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Sample records for acid storage shed

  1. 2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Storage Shed, North of launch area, northwest of earthen berm of Acid Fueling Station, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  2. 13. VIEW OF S202(PERHAPS AN ACID STORAGE SHED), LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF S-202(PERHAPS AN ACID STORAGE SHED), LOOKING SOUTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. The shower house is adjacent to the storage sheds and just south of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  6. View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is in background - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Storage Shed, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. 2. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, BUILDING 305 AND THE TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Shed & Tank, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  8. 1. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, BUILDING 305 AND THE TANK, LOOKING EAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Shed & Tank, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Explosive Storage, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE AT THE FAR RIGHT. DOCKSIDE STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. LAKE WORTH INLET AND THE TOWN OF PALM BEACH ARE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  11. 17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied from a photograph by Thomas S. Bronson, 'Group at Whitney Factory, 5 November 1906,' NHCHSL. The most reliable view of the fuel storage sheds and foundry, together with a view of the forge building. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 29. View of oil storage shed, looking northeast. Photo by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of oil storage shed, looking northeast. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  13. 25. View of storage shed and motor house for tramway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of storage shed and motor house for tramway, looking southwest. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. 38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with circular, cattle watering pond in left foreground and coffee mill in background right. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-1 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  16. 16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, c.1918 Photocopied from a photograph in the collection of William F. Applegate, 43 Grandview Avenue, Wallingford, Connecticut. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. 13. OVERALL SOUTH ELEVATION FROM STORAGE SHED D, SHOWING SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OVERALL SOUTH ELEVATION FROM STORAGE SHED D, SHOWING SHOP A, CRANE, SIGN STRUCTURE, AND WATER TOWER. NOTE TOWERS OF BRIDGE BEHIND PLANT. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Detail of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) monorail switches. Workers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) monorail switches. Workers pulled the chains at right to align the switches. Workers also pulled the hoists, loaded or unloaded, along the monorail tracks - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, C.W.E. Storage Shed, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  19. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  20. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  1. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates thrombomodulin lectin-like domain shedding in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Hualin; Lin ChiIou; Huang Yuanli; Chen, Pin-Shern; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Shing; Wu, G.C.-C.; Shi, G.-Y.; Yang, H.-Y.; Lee Hsinyu

    2008-02-29

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anticoagulant glycoprotein highly expressed on endothelial cell surfaces. Increased levels of soluble TM in circulation have been widely accepted as an indicator of endothelial damage or dysfunction. Previous studies indicated that various proinflammatory factors stimulate TM shedding in various cell types such as smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator present in biological fluids during endothelial damage or injury. In the present study, we first observed that LPA triggered TM shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By Cyflow analysis, we showed that the LPA-induced accessibility of antibodies to the endothelial growth factor (EGF)-like domain of TM is independent of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while LPA-induced TM lectin-like domain shedding is MMP-dependent. Furthermore, a stable cell line expressing TM without its lectin-like domain exhibited a higher cell proliferation rate than a stable cell line expressing full-length TM. These results imply that LPA induces TM lectin-like domain shedding, which might contribute to the exposure of its EGF-like domain for EGF receptor (EGFR) binding, thereby stimulating subsequent cell proliferation. Based on our findings, we propose a novel mechanism for the exposure of TM EGF-like domain, which possibly mediates LPA-induced EGFR transactivation.

  3. Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Dierick, Noël; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), the positive control (challenged, basal diet), and six treatments similar to the positive control but supplemented with the following active ingredients (dose excluding essential oils or natural extracts): triglycerides with butyric acid (1.30 g kg(-1)); formic and citric acids and essential oils (2.44 g kg(-1)); coated formic, coated sorbic, and benzoic acids (2.70 g kg(-1)); salts of formic, sorbic, acetic, and propionic acids, their free acids, and natural extracts (2.92 g kg(-1)); triglycerides with caproic and caprylic acids and coated oregano oil (1.80 g kg(-1)); and caproic, caprylic, lauric, and lactic acids (1.91 g kg(-1)). On day 6, half the piglets (seeder pigs) in each group were orally challenged with a Salmonella Typhimurium nalidixic acid-resistant strain (4 × 10(9) and 1.2 × 10(9) log CFU per pig in replicate experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Two days later, they were transferred to pens with an equal number of contact pigs. Salmonella shedding was determined 2 days after challenge exposure and then on a weekly basis. On day 34 or 35, piglets were euthanized to sample tonsils, ileocecal lymph nodes, and ileal and cecal digesta contents. The two additives, both containing short-chain fatty acids and one of them also containing benzoic acid and the other one also containing essential oils, and supplemented at more than 2.70 g kg(-1), showed evidence of reducing Salmonella fecal shedding and numbers of coliforms and Salmonella in cecal digesta. However, colonization of tonsils and ileocecal lymph nodes by Salmonella was not affected. Supplementing butyric acid and medium-chain fatty acids at the applied dose failed to inhibit

  4. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  5. Environmental Assessment Construction of Antenna Parts Storage Facility and Demolition of Hazardous Materials Storage Shed and Oil Change Pit, Jordan Lake Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Alabama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-03

    meet Class A standards to house the function for which it is currently designated. However, from necessity it must be continued in use for a short...dura- tion or until a suitable facility can be obtained. Class A standards mean the facility is adequate and can house the function for which it is...shed cannot be raised to meet Class A standards to house the function for which it was designated. The oil change pit is no longer used by

  6. Effect of Organic Acids on Salmonella Shedding and Colonization in Pigs on a Farm with High Salmonella Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Tagliabue, M; Missotten, J; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on the results of a previous study in which six commercial feed products based on organic acids were evaluated with respect to Salmonella contamination of piglets in an artificially challenged seeder model. In the present study, the efficacy of three of these commercial products was assessed for Salmonella reduction in fattening pigs on one closed farm with a natural high Salmonella prevalence. In each of four fattening compartments, one of the following feed treatments was evaluated during two consecutive fattening rounds: (i) butyric acid (active ingredients at 1.3 kg/ton of feed; supplement A1), (ii) a combination of short-chain organic acids (mixture of free acids and salts) and natural extracts (2.92 kg/ton; supplement A4), (iii) a 1:1 blend of two commercial products consisting of medium-chain fatty acids, lactic acid, and oregano oil (3.71 kg/ton; supplement A5+A6), and (iv) a control feed. On the farm, the Salmonella status of the fattening pigs was evaluated by taking fecal samples twice during the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, samples were collected from the cecal contents and the ileocecal lymph nodes. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This farm had a particularly high number of pigs shedding Salmonella with a wide variety of sero- and pulsotypes. Only the feed blend based on the medium-chain fatty acids was able to significantly reduce Salmonella prevalence both on the farm and at the slaughterhouse. With this combined supplement, the Salmonella reduction in the feces at slaughter age, in cecal contents at slaughter, and the lymph nodes was 50, 36, and 67%, respectively, compared with the control animals. This promising finding calls for further investigation including cost-efficiency of this combined feed product and its effect on the animals.

  7. Caffeoylquinic Acids in Storage Roots of Sixteen Sweetpotato Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contents of chlorogenic acid and the 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5- isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) in the storage root tissues of sixteen sweetpotato genotypes were determined. Averaged over genotypes, the contents of the four compounds were highest in the cortex, intermediate in the stele and lo...

  8. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were dist...

  9. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  10. 21. Public Works Department Drawing 461M8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Storage Tank Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  12. Effect of shed type and sunflower supplementation of fatty acid profile and nutritional implications in lamb tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from Small Tail Han sheep is an important dietary component of people in western China. Five-mo-old Small Tail Han ewe lambs (n=40) were used to study the effect of sunflower seed (160 g/d) and protected fat (30 and 60 g/d) supplementation and type of shelter (conventional shed vs. greenhouse s...

  13. Fluidised Bed Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid: Effectiveness of Protection under Simulated Tropical Storage Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    evidence of poor microencapsulation were terminated. Trials that resulted in microcapsule breakage did not proceed to the storage study. 2.3.1...UNCLASSIFIED Fluidised Bed Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid: Effectiveness of Protection under Simulated Tropical Storage Conditions...investigates the use of microencapsulation by fluidised bed coating for the protection of ascorbic acid during long-term storage under simulated

  14. The manipulation of auxin in the abscission zone cells of Arabidopsis flowers reveals that indoleacetic acid signaling is a prerequisite for organ shedding.

    PubMed

    Basu, Manojit M; González-Carranza, Zinnia H; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A

    2013-05-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place.

  15. The Manipulation of Auxin in the Abscission Zone Cells of Arabidopsis Flowers Reveals That Indoleacetic Acid Signaling Is a Prerequisite for Organ Shedding1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Manojit M.; González-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place. PMID:23509178

  16. 3. EAST FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757); DOORS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757); DOORS FOR STORAGE ROOMS. SECURITY FENCE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, South of Launch Area Entrance Drive, near security fence, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  18. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  19. 20. Public Works Department Drawing 461M7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Building 463 Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 29. Public Works Department Drawing 461S18 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Public Works Department Drawing 461-S-18 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Details Of Tank Platform' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Hydrogen storage and delivery: the carbon dioxide - formic acid couple.

    PubMed

    Laurenczy, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and the carbonates, the available natural C1 sources, can be easily hydrogenated into formic acid and formates in water; the rate of this reduction strongly depends on the pH of the solution. This reaction is catalysed by ruthenium(II) pre-catalyst complexes with a large variety of water-soluble phosphine ligands; high conversions and turnover numbers have been realised. Although ruthenium(II) is predominant in these reactions, the iron(II) - tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)-ethyl]phosphine (PP3) complex is also active, showing a new perspective to use abundant and inexpensive iron-based compounds in the CO2 reduction. In the catalytic hydrogenation cycles the in situ formed metal hydride complexes play a key role, their structures with several other intermediates have been proven by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In the other hand safe and convenient hydrogen storage and supply is the fundamental question for the further development of the hydrogen economy; and carbon dioxide has been recognised to be a viable H2 vector. Formic acid--containing 4.4 weight % of H2, that is 53 g hydrogen per litre--is suitable for H2 storage; we have shown that in aqueous solutions it can be selectively decomposed into CO-free (CO < 10 ppm) CO2 and H2. The reaction takes place under mild experimental conditions and it is able to generate high pressure H2 (up to 600 bar). The cleavage of HCOOH is catalysed by several hydrophilic Ru(II) phosphine complexes (meta-trisulfonated triphenylphosphine, mTPPTS, being the most efficient one), either in homogeneous systems or as immobilised catalysts. We have also shown that the iron(II)--hydrido tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine complex catalyses with an exceptionally high rate and efficiency (turnover frequency, TOF = 9425 h(-1)mol(-1); turnover number, TON = 92400) the formic acid cleavage, in environmentally friendly propylene carbonate solution, opening the way to use cheap, non-noble metal based catalysts for this

  2. Effects of Increased Free Fatty Acid Availability on Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage in Men

    PubMed Central

    Mundi, Manpreet S.; Koutsari, Chistina

    2014-01-01

    Context: A portion of free fatty acids (FFA) released from adipose tissue lipolysis are re-stored in adipocytes via direct uptake. Rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage are much greater in women than men, but women also have greater systemic FFA flux and more body fat. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that experimental increases in FFA in men would equalize the rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage in men and women. Design: We used a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA in men to levels seen in post-absorptive women. Direct FFA storage (μmol·kg fat−1·min−1) rates in abdominal and femoral fat was assessed using stable isotope tracer infusions to measure FFA disappearance rates and an iv FFA radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Setting: These studies were performed in a Clinical Research Center. Participants: Data from 13 non-obese women was compared with that from eight obese and eight non-obese men. Intervention: The men received a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the rates of direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Results: The three groups were similar in age and FFA flux by design; obese men had similar body fat percentage as non-obese women. Despite matching for FFA concentrations and flux, FFA storage per kg abdominal (P < .01) and femoral (P < .001) fat was less in both lean and obese men than in non-obese women. Abdominal FFA storage rates were correlated with proteins/enzymes in the FFA uptake/triglyceride synthesis pathway in men. Conclusion: The lesser rates of direct FFA adipose tissue in men compared with women cannot be explained by reduced FFA availability. PMID:25192251

  3. Method of preparing a battery paste containing fibrous polyfluoroethylene for use in the plates of a lead-acid storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, J.C.; Malaspina, F.P.; Martini, W.J.

    1982-02-16

    A method of preparing a battery paste for a lead-acid storage battery comprising: (A) mixing a water dispersion of polyfluoroethylene with lead material, (B) adding an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid to the lead material-dispersion mix and mixing to form a paste having fibrillation developed therein, (C) controlling the amount of fibrillation developed in the paste, and (D) controlling the paste density for use in a battery plate. The method provides an improved paste which permits substantial reduction in plate weights and density and loss of active material in the grid structure due to plate shedding over a conventional lead-acid paste. The saving in active material ranges from 10 to 30% over a conventional lead-acid paste without reduction in battery performance.

  4. Excellent storage stability and sensitive detection of neurotoxin quinolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Kashyap, Sunayana; Kumar, Suveen; Abraham, Shiju; Gupta, Tejendra K; Kayastha, Arvind M; Malhotra, Bansi D; Saxena, Preeti Suman; Srivastava, Anchal; Singh, Ranjan K

    2017-04-15

    Quinolinic acid (QA) is a metabolite of tryptophan degradation obtained through kynurenine pathway, produced naturally in the mammalian brain as well as in the human cerebrospinal fluid. The presence of QA ~10-40µM is a clear indicator of many neurological disorders as well as deficiency of vitamin B6 in human being. In the present work; rapid, sensitive and cost-effective bio-electrodes were prepared to detect the trace amount of endogenous neurotoxin (QA). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies were carried out to measure the electrochemical response of the fabricated bio-electrodes as a function of QA concentrations. These devices were found to exhibit desirable sensitivity of ~7.86mAμM(-1)cm(-2) in wide concentration range (6.5μM-65mM). The lower detection limit of this device is as low as 6.5μM and it has excellent storage stability of ~30 days. The capability of the proposed electrochemical bio-sensor was also checked to detect QA in the real samples (human serum). These results reveal that the use of this electrochemical bio-sensor may provide a potential platform for the detection of QA in the real samples for the prior detection of many diseases.

  5. Wollastonite hybridizing stearic acid as thermal energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Yang, Huaming

    2014-11-01

    This paper reported on the preparation of a novel stearic acid (SA)/wollastonite (W) composite as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy-storage (TES) by vacuum impregnation, and especially investigated the effect of the size grade of W on the thermal properties of the SA/W composite. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Natural W (Wr) was classified into four size grades by wet screening. The results indicate that no chemical reaction took place between SA and W, and the SA load in the SA/W composite increased with an increase in the length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the W. The SA/W composite with a W L/D ratio of 22.5 exhibited latent heats of melting and freezing of 58.64 J/g and 56.95 J/g, respectively, which was higher than those of the composite incorporating natural W. We believe that the as-prepared form-stable PCM composite could provide a potential means of TES for the concentrated solar power.

  6. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  7. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  8. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... with regard to the maintenance, testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries...

  9. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

  10. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  11. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Ester; Foresti, Fabio; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Fustini, Mattia; Zanoni, Maria G; Pasquali, Paolo; Callaway, Todd R; Piva, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding level of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were separated in 4 isolation units (6 piglets/isolation unit). Each unit received either a basal diet (no treatment) or a microencapsulated mixture of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol at 1, 2, or 5 g/kg of feed. After 21 d, pigs were orally challenged with 6 log10 colony-forming units of Salmonella Typhimurium. Blood samples and feces from rectal ampullae were collected every week. On d56 of the study, pigs were euthanized and necropsied to collect intestinal contents (jejunum through colon) and ileocecal lymph nodes. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella Typhimurium and serological analysis was also conducted. In the second study, an all-in-all-out multisite pig farm that was positive for monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was followed throughout a production cycle from weaning to slaughter. Pigs received either a basal diet or the basal diet including 5 g/kg of the microencapsulated additive. Environmental, fecal, and blood samples were collected monthly, and cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes were collected at slaughter to isolate and enumerate Salmonella. The results indicate that the additive at 5 g/kg tended to reduce Salmonella fecal prevalence in both a controlled challenge (p=0.07) and in production conditions (p=0.03). Nevertheless, the additive did not reduce the number of pigs seropositive for Salmonella, nor it reduced the Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. The data indicate that these additives are not effective alone but must be used in conjunction with appropriate containment measures at lairage in order to prevent reinfection in pigs and to reduce the number of pigs carrying Salmonella entering the food chain.

  12. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan.

  13. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  14. A GRB tool shed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Hakkila, Jon; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Mallozzi, Robert

    2000-09-01

    We describe the design of a suite of software tools to allow users to query Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) data and perform data mining expeditions. We call this suite of tools a shed (SHell for Expeditions using Datamining). Our schedule is to have a completed prototype (funded via the NASA AISRP) by February, 2002. Meanwhile, interested users will find a partially functioning tool shed at http:/grb.mankato.msus.edu. .

  15. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  16. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  17. Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-08-01

    Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits.

  18. Hydrogen Storage in the Carbon Dioxide - Formic Acid Cycle.

    PubMed

    Fink, Cornel; Montandon-Clerc, Mickael; Laurenczy, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes.

  19. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  20. Long term storage of dilute acid pretreated corn stover feedstock and ethanol fermentability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Bao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study reported a new solution of lignocellulose feedstock storage based on the distributed pretreatment concept. The dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DDAP) was conducted on corn stover feedstock, instead of ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment. Then the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover was stored for three months during summer season with high temperature and humidity. No negative aspects were found on the physical property, composition, hydrolysis yield and ethanol fermentability of the long term stored pretreated corn stover, plus the additional merits including no chemicals recovery operation, anti-microbial contaminant environment from stronger acid and inhibitor contents, as well as the mild and slow hydrolysis in the storage. The new pretreatment method expanded the distributed pretreatment concept of feedstock storage with potential for practical application.

  1. Changes in fatty acid composition in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) with cooking and refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Imose, K

    1989-02-01

    The influence of cooking and later storage in a refrigerator for 7 days on the fatty acid composition of lipids in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) was studied. The total lipid and triacylglycerol (TG) levels did not change and the phospholipid (PL) level decreased somewhat with cooking or during storage. The fatty acid composition of the total lipids and TG fractions was little changed and that in the PL fractions was somewhat changed by the cooking. The composition of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipids of sardine precooked at 100 or 170 degrees C for 30 min changed from 42.7 to 38.3 or 33.5%, respectively, for total lipids and from 51.5 to 38.4 or 37.6%, respectively, for PL fractions during storage. The fatty acids in lipids from the ordinary meat of sardine was stable and those in the dark meat were extremely unstable during storage after cooking. We concluded that the PUFA in the lipids of sardines were stable to cooking, but unstable to oxidation during storage in a refrigerator. The PUFA of lipids in the dark meat of sardine were extremely unstable to oxidation.

  2. Storage of Circulating Free Fatty Acid in Adipose Tissue of Postabsorptive Humans

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Ali, Asem H.; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preferential upper-body fat gain, a typical male pattern, is associated with a greater cardiometabolic risk. Regional differences in lipolysis and meal fat storage cannot explain sex differences in body fat distribution. We examined the potential role of the novel free fatty acid (FFA) storage pathway in determining body fat distribution in postabsorptive humans and whether adipocyte lipogenic proteins (CD36, acyl-CoA synthetases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) predict differences in FFA storage. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rates of postabsorptive FFA (palmitate) storage into upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) and lower-body subcutaneous (LBSQ) fat were measured in 28 men and 53 premenopausal women. Stable and radiolabeled palmitate tracers were intravenously infused followed by subcutaneous fat biopsies. Body composition was assessed with a combination of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. RESULTS Women had greater FFA (palmitate) storage than men in both UBSQ (0.37 ± 0.15 vs. 0.27 ± 0.18 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.0001) and LBSQ (0.42 ± 0.19 vs. 0.22 ± 0.11 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P < 0.0001) fat. Palmitate storage rates were significantly greater in LBSQ than UBSQ fat in women, whereas the opposite was true in men. Plasma palmitate concentration positively predicted palmitate storage in both depots and sexes. Adipocyte CD36 content predicted UBSQ palmitate storage and sex-predicted storage in LBSQ fat. Palmitate storage rates per kilogram fat did not decrease as a function of fat mass, whereas lipolysis did. CONCLUSIONS The FFA storage pathway, which had remained undetected in postabsorptive humans until recently, can have considerable, long-term, and sex-specific effects on body fat distribution. It can also offer a way of protecting the body from excessive circulating FFA in obesity. PMID:21659500

  3. 11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & O STORAGE FACILITY ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. TURNTABLE LIES OUT OF VIEW BEHIND TRAIN SHED. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  4. GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  5. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing redwood dry storage building located inside. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  6. Fatty acids, sterols, and antioxidant activity in minimally processed avocados during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Lucía; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2009-04-22

    Avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) is a good source of bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids and sterols. The impact of minimal processing on its health-promoting attributes was investigated. Avocados cut into slices or halves were packaged in plastic bags under nitrogen, air, or vacuum and stored at 8 degrees C for 13 days. The stabilities of fatty acids and sterols as well as the effect on antioxidant activity were evaluated. The main fatty acid identified and quantified in avocado was oleic acid (about 57% of total content), whereas beta-sitosterol was found to be the major sterol (about 89% of total content). In general, after refrigerated storage, a significant decrease in fatty acid content was observed. Vacuum/halves and air/slices were the samples that maintained better this content. With regard to phytosterols, there were no significant changes during storage. Antioxidant activity showed a slight positive correlation against stearic acid content. At the end of refrigerated storage, a significant increase in antiradical efficiency (AE) was found for vacuum samples. AE values were quite similar among treatments. Hence, minimal processing can be a useful tool to preserve health-related properties of avocado fruit.

  7. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity.

  8. Effect of propionic acid on Campylobacter jejuni attached to chicken skin during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    González-Fandos, Elena; Maya, Naiara; Pérez-Arnedo, Iratxe

    2015-09-01

    The ability of propionic acid to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Chicken legs were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. After dipping legs in either water (control), 1% or 2% propionic acid solution (vol/vol), they were stored at 4ºC for 8 days. Changes in C. jejuni, psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts were evaluated. Washing in 2% propionic acid significantly reduced C. jejuni counts compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.62 log units after treatment. Treatment of chicken legs with 1 or 2% propionic acid significantly reduced numbers of psychrotrophs 1.01 and 1.08 log units and Pseudomonas counts 0.75 and 0.96 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. The reduction in psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas increased throughout storage. The highest reductions obtained for psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts in treated legs were reached at the end of storage, day 8, being 3.3 and 2.93 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. Propionic acid treatment was effective in reducing psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts on chicken legs throughout storage. It is concluded that propionic acid is effective for reducing C. jejuni populations in chicken.

  9. Type 304L stainless steel surface microstructure: Performance in hydride storage and acid cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    The performance of stainless steel as the container in hydride storage bed systems has been evaluated, primarily using scanning electron microscopy. No adverse reaction between Type 304L stainless steel and either LaNi{sub 5{minus}x},Al{sub x}, or palladium supported on Kieselguhr granules (silica) during exposure in hydrogen was found in examination of retired prototype storage bed containers and special compatibility test samples. Intergranular surface ditching, observed on many of the stainless steel surfaces examined, was shown to result from air annealing and acid cleaning of stainless steel during normal fabrication. The ditched air annealed and acid cleaned stainless steel samples were more resistant to subsequent acid attack than vacuum annealed or polished samples without ditches.

  10. Efficacy of malic acid against Listeria monocytogenes attached to poultry skin during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    González-Fandos, E; Herrera, B

    2013-07-01

    This work evaluated the effect of malic acid washing on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4°C for 8 d. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into a 1 or 2% malic acid solution (vol/vol) for 5 min or distilled water (control). Surface pH values, sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture, and overall appearance) and L. monocytogenes, mesophile, psychrotroph, and Enterobacteriaceae counts were evaluated after treatment (d 0) and after 1, 3, 6, and 8 d of storage at 4°C. Legs washed with 2% malic acid showed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared with control legs, with a decrease of about 1.66 log units after treatment. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by malic acid. Treatments with malic acid reduced bacterial growth and preserved reasonable sensorial quality after storage at 4°C for 6 d. This study demonstrates that, although malic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on poultry, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of malic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry.

  11. Electricity storage in biofuels: selective electrocatalytic reduction of levulinic acid to valeric acid or γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Xin, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qi, Ji; Chadderdon, David J; Qiu, Yang; Warsko, Kayla M; Li, Wenzhen

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we report an effective approach to electricity storage in biofuels by selective electrocatalytic reduction of levulinic acid (LA) to high-energy-density valeric acid (VA) or γ-valerolactone (gVL) on a non-precious Pb electrode in a single-polymer electrolyte membrane electrocatalytic (flow) cell reactor with a very high yield of VA (>90 %), a high Faradaic efficiency (>86 %), promising electricity storage efficiency (70.8 %), and a low electricity consumption (1.5 kWhL(VA)(-1) ). The applied potential and electrolyte pH can be used to accurately control the reduction products: lower overpotentials favor the production of gVL, whereas higher overpotentials facilitate the formation of VA. A selectivity of 95 % to VA in acidic electrolyte (pH 0) and 100 % selectivity to gVL in neutral electrolyte (pH 7.5) are obtained. The effect of the molecular structure on the electrocatalytic reduction of ketone and aldehyde groups of biomass compounds was investigated. Whereas LA can be fully electroreduced to VA though a four-electron transfer, the C-O groups are only electroreduced to -OH by a two-electron-transfer process when glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid serve as feedstocks.

  12. 13. Relationship of east tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Relationship of east tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and privy to each other and immediate surroundings, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  13. 12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and chicken house to each other and immediate surroundings, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  14. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is elevated in the lysosomal storage disease classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis but is not a component of the storage material

    PubMed Central

    XU, Su; SLEAT, David E.; JADOT, Michel; LOBEL, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Classical late neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of children caused by mutations in TPP1, the gene encoding the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1. LINCL is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of storage material of which only a single protein component, subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, has been well established to date. Identification of other protein constituents of the storage material could provide useful insights into the pathophysiology of disease and the natural substrates for TPP1. We have therefore initiated a proteomic analysis of storage material in brain from a LINCL mouse model. One protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was found to be elevated in the LINCL mice compared to normal controls in both isolated storage bodies and a lysosome-enriched subcellular fraction that contains storage material. To determine whether GFAP accumulates within the lysosome in LINCL, we examined its intracellular distribution using subcellular fractionation and morphological methods. These experiments demonstrate that GFAP is not a component of the storage material in LINCL, suggesting that reports of GFAP storage in other NCLs may need to be reexamined. A number of other proteins were elevated in the storage material and/or lysosome-enriched fraction from the LINCL mice but it remains unclear whether these proteins are true constituents of the storage material or, like GFAP, if they associate with this material upon purification. PMID:20370715

  15. An analytical study of a lead-acid flow battery as an energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alex; Mukerjee, Santanu; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, Dong-Ha; Park, Sam

    2014-03-01

    The most important issue with our current clean energy technology is the dependence on environmental conditions to produce power. To solve this problem a wide range of energy storage devices are being explored for grid-scale energy storage including soluble lead-acid flow batteries. Flow batteries offer a unique solution to grid-scale energy storage because of their electrolyte tanks which allow easy scaling of storage capacity. This study seeks to further understand the mechanisms of a soluble lead acid flow battery using simulations. The effects of varies changes to operating conditions and the system configuration can be explored through simulations. The simulations preformed are 2D and include the positive electrode, negative electrode, and the flow space between them. Simulations presented in this study show Pb(II) surface concentration, external electric potential, and PbO/PbO2 surface concentration on the positive electrode. Simulations have shown increasing cell temperature can increase external electric potential by as much as 0.2 V during charge. Simulations have also shown electrolyte velocity is an important aspect when investigating lead deposition onto the electrodes. Experimental work was performed to validate simulation results of current density and voltage. Good correlation was found between experimental work and simulation results.

  16. Effects of Male Hypogonadism on Regional Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage and Lipogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1) underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2) consumed an experimental meal containing [3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation); 3) received infusions of [U-13C]palmitate and [1-14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (F)FA storage (adipose biopsies). Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT) activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05). Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans. PMID:22363653

  17. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Qin, Chunling; Yu, Hui; Xia, Xingchuan; Wang, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yanshan; Hu, Qingfeng; Zhao, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC) and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications. PMID:28347030

  18. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fandos, Elena; Herrera, Barbara

    2014-09-11

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0), L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  19. Corn Crisps Enriched in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Sensory Characteristic and its Changes During Storage.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Mateusz; Nowak, Karolina; Fiedor, Piotr; Szterk, Arkadiusz

    Extruded cereal snacks are usually deficient in protein, mineral ingredients, valuable fatty acids. With the rise of health awareness among consumers, food manufacturers and scientists are pressed to take measures in order to develop new functional/health-beneficial foods. The aim of this work was to manufacture extruded crisps enriched with α-linolenic acid (obtained from linseed oil) and to observe whether storage of the product for the period of 6 months would cause its disqualification, primarily due to its sensory properties and secondarily due to its chemical properties. The research demonstrated that the addition of linseed oil to corn crisps at the amount of 5 % enables to obtain functional corn crisps containing over 2 g of ALA in a portion of 100 g even after 6 months of storage at room temperature. ALA-enriched crisps maintain the original sensory profile after 6 months of storage and their sensory profile is similar to the profile of crisps without the addition of linseed oil if they are packed in barrier packaging filled 100 % with argon. Therefore, they may be a healthier alternative to typical corn crisps.

  20. Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and Spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

    1998-01-01

    Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistant trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs).

  1. Superhydrophobic porous networks for enhanced droplet shedding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays involves complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available porous matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning. PMID:27644452

  2. Superhydrophobic porous networks for enhanced droplet shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays involves complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available porous matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning.

  3. Superhydrophobic porous networks for enhanced droplet shedding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-09-20

    Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays involves complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available porous matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning.

