant global mode. The same criterion is now shown to hold for real obstacles. Local properties are derived from the unperturbed basic flow computed by enforcing a symmetry condition on the central line. Application of the theoretical criterion then yields the expected Strouhal vortex shedding frequency. The thus predicted frequency is in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations of the complete flow. The use of the frequency selection mechanism to control the vortex shedding will also be discussed.

  8. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  9. Periodic cavitation shedding in a cylindrical orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, C.; Barber, T.; Milton, B.; Rosengarten, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation structures in a large-scale ( D = 8.25 mm), plain orifice style nozzle within a unique experimental rig are investigated using high-speed visualisation and digital image processing techniques. Refractive index matching with an acrylic nozzle is achieved using aqueous sodium iodide for the test fluid. Cavitation collapse length, unsteady shedding frequency and spray angles are measured for cavitation conditions from incipient to supercavitation for a range of Reynolds numbers, for a fixed L/ D ratio of 4.85. Periodic cavitation shedding was shown to occur with frequencies between 500 and 2,000 Hz for conditions in which cavitation occupied less than 30% of the nozzle length. A discontinuity in collapse length was shown to occur once the cavitation exceeded this length, coinciding with a loss of periodic shedding. A mechanism for this behaviour is discussed. Peak spray angles of approximately θ ≈ 14° were recorded for supercavitation conditions indicating the positive influence of cavitation bubble collapse on the jet atomisation process.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of a mixture of organic acids and duration of storage on the survival of salmonella on turkey carcasses.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Samples from turkey carcasses previously inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis 33/66 were subjected to the effect of various mixtures of equal parts of organic acid solutions (acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, and tartaric acids). The first part of the study concerned analysis of the influence of the mixtures of organic acids over 15 or 30 min on Salmonella Enteritidis on turkey carcasses. Turkey breast samples were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis at 3.7, 2.7, 1.7, 0.7, and 0.07 log CFU. The antibacterial effectiveness of the organic acids differed depending on the initial population of Salmonella on the turkey carcasses. Salmonella was most sensitive to mixtures of equal parts of 1% ascorbic, 1% citric, and 1% tartaric acids. The second part of the study involved determining the influence the organic acid mixtures had on survival of Salmonella Enteritidis on turkey meat stored at 4°C for 2, 4, or 6 days. The level of Salmonella was determined using a most-probable-number method. Salmonella Enteritidis was inoculated into a nutrient broth, incubated at 37°C for 24 h, and then added to the diluent in which the turkey breast samples were immersed for 5 min. The initial Salmonella level of the control samples of turkey breast following immersion was determined in each analysis. After storage at 4°C, turkey samples were transferred to the organic acid solutions for 15 min. Stainless steel templates were used to swab 50 cm(2) of the turkey breast samples. During storage at 4°C, the Salmonella level in the meat samples decreased. The largest decrease occurred at 4°C after 6 days with equal parts of 1% acetic acid, 1% lactic acid, and 1% tartaric acid. Thus, treatment of raw turkey breasts with a mixture of organic acids is a promising option for reducing the risk of the presence of Salmonella. PMID:25719885

  11. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  12. Enhanced efficacy of an AAV vector encoding chimeric, highly secreted acid alpha-glucosidase in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Benjamin, Daniel K; Brown, Talmage; Bird, Andrew; Young, Sarah P; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2006-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) is an inherited muscular dystrophy caused by deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). We hypothesized that chimeric GAA containing an alternative signal peptide could increase the secretion of GAA from transduced cells and enhance the receptor-mediated uptake of GAA in striated muscle. The relative secretion of chimeric GAA from transfected 293 cells increased up to 26-fold. Receptor-mediated uptake of secreted, chimeric GAA corrected cultured GSD-II patient cells. High-level hGAA was sustained in the plasma of GSD-II mice for 24 weeks following administration of an AAV2/8 vector encoding chimeric GAA; furthermore, GAA activity was increased and glycogen content was significantly reduced in striated muscle and in the brain. Administration of only 1 x 10(10) vector particles increased GAA activity in the heart and diaphragm for >18 weeks, whereas 3 x 10(10) vector particles increased GAA activity and reduced glycogen content in the heart, diaphragm, and quadriceps. Furthermore, an AAV2/2 vector encoding chimeric GAA produced secreted hGAA for >12 weeks in the majority of treated GSD-II mice. Thus, chimeric, highly secreted GAA enhanced the efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in GSD-II mice. PMID:16987711

  13. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions. PMID:22163386

  14. Effect of preservatives, temperature and storage duration on stability of nucleic acids of pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei (Boone) and screening of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Cyriac, Daly; Raju, P Krishnakanth Varada; Prem, Sruthi O C; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep; Samraj, Y C Thampi

    2015-10-01

    In shrimp farming, screening for economically significant viral pathogens in nucleic acids of shrimps is vital for disease surveillance programmes and further, to take necessary precautions to ensure the sustainability of the farms and thereby the shrimp industry. Different preservatives, temperature and storage durations of the pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei broodstock were tested to investigate its effect on the quality and quantity of the nucleic acids. The pleopods were subjected to two preservation regimes and the yield and stability of the extracted nucleic acids were monitored over a time period of 12 months. Stability of the nucleic acids was assessed with nested polymerase chain reaction, and the yield was checked spectrophotometrically. Data was analysed by performing two way ANOVA and Tukeys Paired test. Preservation treatments included storage at -20 degrees C and 5 degrees C in RNAlater and in 70% ethanol. Significant variation (P < 0.05) was observed in both DNA and RNA yield and stability from ethanol and RNAlater stored pleopods at 5 degrees C. However, the yield and stability did not differ (P > 0.05) in both the preservatives at -20 degrees C. The RNA was degraded and yielded lesser quantity when pleopod tissues were stored in ethanol at -20 degrees C than when stored in RNAlater during storage duration of 9 months. This study would help the shrimp farmers and researchers to adopt better preservation strategy, vital for shrimp disease surveillance programmes and for traceability studies in the event of any disease outbreak. PMID:26665297

  15. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  16. Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Huang, Lihan; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies showed that sodium acid sulfate (SAS) and levulinic acid (LA) in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was effective in inactivating human pathogens on Romaine lettuce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in combination with SDS (as compared with citric acid and chlorine) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and sensory quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce in modified atmosphere packages during storage at 4 °C. Results showed that LA (0.5% to 3%) and SAS (0.25% to 0.75%) with 0.05% SDS caused detrimental effects on visual quality and texture of lettuce. LA- and SAS-treated samples were sensorially unacceptable due to development of sogginess and softening after 7 and 14 d storage. It appears that the combined treatments caused an increase in the respiration rate of fresh-cut lettuce as indicated by higher CO(2) and lower O(2) in modified atmosphere packages. On the positive side, the acid treatments inhibited cut edge browning of lettuce pieces developed during storage. LA (0.5%), SAS (0.25%), and citric acid (approximately 0.25%) in combination with SDS reduced population of E. coli OH157:H7 by 0.41, 0.87, and 0.58 log CFU/g, respectively, while chlorine achieved a reduction of 0.94 log CFU/g without damage to the lettuce. Therefore, compared to chlorine, LA and SAS in combination with SDS have limited commercial value for fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce due to quality deterioration during storage. PMID:21535517

  17. Experience from insulators with RTV silicon rubber sheds and shed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastos, A.E.; Sherif, E. )

    1990-10-01

    Long-rod composite insulators, with weather sheds made of room temperature vulcanizing silicon rubber compounds (RTV), were exposed for many years to HVAC and HVDC under realistic conditions and natural pollution. This paper reports that it was found that the shed material, quite in contrary to the experience gained from insulators with sheds of other organic materials e.g., EPDM rubber, undergoes a slow degradation which improves the already superior water repelling properties of the silicon rubber compounds. The improvement seems to be due to a low molecular layer which is produced on the surface of the insulator sheds. This layer improves the hydrophobicity of the surface, while protecting the surface from further degradation. Weather sheds of porcelain housing coated with a thin layer of RTV give similar results to those obtained with long-rod silicon rubber insulators. The RTV coating, although it led to increased salt deposit density, reduces the leak currents and the withstand of the insulator under the same pollution conditions.

  18. 2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, northwest and northeast sides of tower, east and north sides of keeper's house and shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  19. 7. Fog signal house and shed, view south, north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Fog signal house and shed, view south, north and west sides of fog signal house, northeast and northwest sides of shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  20. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, IN CONTEXT WITH LOADING YARD AND DERRICK, LOOKING WEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND TRUCK PLATFORM/STAGING AREA AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 TYPICAL SECTION & DETAILS. Sheet 5 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 3 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 6 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED BY LATE METAL BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 70'0' TRUSS. Sheet 7 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL EIGHTEEN LOADING BAYS, LOOKING WEST FROM ACROSS TURNING BASIN - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS PASSING UNDER DERRICK ALONG WHARF - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 END WALL FRAMING. Sheet 9 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH DERRICK AND RAILWAY PASS-TROUGH ON WHARF, LOOKING NORTH - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. VIEW WEST, SOUTH PENN POWERHOUSE, (FROM LEFT) BLEEDER SHED, ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, SOUTH PENN POWERHOUSE, (FROM LEFT) BLEEDER SHED, ENGINE HOUSE, BELT SHED, ECCENTRIC HOUSE. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  20. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 2. DETAIL OF THEODOLITE PYLON NORTH OF AZIMUTH ALIGNMENT SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF THEODOLITE PYLON NORTH OF AZIMUTH ALIGNMENT SHED (BLDG. 775). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Azimuth Alignment Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. 23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor window sill - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor support beams. - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor joist and support beams - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with road in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  10. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONDUCTOR'S SHED (CENTER) CA. 1893, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONDUCTOR'S SHED (CENTER) CA. 1893, LOCATED NORTH OF THE CAR BARNS ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE - Johnstown Passenger Railway Company, Conductor's Shed, Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. 30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 PLOT PLAN & TRANSVERSE SECTION. Sheet 1 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research 2013 January 2013 (historical) NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus Discovery Is ... the University of Oxford, U.K., have shed light on a long-standing enigma about the structure ...

  14. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  15. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  16. Phosphorus Effects on the Mycelium and Storage Structures of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus as Studied in the Soil and Roots by Analysis of Fatty Acid Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, P. A.; Baath, E.; Jakobsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus between soil and roots, and between mycelial and storage structures, was studied by use of the fatty acid signature 16:1(omega)5. Increasing the soil phosphorus level resulted in a decrease in the level of the fatty acid 16:1(omega)5 in the soil and roots. A similar decrease was detected by microscopic measurements of root colonization and of the length of AM fungal hyphae in the soil. The fatty acid 16:1(omega)5 was estimated from two types of lipids, phospholipids and neutral lipids, which mainly represent membrane lipids and storage lipids, respectively. The numbers of spores of the AM fungus formed in the soil correlated most closely with neutral lipid fatty acid 16:1(omega)5, whereas the hyphal length in the soil correlated most closely with phospholipid fatty acid 16:1(omega)5. The fungal neutral lipid/phospholipid ratio in the extraradical mycelium was positively correlated with the level of root infection and thus decreased with increasing applications of P. The neutral lipid/phospholipid ratio indicated that at high P levels, less carbon was allocated to storage structures. At all levels of P applied, the major part of the AM fungus was found to be present outside the roots, as estimated from phospholipid fatty acid 16:1(omega)5. The ratio of extraradical biomass/intraradical biomass was not affected by the application of P, except for a decrease at the highest level of P applied. PMID:16535691

  17. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean. PMID:18588315

  18. Short-Term Stability of Whole Blood Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content on Filter Paper During Storage at -28 °C.

    PubMed

    Pupillo, Daniele; Simonato, Manuela; Cogo, Paola E; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2016-02-01

    Finger or heel-pricked blood sampling for fatty acid analysis is suitable especially in newborn infants where blood sampling is difficult and phlebotomy for research can be unethical. The aim of this study was to evaluate dried blood long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) stability during storage at -28 °C. We collected 12 blood cord samples that were analyzed immediately after blood drawing, with and without drying the blood on filter paper. Dried samples were then analyzed 7 days and 1, 3, and 6 months after collection. Butylated hydroxytoluene was added to all samples. Fatty acid composition and (13)C enrichment were measured by gas chromatography and by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. The fatty acid composition, expressed in mol%, of the major LC-PUFA at day 7 was not statistically different from time 0, however lower values were found by the first month of storage. The (13)C enrichment of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 did not differ during the whole study period. LC-PUFA analysis from dried umbilical cord blood in neonates should be performed within a week, major losses of LC-PUFA occur afterwards. However, fatty acids obtained from dried blood maintain their (13)C enrichment value for up to 6 months and thus these samples are suitable for natural abundance isotopic studies. PMID:26749585

  19. Phytochemical changes in phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids associated with sweetpotato storage and impacts on bioactive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato phytochemical content was evaluated in four genotypes (NCPUR06-020, Covington, Yellow Covington, and NC07-847) at harvest and after curing/storage for 4 or 8 months. Curing and storage for up to 8 months did not significantly affect total phenolic content in Covington, Yellow Covington, ...

  20. Shedding patterns of endemic Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Martín-Hernando, María Paz; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The Eurasianwild boar has experienced aworldwide demographic explosion that increases awareness on shared pathogens. However, shedding routes of relevant wild boar pathogens are unknown. Previous observations on sex- and age-related differences in Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) exposure led us to hypothesize that shedding patterns of endemicwild boar pathogens may be influenced by individual traits.We investigated shedding routes of ADV, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Coxiella burnetii and analysed the effect of host sex and age on pathogen shedding patterns. The presence of pathogen antibodies in serumand of pathogen DNA in oral, nasal, genital and rectal swabswas analysed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The influence of sex and age in pathogen shedding prevalencewas tested statistically.Main routes of ADV, PPV, PCV2 and C. burnetii shedding were identified but the hypothesis of sex- and/or age-related shedding patterns couldn't be confirmed. PMID:26412545

  1. Influence of marinades on survival during storage of acid-adapted and nonadapted Listeria monocytogenes inoculated post-drying on beef jerky.

    PubMed

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Kendall, Patricia A

    2003-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the survival of acid-adapted and nonadapted Listeria monocytogenes inoculated post-drying on dried beef slices (beef jerky), which were treated (24 h, 4 degrees C) with the following marinades before drying at 60 degrees C for 10 h: (1) control (C), (2) traditional marinade (TM), (3) modified marinade; double the amount of TM with added 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce with 5% ethanol (MM), (4) dipping into 5% acetic acid and then TM (AATM), and (5) dipping into 1% Tween 20 and then into 5% acetic acid followed by the TM (TWTM). Dried meat slices were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted L. monocytogenes (ca. 5.7 log CFU/cm(2)) prior to aerobic storage at 25 degrees C for 60 days. Survivors were determined using tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate (TSAP) and PALCAM agar. Results showed that surviving bacterial populations on TWTM, AATM, and MM treatments were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those surviving on C and TM until 42 days of storage. By the end of 60 days of storage, bacterial populations in all treatments were not different regardless of acid adaptation or recovery media, except for treatment C inoculated with nonadapted cultures, which had significantly higher TSAP counts than other treatments. There was no significant (P> or =0.05) difference in survival of previously acid-adapted and nonadapted bacterial populations in samples of TWTM, AATM, and MM treatments. However, bacterial populations that were nonadapted were significantly higher than those that were acid-adapted on products of C and TM treatments on days 60 and 24, respectively. The earliest complete elimination (enrichment negative) of the pathogen occurred by day 28 (AATM) in products inoculated with acid-adapted cultures and by day 42 (TWTM and AATM) in products inoculated with nonadapted cultures. These results indicate that use of modified marinades in jerky processing and low water activity provided

  2. On vortex shedding from a hexagonal cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaledi, Hatef A.; Andersson, Helge I.

    2011-10-01

    The unsteady wake behind a hexagonal cylinder in cross-flow is investigated numerically. The time-dependent three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved for three different Reynolds numbers Re and for two different cylinder orientations. The topology of the vortex shedding depends on the orientation and the Strouhal frequency is generally higher in the wake of a face-oriented cylinder than behind a corner-oriented cylinder. For both orientations a higher Strouhal number St is observed when Re is increased from 100 to 500 whereas St is unaffected by a further increase up to Re=1000. The distinct variation of St with the orientation of the hexagonal cylinder relative to the oncoming flow is opposite of earlier findings for square cylinder wakes which exhibited a higher St with corner orientation than with face orientation.

  3. Supercomputing Sheds Light on the Dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salman Habib

    2012-11-15

    At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are using supercomputers to shed light on one of the great mysteries in science today, the Dark Universe. With Mira, a petascale supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, a team led by physicists Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann will run the largest, most complex simulation of the universe ever attempted. By contrasting the results from Mira with state-of-the-art telescope surveys, the scientists hope to gain new insights into the distribution of matter in the universe, advancing future investigations of dark energy and dark matter into a new realm. The team's research was named a finalist for the 2012 Gordon Bell Prize, an award recognizing outstanding achievement in high-performance computing.

  4. The matrix metalloproteinase-7 regulates the extracellular shedding of syndecan-2 from colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sojoong; Kim, Jin-Yung; Park, Jun Hyoung; Lee, Seung-Teak; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2012-01-27

    The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 regulates the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) as a docking receptor. Here, we demonstrate the role of MMP-7 on syndecan-2 shedding in colon cancer cells. Western blot analysis showed that shed syndecan-2 was found in the culture media from various colon cancer cells. Overexpression of MMP-7 enhanced syndecan-2 shedding, whereas the opposite was true when MMP-7 levels were knocked-down using small inhibitory RNAs. Consistently, HT29 cells treated with MMP-7, but neither MMP-2 nor MMP-9, showed increased shed syndecan-2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that MMP-7 cleaved both recombinant syndecan-2 and an endogenously glycosylated syndecan-2 ectodomain in the N-terminus at Leu(149) residue in vitro. Taken together, the data suggest that MMP-7 directly mediates shedding of syndecan-2 from colon cancer cells. PMID:22227189

  5. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. PMID:27132836

  6. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  7. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity. PMID:27412947

  8. iRhom2 controls the substrate selectivity of stimulated ADAM17-dependent ectodomain shedding

    PubMed Central

    Maretzky, Thorsten; McIlwain, David R.; Issuree, Priya Darshinee A.; Li, Xue; Malapeira, Jordi; Amin, Sadaf; Lang, Philipp A.; Mak, Tak W.; Blobel, Carl P.