  4. Viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented soymilk after drying, subsequent rehydration and storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chieh; Yu, Roch-Chui; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2004-06-01

    To develop a probiotic dietary adjunct, soymilk fermented with various combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium infantis) was subjected to freeze-drying and spray-drying. Survival of the starter organisms during the drying process, subsequent rehydration at different temperatures and during a 4-month period of storage under different storage conditions was examined. After freeze-drying, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria exhibited a survival percent of 46.2-75.1% and 43.2-51.9%, respectively, higher than that noted after spray-drying. Regardless of the drying condition, S. thermophilus showed a higher percentage of survival than L. acidophilus, while B. longum survived better than B. infantis. Further study with soymilk fermented with S. thermophilus and B. longum revealed that the freeze-dried and spray-dried fermented soymilk rehydrated at 35-50 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively, was optimum for the recovery of the starter organisms. Both S. thermophilus and B. longum survived better in the freeze-dried than the spray-dried fermented soymilk during storage. A higher percent of survival was also noted for both the starter organisms when the dried fermented soymilk was stored at 4 degrees C than 25 degrees C. Holding the dried fermented soymilk in the laminated pouch enabled S. thermophilus and B. longum to exhibit a higher percentage of survival than in the deoxidant- and desiccant-containing glass or polyester (PET) bottle. Among all the packaging materials and storage temperatures tested, starter organisms were most stable in the dried fermented soymilk held in laminated pouch and stored at 4 degrees C. Under this storage condition, S. thermophilus and B. longum showed a survival percentage of 51.1% and 68.8%, respectively, in the freeze-dried fermented soymilk after 4 months of storage. Meanwhile, S. thermophilus and B. infantis in

  5. Lactic acid is a sperm motility inactivation factor in the sperm storage tubules

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kohsaka, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Yoshinobu; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Although successful fertilization depends on timely encounters between sperm and egg, the decoupling of mating and fertilization often confers reproductive advantages to internally fertilizing animals. In several vertebrate groups, postcopulatory sperm viability is prolonged by storage in specialized organs within the female reproductive tract. In birds, ejaculated sperm can be stored in a quiescent state within oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs), thereby retaining fertilizability for up to 15 weeks at body temperature (41 °C); however, the mechanism by which motile sperm become quiescent within SSTs is unknown. Here, we show that low oxygen and high lactic acid concentrations are established in quail SSTs. Flagellar quiescence was induced by lactic acid in the concentration range found in SSTs through flagellar dynein ATPase inactivation following cytoplasmic acidification (acid in promoting sperm quiescence in SSTs and opened up a new opportunity for technological improvement in prolonging sperm longevity at ambient or body temperature. PMID:26619826

  6. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  7. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  8. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  9. The Impact of Enzyme Characteristics on Corn Stover Fiber Degradation and Acid Production During Ensiled Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L.; Moore, Kenneth J.

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commerical enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C ∶ H). The highest C ∶ H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  10. The impact of enzyme characteristics on corn stover fiber degradation and acid production during ensiled storage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Moore, Kenneth J

    2007-04-01

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commercial enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C:H). The highest C:H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  12. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Ye, B W; Lee, J L; Ha, Y L; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2004-04-01

    The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties were investigated. Ground beef was divided into three batches. The control patties were prepared with 90% lean meat and 10% tallow. The second treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow+0.5% CLA sources. The third treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 8% tallow+2% CLA sources. The patties were wrap-packaged and then stored at 4° for 14 days. The CLA concentration significantly increased (P<0.05) by substituting CLA sources for fat. Storage of the patties did not alter the CLA concentration in beef patties. The treatment substituted with CLA sources had significantly lower TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) values (P<0.05) than the control. For oxymyoglobin contents and a* value, substituted CLA sources treatments had significantly higher values than the control. However, L* value significantly increased by substituting CLA sources for fat.

  13. Glycogen storage disease type Ia: linkage of glucose, glycogen, lactic acid, triglyceride, and uric acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sever, Sakine; Weinstein, David A; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I; Gedik, Reyhan; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2012-01-01

    A female presented in infancy with hypotonia, undetectable serum glucose, lactic acidosis, and triglycerides >5000 mg/dL. The diagnosis of type 1A glycogen storage disease was made via the result of a liver biopsy, which showed increased glycogen and absent glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity. The patient was treated with dextrose administered orally, which was replaced by frequent feedings of cornstarch, which resulted in an improvement of her metabolic parameters. At age 18 years of age, she had marked hypertriglyceridemia (3860 mg/dL) and eruptive xanthomas and was treated with fenofibrate, atorvastatin, and fish oil. At age 29 years she was noted to have multiple liver adenomas, severe anemia, and hyperuricemia. Aggressive cornstarch therapy was commenced with a goal of maintaining her blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL and lactate levels <2 mmol/L. After 15 months on this regimen, her lipids levels (measured in mg/dL) off all medications were as follows: total cholesterol 222, triglycerides 179, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 32, and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 154. Her weight was stable with a body mass index of 24.8 kg/m(2). Her liver adenomas had decreased in size, and her anemia and hyperuricemia had improved. She was homozygous for the R83C missense mutation in G6PC. Our data indicate that optimized metabolic control to maintain blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL is critical in the management of this disease.

  14. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production.

  15. The Influence of Reserpine and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) on Serotonin Storage Organelles of Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Jonathan M.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; White, James G.

    1977-01-01

    The present investigation has evaluated the influence of reserpine on the serotonin-rich organelles bodies) in platelets from dogs, rabbits, and humans. Reserpine markedly depresses the levels of stored serotonin in human and animal platelets, accompanied by a small decrease in platelet ATP but no change in platelet ADP content. Thin sections of human platelets showed no change in the number or morphology of serotonin storage organelles during reserpine therapy, whereas a profound decrease in the size and number of dense bodies occurred in platelets from rabbits treated with reserpine. Dog platelets also showed a decrease in the number and density of serotonin storage organelles after reserpine therapy. The basis for the difference between rabbit and human platelets was explored by fixing platelets in glutaraldehyde and osmium in the presence or absence of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Most of the dense bodies in fixed human platelets were removed by EDTA while rabbit platelet dense bodies remained essentially intact. The results suggested that the opacity of rabbit platelet dense bodies following fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium relate primarily to their serotonin content, while the electron density of human serotonin storage organelles in fixed cells is due primarily to their calcium content. Further confirmation of this concept came from studies of platelets using the whole mount technique. Rabbit platelet serotonin storage organelles were found to lack the inherent opacity of the human dense bodies, a finding consistent with the lower concentration of calcium in the rabbit organelles. ImagesFigures 1A-DFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5 and 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:405872

  16. Effect of administration of organic acids in drinking water on faecal shedding of E. coli, performance parameters and health in nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    De Busser, Emily V; Dewulf, Jeroen; Zutter, Lieven De; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Callens, Jozefien; Meyns, Tom; Maes, Wout; Maes, Dominiek

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of altering the pH of drinking water on the excretion of Escherichia coli (haemolytic and total count) by nursery piglets under field conditions as well as their performance parameters and health. The pH of the normal drinking water (pH 8) was lowered by using a mixture of organic acids (lactic, formic, propionic and acetic acid) to obtain a final pH of 6, 5 or 4. Reducing the pH to 4 resulted in the excretion of less faecal E. coli compared to pigs given water of pH 8 (P<0.05), but the fall in pH also significantly decreased water intake. The highest daily weight gain and lowest mortality rate were observed in the group receiving drinking water of pH 5 (P>0.05). No significant differences in the clinical parameters measured were seen between groups. The results of this study suggest that lowering the pH of the drinking water in newly weaned pigs reduces the E. coli load.

  17. Geological Modeling and Fluid Flow Simulation of Acid Gas Storage, Nugget Sandstone, Moxa Arch, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Du, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Moxa Arch Anticline is a regional-scale northwest-trending uplift in western Wyoming where geological storage of acid gases (CO2, CH4, N2, H2S, He) from ExxonMobile's Shute Creek Gas Plant is under consideration. The Nugget Sandstone, a deep saline aquifer at depths exceeding 17,170 ft, is a candidate formation for acid gas storage. As part of a larger goal of determining site suitability, this study builds three-dimensional local to regional scale geological and fluid flow models for the Nugget Sandstone, its caprock (Twin Creek Limestone), and an underlying aquifer (Ankareh Sandstone), or together, the ``Nugget Suite''. For an area of 3000 square miles, geological and engineering data were assembled, screened for accuracy, and digitized, covering an average formation thickness of ~1700 feet. The data include 900 public-domain well logs (SP, Gamma Ray, Neutron Porosity, Density, Sonic, shallow and deep Resistivity, Lithology, Deviated well logs), 784 feet of core measurements (porosity and permeability), 4 regional geological cross sections, and 3 isopach maps. Data were interpreted and correlated for geological formations and facies, the later categorized using both Neural Network and Gaussian Hierarchical Clustering algorithms. Well log porosities were calibrated with core measurements, those of permeability estimated using formation-specific porosity-permeability transforms. Using conditional geostatistical simulations (first indicator simulation of facies, then sequential Gaussian simulation of facies-specific porosity), data were integrated at the regional-scale to create a geological model from which a local-scale simulation model surrounding the Shute Creek injection site was extracted. Based on this model, full compositional multiphase flow simulations were conducted with which we explore (1) an appropriate grid resolution for accurate acid gas predictions (pressure, saturation, and mass balance); (2) sensitivity of key geological and engineering

  18. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  19. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  20. Effect of Frozen Storage on the Gel-Forming Ability of Surimi Treated by Acid and Alkaline Solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    Rheological changes during five months of frozen storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) surimi elaborated by acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) treatment, and their ability to form gels were evaluated. Frozen storage provoked a sligthly increase of rigidity and toughness in surimi B due to the loss of water holding capacity. This effect on surimi B disrupts the gel forming ability of muscle proteins, and the resulting gel experiments an increase of viscoelastic moduli, maximum stress and gel strength, showing a more increment in the network firmness after five months of frozen storage, however it is still better gel than that from method A.

  1. Effects of frozen storage and vacuum packaging on free fatty acid and volatile composition of Turkish Motal cheese.

    PubMed

    Andic, S; Tuncturk, Y; Javidipour, I

    2011-08-01

    Effects of vacuum packaging and frozen storage were studied on the formation of free fatty acids (FFAs), volatile compounds and microbial counts of Motal cheese samples stored for a period of 180 days. The FFA concentration of Motal cheese samples increased throughout the storage period of 180 days. However, the FFA contents of samples stored at -18 °C showed considerably lower values than those of the samples stored at 4 °C. Palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids were the most abundant FFAs in all the treatments. The volatile compounds detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) profile of Motal cheese consisted of 16 esters, 10 acids, 6 ketones, 4 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, styrene, p-cresol and m-cresol. Results showed that storage at -18 °C can limit the excessive volatile compound formation. Samples stored at 4°C with vacuum packaging showed comparatively high concentration of esters, ketones and alcohols. Samples stored without vacuum packaging at 4°C showed 2-nonanone as the most abundant volatile compound toward the end of storage period. Storage at 4°C under vacuum packaging decreased the mold-yeast counts of samples. Frozen storage could be a suitable method for storing the Motal cheese.

  2. Preliminary measurements of summer nitric acid and ammonia concentrations in the Lake Tahoe Basin air-shed: implications for dry deposition of atmospheric nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Tarnay, L; Gertler, A W; Blank, R R; Taylor, G E

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Lake Tahoe, an alpine lake located in the Sierra Nevada mountains on the border between California and Nevada, has seen a decline in water clarity. With significant urbanization within its borders and major urban areas 130 km upwind of the prevailing synoptic airflow, it is believed the Lake Tahoe Basin is receiving substantial nitrogen (N) input via atmospheric deposition during summer and fall. We present preliminary inferential flux estimates to both lake surface and forest canopy based on empirical measurements of ambient nitric acid (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) concentrations, in an effort to identify the major contributors to and ranges of atmospheric dry N deposition to the Lake Tahoe Basin. Total flux from dry deposition ranges from 1.2 to 8.6 kg N ha-1 for the summer and fall dry season and is significantly higher than wet deposition, which ranges from 1.7 to 2.9 kg N ha-1 year-1. These preliminary results suggest that dry deposition of HNO3 is the major source of atmospheric N deposition for the Lake Tahoe Basin, and that overall N deposition is similar in magnitude to deposition reported for sites exposed to moderate N pollution in the southern California mountains.

  3. Influence of Citric Acid on the Pink Color and Characteristics of Sous Vide Processed Chicken Breasts During Chill Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    Chicken breast dipped with citric acid (CA) was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d. A non-dipped control group (CON) and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed (0.5%, 0.5CIT; 2.0%, 2CIT and 5.0%, 5CIT; w/v). Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. While the redness of the juice and meat in all groups showed significant increase during storage, the redness of the citric acid groups was reduced compared to the control group (p<0.05). The percentage of myoglobin denaturation (PMD) of the CA groups was also increased according to the level of CA during storage. Total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were generally lower in the citric acid-treated samples than in untreated ones, indicating extended shelf life of the cooked chicken breast dipped in citric acid solution. The shear force of the 2CIT and 5CIT groups was significantly lower (p<0.05). The findings indicated positive effects in the physicochemical properties and storage ability of sous vide chicken breast at 2% and 5% citric acid concentrations. PMID:26761885

  4. 58. LOOKING WEST AT EAST END OF LUMBERSTORAGE SHED AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING WEST AT EAST END OF LUMBER-STORAGE SHED AS TWO FORKLIFTS CARRY STACK OF LONGEST TIMBERS CUT BY HULL-OAKES LUMBER CO. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1959. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  5. Ascorbic acid in diet supplements: loss in the manufacturing process and storage.

    PubMed

    Giménez, R; Cabrera, C; Olalla, M; Ruiz, M D; López, M C

    2002-11-01

    The ascorbic acid content was determined in 25 different diet supplements commercially available to the consumer in two pharmaceutical forms (pills and ampoules). These products are widely consumed by several population groups (elderly people, sportsmen, adolescents, children, etc.). High-performance liquid chromatography was used as the analytical technique. The proposed method has been validated with good linearity, reproducibility, recovery and accuracy, and can be used in routine analyses and in quality control. The ascorbic acid content in pills ranged from 15.62 to 50.16 mg/g, and in that ampoules from 2.12 to 8.83 mg/ml. Depending on the dosage rates, these levels would represent approximately 20-50% of the daily dietary intake recommended by the National Research Council. Possible losses in the manufacturing process and stability during storage for 30 days at 40 +/- 2 degrees C without light, were tested. In relation to the ascorbic acid concentrations stated on the labels, a loss of 12.0-21.9% in pills and of 11.7-18.0% in ampoules was detected. In relation to the stability conditions, the losses are of 1.8-24.8% in pills and of 10.4-19.3% in ampoules. The pasteurisation and sterilisation processes produced a mean loss of ascorbic acid in ampoules of 2.1 and 1.4%, respectively. A statistically significant direct correlation was observed between ascorbic acid loss and content in proteins, humidity, ash, and fructose. The influence of the pharmaceutical form was also tested. Data revealed that the control of losses during the manufacturing and commercialisation process of these products is necessary to ensure the intake of vitamin C from these products by the consumer.

  6. Charge storage in polymer acid-doped polyaniline-based layer-by-layer electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Won; O'Neal, Josh; Shao, Lin; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2013-10-23

    Polymeric electrodes that can achieve high doping levels and store charge reversibly are desired for electrochemical energy storage because they can potentially achieve high specific capacities and energies. One such candidate is the polyaniline:poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PANI:PAAMPSA) complex, a water-processable complex obtained via template polymerization that is known to reversibly achieve high doping levels at potentials of up to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+. Here, for the first time, PANI:PAAMPSA is successfully incorporated into layer-by-layer (LbL) electrodes. This processing technique is chosen for its ability to blend species on a molecular level and its ability to conformally coat a substrate. Three different polyaniline-based LbL electrodes comprised of PANI/PAAMPSA, PANI/PANI:PAAMPSA, and linear poly(ethylenimine)/PANI:PAAMPSA are compared in terms of film growth, charge storage, and reversibility. We found that the reversibility of PANI:PAAMPSA is retained within the LbL electrodes and that the PANI/PANI:PAAMPSA electrode exhibits the best performance in terms of capacity and cycle life. These results provide general guidelines for the assembly of PANI:PAAMPSA in LbL films and also demonstrate their potential as electrochemically active components in electrodes.

  7. Chemical stabilization of oils rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage.

    PubMed

    Pop, F

    2011-04-01

    During the microencapsulation process, the fish oil undergoes multiple changes in its physical properties such as bulkiness and dispersibility in aqueous phase and dry matrix. Autoxidation already occurred in the first stages of the microencapsulation process itself during emulsification and spray-drying. An efficient stabilization was achieved using a ternary combination of lipophilic antioxidants, synergistic compounds and a trace metal chelator, e.g. a combination of tocopherols, rich in the δ-derivative and low in the α-derivative, with ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin. Trace metal chelation by, e.g. Citrem or lecithin in combination with ascorbyl palmitate proved to be of particular importance in the emulsion, but not during the storage of the microencapsulated oil. In the microencapsulated oil, the addition of rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid to ternary blends of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin or Citrem significantly retarded autoxidation.

  8. Energy Storage in a fuel cell with bipolar membranes burning acid and hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emren, A. T.; Holmstrom, V. J. M.

    1983-04-01

    A battery is described, in which bipolar membranes are used to split water into acid and hydroxide. The liquids may be stored for an indefinite time, and energy may be recovered at room temperature. It is shown that the liquids are able to store about 400 kJ/litre, which roughly corresponds to pumping water up to an altitude of 40 km. Bipolar membranes of low area resistance have been made and tested. The area resistance appears to have been 2-3 ohm sq cm. A battery containing 7 unit cells has been constructed and tested. The maximum output voltage has been 1.8 V. The cost for enrgy storage is estimated to range from $0.1 to 2.5 per kWh depending on the mode of operation.

  9. Online impedance spectroscopy of lead acid batteries for storage management of a standalone power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depernet, Daniel; Ba, Oumar; Berthon, Alain

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a contribution to implementation of hybrid power plants in rural areas without electricity in Senegal. Wind and photovoltaic generators coupling is used to benefit from renewable energy resources in this country. Lead acid storage batteries are coupled with the generators to ensure smoothness of the electricity generation. This work is focused in particular on the development of a low cost online impedance spectroscopy method to address the problem of limited lifetime of batteries and the difficulties of their maintenance in isolated areas. Control of static converter associated with the battery is adapted to integrate the functionality of characterization of batteries by impedance spectroscopy. An experimental platform developed in the laboratory has validated the method for online measurement of battery impedance spectrum and to initiate a phase of data monitoring.

  10. A moderate change in temperature induces changes in fatty acid composition of storage and membrane lipids in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Ellers, Jacintha

    2010-02-01

    A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to be able to maintain homeoviscosity. Although different in function, storage lipids (triacylglycerol fatty acids) are expected to respond to temperature changes in a similar way. Age-specific differences, however, could influence this temperature response between different life stages. Here, we investigate if fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids responds similarly to temperature changes for two different life stages of Orchesella cincta. Juveniles and adults were cold acclimated (15 degrees C-->5 degrees C) for 28 days and then re-acclimated (5 degrees C-->15 degrees C) for another 28 days. We found adult membranes had a more unsaturated fatty acid composition than juveniles. Membrane lipids became more unsaturated during cold acclimation, and a reversed response occurred during warm acclimation. Membrane lipids, however, showed no warm acclimation, possibly due to the moderate temperature change. The ability to adjust storage lipid composition to moderate changes in ambient temperature may be an underestimated fitness component of temperature adaptation because fluidity of storage lipids permits accessibility of enzymes to energy reserves.

  11. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  12. Multiparametric flow cytometry allows rapid assessment and comparison of lactic acid bacteria viability after freezing and during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Rault, Aline; Béal, Catherine; Ghorbal, Sarrah; Ogier, Jean-Claude; Bouix, Marielle

    2007-08-01

    Freezing is widely used for the long-term preservation of lactic acid bacteria, but often affects their viability and technological properties. Different methods are currently employed to determine bacterial cryotolerance, but they all require several hours or days before achieving results. The aim of this study was to establish the advantages of multiparametric flow cytometry by using two specific fluorescent probes to provide rapid assessment of the viability of four strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii after freezing and during frozen storage. The relevance of carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide to quantify bacterial viability was proven. When bacterial suspensions were simultaneously stained with these two fluorescent probes, three major subpopulations were identified: viable, dead and injured cells. The cryotolerance of four L. delbrueckii strains was evaluated by quantifying the relative percentages of each subpopulation before and after freezing, and throughout one month of storage at -80 degrees C. Results displayed significant differences in the resistance to freezing and frozen storage of the four strains when they were submitted to the same freezing and storage procedures. Whereas resistant strains displayed less than 10% of dead cells after one month of storage, one sensitive strain exhibited more than 50% of dead cells, together with 14% of stressed cells after freezing. Finally, this study proved that multiparametric flow cytometry was a convenient and rapid tool to evaluate the viability of lactic acid bacteria, and was well correlated with plate count results. Moreover, it made it possible to differentiate strains according to their susceptibility to freezing and frozen storage.

  13. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Md S I; Bowra, S; Schmidt, D; Dionisio, G; Holm, P B; Vincze, E

    2016-02-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7% reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, the protein band were excised and the proteins identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequent SDS-PAGE separation and analysis of the prolamin fraction of the transgenic lines revealed a reduction in the amounts of C-hordeins and increases in the content of other hordein family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C-hordein level. All transgenic lines that exhibited a reduction for C-hordein showed off-target effects: the lines exhibited increased level of B/γ-hordein while D-hordein level was reduced. Furthermore, the multicopy insertions correlated negatively with silencing.

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging during storage of fresh-cut eggplants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xihong; Jiang, Yuqian; Li, Weili; Tang, Yao; Yun, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Ascorbic acid dip and high O2 modified atmosphere packaging were used to alleviate browning and quality loss of fresh-cut eggplants. Fresh-cut eggplants were dipped in water or 0.5% ascorbic acid solution for 2 min before being packed in polyethylene film bags filled with air or high O2. The physiochemical and sensorial attributes of cut eggplants were evaluated during 12 days for storage at 4 . Results demonstrated that high O2 modified atmosphere packaging and ascorbic acid dip improved the preservation of fresh-cut eggplants compared with the control. High O2 showed an ability to reduce the browning and inhibit polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities. Higher total phenolic content and lower malondialdehyde content were also observed in ascorbic acid treated samples during storage. Moreover, the combination of ascorbic acid and high O2 was more effective than single treatments. The surface color was protected by ascorbic acid and high O2 packaging, and higher sensory scores were observed after 12 days of storage.

  15. A NOVEL PNYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID (DMA): THE LUNG AS A STORAGE COMPARTMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A NOVEL PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID (DMA): THE LUNG AS A STORAGE COMPARTMENT. Evans, M.V., Hughes, M.F., and Kenyon, E.M. USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    DMA is the major methylated metabolite of inorganic arsenic, a kno...

  16. Effect of probiotic-, bacteriophage-, or organic acid-supplemented feeds or fermented soybean meal on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of grower pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Gebru, E; Lee, J S; Son, J C; Yang, S Y; Shin, S A; Kim, B; Kim, M K; Park, S C

    2010-12-01

    A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 108; initially, 38.7 ± 6.7 kg) fed 6 treatment diets, including a control diet with no antimicrobial agents (CON), a positive control diet containing chlortetracycline, 100 mg/kg (CT), a diet containing anti-Salmonella Typhimurium bacteriophage, 3 × 10(9) plaque-forming units/kg of feed (ASB), Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP56, 6.5 × 10(8) cfu/kg of feed (LP), 0.2% microencapsulated organic acids (MOA), or 5% fermented soybean meal (FSM). Pigs were fed the diets for 2 wk before and 2 wk after challenging orally with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (SalT). Before bacterial challenge, ADFI was similar in all groups. After SalT challenge, ADFI of CON pigs was less (P < 0.05) than all other groups. Before challenge, pigs on MOA, FSM, and CT diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than CON pigs. After challenge (wk 3 to 4) and during the overall experimental period (wk 1 to 4), ADG of all treatment groups and G:F of all treatment groups except the LP group were greater (P < 0.05) than those of CON pigs. Relative to all other treatments, CON and LP pigs had greater (P < 0.05) bacterial shedding scores on d 7 after SalT challenge. At d 14 postchallenge, shedding scores declined (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups compared with CON pigs. Serum haptoglobin for all treatment groups increased from d 0 concentrations on d 6 postchallenge and declined to prechallenge concentrations on d 13 (P < 0.05). Circulating IGF-I concentrations declined from 2 to 6 d postchallenge and increased again by d 13 in ASB and LP groups, did not decline in FSM and CT groups, and continuously declined through d 13 in CON and LP groups (P < 0.05). However, in MOA group, IGF-I concentrations declined from preinfection concentrations on d 2, increased on d 4, and declined again until d 13 (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β were not

  17. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage.

  18. Identification and quantification of the oxidation products derived from α-acids and β-acids during storage of hops ( Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Ozaki, Hiromi; Nishimura, Koichi; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2013-03-27

    α-Acids and β-acids, two main components of hop resin, are known to be susceptible to oxygen and degraded during hop storage, although the oxidation products in stored hops have not been fully identified. In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method suitable for separation and quantification of the oxidation products. This HPLC analysis clearly proved, for the first time, that humulinones and hulupones are major products in oxidized hops. We are also the first to identify novel 4'-hydroxy-allohumulinones, suggested to be oxidative products of humulinones, by means of NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Using the developed analytical method, changes in α- and β-acids and their oxidation products during hop storage were clearly revealed for the first time.

  19. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  20. View Shed - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-18

    The View Shed library is a collection of Umbra modules that are used to calculate areas of visual coverage (view sheds). It maps high and low visibility areas and calculates sensor (camera placement for maximum coverage and performance. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (ViewShedWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  1. Hyaluronic acid uptake in the assessment of sinusoidal endothelial cell damage after cold storage and normothermic reperfusion of rat livers.

    PubMed

    Reinders, M E; van Wagensveld, B A; van Gulik, T M; Frederiks, W M; Chamuleau, R A; Endert, E; Klopper, P J

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of hyaluronic acid (HA) was used to assess preservation damage to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) during cold storage and subsequent normothermic reperfusion of rat livers. After 8, 16, 24, and 48 h storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, livers were gravity-flushed via the portal vein with a standard volume of cold UW solution containing 50 micrograms/l HA. The effluent was collected for analysis of HA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mean uptake of HA at 0 h was 59.1% +/- 4.6% (mean +/- SEM). After 8 h of storage, HA uptake was similar (55.5% +/- 7.3%), whereas after 16 h of storage it was reduced to 34.7% +/- 5.8%. At 24 and 48 h of storage, no uptake of HA was found. In a second series of experiments, livers were stored in UW solution and subsequently reperfused for 90 min with a Krebs-Henseleit solution (37 degrees C) in a recirculating system containing 150 micrograms/l HA. Following 8 h of storage, 34.6% +/- 8.0% of the initial HA concentration was taken up from the perfusate. After 16 and 24 h of storage, no uptake of HA was found. The results of this study indicate that damage to SEC occurs progressively during storage, leading to zero uptake of HA by the rat livers at 24 h of cold ischemia time. Additional reperfusion injury to the SEC was demonstrated by the reduced ability of the SEC to take up HA following normothermic reperfusion. The uptake of exogenous HA in preserved livers, used as a tool to assess SEC injury, enables the detection of early preservation damage.

  2. Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), ranged from 12.5 to 200 microg/ml, on boar sperm capacitation status during a storage time (up to 3 days) at 15 degrees C in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). The raw extender was the negative control whereas different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ranged from 0.25 to 8mM, served as positive controls. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, and osmotic resistance were also determined before and after assessing the treatments. Samples were obtained from 28 healthy and post-pubertal Piétrain boars and sperm parameters were tested immediately after the addition of treatments and after 1, 2 and 3 days of refrigeration at 15 degrees C. Sperm capacitation status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining and sperm viability by means of a multiple fluorochrome-staining test. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy accompanied by a computer assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Whereas HA delayed sperm capacitation, CAF increased the frequency of capacitated spermatozoa after 2 days of cooling. Moreover, HA did not modify other sperm parameters, such as sperm velocity, whereas CAF increased progressive motility during the first 2 days of cooling and then decreased. It can be concluded that the addition of HA at 50 and 100 microg/ml to the BTS extender may delay sperm capacitation after 3 days of cooling.

  3. Preparation and li storage properties of hierarchical porous carbon fibers derived from alginic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-Long; Chen, Li-Li; Xin, Sen; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Kong, Qing-Shan; Xia, Yan-Zhi

    2010-06-21

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical porous carbon fibers (HPCFs) have been prepared by controlled carbonization of alginic acid fibers and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and electrochemical tests toward lithium storage. The as-obtained HPCFs consist of a 3D network of nanosized carbon particles with diameters less than 10 nm and exhibit a hierarchical porous architecture composed of both micropores and mesopores. Electrochemical measurements show that HPCFs exhibit excellent rate capability and capacity retention compared with commercial graphite when employed as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. At the discharge/charge rate of 45 C, the reversible capacity of HPCFs is still as high as 80 mA h g(-1) even after 1500 cycles, which is about five times larger than that of commercial graphite anode. The much improved electrochemical performances could be attributed to the nanosized building blocks, the hierarchical porous structure, and the 1D morphology of HPCFs.

  4. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Ishikawa, Yu; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2005-09-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). We suggest herein that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes based on the following observations. (i) The exclusive expression of THCA synthase was confirmed in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. (ii) THCA synthase activity was detected in the storage cavity content. (iii) Transgenic tobacco expressing THCA synthase fused to green fluorescent protein showed fluorescence in the trichome head corresponding to the storage cavity. These results also showed that secretory cells of the glandular trichomes secrete not only metabolites but also biosynthetic enzyme.