    2013-01-01

    Protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17), a principal regulator of EGF-receptor signaling and TNFα release, is rapidly and posttranslationally activated by a variety of signaling pathways, and yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we report that inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2), recently identified as essential for the maturation of ADAM17 in hematopoietic cells, is crucial for the rapid activation of the shedding of some, but not all substrates of ADAM17. Mature ADAM17 is present in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) lacking iRhom2, and yet ADAM17 is unable to support stimulated shedding of several of its substrates, including heparin-binding EGF and Kit ligand 2 in this context. Stimulated shedding of other ADAM17 substrates, such as TGFα, is not affected in iRhom2−/− mEFs but can be strongly reduced by treating iRhom2−/− mEFs with siRNA against iRhom1. Activation of heparin-binding EGF or Kit ligand 2 shedding by ADAM17 in iRhom2−/− mEFs can be rescued by wild-type iRhom2 but not by iRhom2 lacking its N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The requirement for the cytoplasmic domain of iRhom2 for stimulated shedding by ADAM17 may help explain why the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17 is not required for stimulated shedding. The functional relevance of iRhom2 in regulating shedding of EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands is established by a lack of lysophasphatidic acid/ADAM17/EGFR-dependent crosstalk with ERK1/2 in iRhom2−/− mEFs, and a significant reduction of FGF7/ADAM17/EGFR-stimulated migration of iRhom2−/− keratinocytes. Taken together, these findings uncover functions for iRhom2 in the regulation of EGFR signaling and in controlling the activation and substrate selectivity of ADAM17-dependent shedding events. PMID:23801765

  9. Three-in-one vortex shedding flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.

    1989-02-28

    An apparatus is described for measuring fluid flow comprising: a body including a flow passage; a vortex generator of an elongated cylindrical shape disposed across a first cross section of the flow passage; and a planar member disposed generally parallel to the vortex generator across a second cross section of the flow passage on a plane generally parallel to the central axis of the flow passage, wherein at least one extremity of the planar member is secured to the wall of the flow passage in an isolated arrangement from the vortex generator; and a transducer means secured to the body including a force transmitter member extending from the transducer means in an isolated arrangement from the vortex generator, wherein the force transmitter member is connected to the other extremity of the planar member opposite to the one extremity by a mechanical coupling; wherein the transducer means provides signals related to alternating lift forces on the planar member exerted by vortices shed from two sides of the vortex generator in an alternating pattern as a measure of fluid flow through the flow passage.

  10. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems.

  11. Characterization and storage stability of astaxanthin esters, fatty acid profile and α-tocopherol of lipid extract from shrimp (L. vannamei) waste with potential applications as food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; Calvo, M M; Álvarez-Acero, I; Montero, P; Gómez-Guillén, M C

    2017-02-01

    In this work a lipid extract from shrimp waste was obtained and characterized. The most abundant fatty acids found were C16:0, C18:2n6c, C18:1n9c, C22:6n3, and C20:5n3. The extract contained all-trans-astaxanthin, two cis-astaxanthin isomers, 5 astaxanthin monoesters, and 10 astaxanthin diesters (7±1mg astaxanthin/g). C22:6n3 and C20:5n3 were the most frequent fatty acids in the esterified forms. Appreciable amounts of α-tocopherol and cholesterol were also found (126±11mg/g and 65±1mg/g, respectively). Little lipid oxidation was observed after 120days of storage at room temperature, revealed by a slight reduction of ω-3 fatty acids, but neither accumulation of TBARS nor formation of oxidized cholesterol forms was found. This is attributed to the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin and α-tocopherol, as their concentrations decreased as storage continued. The lipid extract obtained has interesting applications as food ingredient, owing to the coloring capacity and the presence of healthy components. PMID:27596389

  12. 19. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, TRANSFORMERS, AND HYDRAULIC PUMPHOUSE, INCLUDING HYDRAULIC OIL TANK - Folsom Powerhouse, Adjacent to American River, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  13. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, TRANSFORMERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, TRANSFORMERS, AND HYDRAULIC PUMPHOUSE, INCLUDING HYDRAULIC OIL TANK - Folsom Powerhouse, Adjacent to American River, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  14. SHED repair critical-size calvarial defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, BM; Sonoyama, W; Yamaza, T; Coppe, C; Kikuiri, T; Akiyama, K; Lee, JS; Shi, S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are a population of highly proliferative postnatal stem cells capable of differentiating into odontoblasts, adipocytes, neural cells, and osteo-inductive cells. To examine whether SHED-mediated bone regeneration can be utilized for therapeutic purposes, we used SHED to repair critical-size calvarial defects in immuno-compromised mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS We generated calvarial defects and transplanted SHED with hydroxyapatite/ tricalcium phosphate as a carrier into the defect areas. RESULTS SHED were able to repair the defects with substantial bone formation. Interestingly, SHED-mediated osteogenesis failed to recruit hematopoietic marrow elements that are commonly seen in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-generated bone. Furthermore, SHED were found to co-express mesenchymal stem cell marker, CC9/MUC18/CD146, with an array of growth factor receptors such as transforming growth factor β receptor I and II, fibroblast growth factor receptor I and III, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor I, implying their comprehensive differentiation potential. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that SHED, derived from neural crest cells, may select unique mechanisms to exert osteogenesis. SHED might be a suitable resource for orofacial bone regeneration. PMID:18938268

  15. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. 2. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1893 Train shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1893 Train shed under construction - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, Broad Street Station, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bakst, M R; Welch, G R; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2016-06-01

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 d leads to a progressive increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associated with fatty acid metabolism (8), apoptosis (7), and oxidative stress (16) pathways to better understand the basis of embryo mortality during egg storage. A total of 642 broiler eggs in 2 separate trials were subjected to the following egg treatments: stored 4 d (Control 1, C1); stored 21 d but subjected to short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES); stored un-manipulated 21 d (NonSPIDES, NS); and stored 4 d then incubated for 10 h to advance the embryos to the same developmental stages as the SPIDES embryos (Control 2, C2). Hatchability trials (277 eggs) confirmed the efficacy of SPIDES compared to NS treatments in both trials. To determine relative expression of 31 selected genes, 365 blastoderms were isolated, staged, and flash frozen in batches of 5 to 10 blastoderms per vial (7 vials per egg treatment) prior to RNA extractions. Analysis of gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR and the results presented as relative expression normalized to C1. The relative expression of genes in which the SPIDES and C2 treatments were significantly up- or down-regulated in tandem indicated that the stage-specific expression of those genes was maintained by the SPIDES treatment. This study provides the relative gene expressions of blastodermal cells before and after prolonged egg storage as well as insight as to how SPIDES impacts blastodermal cell gene expression. PMID:26944957

  18. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  19. Synergistic catalysis of metal-organic framework-immobilized Au-Pd nanoparticles in dehydrogenation of formic acid for chemical hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaojun; Lu, Zhang-Hui; Jiang, Hai-Long; Akita, Tomoki; Xu, Qiang

    2011-08-10

    Bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully immobilized in the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) MIL-101 and ethylenediamine (ED)-grafted MIL-101 (ED-MIL-101) using a simple liquid impregnation method. The resulting composites, Au-Pd/MIL-101 and Au-Pd/ED-MIL-101, represent the first highly active MOF-immobilized metal catalysts for the complete conversion of formic acid to high-quality hydrogen at a convenient temperature for chemical hydrogen storage. Au-Pd NPs with strong bimetallic synergistic effects have a much higher catalytic activity and a higher tolerance with respect to CO poisoning than monometallic Au and Pd counterparts. PMID:21761819

  20. Inactivation of acid-adapted and nonadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 during drying and storage of beef jerky treated with different marinades.

    PubMed

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Samelis, John; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C

    2002-09-01

    The inactivation of both acid-adapted and unadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the processing of beef jerky was studied. Following inoculation with the pathogen, beef slices were subjected to different predrying marinade treatments, dried at 60 degrees C for 10 h, and stored at 25 degrees C for 60 d. The predrying treatments evaluated were as follows: (i) no treatment (C), (ii) traditional marinade (TM), (iii) double-strength TM modified with added 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce with 5% ethanol (MM), (iv) dipping into 5% acetic acid for 10 min followed by application of TM (AATM), and (v) dipping into 1% Tween 20 for 15 min and then into 5% acetic acid for 10 min followed by TM (TWTM). Bacterial survivors were determined during drying and storage using tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate, modified eosin methylene blue agar, and sorbitol MacConkey agar. Results indicated that bacterial populations decreased during drying in the order of TWTM (4.9 to 6.7 log) > AATM > MM > C > or = TM (2.8 to 4.9 log) predrying treatments. Populations of acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 decreased faster (P < 0.05) in AATM and TWTM than nonadapted cells during drying, whereas no significant difference was found in inactivation of acid-adapted and nonadapted inocula in C and TM samples. MM was more effective in inactivating the nonadapted than the adapted inoculum. Bacterial populations continued to decline during storage and dropped below the detection limit (-0.4 log10 CFU/cm2) as early as day 0 (after drying) or as late as day 60, depending on acid adaptation, predrying treatment, and agar medium. The results indicated that acid adaptation may not increase resistance to the hurdles involved in jerky processing and that use of additional antimicrobial chemicals or preservatives in jerky marination may improve the effectiveness of drying in inactivating E. coli O157:H7. PMID:12233848

  1. Estimating heritability of wool shedding in a crossbred ewe population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low wool prices and high production costs in sheep systems have resulted in the introduction of hair sheep genetics into flocks to reduce shearing costs. Wool shedding occurs naturally in a few breeds, and can be incorporated by crossbreeding. The opportunity to enhance shedding through selection de...

  2. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 15. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF SHED, WITH AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF SHED, WITH AN OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE STEP-DOWN ROOF AND TWO BANKS OF CLEARSTORY LIGHTS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. The effect of vaccination on Marek's disease virus shedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current Marek’s Disease vaccines are efficient at preventing disease. However, vaccination can reduce but not completely eliminate virus shedding. Our hypothesis is that an efficient vaccine will result in fewer viruses being shed. To test this hypothesis, we developed a real-time PCR to measure Mar...

  6. 1. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACES OF PYROTECHNIC SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACES OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757). ENTRANCE TO TEST CELL ON SOUTH SIDE; ENTRANCE TO PERSONNEL ROOM ON WEST SIDE. SECURITY FENCE BETWEEN SLC-3E AND SLC-3W IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts. Note rock foundations of wood tanks once located under the rain shed on the ground at center of photograph. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  8. 1. Shed, railroad, keeper's house, light tower and boathouse, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shed, railroad, keeper's house, light tower and boathouse, view southwest, northeast side of shed, keeper's house and tower, east and north sides of boathouse - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  9. 2. Shed, railroad, light tower and boathouse, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Shed, railroad, light tower and boathouse, view south southwest, northeast and northwest sides of shed, northeast side of tower, east and north sides of boathouse - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  10. 3. Railroad viaduct, keeper's house, light tower and shed, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Railroad viaduct, keeper's house, light tower and shed, view west, southeast side of viaduct, southeast and northeast sides of keeper's house, tower and shed - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  11. Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-04-15

    The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations. PMID:20185187

  12. Specific inhibition of ectodomain shedding of glycoprotein Ibα by targeting its juxtamembrane shedding cleavage site

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xin; Russell, Susan R.; Estelle, Sandra; Jones, Limei H.; Cho, Sungyun; Kahn, Mark L.; Berndt, Michael C.; Bunting, Silvia T.; Ware, Jerry; Li, Renhao

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Ectodomain shedding of GPIbα, a proteolytic event in which metalloprotease ADAM17 cleaves the Gly464-Val465 bond and releases glycocalicin to the plasma, is considered a critical step in mediating clearance of stored platelets. Supporting evidence has largely come from studies using ADAM17 inhibitors. However, the definitive proof is lacking due to the broad substrate specificity of ADAM17. Objectives To achieve substrate-specific inhibition of GPIbα shedding. Methods Development of monoclonal antibodies that directly bind the sequence around the GPIbα shedding cleavage site and inhibit GPIbα shedding by blocking ADAM17 access to the cleavage site. Results Six anti-GPIbα monoclonal antibodies with varying binding affinities were obtained. The prototypic clone, designated 5G6, and its monomeric Fab fragment, bind specifically purified GPIb-IX complex, human platelets, and transgenic murine platelets expressing human GPIbα. 5G6 showed similar inhibitory potency as a widely used shedding inhibitor GM6001 in both constitutive and induced GPIbα shedding in human platelets. It does not recognize mouse GPIbα. Nor does it inhibit shedding of other platelet receptors. Finally, 5G6 binding displays no detectable effect on platelet activation and aggregation. Conclusion 5G6 specifically inhibits GPIbα shedding with no detectable effect on platelet functions. The method of substrate-specific shedding inhibition by macromolecular binding of the shedding cleavage site can be applicable to many other transmembrane receptors undergoing ectodomain shedding. PMID:24119228

  13. Oligosaccharide-based Surfactant/Citric Acid Buffer System Stabilizes Lactate Dehydrogenase during Freeze-drying and Storage without the Addition of Natural Sugar.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Kawai, Ryuichiro; Koga, Maito; Asakura, Kouichi; Takahashi, Isao; Osanai, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the maintenance effects of oligosaccharide-based surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a model protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), during freeze-drying and room temperature storage using the citric acid buffer system. Oligosaccharide-based surfactants, which exhibit a high glass transition temperature (Tg), promoted the eminent retention of enzymatic activity during these protocols, whereas monosaccharide-based surfactants with a low Tg displayed poor performance at high concentration, albeit much better than that of Tween 80 at middle concentration. The increase in the alkyl chain length did not exert positive effects as observed for the maintenance effect during freeze-thawing, but an amphiphilic nature and a glass forming ability were crucial for the effective stabilization at a low excipient concentration during freeze-drying. Even a low oligosaccharide-based surfactant content (0.1 mg mL(-1)) could maintain LDH activity during freeze-drying, but a high surfactant content (1.0 mg mL(-1)) was required to prevent buffer precipitation and retain high LDH activity on storage. Regarding storage, glass formation restricted molecular mobility in the lyophilized matrix, and LDH activity was effectively retained. The present results describe a strategy based on the glass-forming ability of surfactant-type excipients that affords a natural sugar-free formulation or an alternative use for polysorbate-type surfactants. PMID:27181251

  14. DEM Simulation of Rock Shed Failure due to Rockfall Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-An; Lin, Ming-Lang; Wang, Ching-Ping; Lo, Chia-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The rock shed is a more costly but effective traffic facility used to keep out falling rocks in Taiwan. The main function of rock shed is to let the falling rock passing through via the top slab without hitting the road users. The failure mode of the rock shed due to rockfall impact generally includes punching of top slab, flexural cracks of beam, buckling of column, and damage of foundation, etc. Even so, the failure behavior of the rock shed is still complicated and difficult to predict. Accordingly, this study adopts the discrete element program (PFC2D) to simulate the failure behavior of rock shed. A comparison with uniaxial compression test was carried out firstly to determine the micro parameters of structure elements. The model was utilized to simulate the behavior of rock shed with impact load or hitting of falling block separately. Then, a case study of present rock shed of highway NO.18 in middle Taiwan was analyzed. The result indicates that: the primary causes of rock shed failure mode include block size, falling height, impact position, and structure system. The failure mode of punching shear failure or flexural cracks is dominated by block size and falling height. The occurrence of differential settlement is related to impact position and absence of combined footing. Considering the connection of beam and column, the structure is more likely to break at the joints rather than punching of the top slab. As a result, combined footing and beam-to-column joint should be to take into account to obtain safer protection of rock shed. Keywords: rockfall disaster, PFC, rock shed, discrete element method

  15. Application of Ganghwa Mugwort in Combination with Ascorbic Acid for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite in Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The application of ganghwa mugwort (GM), ascorbic acid (AC), and their combinations for reduction of residual nitrite contents was analyzed in pork sausages during storage of 28 d. Six treatments of pork sausages contained the following: Control (no antioxidant added), AC (0.05% AC), GM 0.1 (0.1% GM), GM 0.2 (0.2% GM), AC+GM 0.1 (0.05% AC + 0.1% GM) and AC+GM 0.2 (0.05% AC + 0.2% GM). Results showed that the mixture of 0.05% AC and 0.2% GM was most effective for reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and residual nitrite contents than the control and GM added sausages alone (p<0.05). The color values of all treatments were significantly affected by adding GM (either alone or with AC). Additionally, the total color difference (ΔE) and hue angle (H°) values of treatments added with GM were higher than those of the control as the amount of GM increased (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the pH values between the control and all treatments during the storage period (p>0.05). Our results showed possible applications of antioxidant combination, for preventing the lipid oxidation and decreasing the residual nitrite levels of meat products. PMID:26760936

  16. August 2007 FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Recommendations for SHEDS-Dietary and SHEDS-Residential Modules (Summarized) and EPA Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past ten years, the Agency has requested the Panel to review several probabilistic dietary exposure software models. These have included DEEM-FCID™, Calendex-FCID, CARES™, LifeLine™, and an earlier (specialized) version of SHEDS (SHEDS-Wood) designed to assess exposure...

  17. 6. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER. A STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER. A STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), THE PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), AND SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    PubMed Central

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8–4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  19. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8-4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  20. Storage temperature and time influences sensory quality of mandarin oranges by altering soluble solids, acidity and aroma volatile composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mandarin oranges are very prone to losing flavor quality during storage and, as a result, often have a short shelf life. To better understand the basis of this flavor loss, two mandarin varieties (‘W. Murcott’ and ‘Owari’) were stored for 0, 3 and 6 weeks at either 0 °C, 4 °C, or 8 °C plus 1 week at...

  1. Drought adaptation in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism involves the flexible use of different storage carbohydrate pools

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Anne M; De Proft, Maurice P

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal CO2 uptake in CAM plants is sustained by the degradation of storage carbohydrate which provides the acceptor (PEP) for the nocturnal carboxylase (PEPC). The investment of resources into a transient storage carbohydrate pool unavoidably places restriction on other metabolic activities including dark respiration, growth and acclimation to abiotic stress. In our recent report the flexible use of different storage carbohydrate pools is shown to be involved in the acclimation process to drought and recovery from dehydration. While starch breakdown stoichiometrically accounts for nocturnal CO2 uptake under well-watered conditions, the sucrose pool is maintained in preference to starch during progressing drought and sucrose becomes the major source of carbon fuelling the dark reactions after 45 days of water deprivation. Re-watering plants results in a recovery to the original situation, with starch constituting the main carbohydrate reserve for nocturnal provision of PEP. However, substantial amounts of starch are also retained in the leaves of re-watered plants by restricting export/respiration and thus provides a potential buffer capacity against a return to water deprivation. This significant conservation of starch suggests the ability to perceive, remember and anticipate the formerly encountered drought stress in some way, with the adaptation of the equilibrium of carbohydrate balance as a central factor underpinning the physiological homeostasis of CAM plants. PMID:19721752

  2. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF MILK HOUSE (STRUCTURE 3) AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF MILK HOUSE (STRUCTURE 3) AND STORAGE SHED (STRUCTURE 4) FROM NORTHEAST - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  3. SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  4. On oblique and parallel shedding behind an inclined plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.; Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.

    2013-05-01

    Three-dimensional wake instabilities in the form of oblique shedding and vortex dislocations in the flow past an inclined flat plate of angle of attack 20° and Reynolds number 1000 have been reported earlier [D. Yang, B. Pettersen, H. I. Andersson, and V. D. Narasimhamurthy, Phys. Fluids 24, 084103 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4744982. In the current study, direct numerical simulations were performed to further explore this bifurcation. At lower Reynolds numbers, i.e., well below 525, the three-dimensional wake was found to be stable and in a parallel shedding mode. However, as the Reynolds number increases, it was observed that both parallel and oblique vortex sheddings arose naturally. Vortex dislocations appeared at the juxtaposition of oblique and parallel shedding modes. The velocity signals were analyzed by a wavelet transformation, from which the instantaneous characteristics of three-dimensional vortex shedding were obtained and examined. Results show that the phase difference of shed vortex rollers in the spanwise direction gave a symmetric probability density function. This indicates that both positive and negative shedding angles (relative to the axis of the plate) occur with equal likelihood.

  5. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  6. Pyrosequencing sheds light on DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ronaghi, M

    2001-01-01

    DNA sequencing is one of the most important platforms for the study of biological systems today. Sequence determination is most commonly performed using dideoxy chain termination technology. Recently, pyrosequencing has emerged as a new sequencing methodology. This technique is a widely applicable, alternative technology for the detailed characterization of nucleic acids. Pyrosequencing has the potential advantages of accuracy, flexibility, parallel processing, and can be easily automated. Furthermore, the technique dispenses with the need for labeled primers, labeled nucleotides, and gel-electrophoresis. This article considers key features regarding different aspects of pyrosequencing technology, including the general principles, enzyme properties, sequencing modes, instrumentation, and potential applications. PMID:11156611

  7. 19. RW Meyer Sugar: 18761889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. RW Meyer Sugar: 1876-1889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: Looking toward west end of cooling shed. After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan it cooled and crystallized in large sugar coolers. The humidity and vapors caused by the sorghum pan would have retarded the crystallizing and cooling of the sugar in the boiling house. In 1881 this shed was constructed to house the coolers and the sugar before it was dried in the centrifugals. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  9. Shedding light on Aspergillus niger volatile exometabolome

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography. This volatile fraction comprises 428 putatively identified compounds distributed over several chemical families, being the major ones hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ketones and aldehydes. These metabolites may be related with different metabolic pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis and metabolism of fatty acids, degradation of aromatic compounds, mono and sesquiterpenoid synthesis and carotenoid cleavage. The A. niger molecular biomarkers pattern was established, comprising the 44 metabolites present in all studied conditions. This pattern was successfully used to distinguish A. niger from other fungi (Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum) with 3 days of growth by using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). In addition, PLS-DA-Variable Importance in Projection was applied to highlight the metabolites playing major roles in fungi distinction; decreasing the initial dataset to only 16 metabolites. The data pre-processing time was substantially reduced, and an improvement of quality-of-fit value was achieved. This study goes a step further on A. niger metabolome construction and A. niger future detection may be proposed based on this molecular biomarkers pattern. PMID:27264696

  10. Shedding light on Aspergillus niger volatile exometabolome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography. This volatile fraction comprises 428 putatively identified compounds distributed over several chemical families, being the major ones hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ketones and aldehydes. These metabolites may be related with different metabolic pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis and metabolism of fatty acids, degradation of aromatic compounds, mono and sesquiterpenoid synthesis and carotenoid cleavage. The A. niger molecular biomarkers pattern was established, comprising the 44 metabolites present in all studied conditions. This pattern was successfully used to distinguish A. niger from other fungi (Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum) with 3 days of growth by using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). In addition, PLS-DA-Variable Importance in Projection was applied to highlight the metabolites playing major roles in fungi distinction; decreasing the initial dataset to only 16 metabolites. The data pre-processing time was substantially reduced, and an improvement of quality-of-fit value was achieved. This study goes a step further on A. niger metabolome construction and A. niger future detection may be proposed based on this molecular biomarkers pattern. PMID:27264696

  11. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    SciTech Connect

    Roik, N.V. Belyakova, L.A.

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved.

  12. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  13. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  14. Survival and growth of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella in and on raw tomatoes as affected by variety, stage of ripeness, and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2008-08-01

    Consumption of raw round and Roma tomatoes has been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis. A study was done to determine whether survival and growth of Salmonella in and on tomatoes is affected by variety of tomato, stage of ripeness, and storage temperature. The influence of acid adaptation of cells and site of inoculation on survival and growth was studied. Salmonella grew in stem scar and pulp tissues of round, Roma, and grape tomatoes stored at 12 and 21 degrees C but not in those tomatoes stored at 4 degrees C. Survival and growth was largely unaffected by variety and stage of ripeness at the time of inoculation. The pathogen did not grow on the skin of grape tomatoes stored at 4, 12, and 21 degrees C. Survival and growth of Salmonella inoculated into stem scar and pulp tissues of round and Roma tomatoes were unaffected by exposure of cells to an acidic (pH 4.75) environment before inoculation. Results emphasize the importance of preventing contamination of tomatoes with Salmonella at all stages of ripeness, regardless of variety or previous exposure of cells to an acidic environment. PMID:18724750

  15. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Janice S.; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Torella, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB’s physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  16. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Janice S; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Way, Jeffrey C; Torella, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB's physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  17. 43. PROCESS WELDING SHEDS (FABRICATION SHOPS) ON RIGHT, AND TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. PROCESS WELDING SHEDS (FABRICATION SHOPS) ON RIGHT, AND TANK BARGE, CRANES, PAINT SHOP AND PIPE/MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  18. 15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  19. Vortex shedding from struts in an annular exhaust diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Fric, T.F.; Villarreal, R.; Auer, R.O.; James, M.L.; Ozgur, D.; Staley, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Results from scale-model experiments and industrial gas turbine tests show that strut vortex shedding in an annular exhaust diffuser can effectively be modified by adding tapered chord to the struts. The struts are bluff bodies at full-speed, no-load conditions, when inlet swirl is close to 60 deg. Data from wind tunnel tests show that wake Strouhal number is 0.47, larger than that expected for an isolated cylinder wake. This value of Strouhal number agrees with those measured in full-scale exhaust diffusers. Wind tunnel tests showed that a strut with tapered chord most effectively reduced wake amplitudes and shifted shedding frequency. The tapered strut was also effective in reducing shedding amplitude in a scale-model diffuser. Finally, gas turbine tests employing a tapered strut showed significant reductions in unsteady pressure and noise. A major benefit of strut taper is a reduction of noise by uncoupling of vortex shedding from acoustic resonant response.

  20. 12. View of disassembled steam engine sitting in open shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of disassembled steam engine sitting in open shed showing base, columns and entablature. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. 29. Umbrella sheds behind South Station. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Umbrella sheds behind South Station. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 229.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; OXIDIZER APRON AND LAUNCH PAD IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. 1. GUNNARSON FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING HOUSE, IMPLEMENT SHED, AND GRANARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GUNNARSON FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING HOUSE, IMPLEMENT SHED, AND GRANARY (NEW HOUSE IN BACKGROUND). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Gunnarson Farmstead, U.S. Highway 20 at New Sweden, Idaho Falls, Bonneville County, ID

  4. 2. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING TAILRACE AND SLIDING DOOR UNDER SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING TAILRACE AND SLIDING DOOR UNDER SHED ROOF. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE IS IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. FACING NORTH ALONG TERRACE AVENUE OF MAINTENANCE SHED AND LANDSCAPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG TERRACE AVENUE OF MAINTENANCE SHED AND LANDSCAPING IN NORTHEASTERN CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  8. HISTORIC SHED (NOW WAREHOUSE) AT TRANSFORMER YARD ABOVE GLINES POWERHOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC SHED (NOW WAREHOUSE) AT TRANSFORMER YARD ABOVE GLINES POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  9. 3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, northwest and southwest sides - Monhegan Island Light Station, Monhegan Island, ten miles south by ferry from Port Clyde, Monhegan, Lincoln County, ME

  10. 1. Keeper's house, shed, covered passageway and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, shed, covered passageway and light tower, view northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Monhegan Island Light Station, Monhegan Island, ten miles south by ferry from Port Clyde, Monhegan, Lincoln County, ME

  11. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  12. Tracking Kids' Eye Movements Might Shed New Light on Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Eye Movements Might Shed New Light on Autism When conversations turn emotional, children with ASD change ... HealthDay News) -- New findings about where children with autism look during conversations could lead to changes in ...

  13. New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks T5, T4 and T2 on left from front to back. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  14. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline connection from collection trough. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection downspouts from gutter to reservoir. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type A in foreground and truss type B behind that. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  18. Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. 43) and steel tanks in background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  19. Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline on trestle, and water tanks. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  20. Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing collection gutter and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  1. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  2. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter box on northwest side. Maintenance staff in foreground. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  3. Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with flume and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  4. 33. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH ON SECOND LEVEL OF FERRY SHEDS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH ON SECOND LEVEL OF FERRY SHEDS, STEEL PASSENGER BRIDGES - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 2. Relationship of claim house, residence, east tool shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Relationship of claim house, residence, east tool shed, and garage to overall farmstead site, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  6. 6. RElationship of residence, claim house, east tool shed, barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. RElationship of residence, claim house, east tool shed, barn, garage, and pole building to overall farmstead site, looking northwest - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  7. 7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  8. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  9. 1. View west, east sides of shed, lighthouse, keeper's house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View west, east sides of shed, lighthouse, keeper's house and boat house - Squirrel Point Light Station, Off Highway 127, Steen Road to end of Bald Head Road, .8 mile down footpath, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  10. 7. View southwest, east and north sides of shed and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View southwest, east and north sides of shed and keeper's house - Squirrel Point Light Station, Off Highway 127, Steen Road to end of Bald Head Road, .8 mile down footpath, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  11. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  12. 5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  13. 8. Detail of underside of viaduct, hog shed to left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of viaduct, hog shed to left. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  14. Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition and horizontal siding at the ends, view facing northwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Beat the Winter Blues Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness As the days get shorter, ... clock” responds to cues in your surroundings, especially light and darkness. During the day, your brain sends ...

  16. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. 16. INTERIOR OF SHED ADDITION AND FREESTANDING CABINETS AGAINST NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF SHED ADDITION AND FREE-STANDING CABINETS AGAINST NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS SHOWING CALCIUM CARBIDE IN COOLING CARS ON THE FLOOR. DECEMBER 26, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. 1. Barn 3. NW corner. Border shed (Barn A) in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Barn 3. NW corner. Border shed (Barn A) in distance marks southern boundary of the original north barn area. Camera pointed SE. - Longacres, Barn 3, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  1. 5. DETAIL, STEEL SHED, SOUTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHWEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL, STEEL SHED, SOUTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHWEST SIDE - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  2. Vortex shedding effects in grid-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melina, G.; Bruce, P. J. K.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    The flow on the centerline of grid-generated turbulence is characterized via hot-wire anemometry for three grids with different geometry: a regular grid (RG60), a fractal grid (FSG17), and a single-square grid (SSG). Due to a higher value of the thickness t0 of its bars, SSG produces greater values of turbulence intensity Tu than FSG17, despite SSG having a smaller blockage ratio. However, the higher Tu for SSG is mainly due to a more pronounced vortex shedding contribution. The effects of vortex shedding suppression along the streamwise direction x are studied by testing a three-dimensional configuration, formed by SSG and a set of four splitter plates detached from the grid (SSG+SP). When vortex shedding is damped, the centerline location of the peak of turbulence intensity xpeak moves downstream and Tu considerably decreases in the production region. For FSG17 the vortex shedding is less intense and it disappears more quickly, in terms of x /xpeak , when compared to all the other configurations. When vortex shedding is attenuated, the integral length scale Lu grows more slowly in the streamwise direction, this being verified both for FSG17 and for SSG+SP. In the production region, there is a correlation between the vortex shedding energy and the skewness and the flatness of the velocity fluctuations. When vortex shedding is not significant, the skewness is highly negative and the flatness is much larger than 3. On the opposite side, when vortex shedding is prominent, the non-Gaussian behavior of the velocity fluctuations becomes masked.

  3. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter for hypergolics/all media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinh, Ngo

    1990-09-01

    A family of vortex shedding flowmeters for flow measurement of hypergols that requires a long term operation without removal from system lines was further developed. A family of vortex shedding flowmeters without moving parts was designed. The test loop to evaluate the meters for the Freon flow, which simulates the hypergolic fluids, was modified and reconstructed. Preliminary results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of an 1/2 inch flowmeter as a function of the flow rate.

  4. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter for hypergolics/all media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo

    1990-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flowmeters for flow measurement of hypergols that requires a long term operation without removal from system lines was further developed. A family of vortex shedding flowmeters without moving parts was designed. The test loop to evaluate the meters for the Freon flow, which simulates the hypergolic fluids, was modified and reconstructed. Preliminary results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of an 1/2 inch flowmeter as a function of the flow rate.

  5. Computational study of vortex shedding about slender bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murman, Scott Michael

    2000-10-01

    The flow about slender, pointed bodies can be characterized by different states with angle of attack. At moderate-to-high angles of attack (alpha ≈ 40°), a steady, asymmetric vortex pattern develops along the body, leading to a net lateral force. At higher angles of attack (alpha ≈ 60°), the aft-end of the body develops an unsteady von Karman shedding. As the angle of attack approaches 90°, the entire body length exhibits a time-dependent vortex shedding pattern. The current work develops numerical methods capable of simulating both the steady and unsteady vortex shedding about slender bodies at sub-scale (low Mach number, high laminar Reynolds number) test conditions. At these conditions a large database of experimental and numerical results exists for asymmetric vortex shedding. Emphasis is placed upon minimizing the computational cost for simulating three-dimensional, unsteady vortex shedding without sacrificing accuracy. Requirements for the crossflow resolution, time integration, and viscous stress modeling are developed. These methods are utilized to examine the physical mechanisms involved in flows about pointed bodies at angle of attack. The development of an asymmetric vortex pattern via a convective instability mechanism is investigated using tip bumps, surface roughness, and tip curvature. A model for the initiation of an asymmetric flow state from tip perturbations is presented. The development of Von Karman shedding on a semi-infinite pointed body is also studied. Numerical experiments are performed to determine whether the region of unsteady shedding on the aft-end of a body at angle of attack stems from a convective or absolute instability of the flow. The interactions between the regions of steady, asymmetric and unsteady von Karman vortex shedding are examined.

  6. 4. View north of Lake Whitney Dam. Wood shed at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View north of Lake Whitney Dam. Wood shed at center of photograph houses a turbine installed in 1932. Brick structure to the left of the turbine shed is a gate house which houses the main valves controlling flow of lake to water to the filter plant. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Lake Whitney Dam, East side of Whitney Avenue near intersection with Armory Street, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. Low-temperature Storage of Cucumbers Induces Changes in the Organic Acid Content and in Citrate Synthase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To elucidate the cause of reported pyruvate accumulation in chilled stored cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. ‘Toppugurin’, we have examined differences in the extent of incorporation of acetate-1,2-14C into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the specific activity of the enzyme citrate synthase ...

  8. Storage retention of stilbene, ellagic acid, favonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of ellagic acid and other other nutraceutical compounds in muscadine grapes add value and enhance the marketability of this southern U.S. specialty crop. Due to its nutraceutical profile, muscadines may potentially become the next “super fruit”. The objective of this study was to dete...

  9. Circadian disc shedding in Xenopus retina in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, J.G.; Fisher, S.K.

    1984-02-01

    To further examine the endogenous rhythm of disc shedding and phagocytosis observed in several species, adult Xenopus were entrained to a 12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle and then placed in constant darkness. At various times during a 3-day period of constant darkness, eyes were explanted and placed into culture medium, then processed for light and electron microscopy. A clear rhythmicity of disc shedding was observed, with pronounced peaks at the times light onset occurred in the original entrainment cycle. Modification of the HCO/sub 3/- ion concentration in the medium was found to raise the amplitude of the peak of endogenous disc shedding. Explants maintained in culture medium containing deuterium oxide (a compound known to perturb circadian oscillators) were found to shed with a longer interval between peaks. The addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, to this preparation suppressed the shedding rhythm. The action of anisomycin was investigated by autoradiographic examination of the pattern of /sup 3/H-leucine uptake and protein synthesis by the explant. The findings suggest the presence of a circadian oscillator for rhythmic disc shedding within the amphibian eye.

  10. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    PubMed

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. PMID:24399032

  11. Growth model of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at various storage temperatures on kale treated by thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Wang, Jun; Park, Myeong-Su; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the disinfection efficacy of hurdle treatments (thermosonication plus slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and to develop a model for describing the effect of storage temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut kale treated with or without (control) thermosonication combined with SAcEW. The hurdle treatments of thermosonication plus SAcEW had strong bactericidal effects against E. coli O157:H7 on kale, with approximately 3.3-log reductions. A modified Gompertz model was used to describe growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) as a function of storage temperature, with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98). SGR increased and LT declined with rising temperatures in all samples. A significant difference was found between the SGR values obtained from treated and untreated samples. Secondary models were established for SGR and LT to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on the growth kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in treated and untreated kale. Statistical evaluation was carried out to validate the performance of the developed models, based on the additional experimental data not used for the model development. The validation step indicated that the overall predictions were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had lower standard errors, indicating that this new growth model can be used to assess the risk of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on kale. PMID:24405995

  12. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P < 0.01), palmitic (16:0, r = 0.80, P < 0.001), stearic (18:0, r = -0.58, P < 0.01), and oleic (18:1c-9, r = 0.79, P < 0.001) acids. For PCD, significant relationships were found between marbling and palmitic (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) and oleic (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) acids. Microsomal fractions prepared from PCD muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), total PAP (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), and PAP-1 (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) specific activities. The results on FA compositions of whole muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA. PMID:17263304

  13. Effect of β-aminobutyric acid on cell wall modification and senescence in sweet cherry during storage at 20°C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Jin, Peng; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Lulu; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-05-15

    The effects of postharvest β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment on fruit firmness, pectin degrading enzymes, cell wall constituents and microstructural alterations of pericarp in sweet cherry fruit were investigated. BABA significantly delayed the decline of fruit firmness and inhibited the increase of membrane permeability and the accumulation of malondialdehyde in cherries. The BABA-treated fruit exhibited significantly higher contents of water-soluble pectin, CDTA-soluble pectin, Na2CO3-soluble pectin, total pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose than the control during storage. Activities of pectin degrading enzymes including polygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase were markedly reduced by BABA treatment. Observations by scanning electron microscopy showed BABA maintained smooth cuticle and integrated structure of subepidermal cell in sweet cherry. These results suggest that the delay in fruit senescence by BABA may be due to depressed membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content, reduced activities of polygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase, enhanced cell wall polysaccharides content, and integrated subepidermal cell structure in sweet cherry. PMID:25577108

  14. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  15. Evaluation of volatile compounds and free fatty acids in set types yogurts made of ewes', goats' milk and their mixture using two different commercial starter cultures during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Güler, Zehra; Gürsoy-Balcı, Alev Canan

    2011-08-01

    Six different types of yogurt were manufactured from Damascus goat milk, Awassi ewe milk and a mixture of equal portions of the 2 species of milk using 2 types of commercial yogurt cultures (CH-1 and YF-3331). Yogurts were chemically analysed at 1, 7, 14 and 21days of storage. Results showed that cultures significantly affected acetaldehyde (P<0.05), acetone (P<0.05) and diacetyl (P<0.001) contents. Type of milk significantly influenced acetaldehyde (P<0.05), diacetyl (P<0.001), acetoin (P<0.001) and ethanol (P<0.05) levels. Significant variations occurred in acetaldehyde (P<0.001) and acetoin (P<0.05) contents during the storage. Short-chain free fatty acids were the highest in ewes' milk yogurt made with culture YF-3331, and increased during storage, while the levels of medium-chain free fatty acids, except for decanoic acid, were unchanged and the amount of long-chain free fatty acids decreased during storage. Cultures used and types of milk had no effect on long-chain free fatty acids in yogurts. PMID:25214097

  16. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  17. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  18. Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin and Caproic Acid on Storage of Ram Semen in Liquid Form.