  5. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  6. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the productivity of laying hens and egg quality during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, X G; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Yin, J D; Li, J Y

    2004-10-01

    Five hundred and four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 +/- 0.08 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolks. From d 12 to 18, eggs from hens fed diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% CLA diets were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 28 d. At designated times (1, 14, or 28 d), eggs were taken, broken, and shelled to evaluate water content, pH, and ion concentration. Firmness of hard-cooked egg yolk was also determined. With increased dietary CLA, feed intake, BW gain, rate of egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency all decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The weight of the yolk, albumen, and shell decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Concentration of CLA in the yolk lipids increased quadratically (P < 0.01), with increasing dietary CLA. Concurrent increases (P < 0.01) in the concentration of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and decreases (P < 0.01) in oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and archidonic acids in egg yolk lipids were observed. Days of storage and CLA (P < 0.01) increased yolk firmness. Egg yolk water content and pH increased with storage and CLA content (P < 0.01). Corresponding decreases were observed in albumen pH. Regardless of dietary treatment, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg yolks increased with longer storage time. At 28 d of storage, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in Na, K, and Mg content in egg yolks as dietary CLA increased. In contrast to the egg yolk, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg albumen decreased with storage time. On d 28, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in the Na content of

  7. Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Storage In Vivo: Effects of Insulin Versus Niacin as a Control for Suppression of Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asem H; Mundi, Manpreet; Koutsari, Christina; Bernlohr, David A; Jensen, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) to plasma membrane, and thus greater free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, in adipocyte cell models. Whether insulin stimulates greater FFA clearance into adipose tissue in vivo is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by comparing direct FFA storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue during insulin versus niacin-medicated suppression of lipolysis. We measured direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat in 10 and 11 adults, respectively, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia or after oral niacin to suppress FFA compared with 11 saline control experiments. Direct palmitate storage was assessed using a [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion to measure palmitate kinetics and an intravenous palmitate radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Plasma palmitate concentrations and flux were suppressed to 23 ± 3 and 26 ± 5 µmol ⋅ L(-1) (P = 0.91) and 44 ± 4 and 39 ± 5 µmol ⋅ min(-1) (P = 0.41) in the insulin and niacin groups, respectively, much less (P < 0.001) than the saline control group (102 ± 8 and 104 ± 12 µmol ⋅ min(-1), respectively). In the insulin, niacin, and saline groups, abdominal palmitate storage rates were 0.25 ± 0.05 vs. 0.25 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS), and femoral adipose storage rates were 0.19 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, insulin does not increase FFA storage in adipose tissue compared with niacin, which suppresses lipolysis via a different pathway.

  8. Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Storage In Vivo: Effects of Insulin Versus Niacin as a Control for Suppression of Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asem H.; Mundi, Manpreet; Koutsari, Christina; Bernlohr, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) to plasma membrane, and thus greater free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, in adipocyte cell models. Whether insulin stimulates greater FFA clearance into adipose tissue in vivo is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by comparing direct FFA storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue during insulin versus niacin-medicated suppression of lipolysis. We measured direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat in 10 and 11 adults, respectively, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia or after oral niacin to suppress FFA compared with 11 saline control experiments. Direct palmitate storage was assessed using a [U-13C]palmitate infusion to measure palmitate kinetics and an intravenous palmitate radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Plasma palmitate concentrations and flux were suppressed to 23 ± 3 and 26 ± 5 µmol ⋅ L−1 (P = 0.91) and 44 ± 4 and 39 ± 5 µmol ⋅ min−1 (P = 0.41) in the insulin and niacin groups, respectively, much less (P < 0.001) than the saline control group (102 ± 8 and 104 ± 12 µmol ⋅ min−1, respectively). In the insulin, niacin, and saline groups, abdominal palmitate storage rates were 0.25 ± 0.05 vs. 0.25 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, respectively (P = NS), and femoral adipose storage rates were 0.19 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, insulin does not increase FFA storage in adipose tissue compared with niacin, which suppresses lipolysis via a different pathway. PMID:25883112

  9. Effect of level of acidification by phosphoric acid, storage temperature, and length of storage on the chemical and biological stability of ground poultry mortality carcasses.

    PubMed

    Middleton, T F; Ferket, P R

    2001-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the addition of feed-grade H3PO4 in comparison to lactic acid fermentation as a means of preserving ground poultry mortality carcasses. Mortality silage quality in both experiments was evaluated by measuring the rise in pH after initial acidification (deltapH) and the content of nonprotein N (NPN), volatile nitrogen (VN), NH3-N, and fecal coliform bacteria in the silage treatments. Preliminary work in Experiment 1 evaluated the preservative effects of six initial levels of acidification with H3PO4 (pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0) at two storage temperatures (21 and 45 C). Experiment 2 compared silages preserved with different levels of feed-grade 74.5% H3PO4 (4.13, 5.52, 6.90, and 8.28% wt/wt, concentrated acid basis) to silages made by lactic acid fermentation. Based on the evaluations in Experiment 1, acidification with H3PO4 to pH < or = 3.0, when incubated at 45 C, or pH < or = 2.0, when incubated at ambient temperatures, produced the most biologically favorable poultry mortality silage for subsequent use as a feed ingredient. In Experiment 2, mortality silages containing 8.28% H3PO4 (wt/wt, concentrated acid basis) contained significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of the protein degradation by-products VN and NH3-N than silages prepared by lactic acid fermentation. Therefore, feedstuffs manufactured from mortality silages prepared using 8.28% H3PO4 would be expected to result in improved animal performance vs. feedstuffs manufactured using silages prepared by lactic acid fermentation.

  10. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  11. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised.

  12. Shed syndecan-2 inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Rossi, Giulia; Evans, Alun R.; Kay, Emma; Woodfin, Abigail; McKay, Tristan R.; Nourshargh, Sussan; Whiteford, James R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Angiogenesis is essential for the development of a normal vasculature, tissue repair and reproduction, and also has roles in the progression of diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-2 is expressed on mesenchymal cells in the vasculature and, like the other members of its family, can be shed from the cell surface resulting in the release of its extracellular core protein. The purpose of this study was to establish whether shed syndecan-2 affects angiogenesis. We demonstrate that shed syndecan-2 regulates angiogenesis by inhibiting endothelial cell migration in human and rodent models and, as a result, reduces tumour growth. Furthermore, our findings show that these effects are mediated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD148 (also known as PTPRJ) and this interaction corresponds with a decrease in active β1 integrin. Collectively, these data demonstrate an unexplored pathway for the regulation of new blood vessel formation and identify syndecan-2 as a therapeutic target in pathologies characterised by angiogenesis. PMID:25179601

  13. Acid Fluid-Rock Interactions with Shales Comprising Unconventional Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and with Shale Capping Carbon Storage Reservoirs: Experimental Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Bratcher, J.; Marcon, V.; Herz-Thyhsen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Injection of HCl is often a first stage in the hydraulic fracturing process. These acidic fluids react with marls or shales in unconventional reservoirs, reactions generally comparable to reaction between shale caprocks and acidic, carbonated formation waters in a carbon storage reservoir. Hydrothermal experiments examine acid fluid-rock interaction with 1) an unconventional shale reservoir and 2) a model shale capping a carbon storage reservoir. In the former, unconventional reservoir rock and hydraulic fracturing fluid possessing a range of ionic strengths (I = 0.01, 0.15) and initial pH values (2.5 and 7.3) reacted at 115°C and 35 MPa for 28 days. In the latter, a model carbon storage reservoir (Fe-rich dolomite), shale caprock (illite), and shale-reservoir mixture each reacted with formation water (I = 0.1 and pH 6.3) at 160°C and 25 MPa for ~15 days. These three experiments were subsequently injected with sufficient CO2 to maintain CO2 saturation in the water and allowed to react for ~40 additional days. Acidic frac fluid was rapidly buffered (from pH 2.5 to 6.2 after 38 hrs) by reaction with reservoir rock whereas the pH of near-neutral frac fluid decreased (from 7.3 to 6.9) after 47 hrs. Carbonate dissolution released Ca and Sr into solution and feldspar dissolution released SiO2 and Li; the extent of reaction was greater in the experiment containing acidic frac fluid. All three carbon storage experiments displayed a similar pH decrease of 1.5 units after the addition of CO2. The pH remained low for the duration of the experiments because the immiscible supercritical CO2 phase provided an infinite reservoir of carbonic acid that could not be consumed by reaction with the rock. In all three experiments, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and SO4 increase with injection, but slowly decline through termination of the experiments. This trend suggests initial dissolution followed by re-precipitation of carbonates, which can be seen in modeling and SEM results. New clay minerals

  14. Human acid alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet, A G; Van Hirtum, H; Kroos, M A; Van de Kamp, E H; Schoneveld, O; Visser, P; Brakenhoff, J P; Weggeman, M; van Corven, E J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Reuser, A J

    1999-11-01

    Pompe's disease or glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) belongs to the family of inherited lysosomal storage diseases. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase leads in different degrees of severity to glycogen storage in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. There is currently no treatment for this fatal disease, but the applicability of enzyme replacement therapy is under investigation. For this purpose, recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase has been produced on an industrial scale in the milk of transgenic rabbits. In this paper we demonstrate the therapeutic effect of this enzyme in our knockout mouse model of GSDII. Full correction of acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency was obtained in all tissues except brain after a single dose of i.v. enzyme administration. Weekly enzyme infusions over a period of 6 months resulted in degradation of lysosomal glycogen in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. The tissue morphology improved substantially despite the advanced state of disease at the start of treatment. The results have led to the start of a Phase II clinical trial of enzyme replacement therapy in patients.

  15. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation.

  16. SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual Appendices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The appendices for the SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual include a sample food diary, backgorund information on the water concentration data used in SHEDS-Dietary, a food list, food definitions and sample code.

  17. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugaman, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose was to continue a development project on a no moving parts vortex shedding flowmeter used for flow measurement of hypergols. The project involved the design and construction of a test loop to evaluate the meter for flow of Freon which simulates the hypergol fluids. Results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of the flow meter as a function of flow rate. A family of flow meters for larger size lines and ranges of flow was sized based on the results of the tested meter.

  18. The location of acid invertase activity and sucrose in the vacuoles of storage roots of beetroot (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, R A; Rees, T; Fuller, W A; Banfield, J

    1979-01-01

    Vacuoles were isolated from freshly cut slices of the storage roots of beetroot (Beta vulgaris), and from slices that had been washed in aerated water for 1-3 days. The unique vacuolar location of betanin permitted the use of a correlative method to determine whether sucrose and acid invertase were located in the vacuoles. The specific content (the activity of the enzyme or amount of substrate per mg of protein) and the percentage recoveries for betanin, sucrose and acid invertase were determined for the different fractions obtained during the isolation of the vacuoles. For each fraction the specific content of betanin was plotted against those of sucrose and acid invertase. Similar correlative plots were drawn for the percentage recoveries. For both specific contents and percentage recoveries for correlation coefficients for sucrose and for acid invertase versus betanin were close to unity, and the lines passed near the origins. It is concluded that, in beetroot, most of the sucrose and much of the acid invertase are in the vacuoles. Measurements of vacuolar sucrose and acid invertase in beetroot slices washed for 1-3 days demonstrated an inverse relationship between sucrose content and acid invertase activity. PMID:454363

  19. Method of making a sealed lead-acid battery with a gel electrolyte and sealed lead-acid storage battery made according to this method

    SciTech Connect

    Chreitzberg, A.M.; Chiacchio, F.J.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described of making a sealed lead-acid storage battery having a plurality of electrodes and a gel electrolyte consisting substantially of sulfuric acid and a gelling agent, comprising the steps of: (a) activating a dry unformed battery by filling the battery with sulfuric acid, (b) maintaining the battery on open circuit or a period of time sufficient to chemically bond sulphuric acid as sulfate to the electrodes and lower the specific gravity of the acid to the desired gelling value, (c) dumping the free acid from the battery, (d) adding a solution of gelling agent and sulfuric acid to fill the battery to the normal formation level, (e) formation charging the battery by applying a constant charge current of 5-16 A/100 Ah for an input of 200-300 Ah/lb. positive active material whereby gelling of the electrolyte is effected, (f) when formation is complete, removing excess liquid, if any, to top of electrodes, and (g) sealing the battery with a pressure relief valve.

  20. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  1. Phenomenon of Alfvenic Vortex Shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszecki, M.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Arber, T. D.

    2010-07-30

    Generation of Alfvenic (magnetohydrodynamic) vortices by the interaction of compressible plasma flows with magnetic-field-aligned blunt obstacles is modeled in terms of magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that periodic shedding of vortices with opposite vorticity is a robust feature of the interaction in a broad range of plasma parameters: for plasma beta from 0.025 to 0.5, and for the flow speeds from 0.1 to 0.99 of the fast magnetoacoustic speed. The Strouhal number is the dimensionless ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the inflow speed. It is found to be consistently in the range 0.15-0.25 in the whole range of parameters. The induced Alfvenic vortices are compressible and contain spiral-armed perturbations of the magnetic field strength and plasma mass density up to 50%-60% of the background values. The generated electric current also has the spiral-armed structuring.

  2. Comparative Study of Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide Binary and Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide/Titanium-Oxide Ternary for Use as Energy Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andiarto, Rizky; Khalish Nuryadin, Muhammad; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a series of stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites for thermal energy storage (TES) system were synthesized through a two-step process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites were first prepared using sol-gel methods and then both samples were mixed into stearic acid by dispersion technique at three different weight % ratio to stearic acid: 5%, 10% and 15% to obtain stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. Morphologies and structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), while thermal properties of the sample were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fhermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns demonstrate, that stearic acid/Fe3O4 contained characteristic peaks of Fe3O4 and stearic acid structures, while peaks corresponded to anatase TiO2 structures appear in stearic acid/ Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. From the DSC measurements, it is found that the maximum latent heat was found at samples with weight ratio of 5%. Moreover, the enhancement up to 20% of latent heat in solidifying as well as melting processes was observed. TGA measurements show high degradation temperature in the range of 246 - 251°C. The TGA results also shows that the residual mass of the sample matches the composition of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/TiO2 which is added to the stearic acid.

  3. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  4. 77 FR 53884 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability...\\ Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards, 139 FERC ] 61,098... 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and...

  5. Vortex shedding and Maxwell's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2006-11-01

    The coupled problem of a flow around a solid body has applications from the fall of objects in a fluid to the computation of forces on wind-exposed structures. A simplified 2D model is proposed here for the interaction between solid bodies and potential flows. Potential flows over sharp edges generate singular velocities at the edges. To satisfy the Kutta condition, vorticity sheets must be shed from the edges to remove these singularities. Here 2D vorticity sheets are represented as discrete point-vortices with monotically varying intensity. From the fluid momentum conservation, an equation of motion for these vortices, the Brown and Michael equation, is derived and mechanical efforts applied by the fluid on the body are computed. The set of dynamical equations obtained for the fluid-body system is closed and is applied to Maxwell's problem of the 2D fall of a plate in an inviscid fluid initially at rest.

  6. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  7. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  8. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  9. Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for carboxylic acid production from in-storage air-lime-treated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhihong; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Wet storage and in situ lime pretreatment (50 °C, 1-atm air, 56 days, excess lime loading of 0.3 g Ca(OH)(2)/g dry biomass) of sugarcane bagasse (4,000 g dry weight) was performed in a bench-scale pile pretreatment system. Under thermophilic conditions (55 °C, NH(4)HCO(3) buffer, methane inhibitors), air-lime-treated bagasse (80 wt.%) and chicken manure (20 wt.%) were anaerobically co-digested in 1-L rotary fermentors by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms (Galveston, TX). During four-stage countercurrent fermentation, the resulting carboxylic acids consisted of primarily acetate (average 87.7 wt.%) and butyrate (average 9.0 wt.%). The experimental fermentation trains had the highest yield (0.47 g total acids/g volatile solids (VS) fed) and highest selectivity (0.79 g total acids/g VS digested) at a total acid concentration of 28.3 g/L, which is equivalent to an ethanol yield of 105.2 gal/(tonne VS fed). Both high total acid concentrations (>44.7 g/L) and high substrate conversions (>77.5%) are predicted for countercurrent fermentations of bagasse at commercial scale, allowing for an efficient conversion of air-lime-treated biomass to liquid transportation fuels and chemicals via the carboxylate platform.

  10. Effects of sulfur dioxide concentration on organic acids and β-carotene in dried apricots during storage.

    PubMed

    Salur-Can, Ayşenur; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2017-04-15

    The effects of various sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations (0, 451, 832, 1594, 2112 and 3241mg/kg) on the profiles and contents of organic acids (OAs) and β-carotene in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs) were investigated during storage at 4, 20 and 30°C for 379days. In all samples, four OAs [malic acid (MA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA) and oxalic acid (OXA)] were identified. SA (13.9-31.8g/kgdw) was the major OA in SDAs containing SO2 at lower than 1594mgSO2/kg, while MA (11.7-11.7g/kgdw) was the major OA in SDAs containing SO2 at higher than 1594mgSO2/kg. As SO2 concentration increased, CA and OXA contents increased whereas MA contents decreased. Moreover, the highest stabilities of β-carotene, MA and SO2 were determined in SDAs containing 1594mgSO2/kg at 4°C. Therefore, we suggest using 1594mgSO2/kg and storing SDAs at 4°C to protect OAs and β-carotene.

  11. Effects of Additions of Monascus and Laccaic acid on the Color and Quality Properties of Nitrite-Free Emulsion Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Sil

    2017-01-01

    This effect of Monascus and Laccaic acid on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Eight treatments (T) of sausage such as T1 (12 ppm sodium nitrite), while T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 were formulated with different ratios of Monascus/Laccaic acid: 63/7.0, 108/12, 135/15, 59.5/10.5, 102/18 and 127.5/22.5 ppm, respectively. The batch formulated without nitrite or Monascus and laccaic acid was served as control (C). The control sausages had higher pH values compared to the treated ones at 3, 10 and 28 d storage (p<0.05). After 10 d storage, the pH values decreased in treated sausage samples (p<0.05). The T1 and T4 presented the lowest yellowness and lightness values, respectively over the storage period. The redness values were increased as increasing Monascus and Laccaic acid amounts (T2-T4, T5-T7). The addition of Monascus and Laccaic acid had significantly higher hardness and springiness values (p<0.05) compared with the control in 3, 19 or 28 d storage. The results indicated that the addition of Monascus and Laccaic acid could improve the redness of the products. PMID:28316466

  12. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  13. Wolman disease/cholesteryl ester storage disease: efficacy of plant-produced human lysosomal acid lipase in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong; Cameron, Terri L; Garger, Stephen J; Pogue, Gregory P; Hamm, Lee A; White, Earl; Hanley, Kathleen M; Grabowski, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is an essential enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) and cholesteryl esters (CEs) in lysosomes. Genetic LAL mutations lead to Wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). An LAL-null (lal(-/-)) mouse model resembles human WD/CESD with storage of CEs and TGs in multiple organs. Human LAL (hLAL) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the GENEWARE expression system (G-hLAL). Purified G-hLAL showed mannose receptor-dependent uptake into macrophage cell lines (J774E). Intraperitoneal injection of G-hLAL produced peak activities in plasma at 60 min and in the liver and spleen at 240 min. The t(1/2) values were: approximately 90 min (plasma), approximately 14 h (liver), and approximately 32 h (spleen), with return to baseline by approximately 150 h in liver and approximately 200 h in spleen. Ten injections of G-hLAL (every 3 days) into lal(-/-) mice produced normalization of hepatic color, decreases in hepatic cholesterol and TG contents, and diminished foamy macrophages in liver, spleen, and intestinal villi. All injected lal(-/-) mice developed anti-hLAL protein antibodies, but suffered no adverse events. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using plant-expressed, recombinant hLAL for the enzyme therapy of human WD/CESD with general implications for other lysosomal storage diseases.

  14. The fate of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes in an aquifer storage and recovery program, Las Vegas, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.M.; McKay, W.A.; Colec, E.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of disinfection byproducts during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is evaluated for aquifers in Southern Nevada. Rapid declines of haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations during ASR, with associated little change in Cl concentration, indicate that HAAs decline primarily by in situ microbial oxidation. Dilution is only a minor contributor to HAA concentration declines during ASR. Trihalomethane (THM) concentrations generally increased during storage of artificial recharge (AR) water and then declined during recovery. The decline of THM concentrations during recovery was primarily from dilution of current season AR water with residual AR water remaining in the aquifer from previous ASR seasons and native ground water. In more recent ASR seasons, for wells with the longest history of ASR, brominated THMs declined during storage and recovery by processes in addition to dilution. These conclusions about THMs are indicated by THM/Cl values and supported by a comparison of measured and model predicted THM concentrations. Geochemical mixing models were constructed using major-ion chemistry of the three end-member waters to calculate predicted THM concentrations. The decline in brominated THM concentrations in addition to that from dilution may result from biotransformation processes.

  15. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  16. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to <2 mg/kg at the other two temperatures. Storage at 10°C also resulted in an increase in trans-UCA after 3 days, only to decrease after 6 days. The concentration of cis-UCA increased nearly 13-fold after 15 days at 0 and 3°C, decreased at 10°C and remained unchanged at 23°C. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C.

  17. Wolman disease/cholesteryl ester storage disease: efficacy of plant-produced human lysosomal acid lipase in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong; Cameron, Terri L.; Garger, Stephen J.; Pogue, Gregory P.; Hamm, Lee A.; White, Earl; Hanley, Kathleen M.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is an essential enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) and cholesteryl esters (CEs) in lysosomes. Genetic LAL mutations lead to Wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). An LAL-null (lal−/−) mouse model resembles human WD/CESD with storage of CEs and TGs in multiple organs. Human LAL (hLAL) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the GENEWARE® expression system (G-hLAL). Purified G-hLAL showed mannose receptor-dependent uptake into macrophage cell lines (J774E). Intraperitoneal injection of G-hLAL produced peak activities in plasma at 60 min and in the liver and spleen at 240 min. The t1/2 values were: ∼90 min (plasma), ∼14 h (liver), and ∼32 h (spleen), with return to baseline by ∼150 h in liver and ∼200 h in spleen. Ten injections of G-hLAL (every 3 days) into lal−/− mice produced normalization of hepatic color, decreases in hepatic cholesterol and TG contents, and diminished foamy macrophages in liver, spleen, and intestinal villi. All injected lal−/− mice developed anti-hLAL protein antibodies, but suffered no adverse events. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using plant-expressed, recombinant hLAL for the enzyme therapy of human WD/CESD with general implications for other lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:18413899

  18. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day storage period.

    PubMed

    Scholten, R H; Rijnen, M M; Schrama, J W; Boer, H; van der Peet-Schwering, C M; Den Hartog, L A; Vesseur, P C; Verstegen, M W

    2001-06-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher diet (LFD)] were studied. All products, except LWS, showed a significant decrease in pH and acid-binding capacity during storage. At the end of the storage period, all products reached a pH of between 3.5 and 3.9. In general, it can be concluded that the lactic acid content, and to a lesser extent the acetic acid content, increased dramatically during storage. In contrast, the ethanol content increased significantly in the liquid compound diets only. The pattern of changes in pH and organic acids during the 6-day storage period was different between the liquid coproducts and the liquid compound diets. At the start of storage, liquid coproducts are already in the 'middle' of the fermentation process, while liquid compound diets need approximately 24-36 h before fermentation begins. Consequently, in practice a different approach to obtain fermented diets is needed for liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets.

  19. Natural/passive solar heating and cooling for poultry sheds

    SciTech Connect

    Abd El-Salam, E.M.

    1980-12-01

    Arid climates, as in Egypt and the Middle-East regions, are characterized by large durinal and seasonal temperature variation coupled with clear skies and ample sunshine duration. Partial stabilization of indoor thermal environment in habitation is of great comfort for human and have large effects on animals or birds productivities. In case of poultry or animal sheds, can have some economical turn over in terms of increased egg or animal productivity and reduction of mortality rates if their indoor thermal environment is favorably controlled. Poultry birds are sensitive to changes of ambient temperatures, humidity and other environmental variables. This investigation describes an unconventional method of maintaining moderate thermal environment within poultry sheds by using the roof for storage of heat and coolness in appropriate seasons. During winter, underground water is circulated through specially designed pipe matrix imbeded in the roof slab and through radiant wall panels.

  20. Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ≥ 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This

  1. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Martina D.; Kainz, Martin J.; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M.

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  2. The Quality Changes of Postharvest Mulberry Fruit Treated by Chitosan-g-Caffeic Acid During Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Han, Beibei; Zheng, Yu; Liu, Lili; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of chitosan-g-caffeic acid (CTS-g-CA) on improving the quality and extending the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during storage at 4 °C for 18 d. CTS-g-CA was enzymatically synthesized using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The synergistic effects of CTS-g-CA treatment on mulberry fruit were evaluated using a co-toxicity factor (cf). The results showed that the rotting rate of CTS-g-CA-treated fruit was 37.67% (compared with that of the control at 97.67%) on day 18. The weight loss and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the CTS-g-CA-treated mulberry fruit were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control, CA, CTS, and CA+CTS treatments. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the CTS-g-CA treatment were both higher than those of the control. Furthermore, the CTS-g-CA treatment also maintained higher levels of main active substances, such as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and flavones, in mulberry fruit than the other treatments. Therefore, CTS-g-CA could be used to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during cold storage.

  3. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jun; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joonho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg), and porous calcium silicate (25 mg) and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp) and disintegration time (14 minutes). The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity) over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27103789

  4. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Jun; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joonho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg), and porous calcium silicate (25 mg) and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp) and disintegration time (14 minutes). The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity) over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function.

  5. Evolution of amino acids and biogenic amines throughout storage in sausages made of horse, beef and turkey meats.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Mohamed A; Peres, Cidalia; Malcata, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The changes in concentration of free amino acids and biogenic amines, along 28 d of storage at 4°C, were monitored in a wide range of European ripened sausages manufactured from horse, beef and turkey meats. Generally speaking, both chemical families became more concentrated with elapsing time--but rather distinct patterns were followed in each meat type: total free amino acids increased by 13-fold in the case of horse sausages, and 5-fold in the case of beef sausages, but decreased to one third in the case of turkey sausages; and total biogenic amines attained 730 mg/kg in turkey sausages, 500 mg/kg in beef sausages and 130 mg/kg in horse sausages by 28 d of refrigerated storage. For putrescine, maximum levels of 285 mg/kg were attained in turkey and 278 mg/kg in beef sausages; for cadaverine, maximum levels of 6 mg/kg in turkey and 9 mg/kg in beef; and for histamine, maximum levels of 263 mg/kg in turkey and 26 mg/kg in beef. Hence, public safety concerns may be raised in the case of turkey sausages.

  6. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  7. Prevalence of hair shedding among women.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Maja; Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Sinclair, Rodney; Lonky, Neal M; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Bolanca, Zeljana; McCoy, John

    2017-01-01

    Hair shedding in female patients is a frequent complaint in dermatological, endocrinological, and gynecological consults. Previously, the Sinclair Hair Shedding Scale was developed to assess normal versus excessive hair shedding in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) subjects. However, the prevalence of hair shedding in females not suffering from FPHL is unknown. To gain better understanding of hair shedding in the general population, we recruited 300 subjects visiting a public hospital for conditions other than alopecia. Of the 300 subjects recruited, 263 did not suffer from FPHL. Among those subjects, approximately 40% reported experiencing excessive hair shedding (as defined by the Sinclair Hair Shedding Scale) on hair washing days. In comparison, in our subject population, approximately 60% of subjects with FPHL reported excessive hair shedding on hair washing days. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the prevalence of hair shedding in women. While, no treatment currently exists for this condition, we hope that this study would encourage physicians and researchers to address this frequent concern.

  8. Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Bogue (Boops boops) Fish during Storage at Different Temperatures by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ciampa, Alessandra; Picone, Gianfranco; Laghi, Luca; Nikzad, Homa; Capozzi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to obtain information about the changes occurring in Bogue (Boops boops) fish during storage. For this purpose, 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 600 MHz on trichloroacetic acid extracts of fish flesh stored over a 15 days period both at 4 °C and on ice. Such spectra allowed the identification and quantification of amino acids, together with the main organic acids and alcohols. The concentration of acidic and basic free amino acids was generally found to increase and decrease during storage, respectively. These concentration changes were slow during the first days, as a consequence of protein autolysis, and at higher rates afterward, resulting from microbial development. Two of the amino acids that showed the greatest concentration change were alanine and glycine, known to have a key role in determining the individual taste of different fish species. The concentration of serine decreased during storage, as highlighted in the literature for frozen fish samples. Differences in the amino acids concentration trends were found to be related to the different storage temperatures from day 4 onwards. PMID:22822452

  9. Effects of packaging and storage conditions on the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid – an analysis of Cambodian samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of substandard and degraded medicines is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Cambodia. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid preparations under tropical conditions in a developing country. Methods Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets were obtained from outlets in Cambodia. Packaging condition, printed information, and other sources of information were examined. The samples were tested for quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution. Authenticity was verified with manufacturers and regulatory authorities. Results A total of 59 samples were collected from 48 medicine outlets. Most (93.2%) of the samples were of foreign origin. Using predetermined acceptance criteria, 12 samples (20.3%) were non-compliant. Eight (13.6%), 10 (16.9%), and 20 (33.9%) samples failed quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution tests, respectively. Samples that violated our observational acceptance criteria were significantly more likely to fail the quality tests (Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.05). Conclusions Improper packaging and storage conditions may reduce the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid preparations at community pharmacies. Strict quality control measures are urgently needed to maintain the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid in tropical countries. PMID:23773420

  10. Effects of different steeping methods and storage on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in bag tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng-Jye; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Lin, Jau-Tien

    2007-07-13

    Bag teas, packed 3g of ground black, green, oolong, paochoung and pu-erh tea leaves (the particle size used was 1-2mm), were steeped in 150 mL of 70, 85 or 100 degrees C hot water to study the effects of the number of steeping (the same bag tea was steeped repeatedly eight times, 30s each time, as done in China for making ceremonial tea) and varied steeping durations (0.5-4 min) on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in tea infusions. The changes in tea infusions during storage at 4 or 25 degrees C for 0-48 h and the variations in these compounds of bag tea infused with 150 mL of 4 or 25 degrees C cold water for 0.5-16 h were also investigated. A HPLC method with a C18 column and a step gradient solvent system consisting of acetonitrile and 0.9% acetic acid in deionized water was used for analysis. Results for all kinds of tea samples showed that the second tea infusion contained the highest contents of caffeine, catechins and gallic acid when bag teas were steeped in 70 degrees C water. It was different from that steeped at 85 and 100 degrees C, the highest contents existed in the first infusion. These compounds decreased gradually in later infusions. Higher amounts of caffeine, catechins and gallic acid could be released from bag teas as hotter water was used. As steeping duration prolonged, these ingredients increased progressively, however, their levels were lower than that cumulated from the infusions with the identical bag tea prepared recurrently at the same temperature and time points. (-)-Gallocatechin gallate and (+)-catechin existed in these tea infusions rarely and could not be detected until a certain amount of them infusing. Except gallic acid that showed a significant increase and caffeine that exhibited no significant change, all kinds of catechins decreased appreciably after tea infusions were stored at 25 degrees C for 36 h; nevertheless, all of them showed no evident changes at 4 degrees C storage. The caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in tea

  11. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H A; Aamer, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10), at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10) and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10) for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0), there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05), the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05). Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05). In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3) increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05), and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05). In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  12. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Shedding patterns of Daubaylia potomaca (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

    2013-12-01

    Daubaylia potomaca is a nematode parasite that exhibits an unusual direct life cycle in planorbid snails in which adult females are the infective stage, after being shed from a definitive host. The present study examined the shedding patterns of this nematode to determine what cues or mechanisms might lead to the parasite leaving its host. A correlation was found between host death and the frequency and number of D. potomaca shed, suggesting that the nematodes can detect that the host is dying and may leave in search of a new host. Furthermore, elevated intensities of D. potomaca in the snail induce shedding earlier, suggesting that competition for space and resources may also play a role in the shedding patterns of the nematode, but not when time to death is controlled. Finally, nematodes shed a longer time before host death were significantly longer and more likely to be gravid than those shed as time to snail death approached, implying that the nematode reaching maturity or being inseminated might also be cues for D. potomaca to leave its snail host. In summary, the shedding patterns of D. potomaca appear to be a complex mix of host death detection, competition, and nematode maturation.

  14. Effects of abscisic acid and high osmoticum on storage protein gene expression in microspore embryos of Brassica napus

    SciTech Connect

    Wilen, R.W.; Mandel, R.M.; Pharis, R.P.; Moloney, M.M. ); Holbrook, L.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Storage protein gene expression, characteristic of mid- to late embryogenesis, was investigated in microspore embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus). These embryos, derived from the immature male gametophyte, accumulate little or no detectable napin or cruciferin mRNA when cultured on hormone-free medium containing 13% sucrose. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to the medium results in an increase in detectable transcripts encoding both these polypeptides. Storage protein mRNA is induced at 1 micromolar ABA with maximum stimulation occurring between 5 and 50 micromolar. This hormone induction results in a level of storage protein mRNA that is comparable to that observed in zygotic embryos of an equivalent morphological stage. Effects similar to that of ABA are noted when 12.5% sorbitol is added to the microspore embryo medium (osmotic potential = 25.5 bars). Time course experiments, to study the induction of napin and cruciferin gene expression demonstrated that the ABA effect occurred much more rapidly than the high osmoticum effect, although after 48 hours, the levels of napin or cruciferin mRNA detected were similar in both treatments. This difference in the rates of induction is consistent with the idea that the osmotic effect may be mediated by ABA which is synthesized in response to the reduced water potential. Measurements of ABA (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ({sup 2}H{sub 6})ABA as an internal standard) present in microspore embryos during sorbitol treatment and in embryos treated with 10 micromolar ABA were performed to investigate this possibility. Within 2 hours of culture on high osmoticum the level of ABA increased substantially and significantly above control and reached a maximum concentration within 24 hours. This elevated concentration was maintained for 48 hours after culturing and represents a sixfold increase over control embryos.

  15. Beta-carotene storage, conversion to retinoic acid, and induction of the lipocyte phenotype in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Renata B; Ziulkoski, Ana L; Fortuna, Vitor A; Guaragna, Regina M; Guma, Fátima C R; Trugo, Luiz C; Borojevic, Radovan

    2004-05-15

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major site of retinol (ROH) metabolism and storage. GRX is a permanent murine myofibroblastic cell line, derived from HSCs, which can be induced to display the fat-storing phenotype by treatment with retinoids. Little is known about hepatic or serum homeostasis of beta-carotene and retinoic acid (RA), although the direct biogenesis of RA from beta-carotene has been described in enterocytes. The aim of this study was to identify the uptake, metabolism, storage, and release of beta-carotene in HSCs. GRX cells were plated in 25 cm(2) tissue culture flasks, treated during 10 days with 3 micromol/L beta-carotene and subsequently transferred into the standard culture medium. beta-Carotene induced a full cell conversion into the fat-storing phenotype after 10 days. The total cell extracts, cell fractions, and culture medium were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for beta-carotene and retinoids. Cells accumulated 27.48 +/- 6.5 pmol/L beta-carotene/10(6) cells, but could not convert it to ROH nor produced retinyl esters (RE). beta-Carotene was directly converted to RA, which was found in total cell extracts and in the nuclear fraction (10.15 +/- 1.23 pmol/L/10(6) cells), promoting the phenotype conversion. After 24-h chase, cells contained 20.15 +/- 1.12 pmol/L beta-carotene/10(6) cells and steadily released beta-carotene into the medium (6.69 +/- 1.75 pmol/ml). We conclude that HSC are the site of the liver beta-carotene storage and release, which can be used for RA production as well as for maintenance of the homeostasis of circulating carotenoids in periods of low dietary uptake.

  16. Storage of methane as volatile fatty acids for intermittent fuel use

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.; Mehta, K.; Callihan, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    A process for on-site production of methane from sweet potato canning wastes was developed. In this process methane is stored conveniently as a liquid in the form of organic acids which are produced in an acid pond. When methane is needed, the acids are pumped into a methane pond underneath a sludge blanket, where high rates of methane production begin shortly after feeding. A demonstration plant has been designed and is being constructed using the existing pond system and facilities in a sweet potato canning factory in Louisiana. The methane produced is burned on-site to generate process steam for use in the main plant. 14 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Two solid forms of tauroursodeoxycholic acid and the effects of milling and storage temperature on solid-state transformations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailin; Zheng, Shoujun; Zhai, Yuanming; Guo, Liuqi; Tang, Peixiao; Yan, Jin; Wu, Di; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Two phase-pure solid forms of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and morphological analysis. All solid forms can be produced from solvents and also can be obtained by mechanically and non-mechanically activated polymorph conversion. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrical techniques, was used for the quantitative monitoring of the polymorph conversion of TUDCA in milling process and at different storage temperatures. The NIR spectra in the range of 7139-5488 cm(-1) were considered for multivariate analysis. Results demonstrated that the NIR multivariate chemometric model can predict the percentage of crystal and amorphous TUDCA with the correlation coefficient of 0.9998, root mean square error of calibration of 0.740%, root mean square error of prediction of 0.698%, and root mean square error of cross-validation of 1.49%. In the milling process of crystal TUDCA (Form I), a direct transformation from crystal to glass was observed in 4h. Moreover, the impact of different storage temperatures on the stability of amorphous TUDCA was investigated, and the rate of polymorph transformation was found to be accelerated with increasing temperature.

  18. Fatty acid amide hydrolase ablation promotes ectopic lipid storage and insulin resistance due to centrally mediated hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Whitney H; Gillum, Matthew P; Lee, Hui-Young; Camporez, Joao Paulo G; Zhang, Xian-man; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Alves, Tiago C; Erion, Derek M; Guigni, Blas A; Kahn, Mario; Samuel, Varman T; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Diano, Sabrina; Shulman, Gerald I

    2012-09-11

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) knockout mice are prone to excess energy storage and adiposity, whereas mutations in FAAH are associated with obesity in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which FAAH affects energy expenditure (EE) remains unknown. Here we show that reduced energy expenditure in FAAH(-/-) mice could be attributed to decreased circulating triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations secondary to reduced mRNA expression of both pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone. These reductions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis were associated with activation of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferating-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and increased hypothalamic deiodinase 2 expression. Infusion of NAEs (anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide) recapitulated increases in PPARγ-mediated decreases in EE. FAAH(-/-) mice were also prone to diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance, which could be attributed to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content and protein kinase Cε activation. Our data indicate that FAAH deletion, and the resulting increases in NAEs, predispose mice to ectopic lipid storage and hepatic insulin resistance by promoting centrally mediated hypothyroidism.

  19. Influence of orange cultivar and mandarin postharvest storage on polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    De Ancos, Begoña; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-06-15

    Polyphenols, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity of two sweet oranges (Navel-N and Cara Cara-CC) and mandarin (Clementine-M) as well as their bioaccessibilities were evaluated in pulps and compared to those in fresh juice. Thus, pulps of oranges and mandarins displayed higher hesperidin (HES), narirutin (NAR), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AAC) than their corresponding juices. Also, CC products presented higher bioactive compounds content than N ones. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and AAC were higher in pulps of both oranges and mandarin than in their corresponding juices. Oranges (N and CC) pulps and juices presented higher bioaccessibilities than mandarin ones. The postharvest storage of mandarin at 12°C during 5weeks not only produced a significant increase of the bioactive compounds but also an increase of their bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of Citrus bioactive compounds is necessary for calculating more accurately their daily intake amount.

  20. Hepatic role in the storage and utilization of fish oil fatty acids in humans: studies on liver surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Sekine, K

    1995-03-01

    Fish oil fatty acids (FOFA) were analyzed in fresh liver tissue and in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue obtained from 5 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy. FOFA were also determined in plasma from 5 patients and in 10 healthy subjects. There was a high content of FOFA in the liver phospholipid (PL) fraction (twice that in our previous autopsy study) suggesting that these surgery patients had a hepatic FOFA content of at least 25g. In plasma, FOFA was predominantly found in the PL of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and partly in the PL of other lipoproteins. Since these lipoproteins are produced by the liver, the present findings indicate the role of the liver not only in storage but also in the utilization of FOFA to form the biologically important surface PL component of circulating lipoproteins.

  1. Mechanistic insights into ectodomain shedding: susceptibility of CADM1 adhesion molecule is determined by alternative splicing and O-glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Shirakabe, Kyoko; Omura, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Mihara, Emiko; Homma, Keiichi; Kato, Yukinari; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Murakami, Yoshinori; Takagi, Junichi; Hattori, Seisuke; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Ectodomain shedding (shedding) is a post-translational modification, which liberates the extracellular domain of membrane proteins through juxtamembrane processing executed mainly by the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloproteases. Because shedding alters characteristics of cells in a rapid and irreversible manner, it should be strictly regulated. However, the molecular mechanisms determining membrane protein susceptibility to shedding (shedding susceptibility) are largely unknown. Here we report that alternative splicing can give rise to both shedding-susceptible and shedding-resistant CADM1 (cell adhesion molecule 1) variant proteins. We further show that O-glycans adjacent to the shedding cleavage site interfere with CADM1 shedding, and the only 33-bp alternative exon confers shedding susceptibility to CADM1 by inserting five non-glycosylatable amino acids between interfering O-glycans and the shedding cleavage site. These results demonstrate that shedding susceptibility of membrane protein can be determined at two different levels of its biosynthesis pathway, alternative splicing and O-glycosylation. PMID:28393893

  2. Effect of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, Headline and Stadium on sucrose yield and storage properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been reported to enhance yield and protect crop plants and products against abiotic stresses and diseases. The effect of these compounds on sugarbeets, however, is unknown. Research was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to investigate the effects of an e...

  3. Stability-time profile of trichloroacetic acid at various concentrations and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Spinowitz, A L; Rumsfield, J

    1989-09-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a deliquescent chemical widely used for a variety of procedures. Stability of various concentrations of TCA in both amber glass and plastic bottles stored under refrigeration and at room temperature was measured at several time points. Extended stability data suggest that TCA potency is stable for 23 weeks and would best be maintained in glass amber bottles stored under refrigeration.

  4. SITE VIEW, FROM LEFT, BUILDING 306 (STORAGE AND CARPENTRY SHOPS), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SITE VIEW, FROM LEFT, BUILDING 306 (STORAGE AND CARPENTRY SHOPS), BUILDING 303 (GARAGE), BUILDING 304 (PATTERN STORAGE), BUILDING 305 (PAINT SHED), BUILDING 309. LOOKING WEST. - Illinois Waterway, Project Office, 257 Grant Street, Peoria, Peoria County, IL

  5. Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; Muriente, Rebeca; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2007-09-01

    The effects of dipping treatments (15 min) in potable water or in solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 1,200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 2% citric acid (CA), and 220 ppm peroxyacids (PA) on inoculated pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica) and skin pH were investigated throughout storage of chicken legs (days 0, 1, 3, and 5) at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. All chemical solutions reduced microbial populations (P < 0.001) as compared with the control (untreated) samples. Similar bacterial loads (P > 0.05) were observed on water-dipped and control legs. Type of treatment, microbial group, and sampling day influenced microbial counts (P < 0.001). Average reductions with regard to control samples were 0.28 to 2.41 log CFU/g with TSP, 0.33 to 3.15 log CFU/g with ASC, 0.82 to 1.97 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.07 to 0.96 log CFU/g with PA. Average reductions were lower (P < 0.001) for gram-positive (0.96 log CFU/g) than for gram-negative (1.33 log CFU/g) bacteria. CA and ASC were the most effective antimicrobial compounds against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. TSP was the second most effective compound for both bacterial groups. Average microbial reductions per gram of skin were 0.87 log CFU/g with TSP, 0.86 log CFU/g with ASC, 1.39 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.74 log CFU/g with PA for gram-positive bacteria, and 1.28 log CFU/g with TSP, 2.03 log CFU/g with ASC, 1.23 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.78 log CFU/g with PA for gram-negative bacteria. With only a few exceptions, microbial reductions in TSP- and ASC-treated samples decreased and those in samples treated with CA increased throughout storage. Samples treated with TSP and samples dipped in CA and ASC had the highest and lowest pH values, respectively, after treatment. The pH of the treated legs tended to return to normal (6.3 to 6.6) during storage. However, at the end of

  6. A Portable, Pressure Driven, Room Temperature Nucleic Acid Extraction and Storage System for Point of Care Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Samantha; Fan, Andy; Trueb, Jacob; Jareczek, Francis; Mazzochette, Mark; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2013-07-07

    Many new and exciting portable HIV viral load testing technologies are emerging for use in global medicine. While the potential to provide fast, isothermal, and quantitative molecular diagnostic information to clinicians in the field will soon be a reality, many of these technologies lack a robust front end for sample clean up and nucleic acid preparation. Such a technology would enable many different downstream molecular assays. Here, we present a portable system for centrifuge-free room temperature nucleic acid extraction from small volumes of whole blood (70 µL), using only thermally stable reagents compatible with storage and transport in low resource settings. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of simulated samples demonstrate a lower limit of detection of 1000 copies/ml, with the ability to detect differences in viral load across four orders of magnitude. The system can also be used to store extracted RNA on detachable cartridges for up to one week at ambient temperature, and can be operated using only hand generated air pressure.

  7. Nonlinear phenomenon in monocrystalline silicon based PV module for low power system: Lead acid battery for low energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amrani, A.; El Amraoui, M.; El Abbassi, A.; Messaoudi, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, we report the indoor photo-electrical measurements of monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic (PV) module associated with 4 Ah lead acid battery as a storage unit for low power PV system applications. Concerning the PV module, our measurements show, at low illumination regime, that the short circuit current ISC increases linearly with the illumination power levels. Moreover, for high illumination levels, the mechanism of bimolecular recombination and space charge limitation may be intensified and hence the short current of the PV module ISCMod depends sublinearly on the incident optical power; the behavior is nonlinear. For the open circuit voltage of the PV module VOCMod measurements, a linear variation of the VOCMod versus the short circuit current in semi-logarithmic scale has been noticed. The diode ideality factor n and diode saturation current Is have been investigated; the values of n and Is are approximately of 1.3 and 10-9 A, respectively. In addition, we have shown, for different discharging-charging currents rates (i.e. 0.35 A, 0.2 A and 0.04 A), that the battery voltage decreases with discharging time as well as discharging battery capacity, and on the other hand it increases with the charging time and will rise up until it maximized value. The initial result shows the possibility to use such lead acid battery for low power PV system, which is generally designed for the motorcycle battery.

  8. A Portable, Pressure Driven, Room Temperature Nucleic Acid Extraction and Storage System for Point of Care Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Samantha; Fan, Andy; Trueb, Jacob; Jareczek, Francis; Mazzochette, Mark; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F.; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Many new and exciting portable HIV viral load testing technologies are emerging for use in global medicine. While the potential to provide fast, isothermal, and quantitative molecular diagnostic information to clinicians in the field will soon be a reality, many of these technologies lack a robust front end for sample clean up and nucleic acid preparation. Such a technology would enable many different downstream molecular assays. Here, we present a portable system for centrifuge-free room temperature nucleic acid extraction from small volumes of whole blood (70 µL), using only thermally stable reagents compatible with storage and transport in low resource settings. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of simulated samples demonstrate a lower limit of detection of 1000 copies/ml, with the ability to detect differences in viral load across four orders of magnitude. The system can also be used to store extracted RNA on detachable cartridges for up to one week at ambient temperature, and can be operated using only hand generated air pressure. PMID:23914255

  9. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

  10. Vortex shedding by a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrini, M.; Beguier, C.; Chauvin, A.; Brun, R.

    1984-05-01

    A series of flow visualizations was performed to characterize the wake vortices of a Savonius rotor. The trials were undertaken in an attempt to account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimentally-derived power coefficients. The Savonius examined was two-bladed with a center offset. All tests were made in a water tunnel. Dye injection provided the visualization, and average velocities and velocity fluctuations were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer. A system of three vortices was found to be periodically shed by the rotor. Flow velocity fluctuation intensity peaked as a vortex was shed. The vortex shedding alternated from blade to blade, so that one was shed from a blade moving upstream.

  11. An ab initio periodic study of acidic chabazite as a candidate for dihydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Civalleri, B; Pisani, C; Ugliengo, P

    2006-06-01

    A theoretical B3LYP study, adopting a polarized double-zeta quality Gaussian basis set, was performed to characterize acidic chabazite by using the periodic CRYSTAL03 program. Different Si/Al loadings (1/1, 3/1, 5/1, and 11/1) were considered, and for each of them the most stable aluminum distribution and location of the acidic proton, needed as charge balancer, were identified. With the optimal structures, the energy of formation and the anharmonic O-H stretching frequency were calculated with the latter being in good agreement with the experimental data. The B3LYP optimal position of H2 physisorbed at the acidic Brönsted sites of chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1 and 5/1) brings about an interaction energy definitely smaller than that derived from infrared spectroscopy, because of the known deficiencies of this functional to cope with dispersive interactions. The latter was included by means of an ONIOM-like procedure that combines periodic B3LYP energy with results at the MP2 level on selected clusters cut out of the chabazite framework. Adsorption of two H2 molecules for Si/Al = 5/1 chabazite showed a complete independence of each Brönsted site, and neither through-space nor intrastructure polarization effects are present. Within the periodic B3LYP approach shifts in both O-H and H-H anharmonic frequencies were also computed and compared with unperturbed values and with the available experimental results.

  12. Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in PWR boric-acid storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Cragnolino, G.A.; Olemacher, J.; Chen, T.Y.; Dhawale, S.

    1982-08-01

    A review is presented of the available literature on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steels at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C, as well as the results of an experimental investigation of the IGSCC of Types 304, 304L, and 316L stainless steels conducted in boric acid environments of the type employed in pressurized nuclear reactors (PWRs) for nuclear shim control. The susceptibility of furnace sensitized Type 304SS to IGSCC was studied using slow strain rate tests as a function of pH, temperature, potential, and concentration of suspected contaminants: chloride, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate. Possible alternate alloys, such as Types 304L and 316L stainless steels, were also tested under those specific conditions that render Type 304SS susceptible to cracking. Corrosion potentials that can be attained in air-saturated boric acid solutions in the presence of the above mentioned species were measured in order to evaluate the propensity towards intergranular cracking under conditions simulating those that prevail in service.

  13. A novel mutation in the SLC17A5 gene causing both severe and mild phenotypes of free sialic acid storage disease in one inbred Bedouin kindred.

    PubMed

    Landau, D; Cohen, D; Shalev, H; Pinsk, V; Yerushalmi, B; Zeigler, M; Birk, O S

    2004-06-01

    Four members of an extended consanguineous Bedouin family presented with different phenotypic variants of an autosomal recessive lysosomal free sialic acid storage disease. One affected individual had congenital ascites followed by rapid clinical deterioration and death, a presentation concordant with the clinical course of infantile free sialic acid storage disorder. His three first cousins had a more slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, in line with the clinical phenotype of the milder form (Salla type) of this lysosomal disorder. Diagnosis of free sialic acid storage disease was based on clinical findings, histology, and biochemical assays of sialic acid. Molecular studies showed that all four affected individuals were homozygous for the same novel 983G > A mutation in exon 8 of the SLC17A5 gene, replacing glycine with glutamic acid at position 328 of the sialin protein. This family demonstrates the significant phenotypic variability of the disease in affected members of a single inbred kindred with precisely the same mutation, suggesting a role for modifier genes or environmental factors. It also highlights the need to consider this rare disorder in the differential diagnosis of congenital ascites and of unexplained psychomotor retardation, ataxia, and hypomyelination in infancy.

  14. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  15. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival.

  16. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  17. Determination of trans- and cis-urocanic acid in relation to histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine contents in tuna (Auxis Thazard) at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2015-02-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Very little is known about the effects of storage conditions on the production of both UCA isomers and biogenic amines in tuna. Thus, the production of trans- and cis-UCA, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in tuna during 15 d of storage at 0, 3, and 10 °C and 2 d storage at ambient temperature were monitored. The initial trans- and cis-UCA contents in fresh tuna were 2.90 and 1.47 mg/kg, respectively, whereas the levels of putrescine and cadaverine were less than 2 mg/kg, and histamine was not detected. The highest levels of trans- and cis-UCA were obtained during 15 d storage at 3 °C (23.74 and 21.79 mg/kg, respectively) while the highest concentrations of histamine (2796 mg/kg), putrescine (220.32 mg/kg) and cadaverine (1045.20 mg/kg) were obtained during storage at room temperature, 10 and 10 °C, respectively. Histamine content increased considerably during storage at 10 °C whereas trans- and cis-UCA contents changed slightly. The initial trans-UCA content decreased during storage at ambient temperature. Thus, unlike histamine, concentrations of trans- and cis-UCA did not result in elevated levels during storage of tuna.

  18. Enhanced efficacy of an AAV vector encoding chimeric, highly secreted acid alpha-glucosidase in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Benjamin, Daniel K; Brown, Talmage; Bird, Andrew; Young, Sarah P; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2006-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) is an inherited muscular dystrophy caused by deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). We hypothesized that chimeric GAA containing an alternative signal peptide could increase the secretion of GAA from transduced cells and enhance the receptor-mediated uptake of GAA in striated muscle. The relative secretion of chimeric GAA from transfected 293 cells increased up to 26-fold. Receptor-mediated uptake of secreted, chimeric GAA corrected cultured GSD-II patient cells. High-level hGAA was sustained in the plasma of GSD-II mice for 24 weeks following administration of an AAV2/8 vector encoding chimeric GAA; furthermore, GAA activity was increased and glycogen content was significantly reduced in striated muscle and in the brain. Administration of only 1 x 10(10) vector particles increased GAA activity in the heart and diaphragm for >18 weeks, whereas 3 x 10(10) vector particles increased GAA activity and reduced glycogen content in the heart, diaphragm, and quadriceps. Furthermore, an AAV2/2 vector encoding chimeric GAA produced secreted hGAA for >12 weeks in the majority of treated GSD-II mice. Thus, chimeric, highly secreted GAA enhanced the efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in GSD-II mice.

  19. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage.

  20. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen when looking south (186°) from South Liquid Loop Road. Note the catch basin for retaining accidentally spilled substances. Wastes are stored in drums and other safety containers until disposal by burning at the Incinerator (4249/E-50) or by other means. Note the nearby sign warning of corrosive, flammable materials, and calling attention to a fire extinguisher; a telephone is provided to call for assistance in the event of an emergency. This structure is isolated to prevent the spread of fire, and it is lightly built so damage from a fire will be inexpensive to repair - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Waste Flammable Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  3. Leaf anatomy, water relations and crassulacean acid metabolism in the chlorenchyma and colourless internal water-storage tissue of Carpobrotus edulis and Senecio ?mandraliscae.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, M J; Carver, K A; Charlton, W A

    1987-03-01

    Both Carpobrotus edulis and Senecio ?mandraliscae possess leaves with a peripheral chlorenchyma and colourless internal water-storage tissue. Water stress in C. edulis growing under semi-natural conditions resulted in the induction of weak Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) whereas well-watered plants of S. ?mandraliscae exhibited a similar degree of CAM. Titratable acidity in the separated water-storage tissue was substantially lower than in the chlorenchyma in both species but, nevertheless, increased during the night and decreased during the day either when sampled from the intact plant or from incubated tissue slices. Indeed, the increase in nocturnal titratable acidity produced by the water-storage tissue in situ accounted for approx. 30% of total acidification on a per-leaf basis. It appears that during the night the water-storage tissue in these species is able to fix CO2 which is subsequently released during the day to enter the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle of the chlorenchyma. Diurnal rhythms of water potential (Ψ) and osmotic potential (Ψs) were measured in separated chlorenchyma and water-storage tissue by thermocouple psychrometry. Both parameters increased during the latter part of the daytime and initial nocturnal period and decreased during the rest of the night and into the post-dawn period. The chlorenchyma of water-stressed plants of C. edulis appeared to possess a marked negative turgor pressure (as determined from Ψ-Ψs) but this was caused by a severe underestimation in the measurement of the chlorenchyma Ψ. It is suggested that this artefact arose from release of colloidal polysaccharide mucilage, or possibly tannins, from broken tannin cells producing a lowering of water activity when measured using thermocouple psychrometry.

  4. Vortex shedding from solid rocket propellant inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, P. H.; Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Vortex shedding frequency caused by the protrusion of inhibitors into the flow field of a solid rocket motor is investigated by experimental and mathematical models. The time dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite difference technique assuming incompressible, two-dimensional flow under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. For laminar flow, explicit solutions are obtained using a vorticity-transport equation in place of the Navier-Stokes equations. For turbulent flow, a two-equation (k-epsilon) model is used for turbulent modeling and the SIMPLE algorithm is employed as the computational scheme. Cold flow tests were conducted to confirm the basic flow structure and to determine the vortex shedding frequency under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The vortex shedding frequencies were determined using a stroboscope to measure the oscillating frequency of yarn tufts which were fastened to one inhibitor in the models. A hot-film anemometer established the velocity history behind the inhibitor. Good agreement between the theoretical results and measurements of the vortex shedding frequencies is demonstrated.

  5. Vortex shedding from solid rocket propellant inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, P. H.; Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.

    1986-06-01

    Vortex shedding frequency caused by the protrusion of inhibitors into the flow field of a solid rocket motor is investigated by experimental and mathematical models. The time dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite difference technique assuming incompressible, two-dimensional flow under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. For laminar flow, explicit solutions are obtained using a vorticity-transport equation in place of the Navier-Stokes equations. For turbulent flow, a two-equation (k-epsilon) model is used for turbulent modeling and the SIMPLE algorithm is employed as the computational scheme. Cold flow tests were conducted to confirm the basic flow structure and to determine the vortex shedding frequency under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The vortex shedding frequencies were determined using a stroboscope to measure the oscillating frequency of yarn tufts which were fastened to one inhibitor in the models. A hot-film anemometer established the velocity history behind the inhibitor. Good agreement between the theoretical results and measurements of the vortex shedding frequencies is demonstrated.

  6. Shedding Light on Dark Matter at Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsou, Vasiliki A.

    2013-12-01

    Dark matter remains one of the most puzzling mysteries in Fundamental Physics of our times. Experiments at high-energy physics colliders are expected to shed light to its nature and determine its properties. This review focuses on recent searches for dark matter signatures at the Large Hadron Collider, also discussing related prospects in future e+e- colliders.

  7. Shedding Light on and with Example Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Paul; Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    Building on the papers in this special issue as well as on our own experience and research, we try to shed light on the construct of "example spaces" and on how it can inform research and practice in the teaching and learning of mathematical concepts. Consistent with our way of working, we delay definition until after appropriate reader experience…

  8. 2. SOUTH FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) SHOWING SIGN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) SHOWING SIGN HOLDER ON LEFT AND ENTRANCE TO TEST CELL. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER AND METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) IN BACKGROUND ON LEFT; SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GPS AZIMUTH STATION (BLDG. 775) IN BACKGROUND BEHIND AND RIGHT OF PYROTECHNIC SHED. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  10. Phytochemical changes in phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids associated with sweetpotato storage and impacts on bioactive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato phytochemical content was evaluated in four genotypes (NCPUR06-020, Covington, Yellow Covington, and NC07-847) at harvest and after curing/storage for 4 or 8 months. Curing and storage for up to 8 months did not significantly affect total phenolic content in Covington, Yellow Covington, ...

  11. Fingerprint of lactic acid bacteria population in beef carpaccio is influenced by storage process and seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Lucquin, Isabelle; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie; Chaillou, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the population structure of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for several beef carpaccio available on the market with the purpose of comparing the effect of storage process (modified-atmosphere packaging and vacuum-packaging) and of seasonal changes on this microbial population. Out of 60 samples we have characterised 214 isolates accounting for 10 LAB species and 35 isolates accounting for 11 non-LAB species. Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc carnosum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the most prevailing LAB species with a frequency of identification within 66%, 62% and 52% of the samples respectively. These 3 species were also characterised by a phenotypic intra-species diversity of isolates based on colony morphology. We showed that the prevalence was increased 1.5 fold for L. sakei and L. mesenteroides during the summer sampling in comparison to the spring or the fall sampling suggesting an environmental origin of these two species. Seasonal variations were also observed for the prevalence of Lactobacillus fuchuensis and L. carnosum in spring (2- and 1.5-fold increase, respectively) and of Brochothrix thermosphacta in fall (6-fold increase). Finally, we demonstrated that the growth potential after the sell-by-date was favourable of 1.25 log(10) cfu g(-1) to Leuconostoc spp. in modified-atmosphere packaging and of 1.38 log(10) cfu g(-1) to Lactobacillus spp. in vacuum-packaging. In conclusion, we show that important and unsuspected traits in bacterial population dynamics can be unravelled by large sampling strategies. We discuss about the need to take this assessment into account for further studies on bacterial ecosystems of meat.