    PubMed

    Roostaei-Ali Mehr, M; Parisoush, P

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of silymarin on stored spermatozoa using four rams. In experiment 1, silymarin was evaluated as a supplement for Tris-glucose extender. Semen samples (n = 20) were diluted with extender containing 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/ml silymarin and incubated at 5°C for 72 h. Membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, sperm viability and motility were evaluated at 72 h. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined after 48 h. Membrane integrity was higher in 100 μg/ml silymarin (65.2%) than control group (43.2%, p < 0.05). Acrosome integrity was highest in 100 μg/ml silymarin (71.3%, p < 0.05). Progressive motility was higher in 100 (58.5%), 150 (60.62%) and 200 μg/ml silymarin (54.7%) than control group (30.7%, p < 0.05). The highest MDA concentration was observed in control group (400 mm/10 × 10(6) sperm; p < 0.05). The goal of experiment 2 was to determine the interaction between silymarin and caproic acid on ram stored sperm. Ejaculates (n = 20) were diluted by Tris-glucose extender, added 0 (S- ) or 100 μg/ml (S+ ) silymarin and 0 (C- ) or 0.3125% (C+ ) caproic acid, and thereafter, aliquots were incubated at 5°C for 72 h. Membrane integrity was lower in C- S- (57.6%) than C- S+ (73.2%), C+ S- (80.2%) and C+ S+ (72.1%, p > 0.05). The highest sperm viability and acrosome integrity were observed in C+ S- (82.4 and 80.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no difference between C- S+ and C+ S+ on sperm viability and membrane integrity, progressive motility and MDA concentration (p > 0.05). Therefore, the supplementation of extender with silymarin and caproic acid improved sperm quality and caproic acid was superior to caproic acid plus silymarin. PMID:27321767

  19. Evasion of immune responses to introduced human acid alpha-glucosidase by liver-restricted expression in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Franco, Luis M; Sun, Baodong; Yang, Xiaoyi; Bird, Andrew; Zhang, Haoyue; Schneider, Ayn; Brown, Talmage; Young, Sarah P; Clay, Timothy M; Amalfitano, Andrea; Chen, Y T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2005-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease) is caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase) and manifests as muscle weakness, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus vectors containing either a liver-specific promoter (LSP) (AAV-LSPhGAApA) or a hybrid CB promoter (AAV-CBhGAApA) to drive human GAA expression were pseudotyped as AAV8 and administered to immunocompetent GAA-knockout mice. Secreted hGAA was detectable in plasma between 1 day and 12 weeks postadministration with AAV-LSPhGAApA and only from 1 to 8 days postadministration for AAV-CBGAApA. No anti-GAA antibodies were detected in response to AAV-LSPhGAApA (<1:200), whereas AAV-CBhGAApA provoked an escalating antibody response starting 2 weeks postadministration. The LSP drove approximately 60-fold higher GAA expression than the CB promoter in the liver by 12 weeks following vector administration. Furthermore, the detected cellular immunity was provoked by AAV-CBhGAApA, as detected by ELISpot and CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte immunodetection. GAA activity was increased to higher than normal and glycogen content was reduced to essentially normal levels in the heart and skeletal muscle following administration of AAV-LSPhGAApA. Therefore, liver-restricted GAA expression with an AAV vector evaded immunity and enhanced efficacy in GSD-II mice. PMID:16005263

  20. Changes in Acidity, TSS, and Sugar Content at Different Storage Periods of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Influenced by Bavistin DF

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Khairul; Khan, M. Z. H.; Sarkar, M. A. R.; Absar, Nurul; Sarkar, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed study was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (namely, the Langra and the Khirshapat) treated with different levels of Bavistin DF (BDF) solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 ppm) for obtaining results on biochemical changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of titratable acidity and total soluble solid (TSS) at 3rd day, over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat showed increased pulp pH and TSS at all the storage duration. The results explored that some physicochemical properties, namely, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing, and nonreducing), and titratable acidity along with shelf life drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. Bavistin DF with the doses of 750 ppm showed better results in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. PMID:26904616

  1. Changes in Acidity, TSS, and Sugar Content at Different Storage Periods of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Influenced by Bavistin DF.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Khairul; Khan, M Z H; Sarkar, M A R; Absar, Nurul; Sarkar, S K

    2013-01-01

    A detailed study was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (namely, the Langra and the Khirshapat) treated with different levels of Bavistin DF (BDF) solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 ppm) for obtaining results on biochemical changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of titratable acidity and total soluble solid (TSS) at 3rd day, over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat showed increased pulp pH and TSS at all the storage duration. The results explored that some physicochemical properties, namely, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing, and nonreducing), and titratable acidity along with shelf life drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. Bavistin DF with the doses of 750 ppm showed better results in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. PMID:26904616

  2. Two separate metalloproteinase activities are responsible for the shedding and processing of the NG2 proteoglycan in vitro.

    PubMed

    Asher, Richard A; Morgenstern, Daniel A; Properzi, Francesca; Nishiyama, Akiko; Levine, Joel M; Fawcett, James W

    2005-05-01

    A high proportion of NG2 in the adult rat spinal cord is saline-soluble and migrates slightly faster than intact NG2 on SDS-PAGE, suggesting that it represents the shed ectodomain of NG2. In the injured cerebral cortex, much of the overall increase in NG2 is due to the saline-soluble (shed), rather than the detergent-soluble (intact), form. Hydroxamic acid metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not TIMPs, were able to prevent NG2 shedding in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro. The generation of another truncated form of NG2 was, however, sensitive to TIMP-2 and TIMP-3. Two observations suggest that NG2 is involved in PDGF signaling in OPCs: the rate of NG2 shedding increased with cell density and NG2 expression was increased in the absence of PDGF. Ectodomain shedding converts NG2 into a diffusible entity able to interact with the growth cone, and we suggest that this release is likely to enhance its axon growth-inhibitory activity. PMID:15866049

  3. Impact of pretreatments on morphology and enzymatic saccharification of shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Santoso, Shella Permatasari; Tran-Nguyen, Phuong Lan; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of subcritical water (SCW) and dilute acid pretreatments on the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (paper bark tree, PBT) biomass morphology, crystallinity index (CrI) and enzymatic saccharification were studied. The morphology of PBT bark was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SCW pretreatment mainly extracted amorphous parts of the biomass hence its CrI increased, partial decrystallization of cellulose and exposing of intact nanofibers of cellulose were observed for SCW pretreatment at 180°C. On the other hand, dilute acid pretreatment at 160°C exhibited a large decrease in CrI, an increase in surface area, a decrease in lignin content and decrystallization of cellulose as well as the peel-off and degradation of some nanofiber bundles. Dilute acid and SCW pretreatments of PBT biomass resulted in about 4.5 fold enhancement in glucose release relative to the untreated one. PMID:23697662

  4. H{sub 2}OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH){sub 3}[a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO{sub 2}) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO{sub 2} precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  5. H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH)[sub 3][a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO[sub 2]) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO[sub 2] precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  6. Protoearth mass shedding and the origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Darwin's (1980) theory of lunar formation from the earth by means of a rotationally driven dynamic fission instability is presently considered in view of viscous shear's maintenance of solid body rotation throughout the protoearth's accretion phase. Assuming the appropriateness of a polytropic account of the protoearth, it is unlikely that dynamic fission could have occurred; instantaneous spin-up following a giant impact would instead have led to mass shedding. The dynamical phenomenon of mass shedding is here explored on the basis of numerical models for a self-gravitating, axisymmetric, polytropic and dissipative protoearth. It is concluded that mass shedding from the protoearth mantle after a giant impact and explosion could have contributed substantial matter to a lunar disk.

  7. Protoearth mass shedding and the origin of the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, A.P.

    1986-05-01

    Darwin's (1980) theory of lunar formation from the earth by means of a rotationally driven dynamic fission instability is presently considered in view of viscous shear's maintenance of solid body rotation throughout the protoearth's accretion phase. Assuming the appropriateness of a polytropic account of the protoearth, it is unlikely that dynamic fission could have occurred; instantaneous spin-up following a giant impact would instead have led to mass shedding. The dynamical phenomenon of mass shedding is here explored on the basis of numerical models for a self-gravitating, axisymmetric, polytropic and dissipative protoearth. It is concluded that mass shedding from the protoearth mantle after a giant impact and explosion could have contributed substantial matter to a lunar disk. 27 references.

  8. JNK deficiency enhances fatty acid utilization and diverts glucose from oxidation to glycogen storage in cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Vijayvargia, Ravi; Mann, Kara; Weiss, Harvey R; Pownall, Henry J; Ruan, Hong

    2010-09-01

    Although germ-line deletion of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) improves overall insulin sensitivity in mice, those studies could not reveal the underlying molecular mechanism and the tissue site(s) in which reduced JNK activity elicits the observed phenotype. Given its importance in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose utilization, we hypothesized that the insulin-sensitive phenotype associated with Jnk deletion originates from loss of JNK function in skeletal muscle. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing was used to identify the functions of JNK subtypes in regulating energy metabolism and metabolic responses to elevated concentrations of NEFA in C2C12 myotubes, a cellular model of skeletal muscle. We show for the first time that cellular JNK2- and JNK1/JNK2-deficiency divert glucose from oxidation to glycogenesis due to increased glycogen synthase (GS) activity and induction of Pdk4. We further show that JNK2- and JNK1/JNK2-deficiency profoundly increase cellular NEFA oxidation, and their conversion to phospholipids and triglyceride. The increased NEFA utilization was coupled to increased expressions of selective NEFA handling genes including Cd36, Acsl4, and Chka, and enhanced palmitic acid (PA)-dependent suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc). In JNK-intact cells, PA inhibited insulin signaling and glycogenesis. Although silencing Jnk1 and/or Jnk2 prevented PA-induced inhibition of insulin signaling, it did not completely block decreased insulin-mediated glycogenesis, thus indicating JNK-independent pathways in the suppression of glycogenesis by PA. Muscle-specific inhibition of JNK2 (or total JNK) improves the capacity of NEFA utilization and glycogenesis, and is a potential therapeutic target for improving systemic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:20094041

  9. To Beard or Not to Beard? Bacterial Shedding Among Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Parry, Joshua Alan; Karau, Melissa J; Aho, Johnathon M; Taunton, Michael; Patel, Robin

    2016-03-01

    Beards in the operating room are controversial because of their potential to retain and transmit pathogenic organisms. Many bearded orthopedic surgeons choose to wear nonsterile hoods in addition to surgical masks to decrease contamination of the operative field. The goal of this study was to determine whether nonsterile surgical hoods reduce the risk of bacterial shed ding posed by beards. Bearded (n=10) and clean-shaven (n=10) subjects completed 3 sets of standardized fa cial motions, each lasting 90 seconds and performed over blood agar plates, while unmasked, masked, and masked and hooded. The plates were cultured for 48 hours under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Colony-forming units (CFUs) were quantified, expanded, and identified. Overall, the addition of surgical hoods did not decrease the total number of anaerobic and aerobic CFUs isolated per subject, with a mean of 1.1 CFUs while hooded compared with 1.4 CFUs with the mask alone (P=.5). Unmasked subjects shed a mean of 6.5 CFUs, which was significantly higher than the number of CFUs shed while masked (P=.02) or hooded (P=.01). The bearded group did not shed more than the clean-shaven group while unmasked (9.5 vs 3.3 CFUs, P=.1), masked (1.6 vs 1.2 CFUs, P=.9), or hooded (0.9 vs 1.3 CFUs, P=.6). Bearded surgeons did not appear to have an increased likelihood of bacterial shedding compared with their nonbearded counter parts while wearing surgical masks, and the addition of nonsterile surgical hoods did not decrease the amount of bacterial shedding observed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(2):e290-e294.]. PMID:26942473

  10. ADAM-mediated amphiregulin shedding and EGFR transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kasina, S.; Scherle, P. A.; Hall, C. L.; Macoska, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, such as amphiregulin (AREG), by ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteases) can be stimulated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Interactions between the CXCR4 GPCR and the CXCL12 chemokine have been shown to mediate gene transcription and cellular proliferation in non-transformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells, as well as motility/invasiveness in transformed cells. Objectives In this report, we investigated the ability of CXCL12 to stimulate amphiregulin ectodomain shedding in non-transformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells that respond proliferatively to sub-nanomolar levels of CXCL12 and amphiregulin. Materials and Methods Non-transformed N15C6 and transformed PC3 prostate epithelial cells were assessed for amphiregulin shedding, ADAM activation, Src phosphorylation and EGFR activation using ELISA, immunoblot, and immunoprecipitation techniques, and for proliferation using cell counting after stimulation with CXCL12 or vehicle. Results The results of these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel inducer of amphiregulin ectodomain shedding and show that both basal and CXCL12-mediated amphiregulin shedding are ADAM10- and Src kinase-dependent in non-transformed N15C6 cells. In contrast, amphiregulin shedding is not amplified subsequent to stimulation with exogenous CXCL12, and is not reduced subsequent to metalloprotease- or Src kinase-inhibition, in highly aggressive PC3 prostate cancer cells. These data also show that CXCL12-mediated cellular proliferation requires EGFR transactivation in a Src-and ADAM-dependent manner in non-transformed prostate epithelial cells. However, these same mechanisms are dysfunctional in highly transformed prostate cancer cells, which secrete amphiregulin in an autocrine manner that cannot be repressed through metalloprotease- or Src kinase inhibition. Conclusion These findings show that non-transformed and transformed

  11. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. PMID:26187840

  12. Pretreatment of cultured preadipocytes with arachidonic acid during the differentiation phase without a cAMP-elevating agent enhances fat storage after the maturation phase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ferdous; Syeda, Pinky Karim; Nartey, Michael Nii N; Rahman, Mohammad Shahidur; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Shono, Fumiaki; Yokota, Kazushige

    2016-03-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and the related prostanoids exert complex effects on the adipocyte differentiation depending on the culture conditions and life stages. Here, we investigated the effect of the pretreatment of cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with exogenous AA during the differentiation phase without 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a cAMP-elevating agent, on the storage of fats after the maturation phase. This pretreatment with AA stimulated appreciably adipogenesis after the maturation phase as evident with the up-regulated gene expression of adipogenic markers. The stimulatory effect of the pretreatment with AA was attenuated by the co-incubation with each of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. Among exogenous prostanoids and related compounds, the pretreatment with MRE-269, a selective agonist of the IP receptor for prostaglandin (PG) I2, strikingly stimulated the storage of fats in adipocytes. The gene expression analysis of arachidonate COX pathway revealed that the transcript levels of inducible COX-2, membrane-bound PGE synthase-1, and PGF synthase declined more greatly in cultured preadipocytes treated with AA. By contrast, the expression levels of COX-1, cytosolic PGE synthase, and PGI synthase remained constitutive. The treatment of cultured preadipocytes with AA resulted in the decreased synthesis of PGE2 and PGF2α serving as anti-adipogenic PGs although the biosynthesis of pro-adipogenic PGI2 was up-regulated during the differentiation phase. Moreover, the gene expression levels of EP4 and FP, the respective prostanoid receptors for PGE2 and PGF2α, were gradually suppressed by the supplementation with AA, whereas that of IP for PGI2 remained relatively constant. Collectively, these results suggest the predominant role of endogenous PGI2 in the stimulatory effect of the pretreatment of cultured preadipoccytes with AA during the differentiation phase without IBMX on adipogenesis after the maturation phase. PMID:26928048

  13. Coal gasifier wall protection system - slag shedding technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sanscrainte, W.; Marshall, D.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes how a long-term slag shedding experiment was developed. The results of the evaluation of various materials and techniques for protecting gasifier walls from damaging environments while maintaining high efficiency and good cooling properties are presented. This report states that an A 387 alloy appears to be an acceptable gasifier wall material. Cyclic slag shedding and slag thickness are dependent on cooling level, temperature and surface roughness. A water-cooled test section was operated successfully at full-scale operating temperature.

  14. Assessment of omega-fatty-acid-supplemented human platelets for potential improvement in long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, Chitra; Stewart, Michael W; Cutting, Mary A; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2002-01-15

    Uptake of omega (omega)-3 fatty acids can influence membrane stability and cell mobility. We investigated the effects of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on the hemostatic efficacy of human platelets using an in vivo rabbit bleeding model. In vitro assays such as platelet aggregation, vWF bead-mediated ATP release and platelet adhesion to beads (measured by the residual platelet count [RPC] [free platelet count after reacting with the beads]/[baseline platelet count]x 100=%RPC; a high %RPC indicates reduced platelet function) were conducted on platelets treated with 1% fish oil (omega-3); 2% fish oil emulsion or 1% soy oil (omega-6). Oil treatment of platelets reduced the vWF bead-induced ATP release insignificantly. Addition of omega-3 agents reduced physical reactivity (%RPC) with the vWF beads by a factor of 1.2 (oil) and 1.9 (emulsion). The omega-6 oil enhanced reactivity by a factor of 1.7. After washing to remove excess reagent, platelet resuspension was most efficient with the omega-3 emulsion. Platelet function was higher with the omega-3-treated platelets (%RPC=52.3%, omega-3 oil; 63.3%, omega-3 emulsion vs. 85%, omega-6 oil; 82% untreated platelets). Ethyl-palmitate-treated thrombocytopenic rabbits were infused with human platelets. Survival times of the treated platelets, as monitored by flow cytometry (6.2-8.2 h) were comparable to untreated platelets (8.6 h). In the rabbit kidney injury model, blood loss after infusion of the treated platelets was similar to that of saline-infused rabbits (75.3+/-3.4 g). However, platelets washed prior to infusion reduced blood loss to a value comparable to that of fresh platelets (48.3+/-5 g). Furthermore, the presence of the infused platelets at the injury site was clearly visualized using FITC-tagged anti CD42a antibody. Thus, the omega-3-based agents protect the platelets from damage during the washing procedure as demonstrated in vitro by improved platelet resuspension, low %RPC, high stimulus-responsive ATP secretion

  15. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in stimuli-induced shedding of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a critical growth factor for a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, atherosclerosis and cancer proliferation. HB-EGF is synthesized as a membrane form (proHB-EGF), and is shedded at the cell surface to yield soluble HB-EGF, resulting in making it active. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF was investigated using monkey kidney Vero cells overexpressing HB-EGF (Vero-H cells). 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a ligand for seventransmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and sorbitol as stress induced shedding of HB-EGF mediated protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38MAPK, respectively. These stimuli-induced sheddings of HB-EGF were inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS. As specific inhibitors of these protein kinases inhibited the shedding of HB-EGF, these signaling pathways seem to be independent, respectively. In contrast, γ-ray irradiation did not induce shedding although it did increase intracellular ROS levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the synergistic generation of ROS and the activation of protein kinase are required to promote stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF. PMID:24930874

  16. VIEW NORTH OF PRESTRESS TRACK CENTERHEMP STORAGE BUILDING 77 (1920) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH OF PRE-STRESS TRACK CENTER-HEMP STORAGE BUILDING 77 (1920) ROPE WAREHOUSE 43 (1941) BEHIND IT STORAGE SHED 44 (1953) IN FRONT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  17. 12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 19061010 ONESTORY SHED ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 1906-1010 ONE-STORY SHED ADDITION AT LEFT; NORTHWEST ELEVATION AND PARKING AREA AT RIGHT; PARKING AREA WAS SITE OF FORMER STOREHOUSE 'A' AND 'B'; LANE AT LEFT IS NORTH DRIVEWAY, BUILT CA. 1935 - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 40 CFR 1066.910 - SHED enclosure specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Evaporative Emission Test Procedures Test Equipment and Calculations for Evaporative and Refueling Emissions § 1066.910 SHED enclosure specifications. Enclosures for evaporative and refueling emissions must meet the specifications described in 40 CFR 86.106-96,...

  20. Nonlinear modelling of vortex shedding control in cylinder wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussopoulos, Kimon; Monkewitz, Peter A.

    Kármán vortex shedding behind a cylinder placed at right angles to a uniform flow is known to be a limit cycle oscillation that results from the saturation of a global instability of the wake flow. In this paper we study the feedback control of Kármán vortex shedding for Reynolds numbers (based on cylinder diameter) close to the critical value of Re c ≈ 47 using “single input - single output” (SISO) proportional control. A model is presented that combines the linear streamwise global mode amplitude equation and the nonlinear spanwise Ginzburg-Landau equation and correctly models the three-dimensional effects observed in the controlled wake of finite length cyclinders. In particular it is demonstrated that for long cylinders vortex shedding can only be suppressed at the spanwise location of the sensor even though the actuation occurs uniformly over the entire span. At a fixed streamwise position the spanwise variation of the shedding angle is thereby given by the “hole solution” of Nozaki and Bekki, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53 (1984) 1581.

  1. Vortex shedding fluid flowmeter using optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, J. H.; Pitt, C. W.

    1981-03-01

    An optical fibre flowmeter is described which uses a single fibre mounted transversely to the fluid flow within the pipe. The fibre is vibrated by the natural phenomenon of vortex shedding, causing phase modulation of the optical carrier within. The modulation is detected at the fibre exit by the fibredyne technique, and the flow rate determined from the vibration frequency.

  2. 4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM NORTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. TOPS OF BUNKER PERISCOPE AND FLAGPOLE ON ROOF OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Concrete airship sheds at Orly, France. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FREYSSINET

    1925-01-01

    This report details the contest to design and build concrete airship hangers. The difficulty lies in the magnitude of the absolute dimensions. An airship shed must withstand two principal types of stresses: those resulting from its own weight and those due to the wind. This report discusses both problems in detail.

  4. Characterization and Scaling of Vortex Shedding from a Plunging Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslam Panah, Azar; Buchholz, James

    2011-11-01

    Leading-edge and trailing-edge vortices (LEV and TEV) are investigated for a plunging flat plate airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of 10,000 while varying plunge amplitude and Strouhal number. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to examine the strength and dynamics of shed vortices. Vortex strength, timing, pinch-off and trajectory are examined. By tracking the development of both the LEV and TEV in phase-locked measurements throughout the cycle and extracting the respective vortex circulation, the dimensionless circulation of both the LEV and TEV at each phase in the cycle could be determined. Guided by theoretical considerations for vorticity generation and aerodynamic theory, we will discuss the role of kinematic parameters on vortex shedding and the applicability of a scaling factor for the circulation of the shed vortex structures. Whereas a scaling parameter based on plate kinematics effectively collapses the circulation values of the shed leading-edge vortices with variation in Strouhal number, plunge amplitude, and angle of attack, it is found that the strength of the trailing-edge structures vary little with variation in plunge amplitude and angle of attack. This work is supported by AFOSR under award number FA9550-11-1-0019 monitored by Dr. Doug Smith.

  5. 5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM SOUTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. MICROWAVE DISH IN FOREGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type B at wall post. New aluminum roofing seen in comparison with older galvanized steel siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  8. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  9. 1. Shed, keeper's house and light tower, view west northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shed, keeper's house and light tower, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  10. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast wall and gutter boxes. Two 750,000 gallon steel tanks at right (T19 in foreground with T18 behind). - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  11. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  12. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Shedding of Water Drops from a Surface under Icing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deepak Kumar; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, C; Amirfazli, A

    2015-09-01

    A sessile water drop exposed to an air flow will shed if the adhesion is overcome by the external aerodynamic forces on the drop. In this study, shedding of water drops were investigated under icing conditions, on surfaces with different wettabilities, from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. A wind tunnel was used for experiments in a temperature range between -8 and 24.5 °C. Results indicate that the temperature has a major influence on the incipient motion of drop shedding. The critical air velocity (U(c)) at which a drop first starts to shed generally increases under icing conditions, indicating an increase in the adhesion force. The contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and the drop base length (L(b)) are found to be the controlling factors for adhesion. A correlation was also developed to deduce the drag coefficient, C(D) for the drop. It was found that C(D) can decrease under icing conditions. In general, a lower C(D) and higher adhesion together lead to a higher critical air velocity. However, there are systems such as water on Teflon for which the critical air velocity remains practically unaffected by temperature because of similar adhesion and C(D) values, at all temperatures tested. PMID:26261936

  14. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  15. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  16. NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 11. VIEW SHOWING THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE SHED ROOF (REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW SHOWING THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE SHED ROOF (REMOVED AUTUMN OF 1996) PROTECTING THE PRESENT INTAKE GATES- AND RAKE-LIFTING MECHANISMS AND THE TRASH RACKS (LOWER FOREGROUND), LOOKING NORTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  18. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  19. 25 CFR 247.15 - May I reserve a campsite or drying shed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? 247.15 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.15 May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? No. You may not reserve a campsite, drying shed, or other facility. (a) You must use campsites, drying sheds, and...

  20. 25 CFR 247.15 - May I reserve a campsite or drying shed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? 247.15 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.15 May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? No. You may not reserve a campsite, drying shed, or other facility. (a) You must use campsites, drying sheds, and...

  1. 25 CFR 247.15 - May I reserve a campsite or drying shed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? 247.15 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.15 May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? No. You may not reserve a campsite, drying shed, or other facility. (a) You must use campsites, drying sheds, and...

  2. 25 CFR 247.15 - May I reserve a campsite or drying shed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? 247.15 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.15 May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? No. You may not reserve a campsite, drying shed, or other facility. (a) You must use campsites, drying sheds, and...

  3. 25 CFR 247.15 - May I reserve a campsite or drying shed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? 247.15 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.15 May I reserve a campsite or drying shed? No. You may not reserve a campsite, drying shed, or other facility. (a) You must use campsites, drying sheds, and...

  4. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  5. Development of Warp Yarn Tension During Shedding: A Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Chary, Prabhakara; Roy, Sukumar

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical investigation on the process of development of warp yarn tension during weaving for tappet shedding is carried out, based on the dynamic nature of shed geometry. The path of warp yarn on a weaving machine is divided into four different zones. The tension developed in each zone is estimated for every minute rotation of the bottom shaft. A model has been developed based on the dynamic nature of shed geometry and the possible yarn flow from one zone to another. A computer program, based on the model of shedding process, is developed for predicting the warp yarn tension variation during shedding. The output of the model and the experimental values of yarn tension developed in zone-D i.e. between the back rest and the back lease rod are compared, which shows a good agreement between them. The warp yarn tension values predicted by the model in zone-D are 10-13 % lesser than the experimentally measured values. By analyzing the theoretical data of the peak value of developed yarn tension at four zones i.e. zone-A, zone-B, zone-C and zone-D, it is observed that the peak yarn tension value of A, B, C-zones are much higher than the peak tension near the back rest i.e. at zone-D. It is about twice or more than the yarn tension near the back rest. The study also reveals that the developed yarn tension peak values are different for the extreme positions of a heald. The impact of coefficient of friction on peak value of yarn tension is nominal.

  6. Constitutive Endocytosis of VEGFR2 Protects the Receptor against Shedding.

    PubMed

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2016-08-01

    VEGFR2 plays a fundamental role in blood vessel formation and in life threatening diseases, such as cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disorders. Although inactive growth factor receptors are mainly localized at the plasma membrane, VEGFR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis (in the absence of ligand) and recycling. Intriguingly, the significance of these futile transport cycles of VEGFR2 remains unclear. Here we found that, unexpectedly, the function of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2 is to protect the receptor against plasma membrane cleavage (shedding), thereby preserving the functional state of the receptor until the time of activation by VEGF. Inhibition of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2, by interference with the function of clathrin, dynamin, or Rab5, increases dramatically the cleavage/shedding of VEGFR2. Shedding of VEGFR2 produces an N-terminal soluble fragment (100 kDa, s100), which is released in the extracellular space, and a residual C-terminal part (130 kDa, p130) that remains integrated at the plasma membrane. The released soluble fragment (s100) co-immunoprecipitates with VEGF, in line with the topology of the VEGF-binding domain at the N terminus of VEGFR2. Increased shedding of VEGFR2 (via inhibition of constitutive endocytosis) results in reduced response to VEGF, consistently with the loss of the VEGF-binding domain from the membrane remnant of VEGFR2. These data suggest that constitutive internalization of VEGFR2 protects the receptor against shedding and provides evidence for an unprecedented mechanism via which endocytosis can regulate the fate and activity of growth factor receptors. PMID:27298320

  7. Ezetimibe markedly attenuates hepatic cholesterol accumulation and improves liver function in the lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mouse, a model for cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-01-17

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a critical role in the intracellular handling of lipids by hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) contained in newly internalized lipoproteins. In humans, mutations in the LAL gene result in cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), or in Wolman disease (WD) when the mutations cause complete loss of LAL activity. A rat model for WD and a mouse model for CESD have been described. In these studies we used LAL-deficient mice to investigate how modulating the amount of intestinally-derived cholesterol reaching the liver might impact its mass, cholesterol content, and function in this model. The main experiment tested if ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, had any effect on CE accumulation in mice lacking LAL. In male Lal(-/-) mice given ezetimibe in their diet (20 mg/day/kg bw) for 4 weeks starting at 21 days of age, both liver mass and hepatic cholesterol concentration (mg/g) were reduced to the extent that whole-liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the treated mice (74.3±3.4) was only 56% of that in those not given ezetimibe (133.5±6.7). There was also a marked improvement in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Thus, minimizing cholesterol absorption has a favorable impact on the liver in CESD. PMID:24370824

  8. Enhancing photo-catalytic production of organic acids in the cyanobacterium S ynechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Δ glg C , a strain incapable of glycogen storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carrieri, Damian; Broadbent, Charlie; Carruth, David; Paddock, Troy; Ungerer, Justin; Maness, Pin-Ching; Ghirardi, Maria; Yu, Jianping

    2015-01-23

    We describe how a key objective in microbial biofuels strain development is to maximize carbon flux to target products while minimizing cell biomass accumulation, such that ideally the algae and bacteria would operate in a photo-catalytic state. A brief period of such a physiological state has recently been demonstrated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔglgC strain incapable of glycogen storage. When deprived of nitrogen, the ΔglgC excretes the organic acids alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate for a number of days without increasing cell biomass. This study examines the relationship between the growth state and the photo-catalytic state, and characterizes themore » metabolic adaptability of the photo-catalytic state to increasing light intensity. It is found that the culture can transition naturally from the growth state into the photo-catalytic state when provided with limited nitrogen supply during the growth phase. Photosynthetic capacity and pigments are lost over time in the photo-catalytic state. Reversal to growth state is observed with re-addition of nitrogen nutrient, accompanied by restoration of photosynthetic capacity and pigment levels in the cells. While the overall productivity increased under high light conditions, the ratio of alpha-ketoglutarate/pyruvate is altered, suggesting that carbon partition between the two products is adaptable to environmental conditions.« less

  9. One-step electrochemical synthesis of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-napthalene-sulfonic acid functionalized graphene for green energy storage electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Kuila, Tapas; Khanra, Partha; Kim, Nam Hoon; Choi, Sung Kuk; Yun, Hyung Joong; Lee, Joong Hee

    2013-09-13

    A green approach for the one-step electrochemical synthesis of water dispersible graphene is reported. An alkaline solution of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) serves the role of electrolyte as well as surface modifier. High-purity graphite rods are used as electrodes which can be exfoliated under a constant electrical potential (∼20 V) to form ANS functionalized graphene (ANEG). The aqueous dispersion of ANEG obeyed Beer's law at moderate concentrations, as evidenced from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests complete exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy not only confirm the functionalization of graphene with ANS, but also suggest the formation of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of ANEG. Raman spectra analysis indicates the presence of defects in ANEG as compared to pure graphite. Cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements of ANEG using three electrode systems show a specific capacitance of 115 F g(-1) at a current density of 4 A g(-1). The ANEG electrode exhibits 93% retention in specific capacitance after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, confirming its utility as a green energy storage electrode material. PMID:23958735

  10. Cobalt carbonate dumbbells for high-capacity lithium storage: A slight doping of ascorbic acid and an enhancement in electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Wei, Shanshan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuxi; Yu, Yue; Shen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of materials with desirable nanostructures is a hot research topic owing to their enhanced performances in contrast to the bulk counterparts. Herein, dumbbell-shaped cobalt carbonate (CoCO3) nano architectures and the bulk counterpart of CoCO3 rhombohedra are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. By comparison, it has been found that: the addition of AA in the hydrothermal crystallization system changes the shape of the building blocks from Co2CO3(OH)2 nanosheets to CoCO3 nanoparticles, and then further influences the final configuration of the products. When applied as anodes of lithium ion batteries, CoCO3 dumbbells deliver a 100th capacity of 1042 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and even exhibit a long-term value of 824 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1, which are much higher than the rhombohedral counterparts with corresponding 540 and 481 mAh g-1 respectively. The much higher capacity, better cycling stability and enhanced rate performance of CoCO3 dumbbells can be attributed to the higher specific surface area, smaller charge transport resistance and better structure stability resulting from the slight doping (∼4.6 wt%) of AA, and also relate with a novel lithium storage mechanism in CoCO3.

  11. Enhanced Efficacy of an AAV Vector Encoding Chimeric, Highly-Secreted Acid α-glucosidase in Glycogen Storage Disease Type II

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Brown, Talmage; Bird, Andrew; Young, Sarah P.; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) is an inherited muscular dystrophy caused by deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). We hypothesized that chimeric GAA containing an alternative signal peptide could increase the secretion of GAA from transduced cells and enhance the receptor-mediated uptake of GAA in striated muscle. The relative secretion of chimeric GAA from transfected 293 cells increased up to 26-fold. Receptor-mediated uptake of secreted, chimeric GAA corrected cultured GSD-II patient cells. High-level hGAA was sustained in the plasma of GSD-II mice for 24 weeks following administration of an AAV2/8 vector encoding chimeric GAA; furthermore, GAA activity was increased and glycogen content was significantly reduced in striated muscle and in the brain. Administration of only 1×1010 vector particles increased GAA activity in the heart and diaphragm for >18 weeks, whereas 3×1010 vector particles increased GAA activity and reduced glycogen content in the heart, diaphragm, and quadriceps. Furthermore, an AAV2/2 vector encoding chimeric GAA produced secreted hGAA for >12 weeks in the majority of treated GSD-II mice. Thus, chimeric, highly secreted GAA enhanced the efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in GSD-II mice. PMID:16987711

  12. One-step electrochemical synthesis of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-napthalene-sulfonic acid functionalized graphene for green energy storage electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, Tapas; Khanra, Partha; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuk Choi, Sung; Yun, Hyung Joong; Lee, Joong Hee

    2013-09-01

    A green approach for the one-step electrochemical synthesis of water dispersible graphene is reported. An alkaline solution of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) serves the role of electrolyte as well as surface modifier. High-purity graphite rods are used as electrodes which can be exfoliated under a constant electrical potential (˜20 V) to form ANS functionalized graphene (ANEG). The aqueous dispersion of ANEG obeyed Beer’s law at moderate concentrations, as evidenced from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests complete exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy not only confirm the functionalization of graphene with ANS, but also suggest the formation of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of ANEG. Raman spectra analysis indicates the presence of defects in ANEG as compared to pure graphite. Cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements of ANEG using three electrode systems show a specific capacitance of 115 F g-1 at a current density of 4 A g-1. The ANEG electrode exhibits 93% retention in specific capacitance after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, confirming its utility as a green energy storage electrode material.

  13. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toru; Nambara, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kazutoshi; Goto, Derek B.; Naito, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Plants accumulate storage substances such as starch, lipids and proteins in certain phases of development. Storage proteins accumulate in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and serve as a reservoir to be used in later stages of plant development. The accumulation of storage protein is thus beneficial for the survival of plants. Storage proteins are also an important source of dietary plant proteins. Here, we summarize the genome organization and regulation of gene expression of storage protein genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:22303197

  15. Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of immune parameters of both cellular and innate immunity indicate alterations in immune function in astronauts. Immune changes are due to stress and perhaps other factors associated with launch, flight, and landing phases. Medical relevance of observed changes is not known. The reactivation of latent viruses has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of specific viral DNA in body fluids. Initial studies demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during all 3 mission phases. EBV is shed in saliva following reactivation from B-cells. Incidence of EBV in saliva was higher than control subjects during all 3 mission phases. However, quantitative PCR revealed 10-fold higher levels of EBV DNA present in saliva collected during flight than found in pre- and post flight specimens. To determine if other latent viruses showed similar effects, cytomegalovirus (CMV), another herpes virus, shed in urine following reactivation was studied. A very low incidence (less than 2%) of CMV in urine is found in healthy, lowstressed individuals. However, 25-50% of astronauts shed CMV in their urine before, during, or after flight. Our studies are now focused on varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the etiological agent of chicken-pox during childhood and shingles later in life. We demonstrated reactivation of VZV and shedding of the virus during and after spaceflight in saliva of astronauts with no sign of active infection or symptoms. The maximum shedding of VZV occurred during the flight phase and diminishes rapidly during the first five days after landing. We have utilized the same PCR assay for VZV in a clinical study of shingles patients. Generally, shingles patients shed much more VZV in saliva than astronauts. However, the VZV levels in astronauts overlap with the lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients. Saliva from shingles patients and

  16. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  17. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  18. Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 71 astronauts was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction. A significantly greater (P<.0001) shedding frequency was found in urine samples from astronauts before spaceflight (10.6%) than in urine from the healthy control subject group (1.2%). Two of 4 astronauts studied during spaceflight shed CMV in urine. A significant increase (P<.0001) in CMV antibody titer, compared with baseline values, was also found 10 days before spaceflight. CMV antibody titer was further increased (P<.001) 3 days after landing, compared with 10 days before the mission. Significant increases in stress hormones were also found after landing. These results demonstrate that CMV reactivation occurred in astronauts before spaceflight and indicate that CMV may further reactivate during spaceflight.

  19. The decay of longitudinal vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Foster, Jeffry D.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to examine the crossplane structure and streamwise decay of vortices shed from airfoil-type vortex generators. The vortex generators are set in a counter-rotating array spanning the full circumference of a straight pipe. The span of the vortex generators above the duct surface, h, is approximately equal to the local turbulent boundary layer thickness, delta. Measurement of three-component mean flow velocity in downstream crossplanes are used to characterize the structure of the shed vortices. Measurements in adjacent crossplanes (closely spaced along the streamwise coordinate) characterize the interaction and decay of the embedded vortices. A model constructed by the superposition of Oseen vortices is compared to the data for one test case.

  20. Numerical investigation of shedding partial cavities over a sharp wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budich, B.; Neuner, S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution, we examine transient dynamics and cavitation patterns of periodically shedding partial cavities by numerical simulations. The investigation reproduces reference experiments of the cavitating flow over a sharp wedge. Utilizing a homogeneous mixture model, full compressibility of the two-phase flow of water and water vapor is taken into account by the numerical method. We focus on inertia-dominated mechanisms, thus modeling the flow as inviscid. Based on the assumptions of thermodynamic equilibrium and barotropic flow, the thermodynamic properties are computed from closed-form analytical relations. Emphasis is put on a validation of the employed numerical approach. We demonstrate that computed shedding dynamics are in agreement with the references. Complex flow features observed in the experiments, including cavitating hairpin and horse-shoe vortices, are also predicted by the simulations. Furthermore, a condensation discontinuity occurring during the collapse phase at the trailing portion of the partial cavity is equally obtained.