  12. Human obesity is characterized by defective fat storage and enhanced muscle fatty acid oxidation, and trimetazidine gradually counteracts these abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Marco; Borra, Ronald; Någren, Kjell; Maggio, Romina; Tuunanen, Helena; Oikonen, Vesa; Del Ry, Silvia; Viljanen, Tapio; Taittonen, Markku; Rigazio, Sara; Giannessi, Daniela; Parkkola, Riitta; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Iozzo, Patricia

    2011-07-01

    An impaired ability to store fatty acids (FA) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases via overexposure of lean tissues and production of free radicals from FA oxidation (FAO). We studied regional FA metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans and investigated the long-term effects of the FAO inhibitor trimetazidine on glucose and FA metabolism. Positron emission tomography (PET) and [(11)C]palmitate were used to compare FA metabolism in SAT and skeletal muscle between eight obese and eight nonobese subjects (BMI ≥/< 30 kg/m(2)). A subgroup of nine subjects underwent a 1-mo trimetazidine administration. PET with [(11)C]palmitate and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose, indirect calorimetry, and MRI before and after this period were performed to characterize glucose and FA metabolism, fat masses, skeletal muscle triglyceride, and creatine contents. Obesity was characterized by a 100% elevation in FAO and a defect in the FA esterification rate constant (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle. FA esterification was reduced by ~70% in SAT (P < 0.001) in obese vs. control subjects. The degrees of obesity and insulin resistance were both negatively associated with esterification-related parameters and positively with FAO (P < 0.05). Trimetazidine increased skeletal muscle FA esterification (P < 0.01) and mildly upregulated glucose phosphorylation (P = 0.066). Our data suggest that human obesity is characterized by a defect in tissue FA storage capability, which is accompanied by a (potentially compensatory) elevation in skeletal muscle FAO; trimetazidine diverted FA from oxidative to nonoxidative pathways and provoked an initial activation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  13. Short-Term Stability of Whole Blood Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content on Filter Paper During Storage at -28 °C.

    PubMed

    Pupillo, Daniele; Simonato, Manuela; Cogo, Paola E; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2016-02-01

    Finger or heel-pricked blood sampling for fatty acid analysis is suitable especially in newborn infants where blood sampling is difficult and phlebotomy for research can be unethical. The aim of this study was to evaluate dried blood long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) stability during storage at -28 °C. We collected 12 blood cord samples that were analyzed immediately after blood drawing, with and without drying the blood on filter paper. Dried samples were then analyzed 7 days and 1, 3, and 6 months after collection. Butylated hydroxytoluene was added to all samples. Fatty acid composition and (13)C enrichment were measured by gas chromatography and by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. The fatty acid composition, expressed in mol%, of the major LC-PUFA at day 7 was not statistically different from time 0, however lower values were found by the first month of storage. The (13)C enrichment of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 did not differ during the whole study period. LC-PUFA analysis from dried umbilical cord blood in neonates should be performed within a week, major losses of LC-PUFA occur afterwards. However, fatty acids obtained from dried blood maintain their (13)C enrichment value for up to 6 months and thus these samples are suitable for natural abundance isotopic studies.

  14. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean.

  15. Patterns of vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Keun-Shik; Sa, Jong-Youb

    1990-01-01

    Vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder was numerically investigated at Re = 100 with the Navier-Stokes equations and the new boundary conditions. The detailed shedding patterns are characterized by means of streakline plotting and lift-coefficient curves. A parameter map is presented which distinguishes the synchronized shedding from the asynchronous and the double vortices shedding from the single vortex shedding. The computational result is in good agreement with earlier experimental results.

  16. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  17. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2015-12-31

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs.

  18. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species.

  19. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  20. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  1. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions.

  2. A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent’s interactions. PMID:22163386

  3. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity.

  4. Prestorage oxalic acid treatment maintained visual quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant potential of pomegranate after long-term storage at 2 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Sayyari, Mohammad; Valero, Daniel; Babalar, Mesbah; Kalantari, Siamak; Zapata, Pedro J; Serrano, María

    2010-06-09

    Oxalic acid at three concentrations (2, 4, and 6 mM) was applied by dipping to pomegranate fruits of cv. Mollar de Elche, which were then stored for 84 days at 2 degrees C. Pomegranate is a chilling-sensitive fruit and, thus, control fruits exhibited chilling injury (CI) symptoms after long-term storage at 2 degrees C that were accompanied by increased respiration rate, weight loss, and electrolyte leakage (EL). The CI symptoms were significantly reduced by oxalic acid treatment, especially for the 6 mM concentration. In addition, control pomegranates showed significant reduction in the content of total phenolics and ascorbic acid as well as in total antioxidant activity (TAA), in both hydrophilic (H-TAA) and lipophilic (L-TAA) fractions. The application of oxalic acid led to lower losses of total phenolics and significant increase in both ascorbic acid content and H-TAA, whereas L-TAA remained unaffected. Thus, oxalic acid could be a promising postharvest treatment to alleviate CI and increase antioxidant potential.

  5. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bakst, M R; Welch, G R; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2016-06-01

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 d leads to a progressive increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associated with fatty acid metabolism (8), apoptosis (7), and oxidative stress (16) pathways to better understand the basis of embryo mortality during egg storage. A total of 642 broiler eggs in 2 separate trials were subjected to the following egg treatments: stored 4 d (Control 1, C1); stored 21 d but subjected to short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES); stored un-manipulated 21 d (NonSPIDES, NS); and stored 4 d then incubated for 10 h to advance the embryos to the same developmental stages as the SPIDES embryos (Control 2, C2). Hatchability trials (277 eggs) confirmed the efficacy of SPIDES compared to NS treatments in both trials. To determine relative expression of 31 selected genes, 365 blastoderms were isolated, staged, and flash frozen in batches of 5 to 10 blastoderms per vial (7 vials per egg treatment) prior to RNA extractions. Analysis of gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR and the results presented as relative expression normalized to C1. The relative expression of genes in which the SPIDES and C2 treatments were significantly up- or down-regulated in tandem indicated that the stage-specific expression of those genes was maintained by the SPIDES treatment. This study provides the relative gene expressions of blastodermal cells before and after prolonged egg storage as well as insight as to how SPIDES impacts blastodermal cell gene expression.

  6. Experience from insulators with RTV silicon rubber sheds and shed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastos, A.E.; Sherif, E. )

    1990-10-01

    Long-rod composite insulators, with weather sheds made of room temperature vulcanizing silicon rubber compounds (RTV), were exposed for many years to HVAC and HVDC under realistic conditions and natural pollution. This paper reports that it was found that the shed material, quite in contrary to the experience gained from insulators with sheds of other organic materials e.g., EPDM rubber, undergoes a slow degradation which improves the already superior water repelling properties of the silicon rubber compounds. The improvement seems to be due to a low molecular layer which is produced on the surface of the insulator sheds. This layer improves the hydrophobicity of the surface, while protecting the surface from further degradation. Weather sheds of porcelain housing coated with a thin layer of RTV give similar results to those obtained with long-rod silicon rubber insulators. The RTV coating, although it led to increased salt deposit density, reduces the leak currents and the withstand of the insulator under the same pollution conditions.

  7. Seasonal patterns of acid fluctuations and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa in relation to light availability and size.

    PubMed

    Lerdau, Manuel T; Holbrook, N Michele; Mooney, Harold A; Rich, Paul M; Whitbeck, Julie L

    1992-11-01

    We investigated relationships between light availability, diel acid fluctuation, and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa growing in western Mexico. We compared canopy and understory individuals from a deciduous forest as well as open-grown plants of the same approximate size as those in the understory. During the wet season light availability and daily fluctuations in titratable acidity (an index of carbon uptake) were lower in the understory than in unshaded habitats. In the dry season all plants had reduced levels of acid fluctuation, with the smallest individuals, regardless of habitat, showing the greatest reduction. These data suggest that light availability in the forest understory constrains carbon assimilation during the wet season, but that a factor associated with plant size, possibly water status, limits carbon gain during the dry season. Plants in all habitats remained physiologically active for at least five months into the dry season. We suggest that this was possible due to the maintenance of constant concentrations of water and nitrogen in the photosynthetically active chlorenchyma. Parenchyma in terminal cladodes showed a different seasonal pattern of resource storage; water content and nitrogen concentration were reduced from the wet to the dry season in the parenchyma. Using the parenchyma to supply photosynthetic tissues during times of reduced resource availability allows O. excelsa to assimilate carbon during times of the year when most other trees in the forest are leafless.

  8. VIEW WEST, SOUTH PENN POWERHOUSE, (FROM LEFT) BLEEDER SHED, ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, SOUTH PENN POWERHOUSE, (FROM LEFT) BLEEDER SHED, ENGINE HOUSE, BELT SHED, ECCENTRIC HOUSE. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  9. North and east elevations of tractor shed facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and east elevations of tractor shed facing southwest - Norris Farm, Tractor Shed-Combine Barn, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  10. South and west elevations of tractor shed facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and west elevations of tractor shed facing northeast - Norris Farm, Tractor Shed-Combine Barn, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  11. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  13. 32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 TYPICAL SECTION & DETAILS. Sheet 5 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 6 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, IN CONTEXT WITH LOADING YARD AND DERRICK, LOOKING WEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 END WALL FRAMING. Sheet 9 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 70'0' TRUSS. Sheet 7 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 PLOT PLAN & TRANSVERSE SECTION. Sheet 1 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 3 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST FRONT OF PACKING SHED (BUILDING 20) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST FRONT OF PACKING SHED (BUILDING 20) AND BAMBOO STAND ALONG SOUTH FRONT - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Packing Shed, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  1. 2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, northwest and northeast sides of tower, east and north sides of keeper's house and shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  2. 23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 7. Fog signal house and shed, view south, north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Fog signal house and shed, view south, north and west sides of fog signal house, northeast and northwest sides of shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  4. 9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH DERRICK AND RAILWAY PASS-TROUGH ON WHARF, LOOKING NORTH - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL EIGHTEEN LOADING BAYS, LOOKING WEST FROM ACROSS TURNING BASIN - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND TRUCK PLATFORM/STAGING AREA AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS PASSING UNDER DERRICK ALONG WHARF - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED BY LATE METAL BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor support beams. - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. 13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor window sill - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with road in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor joist and support beams - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR MOUNTING, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Shed, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. Understanding the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione in relation to the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italica cv. Bellstar) during storage and mechanical processing.

    PubMed

    Raseetha, Siva; Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione content in broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. italica cv. Bellstar) during prolonged storage and subsequent mechanical processing. The initial content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli florets averaged at 5.18 ± 0.23 and 0.70 ± 0.03 μmol/g fresh weight, respectively. Results showed that the content of ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli degraded during storage at 23°C, for at least 4.5-fold after 6 days of storage. On each day of storage, broccoli florets were mechanically processed, but the content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione was not significantly affected. When the mechanically processed broccoli florets were further incubated for up to 6h, the amount of ascorbic acid was greatly reduced as compared to glutathione. To obtain an in-depth understanding on the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione, the activity of enzymes involved in plant antioxidative system via ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as a response towards oxidative stress that took place during storage was determined in this study. The content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli florets before and after mechanical processing were found to decrease concurrently with the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase and glutathione reductase over the experimental storage duration. Meanwhile, the effect of oxidative stress on the content of ascorbic acid and glutathione was apparent during the 6h of incubation after mechanical processing. This phenomenon was demonstrated by the level of oxidative stress biomarkers examined, in which the formation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and DNA oxidised products was positively associated with the degradation of total ascorbic acid and glutathione.

  6. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  7. A suggested mode of inheritance for wool shedding in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pollott, G E

    2011-08-01

    The ability of a sheep to shed its own wool has an attraction in scenarios where the costs of harvesting wool outweigh its value. Certain breeds and composites have the ability to shed their wool in the spring, and these are investigated in this work in an attempt to outline the genetics of wool shedding. One flock from a breeding group in Southern England (UK) containing sheep with wool-shedding characteristics provided shedding scores (1 to 5 scale; no shedding to complete shedding) that were used in a range of genetic analyses. The particular nature of wool shedding suggested that there may be a major gene segregating in these populations that facilitates wool shedding. In addition, there was clearly variation among wool shedders in the speed and extent of shedding, so a polygenic trait was also investigated. The breeding group used a range of shedding breeds and composites in a regular program to introduce wool-shedding genes into their flocks. This allowed the testing of Mendelian ratios for shedders:nonshedders in both first-cross and first-backcross animals. Four modes of inheritance were tested: autosomal recessive, sex-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex-linked dominant. The most likely mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant (P < 0.05), with a low level of incomplete penetrance. In first back-cross animals, this mode of inheritance was confirmed but with complete penetrance. Approximately 11% of shedders did not exhibit the trait as lambs. Mixed-model analyses of shedding scores allowed an investigation of factors that affected wool shedding and also the extent of any genetic and permanent animal variance. Shedding score was found to have a heritability of 0.54 ± 0.07 in lambs and 0.26 ± 0.06 in animals of all ages in one flock using Easycare, Wiltshire Horn, Katahdin, and Dorper shedding animals. Shedding score as a lamb had a genetic correlation of 0.94 ± 0.08 with shedding score as a 2 yr old, but at the phenotypic level this

  8. 6. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER. A STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER. A STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), THE PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), AND SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  10. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nature occasioned by the Contractor's performance. (b) Temporary buildings (e.g., storage sheds, shops... recommended by the manufacturer of the vehicle or prescribed by any Federal, State, or local law or...

  11. 11. INTERIOR, LOADING DOOR DETAIL, NORTHWEST STORAGE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR, LOADING DOOR DETAIL, NORTHWEST STORAGE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 20 FEET SOUTH OF LOADING DOOR, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Shed syndecan-2 enhances tumorigenic activities of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sojoong; Choi, Youngsil; Jun, Eunsung; Kim, In-San; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Because earlier studies showed the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-2, sheds from colon cancer cells in culture, the functional roles of shed syndecan-2 were assessed. A non-cleavable mutant of syndecan-2 in which the Asn148-Leu149 residues were replaced with Asn148-Ile149, had decreased shedding, less cancer-associated activities of syndecan-2 in vitro, and less syndecan-2-mediated metastasis of mouse melanoma cells in vivo, suggesting the importance of shedding on syndecan-2-mediated pro-tumorigenic functions. Indeed, shed syndecan-2 from cancer-conditioned media and recombinant shed syndecan-2 enhanced cancer-associated activities, and depletion of shed syndecan-2 abolished these effects. Similarly, shed syndecan-2 was detected from sera of patients from advanced carcinoma (625.9 ng/ml) and promoted cancer-associated activities. Furthermore, a series of syndecan-2 deletion mutants showed that the tumorigenic activity of shed syndecan-2 resided in the C-terminus of the extracellular domain and a shed syndecan-2 synthetic peptide (16 residues) was sufficient to establish subcutaneous primary growth of HT29 colon cancer cells, pulmonary metastases (B16F10 cells), and primary intrasplenic tumor growth and liver metastases (4T1 cells). Taken together, these results demonstrate that shed syndecan-2 directly enhances colon cancer progression and may be a promising therapeutic target for controlling colon cancer development. PMID:25686828

  13. Effects of abscisic acid, ethylene and sugars on the mobilization of storage proteins and carbohydrates in seeds of the tropical tree Sesbania virgata (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Tonini, Patricia Pinho; Purgatto, Eduardo; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Endospermic legumes are abundant in tropical forests and their establishment is closely related to the mobilization of cell-wall storage polysaccharides. Endosperm cells also store large numbers of protein bodies that play an important role as a nitrogen reserve in this seed. In this work, a systems approach was adopted to evaluate some of the changes in carbohydrates and hormones during the development of seedlings of the rain forest tree Sesbania virgata during the period of establishment. Methods Seeds imbibed abscisic acid (ABA), glucose and sucrose in an atmosphere of ethylene, and the effects of these compounds on the protein contents, α-galactosidase activity and endogenous production of ABA and ethylene by the seeds were observed. Key Results The presence of exogenous ABA retarded the degradation of storage protein in the endosperm and decreased α-galactosidase activity in the same tissue during galactomannan degradation, suggesting that ABA represses enzyme action. On the other hand, exogenous ethylene increased α-galactosidase activity in both the endosperm and testa during galactomannan degradation, suggesting an inducing effect of this hormone on the hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the detection of endogenous ABA and ethylene production during the period of storage mobilization and the changes observed in the production of these endogenous hormones in the presence of glucose and sucrose, suggested a correlation between the signalling pathway of these hormones and the sugars. Conclusions These findings suggest that ABA, ethylene and sugars play a role in the control of the hydrolytic enzyme activities in seeds of S. virgata, controlling the process of storage degradation. This is thought to ensure a balanced flow of the carbon and nitrogen for seedling development. PMID:20705626

  14. Effect of storage and packaging on fatty acid composition and oxidation in dry fermented sausages made with added olive oil and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-06-01

    Dry fermented sausages produced by a partial substitution of pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil were manufactured and stored (2 and 5 months) using different packaging conditions (aerobic/vacuum piece/vacuum slices) in order to evaluate the intensity of the oxidation process. Also the effect of the addition of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) to one of the modified batches was studied. Addition of olive oil, especially with antioxidants, was more effective than using vacuum storing methods in avoiding lipid oxidation during storage. After 5 months of storage at 4 °C, the combination of the increase in oleic acid and the preservation of PUFA by the antioxidant activity of the olive oil emulsion and antioxidants (when added), lead to better MUFA+PUFA/SFA ratios in olive oil containing sausages (1.90-1.98 g/100 g fatty acids) and particularly in antioxidants containing sausages (2.02-2.16 g/100 g) than in control ones (1.72 g/100 g). Vacuum packaging of the piece was the best method to minimise formation of lipid oxidation volatile compounds.

  15. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    PubMed Central

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8–4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  16. Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-04-15

    The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations.

  17. Supercomputing Sheds Light on the Dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salman Habib

    2012-11-15

    At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are using supercomputers to shed light on one of the great mysteries in science today, the Dark Universe. With Mira, a petascale supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, a team led by physicists Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann will run the largest, most complex simulation of the universe ever attempted. By contrasting the results from Mira with state-of-the-art telescope surveys, the scientists hope to gain new insights into the distribution of matter in the universe, advancing future investigations of dark energy and dark matter into a new realm. The team's research was named a finalist for the 2012 Gordon Bell Prize, an award recognizing outstanding achievement in high-performance computing.

  18. Shedding new light on genetic dark matter

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Discoveries from genome-wide association studies have contributed to our knowledge of the genetic etiology of many complex diseases. However, these account for only a small fraction of each disease's heritability. Here, we comment on approaches currently available to uncover more of the genetic 'dark matter,' including an approach introduced recently by Naukkarinen and colleagues. These authors propose a method for distinguishing between gene expression driven by genetic variation and that driven by non-genetic factors. This dichotomy allows investigators to focus statistical tests and further molecular analyses on a smaller set of genes, thereby discovering new genetic variation affecting risk for disease. We need more methods like this one if we are to shed a powerful light on dark matter. By enhancing our understanding of molecular genetic etiology, such methods will help us to understand disease processes better and will advance the promise of personalized medicine. PMID:21067556

  19. Coupling of vortex shedding with a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahashi, Masaaki; Brocher, Eric; Collini, Paul

    1988-09-01

    A pulsating flow within a tube with one end sealed and the other end open, facing a low-velocity wind tunnel flow, may be generated by using a wedge trip placed upstream of the open end of the tube. However, a reasonable explanation about the generating mechanism of the pulsating flow within the resonator coupled with a tripping device has not been given yet. In order to get a better understanding of the coupling of the flow around the wedge trip and the flow oscillation within the resonator, the interaction between the wedge wake and the pulsating flow has been experimentally investigated by means of the hydraulic analogy. The results of flow visualization with shadow-graph technique have provided a good understanding of the coupling phenomena of vortex shedding on the wedge with the flow at the resonator mouth.

  20. Semen supplementation with palmitoleic acid promotes kinematics, microscopic and antioxidative parameters of ram spermatozoa during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Eslami, M; Ghasemiyan, H; Zadeh Hashem, E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the protective effects of palmitoleate on the quality of ram semen during low temperature liquid storage. Ejaculates were collected using the artificial vagina from four Qezel rams twice a week. Ejaculates were pooled, diluted with Tris-egg yolk extender without palmitoleate (control) or supplemented with 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) mM palmitoleate at a final concentration of 500 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Total motility and forward progressive motility (FPM) as well as other spermatozoa kinematics were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Moreover, viability and membrane functionality were determined in the spermatozoa. Additionally, amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant activity (AOA), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated in the medium and spermatozoa at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr of storage. The palmitoleate supplementation resulted in a significant (p < .05) increase in total motility and FPM with the highest increase at 0.5 mM concentration for 72 hr. P 0.5 group also resulted in the highest percentage of membrane-intact spermatozoa (76.60 ± 1.95%) and viability (75.81 ± 1.34%) at 72 hr (p < .05). The amounts of MDA and NO were lower in P 0.125, P 0.25 and P 0.5 groups compared to control at 48 hr and 72 hr (p < .05). Higher amounts of AOA were obtained in palmitoleate-treated groups in medium and spermatozoa during storage time (p < .05). Furthermore, palmitoleate supplementation increased the SOD activities in spermatozoa compared to the control (p < .05). The results of the present experiment reveal that supplementation with 0.5 mM palmitoleate improves ram spermatozoa motion characteristics, AOA levels and SOD activities during liquid storage. Then, palmitoleate could be used as an antioxidant source during liquid storage of ram semen.

  1. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  2. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  3. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-13

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage.

  4. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  5. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    SciTech Connect

    Roik, N.V. Belyakova, L.A.

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved.

  6. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), calcium and magnesium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), Ca/Mg and calcium concentrations (r=0.64, p<0.005), and sulfuric ion and magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, p<0.005). Negative correlations were found between sulfuric ion concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.31, p<0.01), and magnesium concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.32, p<0.01). This suggests that mouth rinse from employees working with sulfuric acid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  7. Senescent case of cholesterol ester storage disease that progressed to liver cirrhosis with a novel mutation (N250H) of lysosomal acid lipase gene.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiichiro; Watanabe, Norihito; Takashimizu, Shinji; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Shiraishi, Koichi; Koizumi, Jun; Hirabayashi, Ken-Ichi; Ohkubo, Tomoichi; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Michio; Mine, Tetsuya

    2013-12-01

    The patient, a 69-year-old man, had a chief complaint of hepatomegaly. The liver was palpated four fingerbreadths below the costal margin, and the spleen was three fingerbreadths below the costal margin. There were no other abnormal findings. Laparoscopy showed that the liver resembled an orange-yellow crayon in appearance and was nodular. The pathological findings of the liver biopsy tissue were consistent with liver cirrhosis. Inside the fibrous septum was an apparent aggregation of enlarged macrophages that phagocytosed lipid components, as well as enlarged Kupffer cells that phagocytosed lipid droplets. Electron microscopy showed the lipid droplets to have a moth-eaten appearance. Using monocytes extracted from the peripheral blood, acid lipase activity was measured by fluorescence spectrometry using 4-methylumbelliferone palmitate as a substrate. This patient's human lysosomal acid lipase activity was 0.020 nM/min per 10(6)  cells, corresponding to 5.9% of that in healthy subjects (0.332 ± 0.066 nM/min per 10(6)  cells). Cholesterol ester storage disease was therefore diagnosed. The acid lipase A base sequence obtained from leukocytes by direct sequencing was compared with a library. This patient had a point mutation of N250H/N250H in exon 7, a novel gene abnormality that has not previously been reported.

  8. Growth model of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at various storage temperatures on kale treated by thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Wang, Jun; Park, Myeong-Su; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the disinfection efficacy of hurdle treatments (thermosonication plus slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and to develop a model for describing the effect of storage temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut kale treated with or without (control) thermosonication combined with SAcEW. The hurdle treatments of thermosonication plus SAcEW had strong bactericidal effects against E. coli O157:H7 on kale, with approximately 3.3-log reductions. A modified Gompertz model was used to describe growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) as a function of storage temperature, with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98). SGR increased and LT declined with rising temperatures in all samples. A significant difference was found between the SGR values obtained from treated and untreated samples. Secondary models were established for SGR and LT to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on the growth kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in treated and untreated kale. Statistical evaluation was carried out to validate the performance of the developed models, based on the additional experimental data not used for the model development. The validation step indicated that the overall predictions were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had lower standard errors, indicating that this new growth model can be used to assess the risk of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on kale.

  9. Fecal shedding of Salmonella in exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Clyde, V L; Ramsay, E C; Bemis, D A

    1997-06-01

    Two collections of exotic felids were screened for the presence of Salmonella by selective fecal culture utilizing selenite broth and Hektoen enteric agar. In > 90% of the samples, Salmonella was isolated from a single culture. A commercial horsemeat-based diet was fed in both collections, and one collection also was fed raw chicken. Salmonella was cultured from the raw chicken and the horsemeat diet for both collections. Multiple Salmonella serotypes were identified, with S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium (copenhagen) isolated most frequently. Approximately half of the Salmonella isolates demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance. The ability to harbor Salmonella as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation to carnivory. The high rate of fecal shedding of Salmonella in healthy individuals clouds the interpretation of a positive fecal culture in an ill felid, or one with diarrhea. All zoo employees having contact with cat feces or raw diets have a high rate of occupational exposure to Salmonella and should exercise appropriate hygienic precautions.

  10. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, TRANSFORMERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, TRANSFORMERS, AND HYDRAULIC PUMPHOUSE, INCLUDING HYDRAULIC OIL TANK - Folsom Powerhouse, Adjacent to American River, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 19. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. ALTERNATE VIEW OF PENSTOCK SHED, NORTH ELEVATION OF POWERHOUSE, TRANSFORMERS, AND HYDRAULIC PUMPHOUSE, INCLUDING HYDRAULIC OIL TANK - Folsom Powerhouse, Adjacent to American River, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  12. SOUTH END OF FURNACE WITH CAST AND ENGINE SHED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH END OF FURNACE WITH CAST AND ENGINE SHED IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. 17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH SAWMILL BEHIND - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  14. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Janice S.; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Torella, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB’s physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  16. A novel freeze-dried storage and preparation method for the determination of mycophenolic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Cheng, Zeneng; Xie, Mengmeng

    2017-02-15

    Plasma samples were conventionally stored at freezing conditions until the time of detection. Such a technique, when carried out over an extended period, is energy consuming; in addition, preparation and transportation of stored samples is inconvenient. In this study, a freeze-dried storage and preparation method was proposed to determine the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in plasma. Fresh plasma samples were freeze-dried using a device, and then stored at ambient temperature. After the stored samples were soaked with methanol spiked with the internal standard, high-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to detect MPA. The proposed method was demonstrated to be precise and accurate over the linear range of 0.5-50 μg mL(-1) , with both intra- and inter-day precision being <7% and biases <10%. The freeze-dried samples were stable at ambient temperature for at least 40 days. This method was also successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of MPA in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic parameters, such as maximum plasma concentration, time point of maximum plasma concentration and elimination half-life, among others, were consistent with the results in the published study. This proposed technique was proved to be simple, reproducible and energy saving. This approach could also simplify the storage and analysis of samples in clinical and scientific drug research.

  17. The Effect of Nucleic Acid Extraction Platforms and Sample Storage on the Integrity of Viral RNA for Use in Whole Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kuiama; Bell, Andrew; Miles, Rory; Carne, Simon; Wooldridge, David; Manso, Carmen; Hennessy, Nicola; Bailey, Daniel; Pullan, Steven T; Gharbia, Saheer; Vipond, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Extraction of viral RNA and the storage of sample material are extremely important factors in the detection and whole genome sequencing (WGS) of viral pathogens. Although PCR-based detection methods focus on small amplicons, viral WGS applications require RNA of high quality and integrity for adequate sequence coverage and depth. This study examined the fitness of one manual and four automated RNA extraction platforms commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for use in metagenomic sequencing, how the practice of storing sample material in Qiagen buffer AVL before extraction affected the integrity of viral RNA and its suitability for use in amplicon-based WGS methods, and how the addition of Triton X-100 to buffer AVL affected the capability of the extraction platforms and the integrity of viral RNA in stored samples. This study found that the EZ1 platform gave the best performance of the automated platforms and gave comparable results to the frequently used manual Qiagen extraction protocol when extracted viral RNA was used in metagenomics sequencing. To maintain high levels of viral RNA integrity suitable for amplicon-based WGS, nucleic acid should be extracted from samples immediately, because even short storage periods in buffer AVL have a severe effect on integrity, and the addition of Triton X-100 had little effect on the quality of viral material for WGS.

  18. Studies in the photogalvanic effect in mixed reductants system for solar energy conversion and storage: Dextrose and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Azur A system

    SciTech Connect

    Gangotri, K.M.; Indora, Vinod

    2010-02-15

    A mixture of two reductants (Dextrose and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) is used as a mixed reductants with Azur A as photosensitizer in the photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage with the aim to reduce the cost of construction for commercial viability. The photogeneration of photopotential and photocurrent were 778.0 mV and 55.0 {mu}A, respectively, whereas maximum power of the cell was 42.79 {mu}W. The observed power at power point of the cell was 10.87 {mu}W and conversion efficiency was 0.1045%.The determined fill factor was 0.1942. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 115.0 min in dark where it was irradiated for 175.0 min. A mechanism for the photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. (author)

  19. Influence of electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts on microbial quality and overall appearance of blueberries during storage.