  1. Experimental study of a vortex-shedding flowmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo D.; Howard, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype of a vortex-shedding flowmeter with no moving parts is investigated for the loading of hypergolic fuels into the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Eliminating moving parts is intended to reduce the need for servicing the meter, and the vortex shedder is compared to the turbine flowmeter presently in use. A flow test loop is designed and employed to conduct experimental investigations in which the output characteristics are examined. The relationship between vortex frequency and flow rate is almost linear, as is the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. The results are consistent with calculations and suggest that the flowmeter is a possible replacement for measuring the loading of hypergols into the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  2. Vortex shedding flowmeters for liquids at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vortex shedding flowmeter designs for flow measurements in liquid oxygen ducts on the space shuttle main engines have been tested in a high head water flow test facility. The results have shown that a vortex shedding element or vane spanning the duct can give a linear response to an average flow velocity of 46 m/s (150 ft/s) in a 1 1/2 inch nominal (41 mm actual) diameter duct while a vane partially spanning the duct can give a linear response to velocities exceeding 55 m/s (180 ft/s). The maximum pressure drops across the flow sensing elements extrapolate to less than 0.7 MPa (100 psi) at 56 m/s (184 ft/s) for liquid oxygen. The test results indicate that the vanes probably cannot be scaled up with pipe size, at least not linearly.

  3. Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: cytokines and viral shedding.

    PubMed

    Newman, K L; Moe, C L; Kirby, A E; Flanders, W D; Parkos, C A; Leon, J S

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis world-wide. NoV infections are often asymptomatic, although individuals still shed large amounts of NoV in their stool. Understanding the differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals would help in elucidating mechanisms of NoV pathogenesis. Our goal was to compare the serum cytokine responses and faecal viral RNA titres of asymptomatic and symptomatic NoV-infected individuals. We tested serum samples from infected subjects (n = 26; 19 symptomatic, seven asymptomatic) from two human challenge studies of GI.1 NoV for 16 cytokines. Samples from prechallenge and days 1-4 post-challenge were tested for these cytokines. Cytokine levels were compared to stool NoV RNA titres quantified previously by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). While both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups had similar patterns of cytokine responses, the symptomatic group generally exhibited a greater elevation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines and IL-8 post-challenge compared to the asymptomatic group (all P < 0·01). Daily viral RNA titre was associated positively with daily IL-6 concentration and negatively with daily IL-12p40 concentration (all P < 0·05). Symptoms were not associated significantly with daily viral RNA titre, duration of viral shedding or cumulative shedding. Symptomatic individuals, compared to asymptomatic, have greater immune system activation, as measured by serum cytokines, but they do not have greater viral burden, as measured by titre and shedding, suggesting that symptoms may be immune-mediated in NoV infection. PMID:26822517

  4. 4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ADDITION FOR WELL-SERVICE VEHICLE, TOOLS, AND EQUIPMENT AND REAR ENTRANCE DOOR AND WINDOW INTO FACTORY. THE METAL OUTBUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SHOP-BUILT PRIVY ERECTED OVER A SANITARY SEWER. VISIBLE ON THE ROOF ARE TWO SKYLIGHT STRUCTURES AND FLUES FOR FORGE AND HEATING STOVE. THE BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS AN ADJACENT GROCERY STORE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. 50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELLSERVICE SHED ADDITION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. HANGING FROM AND LEANING AGAINST THE WALL ARE TOOLS USED IN WATER WELL SERVICE, SUCH AS BAILER, CHAINS, WRENCHES, PULLEYS, ROPE, SAFETY BELT, CHAIN TONGS, AND LEATHER SEALS FOR PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS. CLEARLY VISIBLE ON RAFTERS IS HISTORIC ELECTRICAL WIRING. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  6. Shear driven droplet shedding and coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtadernejad, S.; Tembely, M.; Jadidi, M.; Esmail, N.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The interest on shedding and coalescence of sessile droplets arises from the importance of these phenomena in various scientific problems and industrial applications such as ice formation on wind turbine blades, power lines, nacelles, and aircraft wings. It is shown recently that one of the ways to reduce the probability of ice accretion on industrial components is using superhydrophobic coatings due to their low adhesion to water droplets. In this study, a combined experimental and numerical approach is used to investigate droplet shedding and coalescence phenomena under the influence of air shear flow on a superhydrophobic surface. Droplets with a size of 2 mm are subjected to various air speeds ranging from 5 to 90 m/s. A numerical simulation based on the Volume of Fluid method coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation turbulent model is carried out in conjunction with the validating experiments to shed more light on the coalescence of droplets and detachment phenomena through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics forces and velocity vectors on the droplet and the streamlines around it. The results indicate a contrast in the mechanism of two-droplet coalescence and subsequent detachment with those related to the case of a single droplet shedding. At lower speeds, the two droplets coalesce by attracting each other with successive rebounds of the merged droplet on the substrate, while at higher speeds, the detachment occurs almost instantly after coalescence, with a detachment time decreasing exponentially with the air speed. It is shown that coalescence phenomenon assists droplet detachment from the superhydrophobic substrate at lower air speeds.

  7. 51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELLSERVICE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND IS 1960S PICKUP TRUCK, THE LAST MOTOR VEHICLE USED IN WELL SERVICE BY THE KREGEL WINDMILL COMPANY. MOST OF THE OBJECTS VISIBLE IN THIS VIEW ARE CLUTTER NOT RELATED TO THE WELL SERVICE BUSINESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  8. Lagrangian analysis of vortex shedding behind a 2D airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, Blake; Mohseni, Kamran

    2007-11-01

    Identifying the coherent structures and their interactions in the mixing zone is a useful means in designing future flow control strategies. To this end, a Lagrangian analysis of two-dimensional vortex shedding over an Eppler 387 airfoil is presented. Stable and unstable material manifolds in the flow are identified. Unstable manifolds such a the shear layer characterize a barrier to fluid mixing and are easily visualized using dye injection in an experiment. On the other hand, stable manifolds are more difficult to visualize in an experiment. Reattachment lines are examples of such manifolds. As such the existence of these structures in the flow, is presented and how these structures are useful in understanding vortex shedding is explored. The manifold structure is also presented in a time averaged view, allowing a comparison with the traditional separation bubble. Furthermore, lobe dynamic calculation are performed and the fluid entrainment into shedded vortices are investigated. Finally, investigation of correlation between the behavior of the material manifolds and more traditional quantities such as skin friction, flow phase portrait, and pressure is presented.

  9. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates LOX-1 Shedding in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Magda; Vindigni, Giulia; Testa, Barbara; Raniolo, Sofia; Fasciglione, Giovanni Francesco; Coletta, Massimiliano; Biocca, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a scavenger receptor responsible for ox-LDL recognition, binding and internalization, which is up-regulated during atherogenesis. Its activation triggers endothelium dysfunction and induces inflammation. A soluble form of LOX-1 has been identified in the human blood and its presence considered a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. We recently showed that cholesterol-lowering drugs inhibit ox-LDL binding and internalization, rescuing the ox-LDL induced apoptotic phenotype in primary endothelial cells. Here we have investigated the molecular bases of human LOX-1 shedding by metalloproteinases and the role of cell membrane cholesterol on the regulation of this event by modulating its level with MβCD and statins. We report that membrane cholesterol affects the release of different forms of LOX-1 in cells transiently and stably expressing human LOX-1 and in a human endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). In particular, our data show that i) cholesterol depletion triggers the release of LOX-1 in exosomes as a full-length transmembrane isoform and as a truncated ectodomain soluble fragment (sLOX-1); ii) endothelial cells secrete a soluble metalloproteinase which induces LOX-1 ectodomain shedding and iii) long term statins treatment enhances sLOX-1 proteolytic shedding. PMID:26495844

  10. Globally shed wakes for three distinct retracting foil geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Stephanie; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In quickly retracting foils at an angle of attack, the boundary layer vorticity along with the added mass energy is immediately and globally shed from the body into the surrounding fluid. The deposited vorticity quickly reforms into lasting vortex structures, which could be used for purposes such as manipulating or exploiting the produced flow structures by additional bodies in the fluid. The globally shed wake thus entrains the added mass energy provided by the initially moving body, reflected by the value of the circulation left in the wake. In studying experimentally as well as numerically this phenomenon, we find that the three different tested geometries leave behind distinct wakes. Retracting a square-ended foil is undesirable because the deposited wake is complicated by three-dimensional ring vorticity effects. Retracting a tapered, streamlined-tipped foil is also undesirable because the shape-changing aspect of the foil geometry actually induces energy recovery back to the retracting foil, leaving a less energetic globally shed wake. Finally, a retracting hollow foil geometry avoids both of these detrimental effects, leaving relatively simple, yet energetic, vortex structures in the wake.

  11. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates LOX-1 Shedding in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Barbara; Raniolo, Sofia; Fasciglione, Giovanni Francesco; Coletta, Massimiliano; Biocca, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a scavenger receptor responsible for ox-LDL recognition, binding and internalization, which is up-regulated during atherogenesis. Its activation triggers endothelium dysfunction and induces inflammation. A soluble form of LOX-1 has been identified in the human blood and its presence considered a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. We recently showed that cholesterol-lowering drugs inhibit ox-LDL binding and internalization, rescuing the ox-LDL induced apoptotic phenotype in primary endothelial cells. Here we have investigated the molecular bases of human LOX-1 shedding by metalloproteinases and the role of cell membrane cholesterol on the regulation of this event by modulating its level with MβCD and statins. We report that membrane cholesterol affects the release of different forms of LOX-1 in cells transiently and stably expressing human LOX-1 and in a human endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). In particular, our data show that i) cholesterol depletion triggers the release of LOX-1 in exosomes as a full-length transmembrane isoform and as a truncated ectodomain soluble fragment (sLOX-1); ii) endothelial cells secrete a soluble metalloproteinase which induces LOX-1 ectodomain shedding and iii) long term statins treatment enhances sLOX-1 proteolytic shedding. PMID:26495844

  12. EEMCO guidance for the assessment of hair shedding and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Marks, R; Elsner, P

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia, a host of evaluation techniques are available in addition to history, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Various clinical hair techniques can help in assessing the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics on hair growth. The methods are quite similar to those used to establish a definite diagnosis in dermatological practice. Great strides have been made during the recent decades in the methodology of hair growth trials in dermatology and cosmetology. Clinical evaluations benefit from a few additional specific techniques that enhance the perception of hair (re-) growth, shedding and alopecia. These assessments include the determination of hair patterning and density that may be helped by the 'black-and-white felt' examination. Daily hair counts, the 'hair pull test' and the 'hair feathering test' are also available. Instrumental methods provide reliable quantitative information that is useful if there are adequate controls. Some photographic methods, the trichogram, hair weighing and variants of the hair growth window technique including the phototrichogram, videotrichogram and tractio-phototrichogram provide insight into the complexities of hair cycling and shedding. Skin biopsy is indicated for diagnostic purposes, especially when the hair loss is accompanied by scarring. PMID:14976387

  13. Exploratory experiments on acoustic oscillations driven by periodic vortex shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, R.; Brown, R. S.

    1981-03-01

    Periodic vortex shedding is investigated as a mechanism by which low-amplitude pressure oscillations can be generated in segmented solid propellant rocket engines. Acoustic responses were monitored in an acoustically isolated flow chamber with two flow restrictors in the flow path as a function of resistor spacing and flow Mach number. At Mach 0.042, the maximum acoustic response is observed with a marked increase in the amplitude of the wave corresponding to the third acoustic mode of the chamber. Reduction of the Mach number by a factor of three is found to excite the first longitudinal mode of the chamber at the same restrictor spacing. Attempts to produce the second axial mode are unsuccessful when the restrictors were kept at the center of the chamber, indicating the importance of restrictor position relative to the acoustic mode structure. The restrictor spacing at which maximum response is obtained indicates a Strouhal number of 0.8 characterizing the vortex shedding frequency, in agreement with calculations. The results thus demonstrate that a significant (5-10%) pressure oscillation can be generated by coupling from periodic vortex shedding

  14. Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hailiang; Cunningham, Fred L; Harris, Jillian; Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Baroch, John A; Fioranelli, Paul; Lutman, Mark W; Li, Tao; Pedersen, Kerri; Schmit, Brandon S; Cooley, Jim; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Given their free-ranging habits, feral swine could serve as reservoirs or spatially dynamic 'mixing vessels' for influenza A virus (IAV). To better understand virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics in the context of IAV surveillance amongst feral swine, we used IAV of feral swine origin to perform infection experiments. The virus was highly infectious and transmissible in feral swine, and virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics were similar to those in domestic swine. In the virus-inoculated and sentinel groups, virus shedding lasted ≤ 6 and ≤ 9 days, respectively. Antibody titres in inoculated swine peaked at 1 : 840 on day 11 post-inoculation (p.i.), remained there until 21 days p.i. and dropped to < 1 : 220 at 42 days p.i. Genomic sequencing identified changes in wildtype (WT) viruses and isolates from sentinel swine, most notably an amino acid divergence in nucleoprotein position 473. Using data from cell culture as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of a matrix gene-based quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method using nasal swab samples for detection of IAV in feral swine were 78.9 and 78.1 %, respectively. Using data from haemagglutination inhibition assays as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection of IAV-specific antibody were 95.4 and 95.0 %, respectively. Serological surveillance from 2009 to 2014 showed that ∼7.58 % of feral swine in the USA were positive for IAV. Our findings confirm the susceptibility of IAV infection and the high transmission ability of IAV amongst feral swine, and also suggest the need for continued surveillance of IAVs in feral swine populations. PMID:26297148

  15. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-01

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid. PMID:23964360

  16. Wet storage integrity update

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  17. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Rickards, Allen; Gehrke, Lauren; Rio, Rita V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing with subsequent Sanger Sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene clone library provided qualitative confirmation of the microbial composition. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution. Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. veronii, suggesting persistence in syntrophy beyond the gut. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin. Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts. PMID:25620963

  18. PHAROS: Shedding Light on the Near-Earth Asteroid Apophis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Jonathan; Lafleur, Jarret; Barron, Kreston; Townley, Jonathan; Shah, Nilesh; Apa, Jillian

    2007-01-01

    The Pharos mission to asteroid Apophis provides the first major opportunity to enhance orbital state and scientific knowledge of the most threatening Earth-crossing asteroid that has ever been tracked. Pharos aims to accomplish concrete and feasible orbit determination and scientific objectives while achieving balance among mission cost, nsk,and schedule. Similar to its ancient Egyptian namesake, Pharos acts as a beacon shedding light not only on the physical characteristics of Apophis, but also on its state as it travels through the solar system.

  19. View northnorthwest of turret shed (building 56), at right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north-northwest of turret shed (building 56), at right of photograph. Electrical and electronics facility (building 1000) located south of drydock no. 2. The gantry crane and its supporting structure (left foreground) was used to load assembled gun turrets onto barges moored in the barge basin under the gantry structure. After loading on a crane on pier 4 and lifted into positioned on a battleship or cruiser. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor is a regulated process that occurs with overexpression in malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Perez-Torres, Marianela; Valle, Blanca L; Maihle, Nita J; Negron-Vega, Lisandra; Nieves-Alicea, Rene; Cora, Elsa M

    2008-10-01

    Soluble isoforms of the epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR) previously have been identified in the conditioned culture media (CCM) of the vulvar adenocarcinoma cell line, A431 and within exosomes of the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Here, we report that the extracellular domain (ECD) of EGFR is shed from the cell surface of human carcinoma cell lines that express 7x10(5) receptors/cell or more. We purified this proteolytic isoform of EGFR (PI-sEGFR) from the CCM of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. The amino acid sequence of PI-sEGFR was determined by reverse-phase HPLC nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of peptides generated by trypsin, chymotrypsin or GluC digestion. The PI-sEGFR protein is identical in amino acid sequence to the EGFR ECD. The release of PI-sEGFR from MDA-MB-468 cells is enhanced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, pervanadate, and EGFR ligands (i.e., EGF and TGF-alpha). In addition, 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate, an activator of metalloproteases, increased PI-sEGFR levels in the CCM of MDA-MB-468 cells. Inhibitors of metalloproteases decreased the constitutive shedding of EGFR while the PMA-induced shedding was inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitors, by the two serine protease inhibitors leupeptin and 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin (DCI), and by the aspartyl inhibitor pepstatin. These results suggest that PI-sEGFR arises by proteolytic cleavage of EGFR via a mechanism that is regulated by both PKC- and phosphorylation-dependent pathways. Our results further suggest that when proteolytic shedding of EGFR does occur, it is correlated with a highly malignant phenotype. PMID:18687326

  1. Managing Saginaw Bay nutrient loading by surrounding watersheds through near real time hydrologic resource sheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We can quantify source areas contributing material to a location during various time periods as resource sheds. Various kinds of resource sheds and their source material distributions are defined. For watershed hydrology, we compute resource sheds and their source material distri...

  2. Low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage - Heat storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhat, A.

    1983-01-01

    Heat-of-fusion storage materials for low temperature latent heat storage in the temperature range 0-120 C are reviewed. Organic and inorganic heat storage materials classified as paraffins, fatty acids, inorganic salt hydrates and eutectic compounds are considered. The melting and freezing behavior of the various substances is investigated using the techniques of Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The importance of thermal cycling tests for establishing the long-term stability of the storage materials is discussed. Finally, some data pertaining to the corrosion compatibility of heat-of-fusion substances with conventional materials of construction is presented.

  3. Differentiation potential of SHEDs using biomimetic periosteum containing dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Ta; Chiou, Wei-Ling; Yu, Ho-Hsu; Huang, Te-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the architecture of the natural environment in vivo is an effective strategy for tissue engineering. The periosteum has an important function in bone regeneration. However, the harvesting of autogenous periosteum has the disadvantages of donor site morbidity and limited donor sources. This study uses an innovative artificial periosteum that forms dexamethasone (DEX)-containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber obtained from skin fibrous scaffold. The aim was to evaluate the effect on bone healing of osteogenic differentiation in stems originating from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) in vitro. The microstructure of fabricated periosteum was observed through SEM, and results showed the apparent homogenous distribution of porous structures. DEX was also found to be continuously released into the culture medium from the periosteum for 28 days. MTT results further revealed that fabricated periosteum was cytocompatible and non-toxic to SHEDs. After 21 days of induced culture, the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization notably increased. Osteogenic results showed high early and late osteoblast gene expression by RT-PCR analysis, such as collagen type I, Runx2, OPN, and OCN. The osteoblastic protein expression of BMP-2 and OCN was clearly observed as well under fluorescence microscopy. The results, which could be applied to bone regeneration, demonstrated that skin fibrous scaffold provided an osteoinductive environment for stem cells to differentiate and that PVA nanofiber was a suitable reservoir for osteogenic factors with controlled release profile. PMID:26478401

  4. Some effects of vortex shedding in grid-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melina, Gianfrancesco; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Vassilicos, John Christos

    2015-11-01

    We perform hot-wire measurements in a wind tunnel downstream of different types of turbulence-generating grids: a regular grid (RG60), a fractal square grid (FSG17) and a single square grid (SSG). We characterize the flow highlighting similarities and differences between the grids and between the production and the decay regions of turbulence. We focus on the effects of vortex shedding from the bars of the grids. For this purpose we design a novel 3D configuration formed by the SSG and a set of four splitter plates detached from the grid. We show that, by placing the splitter plates, the peak of turbulence intensity on the centerline is reduced and its location is moved downstream. We compare data from the different turbulence generators and find that a reduction of vortex shedding energy correlates with an increase in the magnitudes of the skewness and flatness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the production region. The authors acknowledge support form the EU through the FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (grant agreement No. 317269).