    PubMed

    Liato, Viacheslav; Hammami, Riadh; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of diluted electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts (potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate) to extend the shelf life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. The sanitizing capacity of these solutions was studied against pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 as well as phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. The results showed that a 5-min treatment of inoculated blueberries with electro-activated solutions resulted in a 4 log CFU/g reduction in Listeria monocytogenes for all solutions. For E. coli O157:H7, the electro-activated potassium acetate and potassium citrate solutions achieved a decrease of 3.5 log CFU/g after 5 min of berry washing. The most important fungus reduction was found when blueberries were washed with an electro-activated solution of potassium acetate and a NaOCl solution. After 5 min of blueberry washing with an electro-activated potassium acetate solution, a very high reduction effect was observed for A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea, which showed survival levels of only 2.2 ± 0.16, 0.34 ± 0.15 and 0.21 ± 0.16 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the effect of the washing on the organoleptic quality of blueberries, the obtained results showed no negative effect on the product color or textural profile. Finally, this work suggests that washing with electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts can be used to enhance the shelf-life of blueberries during post-harvest storage.

  20. Lyophilized brain tumor specimens can be used for histologic, nucleic acid, and protein analyses after 1 year of room temperature storage

    PubMed Central

    Mareninov, Sergey; De Jesus, Jason; Sanchez, Desiree E.; Kay, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ryan W.; Babic, Ivan; Chen, Weidong; Telesca, Donatello; Lou, Jerry J.; Mirsadraei, Leili; Gardner, Tracie P.; Khanlou, Negar; Vinters, Harry V.; Shafa, Bob B.; Lai, Albert; Liau, Linda M.; Mischel, Paul S.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen tissue, a gold standard biospecimen, can yield well preserved nucleic acids and proteins after over a decade but is vulnerable to thawing and has substantial fiscal, spatial, and environmental costs. A long-term room temperature biospecimen storage alternative that preserves broad analytical utility can potentially empower tissue-based research. As there is scant data on the analytical utility of lyophilized brain tumor biospecimens, we evaluated lyophilized (freeze-dried) samples stored for 1 year at room temperature. Lyophilized tumor tissue processed into paraffin sections produced good histology. Yields of extracted DNA, RNA, and protein approximated those of frozen tissue. After 1 year, lyophilized samples yielded high molecular weight DNA that permitted copy number variation analysis, IDH 1 mutation detection, and MGMT promoter methylation PCR. A 27 % decrease in RIN scores over the 1 year suggests that RNA degradation was inhibited though incompletely. Nevertheless, RT-PCR studies on lyophilized tissue performed similarly to frozen tissue. In contrast to FFPE tissues where protein bands were absent or shifted to a lower molecular weight, lyophilized samples showed similar protein bands as frozen tissue on SDS-PAGE analysis. Lyophilized tissue performed similarly to frozen tissue for Western blots and enzyme activity assays. Immunohistochemistry of lyophilized tissue that were processed into FFPE blocks often required longer incubation times for staining than standard FFPE samples but generally provided robust antigen detection. This preliminary study suggests that lyophilization has promise for long-term room temperature storage while permitting varied tests; however, further work is required to better stabilize nucleic acids particularly RNA. PMID:23640138

  1. Low-temperature Storage of Cucumbers Induces Changes in the Organic Acid Content and in Citrate Synthase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To elucidate the cause of reported pyruvate accumulation in chilled stored cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. ‘Toppugurin’, we have examined differences in the extent of incorporation of acetate-1,2-14C into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the specific activity of the enzyme citrate synthase ...

  2. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P < 0.01), palmitic (16:0, r = 0.80, P < 0.001), stearic (18:0, r = -0.58, P < 0.01), and oleic (18:1c-9, r = 0.79, P < 0.001) acids. For PCD, significant relationships were found between marbling and palmitic (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) and oleic (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) acids. Microsomal fractions prepared from PCD muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), total PAP (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), and PAP-1 (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) specific activities. The results on FA compositions of whole muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA.

  3. Diapause induces remodeling of the fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids in overwintering larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Elvira L; Pond, David W; Worland, M Roger; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Željko D; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids prepared from the whole bodies of non-diapausing and diapausing fifth instar larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were determined to evaluate the role of these lipids in diapause. Substantial changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids were triggered by diapause development. This led to a significant increase in the overall FA unsaturation (UFAs/SFAs ratio), attributable to an increase in the relative proportion of MUFAs and the concomitant decrease in PUFAs and SFAs. In triacylglycerols, the significant changes in the FAs composition are the result of an increase in the relative proportions of MUFAs, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and oleic acid (18:1n-9), and a concomitant reduction in the composition of SFAs and PUFAs, mainly palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6), respectively. Changes in the composition of phospholipids were more subtle with FAs contributing to the overall increase of FA unsaturation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the melt transition temperatures of total lipids prepared from whole larvae, primarily attributable to the triacylglycerol component, were significantly lower during the time course of diapause compared with non-diapause. These observations were correlated to the FA composition of triacylglycerols, most likely enabling them to remain functional during colder winter conditions. We conclude that O. nubilalis undergoes remodeling of FA profiles of both energy storage triacylglycerols and membrane phospholipids as an element of its overwintering physiology which may improve the ability to cold harden during diapause.

  4. Assessing the capacity of growth, survival, and acid adaptive response of Listeria monocytogenes during storage of various cheeses and subsequent simulated gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Gkerekou, Maria A; Vitzilaiou, Eirini S; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-04-04

    Different physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of cheeses may affect Listeria monocytogenes potential to grow, survive, or exhibit an acid adaptive response during storage and digestion. The objectives of the present study were to assess: i) the survival or growth potential of L.monocytogenes on various cheeses during storage, ii) the effect of initial indigenous microbiota on pathogen growth in comparison to expected growth curves retrieved by existing predictive models, and iii) the impact of habituation on/in cheeses surfaces on the subsequent acid resistance during simulated gastric digestion. Portions of cream (Cottage and Mascarpone), soft (Anthotyros, Camembert, Mastelo®, Manouri, Mozzarella, Ricotta), and semi-hard (Edam, Halloumi, Gouda) cheeses were inoculated with ca. 100CFU/g or cm(2) of L.monocytogenes and stored under vacuum or aerobic conditions at 7°C (n=4). The impact of varying (initial) levels of starter culture or indigenous spoilage microbiota on pathogen growth was evaluated by purchasing cheese packages on different dates in relation to production and expiration date (subsequently reflecting to different batches) mimicking a potential situation of cheese contamination with L.monocytogenes during retail display. Values of pH and aw were also monitored and used to simulate growth of L. monocytogenes by existing models and compare it with the observed data of the study. Survival in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH1.5; HCl; max. 120min) was assessed at three time points during storage. Mascarpone, Ricotta, Mozzarella, Camembert, and Halloumi supported L.monocytogenes growth by 0.5-0.8logCFU/g or cm(2)per day, since low initial levels of total viable counts (TVC) (1.8-3.8logCFU/g or cm(2)) and high pH/aw values (ca. 6.23-6.64/0.965-0.993) were recorded. On Cottage, Anthotyros, Manouri, Mastelo®, Edam, and Gouda, the pathogen survived at populations similar or lower than the inoculation level due to the high reported competition

  5. Stability of Tranexamic Acid after 12-Week Storage at Temperatures from -20 deg C to 50 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    to 0.31 ± 0.01 mg/L. Similarly, the semiquantitative level for FDP in PPP was ᝺ μg/mL; PPP+SK >40 μg/mL; and PPP+SK+TXA ᝺ μg/mL. High - Performance Liquid Chromatography There...the curve. There was no significant degra- dation in the area under the peak of the tranexamic acid high - performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  6. Lipidomics Analysis Reveals Efficient Storage of Hepatic Triacylglycerides Enriched in Unsaturated Fatty Acids after One Bout of Exercise in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinjie; Häring, Hans U.; Schleicher, Erwin; Lehmann, Rainer; Han, Xianlin; Xu, Guowang; Weigert, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise induces lipolysis, increases circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids in the working muscle. Less is known about the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver during and post-exercise. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an ultra fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) based lipidomics analysis of liver tissue samples obtained from C57Bl/6J mice immediately after a 60 min treadmill run of moderate intensity, and after 3 h of recovery. The PLS-DA scores plot for 115 quantified lipid molecular species revealed a clear separation of the hepatic lipid profile of sedentary from recovering mice, but not from mice immediately after running. 21 lipid species were considered to be most responsible for the difference in the hepatic lipid profiles, including 17 triacylglycerides (TG), one lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and three phosphatidylcholines (PC). TG species were found to be more abundant in the recovery phase, while PC species were decreased. The degree of accumulation of individual TG species correlated well with the amount of theoretical energy stored whereas no increase was found for TG species containing only saturated or one monounsaturated fatty acid. Total liver TG content as assayed by an enzymatic method was increased to 163% in the recovery phase, while it was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle by the exercise bout and remained less in the recovery phase. Results from fasted and refed mice indicate that fasting-induced lipolysis was associated with a pronounced accumulation of hepatic TG, which is reversed by refeeding for 5 h. Thus food intake per se did not elevate hepatic TG. Conclusion These data indicate that high availability of FFA induced by endurance exercise or fasting resulted in a transient hepatic TG accumulation, while muscle TG content was decreased during exercise presumably due to increased muscle fatty acid oxidation. PMID

  7. Nanostructured bacterial cellulose-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) composite membranes with high storage modulus and protonic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Gadim, Tiago D O; Figueiredo, Andrea G P R; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly C; Vilela, Carla; Gamelas, José A F; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R; Figueiredo, Filipe M L

    2014-05-28

    The present study reports the development of a new generation of bio-based nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA), produced by in situ free radical polymerization of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, followed by conversion of the ensuing polymer into the acidic form. The BC nanofibrilar network endows the composite membranes with excellent mechanical properties at least up to 140 °C, a temperature where either pure PSSA or Nafion are soft, as shown by dynamic mechanical analysis. The large concentration of sulfonic acid groups in PSSA is responsible for the high ionic exchange capacity of the composite membranes, reaching 2.25 mmol g(-1) for a composite with 83 wt % PSSA/PEGDA. The through-plane protonic conductivity of the best membrane is in excess of 0.1 S cm(-1) at 94 °C and 98% relative humidity (RH), decreasing to 0.042 S cm(-1) at 60% RH. These values are comparable or even higher than those of ionomers such as Nafion or polyelectrolytes such as PSSA. This combination of electric and viscoelastic properties with low cost underlines the potential of these nanocomposites as a bio-based alternative to other polymer membranes for application in fuel cells, redox flow batteries, or other devices requiring functional proton conducting elements, such as sensors and actuators.

  8. Ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and visual quality of baby spinach as affected by shade netting and postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Sara A M; Gertsson, Ulla E; Nordmark, Lotta Y G; Olsson, Marie E

    2007-10-17

    Baby spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown under three types of shade netting (high transmittance, spectrum-altering, and low transmittance) to study the effect on the concentrations of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), carotenoids, and chlorophyll and on the visual quality of the leaves. The spinach was sown in April and August and harvested at two growth stages. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 and 10 degrees C. Shading significantly decreased the ascorbic acid concentration of April-sown spinach by 12-33%, but in the August-sown spinach, the response was inconsistent. Concentrations of total carotenoids and total chlorophylls were significantly higher under the nettings in many cases, especially under the spectrum-altering and low-transmittance nettings. Postharvest visual quality and postharvest persistence of the compounds analyzed were not greatly affected by shading. We conclude that these shade nettings are acceptable to use in baby spinach production when it comes to the studied aspects of internal and external quality of the produce.

  9. 3. Railroad viaduct, keeper's house, light tower and shed, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Railroad viaduct, keeper's house, light tower and shed, view west, southeast side of viaduct, southeast and northeast sides of keeper's house, tower and shed - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  10. 1. Shed, railroad, keeper's house, light tower and boathouse, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shed, railroad, keeper's house, light tower and boathouse, view southwest, northeast side of shed, keeper's house and tower, east and north sides of boathouse - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  11. 2. Shed, railroad, light tower and boathouse, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Shed, railroad, light tower and boathouse, view south southwest, northeast and northwest sides of shed, northeast side of tower, east and north sides of boathouse - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  12. 1. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACES OF PYROTECHNIC SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACES OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757). ENTRANCE TO TEST CELL ON SOUTH SIDE; ENTRANCE TO PERSONNEL ROOM ON WEST SIDE. SECURITY FENCE BETWEEN SLC-3E AND SLC-3W IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 26. VIEW OF METAL SHED OVER SHIELDING TANK WITH CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF METAL SHED OVER SHIELDING TANK WITH CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. SHOWS OPEN SIDE OF SHED ROOF, HERCULON SHEET, AND HAND-OPERATED CRANE. TAKEN IN 1983. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 83-476-2-9, TAKEN IN 1983. PHOTOGRAPHER NOT NAMED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts. Note rock foundations of wood tanks once located under the rain shed on the ground at center of photograph. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. 15. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF SHED, WITH AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF SHED, WITH AN OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE STEP-DOWN ROOF AND TWO BANKS OF CLEARSTORY LIGHTS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. View to westsouthwest, with shed at left, showing east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to west-southwest, with shed at left, showing east end and north side. Drew-Sherwood Barn (HABS No. CA-2610-C) at right rear. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Shed, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Genetic and antigenic variation of shedding viruses from vaccinated chickens after challenge with virulent Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2013-06-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolation was attempted from La Sota-vaccinated or unvaccinated chickens exposed to the virulent NDV variant E347Kmt. Shedding viruses were purified by plaque assay and then were sequenced for HN and F genes. The amino acid sequences of the F gene of all shedding viruses were identical to the sequence of the challenge virus. However, amino acid substitution occurred at four positions (70, 347, 466, and 517) in the HN protein among shedding viruses from vaccinated and challenged chickens but not from unvaccinated and challenged chickens. Amino acid substitution occurred more frequently at position 347 (K to G or V) in the HN protein compared with the other positions. There was minor antigenic variation between some of mutant viruses shed and challenge virus. However, none of mutant viruses had a significantly lower antigenic R value with La Sota virus compared with challenge virus E347Kmt. Our findings indicate that vaccinal immunity might facilitate an evolutional event through antigenic selection, genetic mutation among virulent virus populations shed from vaccinated flocks, or both.

  20. Packaging of an AAV vector encoding human acid alpha-glucosidase for gene therapy in glycogen storage disease type II with a modified hybrid adenovirus-AAV vector.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Chen, Y-T; Bird, Andrew; Xu, Fang; Hou, Yang-Xun; Amalfitano, Andrea; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2003-04-01

    We have developed an improved method for packaging adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors with a replication-defective adenovirus-AAV (Ad-AAV) hybrid virus. The AAV vector encoding human acid alpha-glucosidase (hGAA) was cloned into an E1, polymerase/preterminal protein-deleted adenovirus, such that it is packaged as an Ad vector. Importantly, the Ad-AAV hybrid cannot replicate during AAV vector packaging in 293 cells, because of deletion of polymerase/preterminal protein. The residual Ad-AAV in the AAV vector stock was reduced to <1 infectious particle per 10(10) AAV vector particles. These modifications resulted in approximately 30-fold increased packaging of the AAV vector for the hybrid Ad-AAV vector method as compared with standard transfection-only methods. Similarly improved packaging was demonstrated for pseudotyping the AAV vector as AAV6, and for AAV vector packaging with a second Ad-AAV vector encoding canine glucose-6-phosphatase. Liver-targeted delivery of either the Ad-AAV hybrid or AAV vector particles in acid alpha-glucosidase-knockout (GAA-KO) mice revealed secretion of hGAA with the Ad-AAV vector, and sustained secretion of hGAA with an AAV vector in hGAA-tolerant GAA-KO mice. Further development of hybrid Ad-AAV vectors could offer distinct advantages for gene therapy in glycogen storage diseases.

  1. Evasion of immune responses to introduced human acid alpha-glucosidase by liver-restricted expression in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Franco, Luis M; Sun, Baodong; Yang, Xiaoyi; Bird, Andrew; Zhang, Haoyue; Schneider, Ayn; Brown, Talmage; Young, Sarah P; Clay, Timothy M; Amalfitano, Andrea; Chen, Y T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2005-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease) is caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase) and manifests as muscle weakness, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus vectors containing either a liver-specific promoter (LSP) (AAV-LSPhGAApA) or a hybrid CB promoter (AAV-CBhGAApA) to drive human GAA expression were pseudotyped as AAV8 and administered to immunocompetent GAA-knockout mice. Secreted hGAA was detectable in plasma between 1 day and 12 weeks postadministration with AAV-LSPhGAApA and only from 1 to 8 days postadministration for AAV-CBGAApA. No anti-GAA antibodies were detected in response to AAV-LSPhGAApA (<1:200), whereas AAV-CBhGAApA provoked an escalating antibody response starting 2 weeks postadministration. The LSP drove approximately 60-fold higher GAA expression than the CB promoter in the liver by 12 weeks following vector administration. Furthermore, the detected cellular immunity was provoked by AAV-CBhGAApA, as detected by ELISpot and CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte immunodetection. GAA activity was increased to higher than normal and glycogen content was reduced to essentially normal levels in the heart and skeletal muscle following administration of AAV-LSPhGAApA. Therefore, liver-restricted GAA expression with an AAV vector evaded immunity and enhanced efficacy in GSD-II mice.

  2. VIEW NORTH OF PRESTRESS TRACK CENTERHEMP STORAGE BUILDING 77 (1920) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH OF PRE-STRESS TRACK CENTER-HEMP STORAGE BUILDING 77 (1920) ROPE WAREHOUSE 43 (1941) BEHIND IT STORAGE SHED 44 (1953) IN FRONT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  3. August 2007 FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Recommendations for SHEDS-Dietary and SHEDS-Residential Modules (Summarized) and EPA Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past ten years, the Agency has requested the Panel to review several probabilistic dietary exposure software models. These have included DEEM-FCID™, Calendex-FCID, CARES™, LifeLine™, and an earlier (specialized) version of SHEDS (SHEDS-Wood) designed to assess exposure...

  4. H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH)[sub 3][a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO[sub 2]) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO[sub 2] precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  5. H{sub 2}OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH){sub 3}[a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO{sub 2}) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO{sub 2} precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  6. Preparation of Mg-MgH2 flakes by planetary ball milling with stearic acid and their hydrogen storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Song, Myoung Youp

    2016-05-01

    Many studies preparing magnesium hydride using catalyst addition were performed, resulting in the preparation of additive-containing magnesium hydride. Preparation of a sample with a MgH2 phase without additives requires high pressure and high temperature and is time-demanding. In order to prepare an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase, 90 wt% Mg+10 wt% MgH2 (named 90Mg+10MgH2) was milled under a hydrogen atmosphere with 6 wt% stearic acid as a process-controlling agent, which led to a formation of Mg-MgH2 flakes. The hydrogen storing and releasing properties of the prepared flakes were investigated and compared with those of purchased MgH2. A sample with a majority fraction of MgH2 phase was prepared by planetary ball milling of 90 Mg+10 MgH2 with 6 wt% stearic acid. The resultant particles of 90 Mg+10 MgH2 obtained after hydridingdehydriding cycling were much smaller and had significantly more cracks and defects than those of MgH2 after hydriding-dehydriding cycling. 90 Mg+10 MgH2 released 0.12 wt% hydrogen for 4 min, 3.70 wt% for 20 min, and 5.30 wt% for 60 min at 648 K at the first cycle.

  7. Inhibitory effects of lactic acid and lauricidin on spoilage organisms of chicken breast during storage at chilled temperature.

    PubMed

    Anang, D M; Rusul, G; Ling, Foo Hooi; Bhat, Rajeev

    2010-11-15

    Different concentrations of lauricidin (LU, containing 1% lactic acid) and lactic acid alone (LA) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing naturally occurring microflora of raw chicken breasts. Chicken breasts were dipped in 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% solutions of LU (w/v) or LA (v/v) for 10, 20, and 30 min and stored at 4°C for 14 d. Total Plate Counts (TPC) and populations of Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were determined before and after dipping and after storing for 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 d. Additionally, Hunter L, a, and b values and pH of the chicken breast were also determined. From the obtained results, TPC on chicken breast treated with LU was found to be decreased by 0.92 to 1.2 log CFU/g from a mean initial log 5.69 CFU/g, while those dipped in LA decreased by 0.53 to 2.36 log CFU/g. Pseudomonas population on chicken breast dipped in LU decreased by 0.79 to 1.77 log CFU/g from an initial 3.90 log CFU/g, while in LA treated it decreased by 0.39 to 1.82 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae counts were also found to be reduced by 0.14 to 1.14 log CFU/g on chicken breast dipped in LU, while the reduction was from 0.59 to 2.18 log CFU/g in chicken breast dipped in LA. The major bacterial types isolated from LU treated chicken breast belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae group, which included: Enterobacter, E. coli and Citrobacter. Whereas, in the LA treated breast it belonged to: Pseudomonas, E. coli, and Kocuria rhizophila (formerly Micrococcus luteus). Dipping chicken breast in LU and LA caused a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in their pH values. Also, treatment with LU and LA caused a slight darkening in color (decreased Hunter L value), increase in redness (increased Hunter a value), and increase in yellowness (increased Hunter b value). Based on the results obtained in the present study, Lactic acid and Lauricidin showed high potential to be used as a sanitizer in reducing the population of spoilage microorganisms naturally occurring

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools for Oxidative Deterioration of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Infant Formulas during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Siefarth, Caroline; Serfert, Yvonne; Drusch, Stephan; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid, metallic and/or fishy off-flavors. Although such off-flavors pose no health risk, they can nevertheless lead to rejection of products by consumers. Thus, monitoring autoxidation at its early stages is of great importance and finding a suitable analytical tool to perform these evaluations is therefore of high interest in quality monitoring. Two formulations of infant formulas were varied systematically in their mineral composition and their presence of antioxidants to produce 18 model formulas. All models were aged under controlled conditions and their oxidative deterioration was monitored. A quantitative study was performed on seven characteristic odor-active secondary oxidation products in the formulations via two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-HRGC-MS/O). The sensitivity of the multi-dimensional GC-MS/O analysis was supported by two additional analytical tools for monitoring autoxidation, namely the analysis of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. Furthermore, an aroma profile analysis (APA) was performed to reveal the presence and intensities of typical odor qualities generated in the course of fatty acid oxidation. The photometrical analyses of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were found to be too insensitive for early indication of the development of sensory defects. By comparison, the 2D-HRGC-MS/O was capable of monitoring peroxidation of PUFAs at low ppb-level in its early stages. Thereby, it was possible to screen oxidative variances on the basis of such volatile markers already within eight weeks after production of the products, which is an earlier indication of oxidative deterioration than achievable via

  9. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce.

  10. Photoreceptor disc shedding in the living human eye

    PubMed Central

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Liu, Zhuolin; Zhang, Furu; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2016-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors undergo a daily cycle of renewal and shedding of membranous discs in their outer segments (OS), the portion responsible for light capture. These physiological processes are fundamental to maintaining photoreceptor health, and their dysfunction is associated with numerous retinal diseases. While both processes have been extensively studied in animal models and postmortem eyes, little is known about them in the living eye, in particular human. In this study, we report discovery of the optical signature associated with disc shedding using a method based on adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) in conjunction with post-processing methods to track and monitor individual cone cells in 4D. The optical signature of disc shedding is characterized by an abrupt transient loss in the cone outer segment tip (COST) reflection followed by its return that is axially displaced anteriorly. Using this signature, we measured the temporal and spatial properties of shedding events in three normal subjects. Average duration of the shedding event was 8.8 ± 13.4 minutes, and average length loss of the OS was 2.1 μm (7.0% of OS length). Prevalence of cone shedding was highest in the morning (14.3%) followed by the afternoon (5.7%) and evening (4.0%), with load distributed across the imaged patch. To the best of our knowledge these are the first images of photoreceptor disc shedding in the living retina. PMID:27895995

  11. 19. RW Meyer Sugar: 18761889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. RW Meyer Sugar: 1876-1889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: Looking toward west end of cooling shed. After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan it cooled and crystallized in large sugar coolers. The humidity and vapors caused by the sorghum pan would have retarded the crystallizing and cooling of the sugar in the boiling house. In 1881 this shed was constructed to house the coolers and the sugar before it was dried in the centrifugals. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  13. Degreening and postharvest storage influences 'Star Ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Jayaprakasha, G K; Porat, Ron; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-12-01

    Ethylene is commercially used for artificial degreening of early season grapefruits. The present study investigated the effect of degreening and storage period on Star Ruby grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) bioactive compounds. Freshly harvested grapefruits were degreened in commercial packing shed for 60h using 2ppm of ethylene at a constant temperature of 20°C. Both degreened and non-degreened (control) fruits were stored at 10°C for 21days and later transferred to 20°C for a period of 14days to simulate shipment and retail store market conditions. Bioactive compounds including carotenoids, limonoids, flavonoids and furocoumarins were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Nomilin was significantly higher (P<0.05) in degreened fruits at 35days after storage. In contrast, flavonoids such as narirutin, naringin and poncirin were significantly (P<0.05) lower in degreened fruits at 35days after storage. Degreening treatment reduced the levels of deacetyl nomilinic acid glucoside and bergamottin after 35days of storage; however, it had no significant effect on total soluble solids, decay, fruit softening, taste, odour, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, limonin, neohesperidin, didymin, 6,7-dihydroxybergamottin, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin and radical scavenging activity. Therefore, degreening could be utilized to enhance the grapefruit aesthetic quality, with minimal effect on nutritional quality.

  14. Shedding light on Aspergillus niger volatile exometabolome

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography. This volatile fraction comprises 428 putatively identified compounds distributed over several chemical families, being the major ones hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ketones and aldehydes. These metabolites may be related with different metabolic pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis and metabolism of fatty acids, degradation of aromatic compounds, mono and sesquiterpenoid synthesis and carotenoid cleavage. The A. niger molecular biomarkers pattern was established, comprising the 44 metabolites present in all studied conditions. This pattern was successfully used to distinguish A. niger from other fungi (Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum) with 3 days of growth by using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). In addition, PLS-DA-Variable Importance in Projection was applied to highlight the metabolites playing major roles in fungi distinction; decreasing the initial dataset to only 16 metabolites. The data pre-processing time was substantially reduced, and an improvement of quality-of-fit value was achieved. This study goes a step further on A. niger metabolome construction and A. niger future detection may be proposed based on this molecular biomarkers pattern. PMID:27264696

  15. Deficiency of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 decreases triacylglycerol storage and induces fatty acid oxidation in insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Ramos, Isabela B; De Paula, Iron F; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect. RhoprGPAT1 contributes 15% of the total GPAT activity in anterior midgut, 50% in posterior midgut and fat body, and 70% in the ovary. The RhoprGpat1 gene is the predominant transcript in the midgut and fat body. To evaluate the physiological relevance of RhoprGPAT1, we generate RhoprGPAT1-deficient insects. The knockdown of RhoprGpat1 results in 50% and 65% decrease in TAG content in the posterior midgut and fat body, respectively. RhoprGpat1-deficient insects also exhibits impaired lipid droplet expansion and a 2-fold increase in fatty acid β-oxidation rates in the fat body. We propose that the RhoprGPAT1 mitochondrial-like isoform is required to channel fatty acyl chains towards TAG synthesis and away from β-oxidation. Such a process is crucial for the insect lipid homeostasis.

  16. An electrochemical biosensor based on cobalt nanoparticles synthesized in iron storage protein molecules to determine ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Rafipour, Ronak; Kashanian, Soheila; Hashemi, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid; Omidfar, Kobra

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA) was investigated using a cobalt(III)-ferritin immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.5). The modified electrode showed excellent electrochemical activity for oxidation of AA. The response to AA on the modified electrode was examined using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The resulting biosensor showed a linear response to AA in a concentration range from 6.25×10(-6) to 2.31×10(-5) M with sensitivity of 86,437 μAM(-)(1) and detection limit of 4.65 × 10(-6) M based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Electrochemical parameters including the charge transfer coefficient (α) and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks ) for AA were found to be 0.52 and 1.054 Sec(-1) , respectively. It has been shown that, using this modified electrode, AA can be determined with high sensitivity, low detection limit, and high selectivity.

  17. 29 CFR 780.209 - Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products... Operations § 780.209 Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products. Employees of a grower of nursery stock who work in packing and storage sheds sorting the stock, grading and trimming it, racking...

  18. Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and homestead - Norris Farm, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  19. Study Sheds Light on Safety of Driving with Epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Study Sheds Light on Safety of Driving With Epilepsy Those who had longer seizures during driving tests ... SUNDAY, Dec. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with epilepsy who experienced longer seizures during a simulated driving ...

  20. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 19061910 ONESTORY SHED ADDITION, FIRST FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 1906-1910 ONE-STORY SHED ADDITION, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ROOF MONITOR, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  1. 3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, northwest and southwest sides - Monhegan Island Light Station, Monhegan Island, ten miles south by ferry from Port Clyde, Monhegan, Lincoln County, ME

  2. 15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  3. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  4. 5. DETAIL, STEEL SHED, SOUTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHWEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL, STEEL SHED, SOUTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHWEST SIDE - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  5. View of southernmost section of east facade with Shed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southernmost section of east facade with Shed in foreground. View toward north - Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Hanger No. 1, Cummins Avenue, Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, CA

  6. 43. PROCESS WELDING SHEDS (FABRICATION SHOPS) ON RIGHT, AND TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. PROCESS WELDING SHEDS (FABRICATION SHOPS) ON RIGHT, AND TANK BARGE, CRANES, PAINT SHOP AND PIPE/MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  7. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  8. View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type A in foreground and truss type B behind that. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  10. Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline on trestle, and water tanks. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  11. Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline connection from collection trough. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter box on northwest side. Maintenance staff in foreground. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  13. Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. 43) and steel tanks in background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  14. Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing collection gutter and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with flume and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection downspouts from gutter to reservoir. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks T5, T4 and T2 on left from front to back. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  18. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  19. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  20. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  1. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  2. 5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  3. 7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  4. 12. View of disassembled steam engine sitting in open shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of disassembled steam engine sitting in open shed showing base, columns and entablature. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  5. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 2016 Targeted Air Shed Grant Program - Closed Announcement FY 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Targeted Air Shed Grant Program proposal for FY 2016. The overall goal of the program is to reduce air pollution in the Nation’s areas with the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 ambient air concentrations.