  5. Periodic mass shedding of a retracting solid film step

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.; Voorhees, P.W.; Miksis, M.J.; Davis, S.H.

    2000-05-11

    A semi-infinite, uniform film on a substrate tends to contract from the edge to reduce the surface energy of the system. This work studies the two-dimensional retraction of such a film step, assuming that the film evolves by capillarity-driven surface diffusion. It is found that the retracting film edge forms a thickened ridge followed by a valley. The valley sinks with time and eventually touches the substrate. The ridge then detaches from the film. The new film edge retracts to form another ridge accompanied again by a valley, and the mass shedding cycle is repeated. This periodic mass shedding is simulated numerically for contact angle {alpha} between 30 and 180{degree}. For smaller {alpha}, a small-slope late-time solution is found that agrees with the numerical solution for {alpha} = 30{degree}. Thus, the complete range of {alpha} is covered. The long-time retraction speed and the distance traveled per cycle agree quantitatively with experiments.

  6. Phenomenon of Alfvénic vortex shedding.

    PubMed

    Gruszecki, M; Nakariakov, V M; Van Doorsselaere, T; Arber, T D

    2010-07-30

    Generation of Alfvénic (magnetohydrodynamic) vortices by the interaction of compressible plasma flows with magnetic-field-aligned blunt obstacles is modeled in terms of magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that periodic shedding of vortices with opposite vorticity is a robust feature of the interaction in a broad range of plasma parameters: for plasma beta from 0.025 to 0.5, and for the flow speeds from 0.1 to 0.99 of the fast magnetoacoustic speed. The Strouhal number is the dimensionless ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the inflow speed. It is found to be consistently in the range 0.15-0.25 in the whole range of parameters. The induced Alfvénic vortices are compressible and contain spiral-armed perturbations of the magnetic field strength and plasma mass density up to 50%-60% of the background values. The generated electric current also has the spiral-armed structuring. PMID:20867928

  7. Flying, swimming, falling...: fluid-solid interactions with vortex shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2007-11-01

    The interaction between the motion of slender bodies and the fluid around them is at the center of several natural phenomenas. To move in fluids, insects and fishes need to deform their bodies in such a way that the resulting flow around them applies the required force on their body. Unsteady pressure effects are essential here to understand the coupling between the fluid and solid motions. We consider slender solid bodies with sharp edges. At intermediate Re, the boundary layers separate because of the presence of the edge and strong vortices are shed. A simplified 2D potential flow model is proposed here. Point vortices with monotonically increasing intensity are shed from the edges of the body to enforce the regularity of the flow on its boundary. The Brown-Michael equation describes the motion of these vortices and enforces the conservation of momentum for the fluid around the vortex. The potential flow is computed using conformal mapping or bounded vortex sheet representation for the solid body. Simple representations of locomotion mechanisms such as flapping flight are proposed using this model. The forces resulting from prescribed flapping motions of rigid airfoils and deformable thin bodies are computed. The question of the free motion of an elastic 1D body will also be discussed.

  8. A Mathematical Proof of the Vortex Shedding Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Michael; Cassel, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    A novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for both inviscid or viscous flows and external, internal, or wall-bounded flows is described. The mechanism, termed the Vortex-Shedding Mechanism (VSM), is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Previous simulations of various flows have demonstrated the VSM numerically. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the VSM that is shown to be both a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The proof includes relating the positive divergence of the net force, condition (2) above, with the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor, i.e. the Q-criterion. It is shown that the Q-criterion is identical to the determinant of the Hessian matrix for the streamfunction. As a result, the second-partial-derivative test on this Hessian matrix can provide a qualitative description on the behavior of the streamfunction, and thus vortices or recirculation regions, near critical points. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).

  9. Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

  10. Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceburg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies showed that levulinic acid (LA) and sodium acid sulfate (SAS) were effective in inactivating human pathogens on fresh produce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in comparison with citric acid and chlorine on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and the sensory qu...

  11. Effects of processing and of storage on the stability of pantothenic acid in sea buckthorn products (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides) assessed by stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Gutzeit, Derek; Klaubert, Bernd; Rychlik, Michael; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2007-05-16

    A stable isotope dilution assay for quantification of pantothenic acid in sea buckthorn berries, juice, and concentrate using a four-fold labeled isotopologue of vitamin B5 as the internal standard was adopted using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Because of a rapid sample clean up procedure without the necessity of external calibration, this methodology permits the accurate analysis of a high number of samples within a short time. Sea buckthorn juice was stored at 25 and 40 degrees C for up to 7 days to determine the effects of storage temperature on the stability of pantothenic acid. Analysis of kinetic data suggested that the degradation follows a first-order model. The results of the experiments showed that storage of sea buckthorn juice for 7 days at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) already resulted in a significant degradation of pantothenic acid of about 18%. The processing effects of juice production and subsequent concentration revealed a decrease of about 6-7% in the juice and of 23% in the juice concentrate. PMID:17447792

  12. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were…

  13. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKibben, C.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13??C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1 (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 103 CFU fish-1 (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those of control fish [p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml-1 on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml-1 on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 106 CFU fish-1 can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges beginning 20 darter injection.

  14. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha.

    PubMed

    McKibben, C L; Pascho, R J

    1999-10-11

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13 degrees C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) fish (-1) (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 10(3) CFU fish (-1) (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those control fish (p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R. salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml(-1) on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml(-1) on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU fish (-1) can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges

  15. Vortex shedding from square plates perpendicular to a ground plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, J. H.; Matty, R. R.; Barton, G. H.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental results for the vortex shedding frequency behind square plates placed normal to a uniform flow over a ground plane are presented. The Texas Tech University low-speed wind tunnel was operated in an open-jet configuration for these tests, and the Strouhal number for the square plate was obtained as a function of distance above the ground plane and Reynolds number. The data show a tendency for the Strouhal number to decrease with Reynolds number, to increase with increasing distance away from the ground plane for h/L less than 0.25, and to decrease slightly for h/L greater than 0.25. A Strouhal number of 0.126 was found at a Reynolds number of about 40,000, and results are in good agreement with those of Calvert (1967) for a large value of h.

  16. Necroptosis in acute kidney injury: a shedding light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S; Zhang, C; Hu, L; Yang, C

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe clinical condition with a heavy healthy burden around the world. In spite of supportive therapies, the mortality associated with AKI remains high. Our limited understanding of the complex cell death mechanism in the process of AKI impedes the development of desirable therapeutics. Necroptosis is a recently identified novel form of cell death contributing to numerable diseases and tissue damages. Increasing evidence has suggested that necroptosis has an important role in the pathogenesis of various types of AKI. Therefore, we present here the signaling pathways and main regulators of necroptosis that are potential candidate for therapeutic strategies. Moreover, we emphasize on the potential role and corresponding mechanisms of necroptosis in AKI based on recent advances, and also discuss the possible therapeutic regimens based on manipulating necroptosis. Taken together, the progress in this field sheds new light into the prevention and management of AKI in clinical practice. PMID:26938298

  17. Prediction of subsonic vortex shedding from forebodies with chines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    An engineering prediction method and associated computer code VTXCHN to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular forebodies with sharp chine edges in subsonic flow at angles of attack and roll are presented. Axisymmetric bodies are represented by point sources and doublets, and noncircular cross sections are transformed to a circle by either analytical or numerical conformal transformations. The lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes along the body; thus the three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented for noncircular bodies alone and forebodies with sharp chines.

  18. Butterfly genomics sheds light on the process of hybrid speciation.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    How common is hybridization between species and what effect does it have on the evolutionary process? Can hybridization generate new species and what indeed is a species? In this issue, Gompert et al. (2014) show how massive, genome-scale data sets can be used to shed light on these questions. They focus on the Lycaeides butterflies, and in particular, several populations from the western USA, which have characteristics suggesting that they may contain hybrids of two or more different species (Gompert et al. 2006). They demonstrate that these populations do contain mosaic genomes made up of components from different parental species. However, this appears to have been largely driven by historical admixture, with more recent processes appearing to be isolating the populations from each other. Therefore, these populations are on their way to becoming distinct species (if they are not already) but have arisen following extensive hybridization between other distinct populations or species (Fig. 1). PMID:25208505

  19. Shedding Light on Restoring Respiratory Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Alilain, Warren J.; Silver, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Loss of respiratory function is one of the leading causes of death following spinal cord injury. Because of this, much work has been done in studying ways to restore respiratory function following spinal cord injury (SCI) – including pharmacological and regeneration strategies. With the emergence of new and powerful tools from molecular neuroscience, new therapeutically relevant alternatives to these approaches have become available, including expression of light sensitive proteins called channelrhodopsins. In this article we briefly review the history of various attempts to restore breathing after C2 hemisection, and focus on our recent work using the activation of light sensitive channels to restore respiratory function after experimental SCI. We also discuss how such light-induced activity can help shed light on the inner workings of the central nervous system respiratory circuitry that controls diaphragmatic function. PMID:19893756

  20. Particle shedding and migration from silicone genitourinary prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, D.M.; O'Sullivan, D.C.; Malizia, A.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Abell-Aleff, P.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Of 26 patients undergoing revision of genitourinary prostheses the surrounding reactive fibrous capsule was biopsied in 25 and the draining lymph nodes also were biopsied in 4. The prostheses included 16 inflatable and 14 flexible penile devices, and 10 artificial urinary sphincters. Tissue was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray microanalysis was done on intracellular and extracellular foreign material from each specimen. Silicone was found in 18 of the 25 periprosthetic specimens and in all 4 lymph nodes. Foreign body granulomas were identified in 14 of these 29 specimens. Examination of new and explanted versions of each prosthesis by scanning electron microscopy revealed free particles of silicone or silicates on the surface of most devices. Pitting and microfissuring were seen on a few of the new devices and on nearly all of the used ones. Thus, genitourinary prostheses shed silicone particles that can be found in the fibrous capsule and draining lymph nodes.

  1. Vortex shedding from a circular cylinder near a moving ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Takafumi; Roberts, Graham T.; Zhang, Xin

    2007-02-01

    The flow and force characteristics have been experimentally investigated of a circular cylinder with an aspect ratio of 8.33, with and without end-plates, placed near and parallel to a moving ground, on which substantially no boundary layer developed to interfere with the cylinder. Mean drag and lift measurements, surface oil flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out at two upper-subcritical Reynolds numbers of 0.4 and 1.0×105 (based on the cylinder diameter d) to investigate the mechanisms of the ground effect, i.e., the effect of the gap-to-diameter ratio h /d, where h is the gap between the cylinder and the ground. For the cylinder with end-plates, on which the oil flow patterns were observed to be essentially two-dimensional, the drag rapidly decreased as h /d decreased to less than 0.5 but became constant for h /d of less than 0.35, unlike that usually observed near a fixed ground. This critical drag behavior was found to be directly related to a global change in the near wake structure of the cylinder; as h /d decreased the Kármán-type vortex shedding became intermittent at h /d=0.4, and then totally ceased and instead two nearly parallel shear layers were formed behind the cylinder at h /d=0.3 and below. For the cylinder without end-plates, however, no such critical change in drag was observed as the Kármán-type vortices were not generated in the near wake region at all h /d investigated. Based on the experimental results obtained, further discussions are also given to the essential cause of the cessation of the Kármán vortex shedding in the ground effect.

  2. Shedding of klotho by ADAMs in the kidney.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Ellen P M; Pulskens, Wilco P; van der Hagen, Eline A E; Lavrijsen, Marla; Vervloet, Marc G; van Goor, Harry; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2015-08-15

    The anti-aging gene klotho plays an important role in Ca(2+) and phosphate homeostasis. Membrane-bound klotho is an essential coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 and can be cleaved by proteases, including a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and ADAM17. Cleavage of klotho occurs at a site directly above the plasma membrane (α-cut) or between the KL1 and KL2 domain (β-cut), resulting in soluble full-length klotho or KL1 and KL2 fragments, respectively. The aim of the present study was to gain insights into the mechanisms behind klotho cleavage processes in the kidney. Klotho shedding was demonstrated using a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line stably expressing klotho and human embryonic kidney-293 cells transiently transfected with klotho. Here, we report klotho expression on both the basolateral and apical membrane, with a higher abundance of klotho at the apical membrane and in the apical media. mRNA expression of ADAM17 and klotho were enriched in mouse distal convoluted and connecting tubules. In vitro ADAM/matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by TNF484 resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the α-cut, with a less specific effect on β-cut shedding. In vivo TNF484 treatment in wild-type mice did not change urinary klotho levels. However, ADAM/matrix metalloproteinase inhibition did increase renal and duodenal mRNA expression of phosphate transporters, whereas serum phosphate levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, our data show that renal cells preferentially secrete klotho to the apical side and suggest that ADAMs are responsible for α-cut cleavage. PMID:26155844

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  5. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    SciTech Connect

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25/sup 0/C during summer and about 20/sup 0/C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s/sup -1/ and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin.

  6. Vortex shedding behind tapered obstacles in neutral & stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Ian; Vosper, Simon; Paisley, Martin; Hayden, Paul

    2001-10-01

    Results of laboratory and numerical experiments on both homogeneous and density-stratified flow over single, bluff obstacles of various shapes are presented. The obstacle height is in most cases of the same order as the base diameter and the major controlling (flow) parameter is the Froude number, defined here as Fh= U/ Nh, where U is the (uniform) upstream velocity, h the obstacle height and N is the buoyancy frequency. Attention is concentrated, firstly, on the case of homogeneous flows over rather weakly tapered obstacles and, secondly, for bodies whose height is similar to their base width, on the case Fh=0.1, representing stratification sufficiently strong that lee-wave motions do not play a significant role in the flow dynamics. For right-circular cones it is shown that the sectional contributions to the total fluctuating side force (lift) show significant phase variations up the height of the obstacle, which are not always reflected in the developed vortex street further downstream. For some obstacle shapes, the vortex lines linking the von Karman eddies at different heights can be significantly tilted, particularly in the upper part of the wake. Vortex convection speeds do not appear generally to vary greatly with height and, as found in previous work, the shedding frequency remains constant with height, despite the strong variation of cross-stream obstacle width. By comparison with the homogeneous results, it is suggested that the stratification enhances the shedding instability, which would otherwise be very weak for squat obstacles, but does not annihilate the ability of the flow at one level to influence that at another.

  7. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses. PMID:26910902

  8. Characterization of transport in an acidic and metal-rich mountain stream based on a lithium tracer injection and simulations of transient storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.; Zellweger, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Physical parameters characterizing solute transport in the Snake River were variable along a 5.2-km study reach. Stream cross-sectional area and volumetric inflow each varied by a factor of 3. Because of transient storage, the residence time of injected tracers in the Snake River was longer than would be calculated by consideration of convective travel time alone. Distributed inflows along the stream were a significant source of in-stream chemical variations. These transport characteristics of the Snake River were established on the basis of the assumption of lithium as an ideally conservative tracer and use of simulations of advection, dispersion, and transient storage. -from Authors

  9. Analysis and Prediction of Ice Shedding for a Full-Scale Heated Tail Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Work, Andrew; Douglass, Rebekah; Gazella, Matthew; Koster, Zakery; Turk, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    When helicopters are to fly in icing conditions, it is necessary to consider the possibility of ice shed from the rotor blades. In 2013, a series of tests were conducted on a heated tail rotor at NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The tests produced several shed events that were captured on camera. Three of these shed events were captured at a sufficiently high frame rate to obtain multiple images of the shed ice in flight that had a sufficiently long section of shed ice for analysis. Analysis of these shed events is presented and compared to an analytical Shedding Trajectory Model (STM). The STM is developed and assumes that the ice breaks off instantly as it reaches the end of the blade, while frictional and viscous forces are used as parameters to fit the STM. The trajectory of each shed is compared to that predicted by the STM, where the STM provides information of the shed group of ice as a whole. The limitations of the model's underlying assumptions are discussed in comparison to experimental shed events.

  10. Salmonella Fecal Shedding and Immune Responses are Dose- and Serotype- Dependent in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ivanek, Renata; Österberg, Julia; Gautam, Raju; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of Salmonella infection in pigs, little is known about the associated dynamics of fecal shedding and immunity. In this study, we investigated the transitions of pigs through the states of Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response post-Salmonella inoculation as affected by the challenge dose and serotype. Continuous-time multistate Markov models were developed using published experimental data. The model for shedding had four transient states, of which two were shedding (continuous and intermittent shedding) and two non-shedding (latency and intermittent non-shedding), and one absorbing state representing permanent cessation of shedding. The immune response model had two transient states representing responses below and above the seroconversion level. The effects of two doses [low (0.65×106 CFU/pig) and high (0.65×109 CFU/pig)] and four serotypes (Salmonella Yoruba, Salmonella Cubana, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby) on the models' transition intensities were evaluated using a proportional intensities model. Results indicated statistically significant effects of the challenge dose and serotype on the dynamics of shedding and immune response. The time spent in the specific states was also estimated. Continuous shedding was on average 10–26 days longer, while intermittent non-shedding was 2–4 days shorter, in pigs challenged with the high compared to low dose. Interestingly, among pigs challenged with the high dose, the continuous and intermittent shedding states were on average up to 10–17 and 3–4 days longer, respectively, in pigs infected with S. Cubana compared to the other three serotypes. Pigs challenged with the high dose of S. Typhimurium or S. Derby seroconverted on average up to 8–11 days faster compared to the low dose. These findings highlight that Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response following Salmonella challenge are dose- and serotype-dependent and that the detection of specific

  11. Investigation of carbon storage regulation network (csr genes) and phenotypic differences between acid sensitive and resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related serotype strains have previously been shown to vary in acid resistance, however, little is known about strain specific mechanisms of acid resistance. We examined sensitive and resistant E. coli strains to determine the effects of growth in minimal and...