  7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  8. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS SHOWING CALCIUM CARBIDE IN COOLING CARS ON THE FLOOR. DECEMBER 26, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. 16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing discharge and top rolls. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  10. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 2. WEST SIDE SHOWING SHED ADDITION, BATHROOM AND WOODPOLE TELECOMMUNICATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST SIDE SHOWING SHED ADDITION, BATHROOM AND WOOD-POLE TELECOMMUNICATION ANTENNA. NEW CONTROL STATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter for hypergolics/all media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo

    1990-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flowmeters for flow measurement of hypergols that requires a long term operation without removal from system lines was further developed. A family of vortex shedding flowmeters without moving parts was designed. The test loop to evaluate the meters for the Freon flow, which simulates the hypergolic fluids, was modified and reconstructed. Preliminary results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of an 1/2 inch flowmeter as a function of the flow rate.

  13. Vortex shedding effects in grid-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melina, G.; Bruce, P. J. K.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    The flow on the centerline of grid-generated turbulence is characterized via hot-wire anemometry for three grids with different geometry: a regular grid (RG60), a fractal grid (FSG17), and a single-square grid (SSG). Due to a higher value of the thickness t0 of its bars, SSG produces greater values of turbulence intensity Tu than FSG17, despite SSG having a smaller blockage ratio. However, the higher Tu for SSG is mainly due to a more pronounced vortex shedding contribution. The effects of vortex shedding suppression along the streamwise direction x are studied by testing a three-dimensional configuration, formed by SSG and a set of four splitter plates detached from the grid (SSG+SP). When vortex shedding is damped, the centerline location of the peak of turbulence intensity xpeak moves downstream and Tu considerably decreases in the production region. For FSG17 the vortex shedding is less intense and it disappears more quickly, in terms of x /xpeak , when compared to all the other configurations. When vortex shedding is attenuated, the integral length scale Lu grows more slowly in the streamwise direction, this being verified both for FSG17 and for SSG+SP. In the production region, there is a correlation between the vortex shedding energy and the skewness and the flatness of the velocity fluctuations. When vortex shedding is not significant, the skewness is highly negative and the flatness is much larger than 3. On the opposite side, when vortex shedding is prominent, the non-Gaussian behavior of the velocity fluctuations becomes masked.

  14. 4. View north of Lake Whitney Dam. Wood shed at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View north of Lake Whitney Dam. Wood shed at center of photograph houses a turbine installed in 1932. Brick structure to the left of the turbine shed is a gate house which houses the main valves controlling flow of lake to water to the filter plant. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Lake Whitney Dam, East side of Whitney Avenue near intersection with Armory Street, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. Enhanced Efficacy of an AAV Vector Encoding Chimeric, Highly-Secreted Acid α-glucosidase in Glycogen Storage Disease Type II

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Brown, Talmage; Bird, Andrew; Young, Sarah P.; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) is an inherited muscular dystrophy caused by deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). We hypothesized that chimeric GAA containing an alternative signal peptide could increase the secretion of GAA from transduced cells and enhance the receptor-mediated uptake of GAA in striated muscle. The relative secretion of chimeric GAA from transfected 293 cells increased up to 26-fold. Receptor-mediated uptake of secreted, chimeric GAA corrected cultured GSD-II patient cells. High-level hGAA was sustained in the plasma of GSD-II mice for 24 weeks following administration of an AAV2/8 vector encoding chimeric GAA; furthermore, GAA activity was increased and glycogen content was significantly reduced in striated muscle and in the brain. Administration of only 1×1010 vector particles increased GAA activity in the heart and diaphragm for >18 weeks, whereas 3×1010 vector particles increased GAA activity and reduced glycogen content in the heart, diaphragm, and quadriceps. Furthermore, an AAV2/2 vector encoding chimeric GAA produced secreted hGAA for >12 weeks in the majority of treated GSD-II mice. Thus, chimeric, highly secreted GAA enhanced the efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in GSD-II mice. PMID:16987711

  16. Enhancing photo-catalytic production of organic acids in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔglgC, a strain incapable of glycogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Damian; Broadbent, Charlie; Carruth, David; Paddock, Troy; Ungerer, Justin; Maness, Pin-Ching; Ghirardi, Maria; Yu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    A key objective in microbial biofuels strain development is to maximize carbon flux to target products while minimizing cell biomass accumulation, such that ideally the algae and bacteria would operate in a photo-catalytic state. A brief period of such a physiological state has recently been demonstrated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔglgC strain incapable of glycogen storage. When deprived of nitrogen, the ΔglgC excretes the organic acids alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate for a number of days without increasing cell biomass. This study examines the relationship between the growth state and the photo-catalytic state, and characterizes the metabolic adaptability of the photo-catalytic state to increasing light intensity. It is found that the culture can transition naturally from the growth state into the photo-catalytic state when provided with limited nitrogen supply during the growth phase. Photosynthetic capacity and pigments are lost over time in the photo-catalytic state. Reversal to growth state is observed with re-addition of nitrogen nutrient, accompanied by restoration of photosynthetic capacity and pigment levels in the cells. While the overall productivity increased under high light conditions, the ratio of alpha-ketoglutarate/pyruvate is altered, suggesting that carbon partition between the two products is adaptable to environmental conditions. PMID:25616027

  17. Ezetimibe markedly attenuates hepatic cholesterol accumulation and improves liver function in the lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mouse, a model for cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-01-17

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a critical role in the intracellular handling of lipids by hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) contained in newly internalized lipoproteins. In humans, mutations in the LAL gene result in cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), or in Wolman disease (WD) when the mutations cause complete loss of LAL activity. A rat model for WD and a mouse model for CESD have been described. In these studies we used LAL-deficient mice to investigate how modulating the amount of intestinally-derived cholesterol reaching the liver might impact its mass, cholesterol content, and function in this model. The main experiment tested if ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, had any effect on CE accumulation in mice lacking LAL. In male Lal(-/-) mice given ezetimibe in their diet (20 mg/day/kg bw) for 4 weeks starting at 21 days of age, both liver mass and hepatic cholesterol concentration (mg/g) were reduced to the extent that whole-liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the treated mice (74.3±3.4) was only 56% of that in those not given ezetimibe (133.5±6.7). There was also a marked improvement in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Thus, minimizing cholesterol absorption has a favorable impact on the liver in CESD.

  18. Cobalt carbonate dumbbells for high-capacity lithium storage: A slight doping of ascorbic acid and an enhancement in electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Wei, Shanshan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuxi; Yu, Yue; Shen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of materials with desirable nanostructures is a hot research topic owing to their enhanced performances in contrast to the bulk counterparts. Herein, dumbbell-shaped cobalt carbonate (CoCO3) nano architectures and the bulk counterpart of CoCO3 rhombohedra are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. By comparison, it has been found that: the addition of AA in the hydrothermal crystallization system changes the shape of the building blocks from Co2CO3(OH)2 nanosheets to CoCO3 nanoparticles, and then further influences the final configuration of the products. When applied as anodes of lithium ion batteries, CoCO3 dumbbells deliver a 100th capacity of 1042 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and even exhibit a long-term value of 824 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1, which are much higher than the rhombohedral counterparts with corresponding 540 and 481 mAh g-1 respectively. The much higher capacity, better cycling stability and enhanced rate performance of CoCO3 dumbbells can be attributed to the higher specific surface area, smaller charge transport resistance and better structure stability resulting from the slight doping (∼4.6 wt%) of AA, and also relate with a novel lithium storage mechanism in CoCO3.

  19. One-step electrochemical synthesis of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-napthalene-sulfonic acid functionalized graphene for green energy storage electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, Tapas; Khanra, Partha; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuk Choi, Sung; Yun, Hyung Joong; Lee, Joong Hee

    2013-09-01

    A green approach for the one-step electrochemical synthesis of water dispersible graphene is reported. An alkaline solution of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) serves the role of electrolyte as well as surface modifier. High-purity graphite rods are used as electrodes which can be exfoliated under a constant electrical potential (˜20 V) to form ANS functionalized graphene (ANEG). The aqueous dispersion of ANEG obeyed Beer’s law at moderate concentrations, as evidenced from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests complete exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy not only confirm the functionalization of graphene with ANS, but also suggest the formation of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of ANEG. Raman spectra analysis indicates the presence of defects in ANEG as compared to pure graphite. Cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements of ANEG using three electrode systems show a specific capacitance of 115 F g-1 at a current density of 4 A g-1. The ANEG electrode exhibits 93% retention in specific capacitance after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, confirming its utility as a green energy storage electrode material.

  20. Enhancing photo-catalytic production of organic acids in the cyanobacterium S ynechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Δ glg C , a strain incapable of glycogen storage

    DOE PAGES

    Carrieri, Damian; Broadbent, Charlie; Carruth, David; ...

    2015-01-23

    We describe how a key objective in microbial biofuels strain development is to maximize carbon flux to target products while minimizing cell biomass accumulation, such that ideally the algae and bacteria would operate in a photo-catalytic state. A brief period of such a physiological state has recently been demonstrated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔglgC strain incapable of glycogen storage. When deprived of nitrogen, the ΔglgC excretes the organic acids alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate for a number of days without increasing cell biomass. This study examines the relationship between the growth state and the photo-catalytic state, and characterizes themore » metabolic adaptability of the photo-catalytic state to increasing light intensity. It is found that the culture can transition naturally from the growth state into the photo-catalytic state when provided with limited nitrogen supply during the growth phase. Photosynthetic capacity and pigments are lost over time in the photo-catalytic state. Reversal to growth state is observed with re-addition of nitrogen nutrient, accompanied by restoration of photosynthetic capacity and pigment levels in the cells. While the overall productivity increased under high light conditions, the ratio of alpha-ketoglutarate/pyruvate is altered, suggesting that carbon partition between the two products is adaptable to environmental conditions.« less

  1. Increased Epstein–Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding

    PubMed Central

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G.; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case–control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers. The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na+/K+) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either “possible SCM” (Na+/K+ ratio 0.6–1.0) or SCM (Na+/K+ ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation. EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and “possible SCM” compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and “possible SCM” (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13–6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated. SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland. PMID:27399077

  2. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    PubMed

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  3. Wet storage integrity update

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  4. Circadian disc shedding in Xenopus retina in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, J.G.; Fisher, S.K.

    1984-02-01

    To further examine the endogenous rhythm of disc shedding and phagocytosis observed in several species, adult Xenopus were entrained to a 12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle and then placed in constant darkness. At various times during a 3-day period of constant darkness, eyes were explanted and placed into culture medium, then processed for light and electron microscopy. A clear rhythmicity of disc shedding was observed, with pronounced peaks at the times light onset occurred in the original entrainment cycle. Modification of the HCO/sub 3/- ion concentration in the medium was found to raise the amplitude of the peak of endogenous disc shedding. Explants maintained in culture medium containing deuterium oxide (a compound known to perturb circadian oscillators) were found to shed with a longer interval between peaks. The addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, to this preparation suppressed the shedding rhythm. The action of anisomycin was investigated by autoradiographic examination of the pattern of /sup 3/H-leucine uptake and protein synthesis by the explant. The findings suggest the presence of a circadian oscillator for rhythmic disc shedding within the amphibian eye.

  5. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    PubMed

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country.

  6. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations.

  7. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  8. Exploitation of syndecan-1 shedding by Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances virulence.

    PubMed

    Park, P W; Pier, G B; Hinkes, M T; Bernfield, M

    2001-05-03

    Cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitous and abundant receptors/co-receptors of extracellular ligands, including many microbes. Their role in microbial infections is poorly defined, however, because no cell-surface HSPG has been clearly connected to the pathogenesis of a particular microbe. We have previously shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, through its virulence factor LasA, enhances the in vitro shedding of syndecan-1-the predominant cell-surface HSPG of epithelia. Here we show that shedding of syndecan-1 is also activated by P. aeruginosa in vivo, and that the resulting syndecan-1 ectodomains enhance bacterial virulence in newborn mice. Newborn mice deficient in syndecan-1 resist P. aeruginosa lung infection but become susceptible when given purified syndecan-1 ectodomains or heparin, but not when given ectodomain core protein, indicating that the ectodomain's heparan sulphate chains are the effectors. In wild-type newborn mice, inhibition of syndecan-1 shedding or inactivation of the shed ectodomain's heparan sulphate chains prevents lung infection. Our findings uncover a pathogenetic mechanism in which a host response to tissue injury-syndecan-1 shedding-is exploited to enhance microbial virulence apparently by modulating host defences.

  9. A Novel Load Shedding Scheme for Voltage Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodhar, Sunil S.; Krishna, S.

    2016-12-01

    Undervoltage load shedding serves to maintain voltage stability when a majority of loads are fast acting. An undervoltage load shedding scheme should address two tasks: the detection of voltage instability following a large disturbance and the determination of the amount of load to be shed. Additionally, in case of short-term voltage instability, the scheme should be fast. This paper proposes a method to predict voltage instability arising due to a large disturbance. The amount of load to be shed to maintain voltage stability is then determined from the Thevenin equivalent of the network as seen from the local bus. The proposed method uses local measurements of bus voltage and power, and does not require knowledge of the network. The method is validated by simulation of three test systems subjected to a large disturbance. The proposed scheme is fairly accurate in estimating the minimum amount of load to be shed to maintain stability. The method is also successful in maintaining stability in cases where voltage collapse is detected at multiple buses.

  10. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 days leads to a progressively increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associat...

  11. Storage behavior and changes in concentrations of abscisic acid and gibberellins during dormancy break and germination in seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chien, Ching-Te; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2010-02-01

    The medicinal Asian plant genus Phellodendron is known to contain several very important compounds that have biological action. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii can be stored and to characterize their dormancy. Seeds of this taxon stored at -20 and -80 degrees C and in liquid nitrogen retained their high germinability, indicating that they have orthodox storage behavior. Intact seeds from freshly collected fruits were dormant and required 12 weeks of cold stratification at 4 degrees C for complete germination. Scarifying the seed coat was partially effective in breaking seed dormancy. Exogenous gibberellins (GA(3), GA(4) and GA(4+7)) promoted germination of scarified seeds, GA(4) and GA(4+7) being more effective than GA(3). Fluridone, an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor, was efficient in breaking dormancy, but it was less effective than GA(4) or GA(4+7) alone. Paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited seed germination, and the inhibitory effect was reversed completely by GA(4) and by GA(4+7). ABA content of seeds subjected to cold stratification or to incubation at 35/10 degrees C, which enhanced seed germination, was reduced about four- to sixfold compared to that of fresh seeds. Higher concentrations of GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) were detected in nondormant seeds and in seeds with an emerged radicle than in fresh seeds. Present results seem to indicate that dormancy in P. amurense var. wilsonii seeds is imposed partially by the seed coat and partially by high ABA content. ABA content decreased and GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) content increased during germination.

  12. The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) undergoes ectodomain shedding and regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP).

    PubMed

    Houri, Nadia; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Nalbantoglu, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule originally characterized as a virus receptor but subsequently shown to be involved in physiological processes such as neuronal and heart development, epithelial tight junction integrity, and tumour suppression. Proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules and a wide variety of other cell surface proteins serves as a mechanism for protein turnover and, in some cases, cell signaling. Metalloproteases such as A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) family members cleave cell surface receptors to release their substrates' ectodomains, while the presenilin/ɣ-secretase complex mediates regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), releasing intracellular domain fragments from the plasma membrane. In the case of some substrates such as Notch and amyloid precursor protein (APP), the released intracellular domains enter the nucleus to modulate gene expression. We report that CAR ectodomain is constitutively shed from glioma cells and developing neurons, and is also shed when cells are treated with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and the calcium ionophore ionomycin. We identified ADAM10 as a sheddase of CAR using assays involving shRNA knockdown and rescue, overexpression of wild-type ADAM10 and inhibition of ADAM10 activity by addition of its prodomain. In vitro peptide cleavage, mass spectrometry and mutagenesis revealed the amino acids M224 to L227 of CAR as the site of ADAM10-mediated ectodomain cleavage. CAR also undergoes RIP by the presenilin/γ-secretase complex, and the intracellular domain of CAR enters the nucleus. Ectodomain shedding is a prerequisite for RIP of CAR. Thus, CAR belongs to the increasing list of cell surface molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding and that are substrates for ɣ-secretase-mediated RIP.

  13. Numerical and Experimental Study on Unsteady Shedding of Partial Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Bin; Luo, Xianwu; Wu, Yulin; Peng, Xiaoxing; Xu, Hongyuan

    Periodically unsteady shedding of partial cavity and forming of cavitation cloud have a great influence on hydraulic performances and cavitation erosion for ship propellers and hydro machines. In the present study, the unsteady cavitating flow around a hydrofoil has been calculated by using the single fluid approach with a developed cavitation mass transfer expression based on the vaporization and condensation of the fluid. The numerical simulation depicted the unsteady shedding of partial cavity, such as the process of cavity developing, breaking off and collapsing in the downstream under the steady incoming flow condition. It is noted that good agreement between the numerical results and that of experiment conducted at a cavitation tunnel is achieved. The cavitating flow field indicates that the cavity shedding was mainly caused by the re-entrant jet near cavity trailing edge, which was also clearly recorded by high-speed photographing.

  14. Circulation shedding in viscous starting flow past a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Monika; Xu, Ling

    2013-11-01

    Numerical simulations of viscous flow past a flat plate moving in direction normal to itself reveal details of the vortical structure of the flow. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. We introduce a definition of the shed circulation at all times and show that it indeed represents vorticity that separates and remains separated from the plate. Scaling laws for the shed circulation, and contributions to the shedding rate across various boundary components are presented, as well as their dependence on Reynolds number. The simulations provide benchmark results to evaluate simpler separation models such as point vortex and vortex sheet models. A comparison with vortex sheet results is included.

  15. Minimal Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Receptor Stalk Composition for IL-6 Receptor Shedding and IL-6 Classic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Paul; Nitz, Rebecca; Grötzinger, Joachim; Scheller, Jürgen; Garbers, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Signaling of the pleiotropic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is coordinated by membrane-bound and soluble forms of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in processes called classic and trans-signaling, respectively. The soluble IL-6R is mainly generated by ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding. Little is known about the role of the 52-amino acid-residue-long IL-6R stalk region in shedding and signal transduction. Therefore, we generated and analyzed IL-6R stalk region deletion variants for cleavability and biological activity. Deletion of 10 amino acids of the stalk region surrounding the ADAM17 cleavage site substantially blocked IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM17 but only slightly affected proteolysis by ADAM10. Interestingly, additional deletion of the remaining five juxtamembrane-located amino acids also abrogated ADAM10-mediated IL-6R shedding. Larger deletions within the stalk region, that do not necessarily include the ADAM17 cleavage site, also reduced ADAM10 and ADAM17-mediated IL-6R shedding, questioning the importance of cleavage site recognition. Furthermore, we show that a 22-amino acid-long stalk region is minimally required for IL-6 classic signaling. The gp130 cytokine binding sites are separated from the plasma membrane by ∼96 Å. 22 amino acid residues, however, span maximally 83.6 Å (3.8 Å/amino acid), indicating that the three juxtamembrane fibronectin domains of gp130 are not necessarily elongated but somehow flexed to allow IL-6 classic signaling. Our findings underline a dual role of the IL-6R stalk region in IL-6 signaling. In IL-6 trans-signaling, it regulates proper proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. In IL-6 classic-signaling, it acts as a spacer to ensure IL-6·IL-6R·gp130 signal complex formation. PMID:23564454

  16. HydroSHEDS: A global comprehensive hydrographic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickel, B. A.; Lehner, B.; Sindorf, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS) is an innovative product that, for the first time, provides hydrographic information in a consistent and comprehensive format for regional and global-scale applications. HydroSHEDS offers a suite of geo-referenced data sets, including stream networks, watershed boundaries, drainage directions, and ancillary data layers such as flow accumulations, distances, and river topology information. The goal of developing HydroSHEDS was to generate key data layers to support regional and global watershed analyses, hydrological modeling, and freshwater conservation planning at a quality, resolution and extent that had previously been unachievable. Available resolutions range from 3 arc-second (approx. 90 meters at the equator) to 5 minute (approx. 10 km at the equator) with seamless near-global extent. HydroSHEDS is derived from elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution. The original SRTM data have been hydrologically conditioned using a sequence of automated procedures. Existing methods of data improvement and newly developed algorithms have been applied, including void filling, filtering, stream burning, and upscaling techniques. Manual corrections were made where necessary. Preliminary quality assessments indicate that the accuracy of HydroSHEDS significantly exceeds that of existing global watershed and river maps. HydroSHEDS was developed by the Conservation Science Program of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), and the Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR) of the University of Kassel, Germany.

  17. Distributed Load Shedding over Directed Communication Networks with Time Delays

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di

    2016-07-25

    When generation is insufficient to support all loads under emergencies, effective and efficient load shedding needs to be deployed in order to maintain the supply-demand balance. This paper presents a distributed load shedding algorithm, which makes efficient decision based on the discovered global information. In the global information discovery process, each load only communicates with its neighboring load via directed communication links possibly with arbitrarily large but bounded time varying communication delays. We propose a novel distributed information discovery algorithm based on ratio consensus. Simulation results are used to validate the proposed method.

  18. On aerodynamic noise generation from vortex shedding in rotating blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, B. T.; Bies, D. A.

    1992-06-01

    The interaction of the shed wakes of plates in a cascade with each following plate is investigated in a water tunnel and shown to provide an explanation for an observed very powerful aerodynamic noise source. In particular, the noise generation of an idling circular saw may be explained as due to the interaction of the wake shed by an upstream tooth with the leading edge of the following downstream tooth. When a vortex travelling downstream in the gullet between teeth encounters the leading edge of the downstream tooth it is deflected out of the gullet into the main stream. The associated impulses which the teeth encounter give rise to the radiated noise.

  19. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  20. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  1. 10. VIEW OF A DYNAMITE SHED, LOOKING WEST. THIS BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF A DYNAMITE SHED, LOOKING WEST. THIS BUILDING STANDS TO THE SOUTHWEST OF THE FAN HOUSE. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  2. Drop shedding by shear flow for hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Milne, A J B; Amirfazli, A

    2009-12-15

    A balance of surface science and aerodynamic knowledge is brought to bear to elucidate the fundamental parameters determining the incipient motion (runback) for a drop exposed to shearing airflow. It was found that wetting parameters such as contact angle are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. On the basis of experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 microL) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for all of the water systems can be collapsed to self-similar curves by normalization. Results from other researchers also conform to the exponential self-similar functional form proposed. It was shown that the data for hexadecane drops can be matched relatively well to those for water drops by means of a corrective factor based on fluid properties and contact angles. Also, the critical air velocity for shedding from the superhydrophobic surface is seen to be more constant over a range of volumes than for the other surfaces. Finally, contact angle measurements from airflow shedding experiments are compared to measurements made by tilted plate and quasi-static advancing and receding tests. The observed differences between contact angles from different measurement methods show that the transfer of contact angle data among various applications must be done with care.

  3. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  4. Nonlinear modelling of vortex shedding control in cylinder wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussopoulos, Kimon; Monkewitz, Peter A.

    Kármán vortex shedding behind a cylinder placed at right angles to a uniform flow is known to be a limit cycle oscillation that results from the saturation of a global instability of the wake flow. In this paper we study the feedback control of Kármán vortex shedding for Reynolds numbers (based on cylinder diameter) close to the critical value of Re c ≈ 47 using “single input - single output” (SISO) proportional control. A model is presented that combines the linear streamwise global mode amplitude equation and the nonlinear spanwise Ginzburg-Landau equation and correctly models the three-dimensional effects observed in the controlled wake of finite length cyclinders. In particular it is demonstrated that for long cylinders vortex shedding can only be suppressed at the spanwise location of the sensor even though the actuation occurs uniformly over the entire span. At a fixed streamwise position the spanwise variation of the shedding angle is thereby given by the “hole solution” of Nozaki and Bekki, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53 (1984) 1581.

  5. Heritage Conservation in the "Back Shed" of the Learning City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Describes Back Shed, a group of New Zealand heritage conservationists who center their work in lifelong learning. Situates their activities in the context of the learning city, a community development concept that mobilizes learning resources across many sectors. Discusses heritage conservation as a process of meaning making. (Contains 29…

  6. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 19061010 ONESTORY SHED ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 1906-1010 ONE-STORY SHED ADDITION AT LEFT; NORTHWEST ELEVATION AND PARKING AREA AT RIGHT; PARKING AREA WAS SITE OF FORMER STOREHOUSE 'A' AND 'B'; LANE AT LEFT IS NORTH DRIVEWAY, BUILT CA. 1935 - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  7. NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. 1. Shed, keeper's house and light tower, view west northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shed, keeper's house and light tower, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  9. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast wall and gutter boxes. Two 750,000 gallon steel tanks at right (T19 in foreground with T18 behind). - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  10. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type B at wall post. New aluminum roofing seen in comparison with older galvanized steel siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  11. 5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM SOUTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. MICROWAVE DISH IN FOREGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Circulation shedding in viscous starting flow past a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Monika; Xu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Numerical simulations of viscous flow past a flat plate moving in the direction normal to itself reveal details of the vortical structure of the flow. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. This paper introduces a definition of the shed circulation at all times and shows that it indeed represents vorticity that separates and remains separated from the plate. During a large initial time period, the shed circulation satisfies the scaling laws predicted for self-similar inviscid separation. Various contributions to the circulation shedding rate are presented. The results show that during this initial time period, viscous diffusion of vorticity out of the vortex is significant but appears to be independent of the value of the Reynolds number. At later times, the departure of the shed circulation from its large Reynolds number behaviour is significantly affected by diffusive loss of vorticity through the symmetry axis. A timescale is proposed that describes when the viscous loss through the axis becomes relevant. The simulations provide benchmark results to evaluate simpler separation models such as point vortex and vortex sheet models. A comparison with vortex sheet results is included.

  13. 12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Shedding of Water Drops from a Surface under Icing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deepak Kumar; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, C; Amirfazli, A

    2015-09-01

    A sessile water drop exposed to an air flow will shed if the adhesion is overcome by the external aerodynamic forces on the drop. In this study, shedding of water drops were investigated under icing conditions, on surfaces with different wettabilities, from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. A wind tunnel was used for experiments in a temperature range between -8 and 24.5 °C. Results indicate that the temperature has a major influence on the incipient motion of drop shedding. The critical air velocity (U(c)) at which a drop first starts to shed generally increases under icing conditions, indicating an increase in the adhesion force. The contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and the drop base length (L(b)) are found to be the controlling factors for adhesion. A correlation was also developed to deduce the drag coefficient, C(D) for the drop. It was found that C(D) can decrease under icing conditions. In general, a lower C(D) and higher adhesion together lead to a higher critical air velocity. However, there are systems such as water on Teflon for which the critical air velocity remains practically unaffected by temperature because of similar adhesion and C(D) values, at all temperatures tested.

  15. Evaluation of the shedding potential of textile materials.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2010-12-01

    A practical method is proposed to assess the shedding potential of textile materials. The evaluation of the sheddability is based on the use of adhesive tapes and on comparison, using three different sheddability scales for cotton, wool and fine man-made fibres.

  16. 5. Close up view of shed which houses the 1932 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Close up view of shed which houses the 1932 turbine. Shaft in foreground was part of a power transmission system providing power to a small industrial complex at the site of the Whitney Armory. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Lake Whitney Dam, East side of Whitney Avenue near intersection with Armory Street, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  18. Concrete airship sheds at Orly, France. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FREYSSINET

    1925-01-01

    This report details the contest to design and build concrete airship hangers. The difficulty lies in the magnitude of the absolute dimensions. An airship shed must withstand two principal types of stresses: those resulting from its own weight and those due to the wind. This report discusses both problems in detail.

  19. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  20. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  2. Development of Warp Yarn Tension During Shedding: A Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Chary, Prabhakara; Roy, Sukumar

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical investigation on the process of development of warp yarn tension during weaving for tappet shedding is carried out, based on the dynamic nature of shed geometry. The path of warp yarn on a weaving machine is divided into four different zones. The tension developed in each zone is estimated for every minute rotation of the bottom shaft. A model has been developed based on the dynamic nature of shed geometry and the possible yarn flow from one zone to another. A computer program, based on the model of shedding process, is developed for predicting the warp yarn tension variation during shedding. The output of the model and the experimental values of yarn tension developed in zone-D i.e. between the back rest and the back lease rod are compared, which shows a good agreement between them. The warp yarn tension values predicted by the model in zone-D are 10-13 % lesser than the experimentally measured values. By analyzing the theoretical data of the peak value of developed yarn tension at four zones i.e. zone-A, zone-B, zone-C and zone-D, it is observed that the peak yarn tension value of A, B, C-zones are much higher than the peak tension near the back rest i.e. at zone-D. It is about twice or more than the yarn tension near the back rest. The study also reveals that the developed yarn tension peak values are different for the extreme positions of a heald. The impact of coefficient of friction on peak value of yarn tension is nominal.

  3. Fungal recognition enhances mannose receptor shedding through dectin-1 engagement.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Umut; Rosas, Marcela; Singh, Sonali; Heinsbroek, Sigrid; Haq, Imran; Johnson, Simon; Brown, Gordon D; Williams, David L; Taylor, Philip R; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa

    2011-03-11

    The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic type I membrane molecule with a broad ligand specificity that is involved in both hemostasis and pathogen recognition. Membrane-anchored MR is cleaved by a metalloproteinase into functional soluble MR (sMR) composed of the extracellular domains of intact MR. Although sMR production was initially considered a constitutive process, enhanced MR shedding has been observed in response to the fungal pathogen Pneumocystis carinii. In this work, we have investigated the mechanism mediating enhanced MR shedding in response to fungi. We show that other fungal species, including Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, together with zymosan, a preparation of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mimic the effect of P. carinii on sMR production and that this effect takes place mainly through β-glucan recognition. Additionally, we demonstrate that MR cleavage in response to C. albicans and bioactive particulate β-glucan requires expression of dectin-1. Our data, obtained using specific inhibitors, are consistent with the canonical Syk-mediated pathway triggered by dectin-1 being mainly responsible for inducing MR shedding, with Raf-1 being partially involved. As in the case of steady-state conditions, MR shedding in response to C. albicans and β-glucan particles requires metalloprotease activity. The induction of MR shedding by dectin-1 has clear implications for the role of MR in fungal recognition, as sMR was previously shown to retain the ability to bind fungal pathogens and can interact with numerous host molecules, including lysosomal hydrolases. Thus, MR cleavage could also impact on the magnitude of inflammation during fungal infection.