  12. Effects of Various Penetration Enhancers on Penetration of Aminophylline Through Shed Snake Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kouchak, Maryam; Handali, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cellulite is the accumulation of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue in tights and buttocks. Xanthines, such as aminophylline, are used as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and are also adenosine receptor antagonists. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro aminophylline transdermal absorption through shed snake skin, and to investigate the absorption enhancing effect of various enhancers. Materials and Methods: Aminophylline gels were prepared using theophylline and ethylenediamine as raw materials of aminophylline, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) F4M as gelling agent, and propylene glycol as a co-solvent. Sodium tauroglycocholate (STGC) (100, 200, and 500 μg/mL), lauric acid (1.7 and 15%), and ethanol (60%) were added as enhancers. In vitro percutaneous absorption experiments were performed on snake skin using Franz diffusion cells. Flux (J), permeability coefficient (P), and enhancement factor (EF) for each formulation were calculated. Results: The results indicated that all of enhancers significantly enhanced drug permeability. This effect was decreased by increasing the concentration of STGC; in contrast, by increasing the concentration of lauric acid from 1.7 to 15%, EF was enhanced Although ethanol (60%) and STGC (100 μg/mL) showed the highest EFs, the effect of ethanol on drug permeability appeared with a lag time. Conclusions: According to the findings, type and concentration of penetration enhancers can effect on transdermal permeation of drug. PMID:24644435

  13. 34. General view of flume, just west of lumber storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. General view of flume, just west of lumber storage shed, looking west from south side of the flume. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. 14. INTERIOR, IN TRIANGULAR STORAGE AREA, IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR, IN TRIANGULAR STORAGE AREA, IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF BUILDING (EAST OF LOCKER/OFFICE/HEAD AREA), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster <10 years ago, which provides a boost in cell-medicated immunity to VZV (2). No VZV DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease

  16. Battery energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  17. A vortex-shedding flowmeter based on IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pasquale, Giovanna; Graziani, Salvatore; Pollicino, Antonino; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive polymers that can be used both as sensors and actuators. They have been demonstrated for many potential applications, in wet and underwater environments. Applications in fields such as biomimetics, robotics, and aerospace, just to mention a few, have been proposed. In this paper, the sensing nature of IPMCs is used to develop a flowmeter based on the vortex shedding phenomenon. The system is described, and a model is proposed and verified. A setup has been realized, and data have been acquired for many working conditions. The performance of the sensing system has been investigated by using acquired experimental data. Water flux velocities in the range [0.38, 2.83] m s-1 have been investigated. This working range is comparable with ranges claimed for established technologies. Results show the suitability of the proposed system to work as a flowmeter. The proposed transducer is suitable for envisaged post-silicon applications, where the use of IPMCs gives the opportunity to realize a new generating polymeric flowmeter. This has potential applications in fields where properties of IPMCs such as low cost, usability, and disposability are relevant.

  18. Coxiella burnetii Shedding by Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, D; Almería, S; Caro, M R; Salinas, J; Ortiz, J A; Gortázar, C; Ruiz-Fons, F

    2015-10-01

    Wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of Coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of Q fever. Currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human Q fever cases. However, a human case of Q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (Cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with C. burnetii and ascertain the implication of C. burnetii in reproductive failure in the farm. Blood serum and vaginal swabs were collected from hinds either experiencing or not reproductive failure and tested to detect the presence of antibodies and DNA, respectively, of C. burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Serology and PCR results suggest C. burnetii was the primary cause of the reproductive failure. We identified vaginal shedding of C. burnetii in hinds, confirming red deer as a source of Q fever zoonotic infection. PMID:24127840

  19. Mitochondrial analysis sheds light on the origin of hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Capote, J; Traoré, A; Fonseca, N; Pérez, K; Cuervo, M; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2013-06-01

    A total of 180 mtDNA sequences from hair Caribbean (93), West African (73) and Canarian-wooled (14) sheep were analysed to shed light on the origin of hair sheep. A comparison of 360 Iberian sheep sequences retrieved from GenBank was performed to assess a possible European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep. These 180 sequences gave 48 different haplotypes (16 in Caribbean sheep). All Caribbean and Canarian-wooled sequences and 91.8% of the West African samples belonged to haplogroup B. The sheep analysed showed wide haplotypic identity. Caribbean sheep shared roughly two-thirds of their samples with Canarian-wooled and West African samples, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the Caribbean and the Canarian-wooled sheep clustered together. Additional analyses showed that hair and Iberian sheep had wide genetic identity. It was not possible to ascertain a single Canarian, African or European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep using mtDNA markers only. European, African and Caribbean hair sheep maternal genetic backgrounds likely result from related domestication events. PMID:23020288

  20. Rotavirus vaccine-derived shedding and viral reassortants.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael D; Payne, Daniel C

    2012-11-01

    EVALUATION OF: Donato CM, Ch’ng LS, Boniface KF et al. Identification of strains of RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine in infants with gastroenteritis following routine vaccination. J. Infect. Dis. 206(3), 377–383 (2012).Two live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq(®) (Merck) and Rotarix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), have been used in Australia since July 2007 to prevent severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children. Using active postvaccination monitoring, passive surveillance and state-of-the-art laboratory techniques, Donato et al. report that RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine and vaccine-derived strains were detected actively in stool samples from 13 out of 61 (21.3%) infants having diarrhea within 2 weeks of rotavirus vaccination, and among three out of 460 (0.7%) cases with acute gastroenteritis captured via the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program. Six (37.5%) of these 16 vaccine-derived viral specimens were associated with a G1P[8] strain thought to be the result of genetic reassortment between two component RotaTeq strains. Although nearly half of these reassortant-associated cases had underlying medical conditions, such as severe combined immunodeficiency disorder, further study is needed to understand the relationship between shedding, viral reassortants and underlying medical conditions. PMID:23249230

  1. A vortex shedding model of a flapping membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn

    2008-11-01

    The behavior of a two-dimensional flexible membrane in an imposed axial high-Re flow is investigated. The coupling of the internal solid dynamics and the fluid dynamics makes the direct numerical simulation of this situation a computationally expensive and challenging problem. A reduced-order representation of the flow around the solid is used here to study the coupled dynamics. The vortical wake is accounted for by the shedding of point vortices with monotonically-varying intensity (Brown--Michael vortices) from the trailing edge. This model is used to investigate the flapping flag instability that arises from the competition of the destabilizing pressure difference created by the flag deflection, its bending rigidity and its inertia. The stability of the flag state of rest and the structure of the flapping modes are studied and compared to the results of the linear stability analysis. Finally, a study of the kinematic and dynamic waves traveling along the flag in the flapping regime is presented.

  2. Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services. PMID:21390251

  3. Tracking Debris Shed by a Space-Shuttle Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Phillip C.; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    The DEBRIS software predicts the trajectories of debris particles shed by a space-shuttle launch vehicle during ascent, to aid in assessing potential harm to the space-shuttle orbiter and crew. The user specifies the location of release and other initial conditions for a debris particle. DEBRIS tracks the particle within an overset grid system by means of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the local flow field and a ballistic simulation that takes account of the mass of the particle and its aerodynamic properties in the flow field. The computed particle trajectory is stored in a file to be post-processed by other software for viewing and analyzing the trajectory. DEBRIS supplants a prior debris tracking code that took .15 minutes to calculate a single particle trajectory: DEBRIS can calculate 1,000 trajectories in .20 seconds on a desktop computer. Other improvements over the prior code include adaptive time-stepping to ensure accuracy, forcing at least one step per grid cell to ensure resolution of all CFD-resolved flow features, ability to simulate rebound of debris from surfaces, extensive error checking, a builtin suite of test cases, and dynamic allocation of memory.

  4. An overview of shed ice impact in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the areas of active research in commercial and military rotorcraft is directed toward developing the capability of sustained flight in icing conditions. The emphasis to date has been on the accretion and subsequent shedding of ice in an icing environment, where the shedding may be natural or induced. Historically, shed-ice particles have been a problem for aircraft, particularly rotorcraft. Because of the high particle velocities involved, damage to a fuselage or other airframe component from a shed-ice impact can be significant. Design rules for damage tolerance from shed-ice impact are not well developed because of a lack of experimental data. Thus, NASA Lewis (LeRC) has begun an effort to develop a database of impact force and energy resulting from shed ice. This effort consisted of a test of NASA LeRC's Model Rotor Test Rig (MRTR) in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both natural shedding and forced shedding were investigated. Forced shedding was achieved by fitting the rotor blades with Small Tube Pneumatic (STP) deicer boots manufactured by BF Goodrich. A detailed description of the test is given as well as the design of a new impact sensor which measures the force-time history of an impacting ice fragment. A brief discussion of the procedure to infer impact energy from a force-time trace are required for the impact-energy calculations. Recommendations and future plans for this research area are also provided.

  5. Acoustic interaction with vortex structures shed by an obstacle in a closed cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, D.; Hebrard, P.; Pauzin, S.; Garnier, F.; Labegorre, B.; Laverdant, A.

    CERT-DERMES has created an experimental set-up for studying the interaction between acoustics and coherent structures. The set-up comprises a subsonic diffuser, a rectangular wind tunnel with a square prismatic obstacle placed at an incidence to shed vortices, and a converging-diverging nozzle. The sound waves are observed to be amplified when the acoustic triggering and vortex shedding frequencies are close to one another. A numerical simulation using an adapted version of the KIVA code developed at Los Alamos replicated experimental vortex shedding with particle dyes. The experimental and numerical Strouhal numbers for the vortex shedding behind the obstacle are in good agreement with previously published results.

  6. Effect of Antigen Shedding on Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxins in Solid Tumors from a Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Youngshang; Pastan, Ira; Kreitman, Robert J.; Lee, Byungkook

    2014-01-01

    Most cancer-specific antigens used as targets of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins are shed from the cell surface (Zhang & Pastan (2008) Clin. Cancer Res. 14: 7981-7986), although at widely varying rates and by different mechanisms (Dello Sbarba & Rovida (2002) Biol. Chem. 383: 69–83). Why many cancer-specific antigens are shed and how the shedding affects delivery efficiency of antibody-based protein drugs are poorly understood questions at present. Before a detailed numerical study, it was assumed that antigen shedding would reduce the efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins. However, our previous study using a comprehensive mathematical model showed that antigen shedding can significantly improve the efficacy of the mesothelin-binding immunotoxin, SS1P (anti-mesothelin-Fv-PE38), and suggested that receptor shedding can be a general mechanism for enhancing the effect of inter-cellular signaling molecules. Here, we improved this model and applied it to both SS1P and another recombinant immunotoxin, LMB-2, which targets CD25. We show that the effect of antigen shedding is influenced by a number of factors including the number of antigen molecules on the cell surface and the endocytosis rate. The high shedding rate of mesothelin is beneficial for SS1P, for which the antigen is large in number and endocytosed rapidly. On the other hand, the slow shedding of CD25 is beneficial for LMB-2, for which the antigen is small in number and endocytosed slowly. PMID:25343405

  7. Influence of packaging conditions on biogenic amines and fatty acids evolution during 15months storage of a typical spreadable salami ('Nduja).

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Bonesi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Picci, Nevio; Restuccia, Donatella

    2016-12-15

    The study evaluated the fatty acids and the biogenic amines (BAs) in 'Nduja of Spilinga stored in different packaging materials (i.e. natural casing under vacuum, glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®) during 15months of shelf-life. Raw materials and pepper mixture were analysed as well. BAs concentrations increased with time, tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) were the most abundant. BAs in natural casing were always higher than those found in glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®. Total fatty acids were characterized by higher level of unsaturated fatty acid that decreased with time (glass jar>natural casing under vacuum>aluminum tube>OVTENE®). The reduction of PUFA is the consequence of the increase of peroxides and carbonyls reacting with amino acids to form BAs. This was confirmed by Pearson's correlation matrices implying that lipid oxidation processes were in some way linked to the chemical production of BAs. PMID:27451162

  8. Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea Vent) Reduces Fecal Shedding of Escherichia coli in Pastured Cattle.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, Y; Iwaasa, A D; Li, Y; Xu, Z; Schellenberg, M P; Liu, X L; McAllister, T A; Stanford, K

    2015-08-01

    A 3-year (2009 to 2011) grazing study was conducted to assess the effects of purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent) on fecal shedding of total Escherichia coli in cattle. Three pasture types were used in the experiment: bromegrass (Check), mixed cool season grasses with PPC (Simple), and mixed cool and warm grasses with PPC (Complex). Pastures were rotationally grazed during a summer and fall grazing period. PPC was grazed in summer at the vegetative or early flower stage and at the flower or early seed stage during the fall. Fecal samples were collected for enumeration of E. coli and chemical analyses. Forage samples were collected throughout grazing for analysis. Condensed tannins (CT) were only detected in Simple and Complex pastures that contained PPC, with higher concentrations found in the fall than in the summer. Fecal counts of E. coli in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures linearly decreased (P < 0.05) over summer to fall in all 3 years, an outcome not observed in cattle grazing the Check pasture. Across the three grazing seasons, fecal E. coli was lower (P < 0.05) in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures than in those grazing the Check pasture during the fall. During the fall, feces collected from cattle grazing the Check pasture had higher (P < 0.05) values for pH, N, NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, but a lower (P < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio than feces collected from cattle grazing Simple or Complex pastures. In a second experiment, two strains of E. coli were cultured in M9 medium containing 25 to 200 μg/ml of PPC CT. Growth of E. coli was linearly (P < 0.01) reduced by increasing levels of PPC CT. Scanning electron micrographs showed electron-dense filamentous material associated with the outer membrane of E. coli cells exposed to CT. Incorporation of PPC into forage reduced the fecal shedding of E. coli from grazing cattle, likely due to the anti-E. coli properties of PPC CT. PMID

  9. Shed GP of Ebola Virus Triggers Immune Activation and Increased Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Pérez, Beatriz; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Dolnik, Olga; Lawrence, Philip; Volchkov, Viktor E.

    2014-01-01

    During Ebola virus (EBOV) infection a significant amount of surface glycoprotein GP is shed from infected cells in a soluble form due to cleavage by cellular metalloprotease TACE. Shed GP and non-structural secreted glycoprotein sGP, both expressed from the same GP gene, have been detected in the blood of human patients and experimentally infected animals. In this study we demonstrate that shed GP could play a particular role during EBOV infection. In effect it binds and activates non-infected dendritic cells and macrophages inducing the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL12p40, and IL1-RA, IL10). Activation of these cells by shed GP correlates with the increase in surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. Contrary to shed GP, secreted sGP activates neither DC nor macrophages while it could bind DCs. In this study, we show that shed GP activity is likely mediated through cellular toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and is dependent on GP glycosylation. Treatment of cells with anti-TLR4 antibody completely abolishes shed GP-induced activation of cells. We also demonstrate that shed GP activity is negated upon addition of mannose-binding sera lectin MBL, a molecule known to interact with sugar arrays present on the surface of different microorganisms. Furthermore, we highlight the ability of shed GP to affect endothelial cell function both directly and indirectly, demonstrating the interplay between shed GP, systemic cytokine release and increased vascular permeability. In conclusion, shed GP released from virus-infected cells could activate non-infected DCs and macrophages causing the massive release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and effect vascular permeability. These activities could be at the heart of the excessive and dysregulated inflammatory host reactions to infection and thus contribute to high virus pathogenicity. PMID:25412102

  10. Comparison of three nonlinear models to describe long-term tag shedding by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    We estimated long-term tag-shedding rates for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using two existing models and a model we developed to account for the observed permanence of some tags. Because tag design changed over the course of the study, we examined tag-shedding rates for three types of numbered anchor tags (Floy tags FD-67, FD-67C, and FD-68BC) and an unprinted anchor tag (FD-67F). Lake trout from the Gull Island Shoal region, Lake Superior, were double-tagged, and subsequent recaptures were monitored in annual surveys conducted from 1974 to 1992. We modeled tag-shedding rates, using time at liberty and probabilities of tag shedding estimated from fish released in 1974 and 1978–1983 and later recaptured. Long-term shedding of numbered anchor tags in lake trout was best described by a nonlinear model with two parameters: an instantaneous tag-shedding rate and a constant representing the proportion of tags that were never shed. Although our estimates of annual shedding rates varied with tag type (0.300 for FD-67, 0.441 for FD-67C, and 0.656 for FD-68BC), differences were not significant. About 36% of tags remained permanently affixed to the fish. Of the numbered tags that were shed (about 64%), two mechanisms contributed to tag loss: disintegration and dislodgment. Tags from about 11% of recaptured fish had disintegrated, but most tags were dislodged. Unprinted tags were shed at a significant but low rate immediately after release, but the long-term, annual shedding rate of these tags was only 0.013. Compared with unprinted tags, numbered tags dislodged at higher annual rates; we hypothesized that this was due to the greater frictional drag associated with the larger cross-sectional area of numbered tags.

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  12. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the

  13. On vortex shedding from bluff bodies with base cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jinsheng; Chng, Tat Loon

    2009-03-01

    In an extension of a previous drag reduction study via geometric shaping, this paper describes a numerical study of a quasistreamlined body in which the trailing edge is modified to form a base cavity. Here, we seek to establish if any synergistic merits exist through a combination of a spanwise wavy trailing edge with a straight-edged base cavity. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simulations are conducted to assess the effect of Reynolds number, streamwise cavity length and spanwise waviness on the flow. Two dimensional simulations examining a variation in Reynolds number for a cavity of constant length reveal the presence of three different general wake patterns: the steady wake, the Karman wake, and an asymmetric, deflected wake. Most critically, the origins of the deflected wake pattern are traced to the presence of a vortex which resides within the base cavity. Similarly, for a constant Reynolds number the influence of the cavity length on the flow is also intricately related to this cavity vortex, giving rise to wake topologies which bear a strong resemblance to the above three shedding processes. Reductions in drag are observed for all the investigated cavity configurations and additionally it is found that the magnitude of the reduction obeys a direct relationship with the length of the cavity up to a certain asymptotic value. The results of the 3D simulations reveal that the current base-cavity arrangement appears to yield a potential for further reduction in form drag as compared to earlier studies where the entire base region is modified in the shape of a wave. However, for a fixed cavity length, introducing spanwise waviness reduces the fluctuation intensity of the form drag but offers no obvious added benefit in terms of the time-averaged values. We anticipate that the presence of the straight-edged cavity causes a loss of spanwise coherence of these structures such that further enhancements due to the introduction of waviness are of

  14. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  15. 7. General Viewacid storage tank to east of building with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General View-acid storage tank to east of building with accumulation vats in foreground. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and wood shed roof, facing southwest - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  17. 1. View northwest from road: wash house (WV268D), metal shed, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View northwest from road: wash house (WV-268-D), metal shed, tool room shed (WV-267-C), house (WV-268-A), and Albert Thacker House (HABS No. WV-267-A) (left to right in photograph) - 3240 Cyrus Road, House, Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  18. MODELING HUMAN EXPOSURES AND DOSE USING A 2-DIMENSIONAL MONTE-CARLO MODEL (SHEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1998, US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model for various classes of pollutants. SHEDS is a physically-based probabilistic model intended for improving estimates of human ex...

  19. Surface Tuning of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 Perovskite Catalysts by Acetic Acid for NOx Storage and Reduction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; Luo, Jinming; Su, Wenkang; Chang, Huazhen; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming; Crittenden, John

    2016-06-21

    Selective dissolution of perovskite A site (A of ABO3 structure) was performed on the La1 - xSrxCoO3 catalysts for the NOx storage and reduction (NSR) reaction. The surface area of the catalysts were enhanced using dilute HNO3 impregnation to dissolve Sr. Inactive SrCO3 was removed effectively within 6 h, and the catalyst preserved the perovskite framework after 24 h of treatment. The tuned catalysts exhibited higher NSR performance (both NOx storage and NO-to-NO2 oxidation) under lean-burn and fuel-rich cycles at 250 °C. Large amounts of NOx adsorption were due to the increase of nitrate/nitrite species bonding to the A site and the growth of newly formed monodentate nitrate species. Nitrate species were stored stably on the partial exposed Sr(2+) cations. These exposed Sr(2+) cations played an important role on the NOx reduction by C3H6. High NO-to-NO2 oxidation ability was due to the generation of oxygen defects and Co(2+)-Co(3+) redox couples, which resulted from B-site exsolution induced by A-site dissolution. Hence, our method is facile to modify the surface structures of perovskite catalysts and provides a new strategy to obtain highly active catalysts for the NSR reaction. PMID:27233105

  20. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10