  4. Storage and stability of biochar-derived carbon and total organic carbon in relation to minerals in an acid forest soil of the Spanish Atlantic area.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arostegi, Javier; Moragues, Lur; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-02-22

    Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area. We compared plots amended with biochar produced from Miscanthus sp. (C4 type) with control plots (not amended). We separated sand-, silt-, and clay-size fractions in samples collected from 0 to 20-cm depth. In each fraction, we analyzed clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides, total OC and biochar-C. The results showed that 51% of the biochar-C was in fractions <20μm one year after the application of biochar. Biochar-C stored in clay-size fractions (0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm, <0.05μm) was only 14%. Even so, we observed that biochar-C increased with decreasing particle-size in clay-size fractions, as it occurred with the vermiculitic phases and metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides. Biochar also affected to the distribution of total OC among particle-size fractions. Total OC concentration was greater in fractions 2-20μm, 0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm in biochar-amended plots than in control plots. This may be explained by the adsorption of dissolved OC from fraction <0.05μm onto biochar particles. The results suggested that interactions between biochar, minerals and pre-existing organic matter already occurred in the first year.

  5. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  6. Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of immune parameters of both cellular and innate immunity indicate alterations in immune function in astronauts. Immune changes are due to stress and perhaps other factors associated with launch, flight, and landing phases. Medical relevance of observed changes is not known. The reactivation of latent viruses has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of specific viral DNA in body fluids. Initial studies demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during all 3 mission phases. EBV is shed in saliva following reactivation from B-cells. Incidence of EBV in saliva was higher than control subjects during all 3 mission phases. However, quantitative PCR revealed 10-fold higher levels of EBV DNA present in saliva collected during flight than found in pre- and post flight specimens. To determine if other latent viruses showed similar effects, cytomegalovirus (CMV), another herpes virus, shed in urine following reactivation was studied. A very low incidence (less than 2%) of CMV in urine is found in healthy, lowstressed individuals. However, 25-50% of astronauts shed CMV in their urine before, during, or after flight. Our studies are now focused on varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the etiological agent of chicken-pox during childhood and shingles later in life. We demonstrated reactivation of VZV and shedding of the virus during and after spaceflight in saliva of astronauts with no sign of active infection or symptoms. The maximum shedding of VZV occurred during the flight phase and diminishes rapidly during the first five days after landing. We have utilized the same PCR assay for VZV in a clinical study of shingles patients. Generally, shingles patients shed much more VZV in saliva than astronauts. However, the VZV levels in astronauts overlap with the lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients. Saliva from shingles patients and

  7. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  8. Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 71 astronauts was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction. A significantly greater (P<.0001) shedding frequency was found in urine samples from astronauts before spaceflight (10.6%) than in urine from the healthy control subject group (1.2%). Two of 4 astronauts studied during spaceflight shed CMV in urine. A significant increase (P<.0001) in CMV antibody titer, compared with baseline values, was also found 10 days before spaceflight. CMV antibody titer was further increased (P<.001) 3 days after landing, compared with 10 days before the mission. Significant increases in stress hormones were also found after landing. These results demonstrate that CMV reactivation occurred in astronauts before spaceflight and indicate that CMV may further reactivate during spaceflight.

  9. The decay of longitudinal vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Foster, Jeffry D.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to examine the crossplane structure and streamwise decay of vortices shed from airfoil-type vortex generators. The vortex generators are set in a counter-rotating array spanning the full circumference of a straight pipe. The span of the vortex generators above the duct surface, h, is approximately equal to the local turbulent boundary layer thickness, delta. Measurement of three-component mean flow velocity in downstream crossplanes are used to characterize the structure of the shed vortices. Measurements in adjacent crossplanes (closely spaced along the streamwise coordinate) characterize the interaction and decay of the embedded vortices. A model constructed by the superposition of Oseen vortices is compared to the data for one test case.

  10. Numerical investigation of shedding partial cavities over a sharp wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budich, B.; Neuner, S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution, we examine transient dynamics and cavitation patterns of periodically shedding partial cavities by numerical simulations. The investigation reproduces reference experiments of the cavitating flow over a sharp wedge. Utilizing a homogeneous mixture model, full compressibility of the two-phase flow of water and water vapor is taken into account by the numerical method. We focus on inertia-dominated mechanisms, thus modeling the flow as inviscid. Based on the assumptions of thermodynamic equilibrium and barotropic flow, the thermodynamic properties are computed from closed-form analytical relations. Emphasis is put on a validation of the employed numerical approach. We demonstrate that computed shedding dynamics are in agreement with the references. Complex flow features observed in the experiments, including cavitating hairpin and horse-shoe vortices, are also predicted by the simulations. Furthermore, a condensation discontinuity occurring during the collapse phase at the trailing portion of the partial cavity is equally obtained.

  11. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  12. Shear driven droplet shedding and coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtadernejad, S.; Tembely, M.; Jadidi, M.; Esmail, N.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The interest on shedding and coalescence of sessile droplets arises from the importance of these phenomena in various scientific problems and industrial applications such as ice formation on wind turbine blades, power lines, nacelles, and aircraft wings. It is shown recently that one of the ways to reduce the probability of ice accretion on industrial components is using superhydrophobic coatings due to their low adhesion to water droplets. In this study, a combined experimental and numerical approach is used to investigate droplet shedding and coalescence phenomena under the influence of air shear flow on a superhydrophobic surface. Droplets with a size of 2 mm are subjected to various air speeds ranging from 5 to 90 m/s. A numerical simulation based on the Volume of Fluid method coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation turbulent model is carried out in conjunction with the validating experiments to shed more light on the coalescence of droplets and detachment phenomena through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics forces and velocity vectors on the droplet and the streamlines around it. The results indicate a contrast in the mechanism of two-droplet coalescence and subsequent detachment with those related to the case of a single droplet shedding. At lower speeds, the two droplets coalesce by attracting each other with successive rebounds of the merged droplet on the substrate, while at higher speeds, the detachment occurs almost instantly after coalescence, with a detachment time decreasing exponentially with the air speed. It is shown that coalescence phenomenon assists droplet detachment from the superhydrophobic substrate at lower air speeds.

  13. 25. VIEW OF METAL SHED CONSTRUCTED OVER SHIELDING TANK FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF METAL SHED CONSTRUCTED OVER SHIELDING TANK FOR WASTE FORMS RESPONSE PROJECT (WFRP) IN 1980. CAMERA FACING EAST. SHOWS REMAINS OF CABLE CHASE AND ITS COVER, DISCARDED COVERS TO THE TEST PIT. PHOTOGRAPHER STANDING ON THE DIRT FILL OVER THE BUNKER. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 83-476-2-8, TAKEN IN 1983. PHOTOGRAPHER NOT NAMED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Birds shed RNA-viruses according to the pareto principle.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Mark D; Williams, Christopher J; Fair, Jeanne M; Owen, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in disease ecology is to understand the role of individual variation of infection load on disease transmission dynamics and how this influences the evolution of resistance or tolerance mechanisms. Such information will improve our capacity to understand, predict, and mitigate pathogen-associated disease in all organisms. In many host-pathogen systems, particularly macroparasites and sexually transmitted diseases, it has been found that approximately 20% of the population is responsible for approximately 80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness, an area that has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian) - pathogen (RNA-virus) studies, including 17 bird species and five important zoonotic viruses. We determined that viral count data followed the Weibull distribution, the mean Gini coefficient (an index of inequality) was 0.687 (0.036 SEM), and that 22.0% (0.90 SEM) of the birds shed 80% of the virus across all studies, suggesting an adherence of viral shedding counts to the Pareto Principle. The relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by factors extrinsic to the host, such as exposure to corticosterone and to a lesser extent reduced food availability, but not to intrinsic host factors including age, sex, and migratory status. These data provide a quantitative view of heterogeneous virus shedding in birds that may be used to better parameterize epidemiological models and understand transmission dynamics.

  15. 50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELLSERVICE SHED ADDITION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. HANGING FROM AND LEANING AGAINST THE WALL ARE TOOLS USED IN WATER WELL SERVICE, SUCH AS BAILER, CHAINS, WRENCHES, PULLEYS, ROPE, SAFETY BELT, CHAIN TONGS, AND LEATHER SEALS FOR PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS. CLEARLY VISIBLE ON RAFTERS IS HISTORIC ELECTRICAL WIRING. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  16. 51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELLSERVICE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND IS 1960S PICKUP TRUCK, THE LAST MOTOR VEHICLE USED IN WELL SERVICE BY THE KREGEL WINDMILL COMPANY. MOST OF THE OBJECTS VISIBLE IN THIS VIEW ARE CLUTTER NOT RELATED TO THE WELL SERVICE BUSINESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  17. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates LOX-1 Shedding in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Magda; Vindigni, Giulia; Testa, Barbara; Raniolo, Sofia; Fasciglione, Giovanni Francesco; Coletta, Massimiliano; Biocca, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a scavenger receptor responsible for ox-LDL recognition, binding and internalization, which is up-regulated during atherogenesis. Its activation triggers endothelium dysfunction and induces inflammation. A soluble form of LOX-1 has been identified in the human blood and its presence considered a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. We recently showed that cholesterol-lowering drugs inhibit ox-LDL binding and internalization, rescuing the ox-LDL induced apoptotic phenotype in primary endothelial cells. Here we have investigated the molecular bases of human LOX-1 shedding by metalloproteinases and the role of cell membrane cholesterol on the regulation of this event by modulating its level with MβCD and statins. We report that membrane cholesterol affects the release of different forms of LOX-1 in cells transiently and stably expressing human LOX-1 and in a human endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). In particular, our data show that i) cholesterol depletion triggers the release of LOX-1 in exosomes as a full-length transmembrane isoform and as a truncated ectodomain soluble fragment (sLOX-1); ii) endothelial cells secrete a soluble metalloproteinase which induces LOX-1 ectodomain shedding and iii) long term statins treatment enhances sLOX-1 proteolytic shedding.

  18. Synapse Maturation by Activity-Dependent Ectodomain Shedding of SIRPα

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Anna B.; Terauchi, Akiko; Zhang, Lily Y.; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M.; Larsen, David J.; Sutton, Michael A.; Umemori, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Formation of appropriate synaptic connections is critical for proper functioning of the brain. After initial synaptic differentiation, active synapses are stabilized by neural activity-dependent signals to establish functional synaptic connections. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synapse maturation remain to be elucidated. Here we show that activity-dependent ectodomain shedding of SIRPα mediates presynaptic maturation. Two target-derived molecules, FGF22 and SIRPα, sequentially organize the glutamatergic presynaptic terminals during the initial synaptic differentiation and synapse maturation stages, respectively, in the mouse hippocampus. SIRPα drives presynaptic maturation in an activity-dependent fashion. Remarkably, neural activity cleaves the extracellular domain of SIRPα, and the shed ectodomain, in turn, promotes the maturation of the presynaptic terminal. This process involves CaM kinase, matrix metalloproteinases, and the presynaptic receptor CD47. Finally, SIRPα-dependent synapse maturation has significant impacts on synaptic function and plasticity. Thus, ectodomain shedding of SIRPα is an activity-dependent trans-synaptic mechanism for the maturation of functional synapses. PMID:24036914

  19. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manguro, Griffins O.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth W.; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment. Results At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period. Conclusion Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation. PMID:27683204

  20. HSV oropharyngeal shedding among HIV-infected children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Richard; Manji, Karim; Matee, Mecky; Naburi, Helga; Bisimba, Jema; Martinez, Raquel; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Kim, Faith; von Reyn, C Fordham; Palumbo, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oral shedding has not been studied among HIV-positive children in Africa. We sought to evaluate longitudinal oral HSV reactivation in HIV-positive and -negative children. Twenty HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive and 10 HIV-negative children aged 3-12 years in Tanzania were followed prospectively for 14 days. Oral swabs were collected daily and submitted for HSV DNA PCR analysis. Clinical data were collected via chart review and daily diaries. HSV DNA was detected in 10 (50%) of HIV-positive and 4 (40%) of HIV-negative children. Children who shed HSV had virus detected in a median of 21.4% of samples; shedding was intermittent. Median CD4 count among HIV-infected children was 667 cells/µL in those with positive HSV DNA and 886 cells/µL in those who were negative (p = 0.6). Of the HIV-positive children reporting prior sores, five (83%) had positive HSV swabs, whereas the one HIV-negative child with prior sores did not have a PCR-positive swab. HSV is detected frequently in children with and without HIV. HIV-infected children reporting oral sores have a high rate of HSV detection. Given the proven strong interactions between HIV and HSV, further study of co-infection with these viruses is warranted in children.

  1. Reliability Constrained Priority Load Shedding for Aerospace Power System Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Zhu, Jizhong; Kaddah, Sahar S.; Dolce, James L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for improving load shedding on board the space station is one of the goals of aerospace power system automation. To accelerate the optimum load-shedding functions, several constraints must be involved. These constraints include congestion margin determined by weighted probability contingency, component/system reliability index, generation rescheduling. The impact of different faults and indices for computing reliability were defined before optimization. The optimum load schedule is done based on priority, value and location of loads. An optimization strategy capable of handling discrete decision making, such as Everett optimization, is proposed. We extended Everett method to handle expected congestion margin and reliability index as constraints. To make it effective for real time load dispatch process, a rule-based scheme is presented in the optimization method. It assists in selecting which feeder load to be shed, the location of the load, the value, priority of the load and cost benefit analysis of the load profile is included in the scheme. The scheme is tested using a benchmark NASA system consisting of generators, loads and network.

  2. 34. General view of flume, just west of lumber storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. General view of flume, just west of lumber storage shed, looking west from south side of the flume. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. Validation of food grade salts of organic acids as ingredients to control Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple during extended refrigerated storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork scrapple was formulated, with or without citrate-diacetate (0.64%), by a commercial processor to contain various solutions/blends of the following antimicrobials to control L. monocytogenes on pork scrapple during refrigerated storage: i) lactate-diacetate (3.0 or 4.0%), ii) lactate-diacetate-p...

  4. Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well as the technical challenges and research goals for storing hydrogen on board a vehicle.

  5. Archive Storage Media Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

  6. Quantification and determinants of the amount of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) shed using real time PCR data from a longitudinal household study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background A better understanding of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology requires realistic estimates of RSV shedding patterns, quantities shed, and identification of the related underlying factors. Methods RSV infection data arise from a cohort study of 47 households with 493 occupants, in coastal Kenya, during the 2009/2010 RSV season. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken every 3 to 4 days and screened for RSV using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The amount of virus shed was quantified by calculating the ‘area under the curve’ using the trapezoidal rule applied to rescaled PCR cycle threshold output. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify correlates of amount of virus shed. Results The median quantity of virus shed per infection episode was 29.4 (95% CI: 15.2, 54.2) log10 ribonucleic acid (RNA) copies. Young age (<1 year), presence of upper respiratory symptoms, intra-household acquisition of infection, an individual’s first infection episode in the RSV season, and having a co-infection of RSV group A and B were associated with increased amount of virus shed. Conclusions The findings provide insight into which groups of individuals have higher potential for transmission, information which may be useful in designing RSV prevention strategies. PMID:28066826

  7. Optimization of phytoplankton preservative concentrations to reduce damage during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Das, Subhajit; Bhattacharya, Tanima; De, Minati; Maiti, Tusharkanti; Kumar De, Tarun

    2014-04-01

    A study was performed to establish the optimal concentration of traditional preservatives or fixatives such as formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine, in order to preserve phytoplankton samples for long-term storage without the introduction of artifacts or other physical aberrations. The goal of the study was to avoid any visible morphological changes to the preserved cells, minimizing the errors induced by traditional preservative concentrations, and ensuring better accuracy of ecological analyses. We found that both formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine have adverse effects on the preservation of samples. Trichodesmium erythraeum was found to be most susceptible to the effects of acidic Lugol's iodine, since it displayed the highest degree of chain fragmentation when this preservative was used. However, we found that 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde, 2.5% (v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine, and 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde+2.5%(v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine combined were most promising, with the latter the most effective even after 3 weeks of preservation. This study also revealed that, in general, the centric diatom species were more sensitive to long-term preservation than their pennate counterparts. The present study is significant as it sheds light on the damage endured by phytoplankton cells during long-term preservation, which can lead to erroneous and biased results upon analyses. The optimal concentration of preservative established experimentally from a wide variety of concentrations caused comparatively moderate changes to the cell dimensions as well as effectively prevented microbial contamination.

  8. 7. General Viewacid storage tank to east of building with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General View-acid storage tank to east of building with accumulation vats in foreground. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Ceramide mediates nanovesicle shedding and cell death in response to phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogs and perifosine

    PubMed Central

    Gills, J J; Zhang, C; Abu-Asab, M S; Castillo, S S; Marceau, C; LoPiccolo, J; Kozikowski, A P; Tsokos, M; Goldkorn, T; Dennis, P A

    2012-01-01

    Anticancer phospholipids that inhibit Akt such as the alkylphospholipid perifosine (Per) and phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogs (PIAs) promote cellular detachment and apoptosis and have a similar cytotoxicity profile against cancer cell lines in the NCI60 panel. While investigating the mechanism of Akt inhibition, we found that short-term incubation with these compounds induced rapid shedding of cellular nanovesicles containing EGFR, IGFR and p-Akt that occurred in vitro and in vivo, while prolonged incubation led to cell detachment and death that depended on sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide. Pretreatment with sphingomyelinase inhibitors blocked ceramide generation, decreases in phospho-Akt, nanovesicle release and cell detachment in response to alkylphospholipids and PIAs in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Similarly, exogenous ceramide also decreased active Akt and induced nanovesicle release. Knockdown of neutral sphingomyelinase decreased, whereas overexpression of neutral or acid sphingomyelinase increased cell detachment and death in response to the compounds. When transferred in vitro, PIA or Per-induced nanovesicles increased ceramide levels and death in recipient cells. These results indicate ceramide generation underlies the Akt inhibition and cytotoxicity of this group of agents, and suggests nanovesicle shedding and uptake might potentially propagate their cytotoxicity in vivo. PMID:22764099

  10. Investigation of carbon storage regulation network (csr genes) and phenotypic differences between acid sensitive and resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related serotype strains have previously been shown to vary in acid resistance, however, little is known about strain specific mechanisms of acid resistance. We examined sensitive and resistant E. coli strains to determine the effects of growth in minimal and...

  11. Trichomonas Vaginalis Treatment Reduces Vaginal HIV-1 Shedding

    PubMed Central

    KISSINGER, PATRICIA; AMEDEE, ANGELA; CLARK, REBECCA A.; DUMESTRE, JEANNE; THEALL, KATHERINE P.; MYERS, LEANN; HAGENSEE, MICHAEL E.; FARLEY, THOMAS A.; MARTIN, DAVID H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaginal HIV-1 shedding has been associated with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and could play a role in HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to examine if effective TV treatment reduces the presence of vaginal HIV-1 RNA. Methods: TV+ women attending an HIV outpatient clinic in New Orleans, LA, who resolved infection (n = 58) and TV-negative controls (n = 92), matched on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were examined and interviewed at baseline, 1, and 3 months. TV status was tested by culture and the amount of cell free HIV-1 RNA in the vaginal fluids was determined by the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor ultrasensitive assay. Results: Most women (81.3%) were black and the mean age was 37.5 (SD 8.7). At baseline, 46.0% had plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥10,000 copies/mL, 26.4% had CD4<200 cells/μL, 54.7% were taking ART, and only 26.0% had detectable HIV-1 RNA in their vaginal fluids. TV-positive women who were effectively treated for TV were less likely to shed HIV vaginally at 3-months post-treatment compared to baseline (R.R. 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12–0.92, P = 0.03), whereas there was no change for TV-negative women. Conclusion: This study provides additional support that reducing TV infection among HIV-positive women may have an impact on the prevention of HIV transmission. Reasons for the delayed treatment effect and the effect on cervical shedding need further investigation. PMID:19008776

  12. Vortex shedding from a hydrofoil at high Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoyne, Dwayne A.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.

    2005-05-01

    High Reynolds number (Re) wall-bounded turbulent flows occur in many hydro- and aerodynamic applications. However, the limited amount of high-Re experimental data has hampered the development and validation of scaling laws and modelling techniques applicable to such flows. This paper presents measurements of the turbulent flow near the trailing edge of a two-dimensional lifting surface at chord-based Reynolds numbers, Re_{C}, typical of heavy-lift aircraft wings and full-scale ship propellers. The experiments were conducted in the William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel at flow speeds from 0.50 to 18.3ms(-1) with a cambered hydrofoil having a 3.05m span and a 2.13m chord that generated 60 metric tons of lift at the highest flow speed, Re_{C}{≈}50{×}10(6) . Flow-field measurements concentrated on the foil's near wake and include results from trailing edges having terminating bevel angles of 44(°) and 56(°) . Although generic turbulent boundary layer and wake characteristics were found at any fixed Re_{C} in the trailing-edge region, the variable strength of near-wake vortex shedding caused the flow-field fluctuations to be Reynolds-number and trailing-edge-geometry dependent. In the current experiments, vortex-shedding strength peaked at Re_{C}{=}4{×}10(6) with the 56(°) bevel-angle trailing edge. A dimensionless scaling for this phenomenon constructed from the free-stream speed, the wake thickness, and an average suction-side shear-layer vorticity at the trailing edge collapses the vortex-shedding strength measurements for 1.4{×}10(6}{≤) Re_{C}{≤}50{×}10(6) from both trailing edges and from prior measurements on two-dimensional struts at Re_{C}{˜}2{×}10(6) with asymmetrical trailing edges.

  13. Vortex shedding noise of a cylinder with hairy flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Laura; Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes; Brücker, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    This study describes the modification of acoustic noise emitted from cylinders in a stationary subsonic flow for a cylinder equipped with flexible hairy flaps at the aft part as a passive way to manipulate the flow and acoustics. The study was motivated by the results from previous water tunnel measurements, which demonstrated that hairy flaps can modify the shedding cycle behind the cylinder and can reduce the wake deficit. In the present study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted on such a modified cylinder and the results were compared to the reference case of a plain cylinder. The acoustic spectrum was measured using two microphones while simultaneously recording the flap motion. To further examine the flow structures in the downstream vicinity of the cylinder, constant temperature anemometry measurements as well as flow visualizations were also performed. The results show that, above a certain Reynolds number, the hairy flaps lead to a jump in the vortex shedding frequency. This phenomenon is similarly observed in the water flow experiments as a jump in the non-dimensional Strouhal number that is related to the change of the shedding cycle. This jump appears to be coupled to a resonant excitation of the flaps. The specific Reynolds number at which the jump occurs is higher in the present case, which is attributed to the lower added mass in air as compared with the one in water. The flow visualizations confirmed that such action of the flaps lead to a more slender elongated shape of the time-averaged separation bubble. In addition, the hairy flaps induce a noticeable reduction of the tonal noise as well as broadband noise as long as the flaps do not touch each other.

  14. View northnorthwest of turret shed (building 56), at right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north-northwest of turret shed (building 56), at right of photograph. Electrical and electronics facility (building 1000) located south of drydock no. 2. The gantry crane and its supporting structure (left foreground) was used to load assembled gun turrets onto barges moored in the barge basin under the gantry structure. After loading on a crane on pier 4 and lifted into positioned on a battleship or cruiser. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. PHAROS: Shedding Light on the Near-Earth Asteroid Apophis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Jonathan; Lafleur, Jarret; Barron, Kreston; Townley, Jonathan; Shah, Nilesh; Apa, Jillian

    2007-01-01

    The Pharos mission to asteroid Apophis provides the first major opportunity to enhance orbital state and scientific knowledge of the most threatening Earth-crossing asteroid that has ever been tracked. Pharos aims to accomplish concrete and feasible orbit determination and scientific objectives while achieving balance among mission cost, nsk,and schedule. Similar to its ancient Egyptian namesake, Pharos acts as a beacon shedding light not only on the physical characteristics of Apophis, but also on its state as it travels through the solar system.

  16. Managing Saginaw Bay nutrient loading by surrounding watersheds through near real time hydrologic resource sheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We can quantify source areas contributing material to a location during various time periods as resource sheds. Various kinds of resource sheds and their source material distributions are defined. For watershed hydrology, we compute resource sheds and their source material distri...

  17. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production.

  18. Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

  19. Flying, swimming, falling...: fluid-solid interactions with vortex shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2007-11-01

    The interaction between the motion of slender bodies and the fluid around them is at the center of several natural phenomenas. To move in fluids, insects and fishes need to deform their bodies in such a way that the resulting flow around them applies the required force on their body. Unsteady pressure effects are essential here to understand the coupling between the fluid and solid motions. We consider slender solid bodies with sharp edges. At intermediate Re, the boundary layers separate because of the presence of the edge and strong vortices are shed. A simplified 2D potential flow model is proposed here. Point vortices with monotonically increasing intensity are shed from the edges of the body to enforce the regularity of the flow on its boundary. The Brown-Michael equation describes the motion of these vortices and enforces the conservation of momentum for the fluid around the vortex. The potential flow is computed using conformal mapping or bounded vortex sheet representation for the solid body. Simple representations of locomotion mechanisms such as flapping flight are proposed using this model. The forces resulting from prescribed flapping motions of rigid airfoils and deformable thin bodies are computed. The question of the free motion of an elastic 1D body will also be discussed.

  20. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Christa E; Lim, So-Yon; Deleage, Claire; Griffin, Bryan D; Stein, Derek; Schroeder, Lukas T; Omange, Robert Were; Best, Katharine; Luo, Ma; Hraber, Peter T; Andersen-Elyard, Hanne; Ojeda, Erwing Fabian Cardozo; Huang, Scott; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Perelson, Alan S; Estes, Jacob D; Safronetz, David; Lewis, Mark G; Whitney, James B

    2017-01-01

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection was cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans. PMID:27694931

  1. Some effects of vortex shedding in grid-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melina, Gianfrancesco; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Vassilicos, John Christos

    2015-11-01

    We perform hot-wire measurements in a wind tunnel downstream of different types of turbulence-generating grids: a regular grid (RG60), a fractal square grid (FSG17) and a single square grid (SSG). We characterize the flow highlighting similarities and differences between the grids and between the production and the decay regions of turbulence. We focus on the effects of vortex shedding from the bars of the grids. For this purpose we design a novel 3D configuration formed by the SSG and a set of four splitter plates detached from the grid. We show that, by placing the splitter plates, the peak of turbulence intensity on the centerline is reduced and its location is moved downstream. We compare data from the different turbulence generators and find that a reduction of vortex shedding energy correlates with an increase in the magnitudes of the skewness and flatness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the production region. The authors acknowledge support form the EU through the FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (grant agreement No. 317269).

  2. A Mathematical Proof of the Vortex Shedding Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Michael; Cassel, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    A novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for both inviscid or viscous flows and external, internal, or wall-bounded flows is described. The mechanism, termed the Vortex-Shedding Mechanism (VSM), is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Previous simulations of various flows have demonstrated the VSM numerically. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the VSM that is shown to be both a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The proof includes relating the positive divergence of the net force, condition (2) above, with the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor, i.e. the Q-criterion. It is shown that the Q-criterion is identical to the determinant of the Hessian matrix for the streamfunction. As a result, the second-partial-derivative test on this Hessian matrix can provide a qualitative description on the behavior of the streamfunction, and thus vortices or recirculation regions, near critical points. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).

  3. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Osuna, Christa E.; Lim, So -Yon; Deleage, Claire; Griffin, Bryan D.; Stein, Derek; Schroeder, Lukas T.; Omange, Robert; Best, Katharine; Luo, Ma; Hraber, Peter Thomas; Andersen-Elyard, Hanne; Ojeda, Erwing Fabian Cardozo; Huang, Scott; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Higgs, Stephen; Perelson, Alan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Safronetz, David; Lewis, Mark G.; Whitney, James B.

    2016-10-03

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection was cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Finally, early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans.

  4. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    DOE PAGES

    Osuna, Christa E.; Lim, So -Yon; Deleage, Claire; ...

    2016-10-03

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection wasmore » cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Finally, early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans.« less

  5. Periodic mass shedding of a retracting solid film step

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.; Voorhees, P.W.; Miksis, M.J.; Davis, S.H.

    2000-05-11

    A semi-infinite, uniform film on a substrate tends to contract from the edge to reduce the surface energy of the system. This work studies the two-dimensional retraction of such a film step, assuming that the film evolves by capillarity-driven surface diffusion. It is found that the retracting film edge forms a thickened ridge followed by a valley. The valley sinks with time and eventually touches the substrate. The ridge then detaches from the film. The new film edge retracts to form another ridge accompanied again by a valley, and the mass shedding cycle is repeated. This periodic mass shedding is simulated numerically for contact angle {alpha} between 30 and 180{degree}. For smaller {alpha}, a small-slope late-time solution is found that agrees with the numerical solution for {alpha} = 30{degree}. Thus, the complete range of {alpha} is covered. The long-time retraction speed and the distance traveled per cycle agree quantitatively with experiments.

  6. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  7. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at −20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at −20°C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  8. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with…

  9. Houses and Sheds in Australia: An Exploration of the Genesis and Growth of Neighbourhood Houses and Men's Sheds in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry; Kimberley, Helen; Foley, Annette; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research into the genesis and spread of both neighbourhood houses and learning centres in Victoria and community-based men's sheds in Australia to identify some similarities and differences. Our article asks questions about the gendered communities of practice that underpin houses for women on the one hand, and sheds for men…

  10. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  11. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  12. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  13. Shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptors by activated human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The capacity of human neutrophils (PMN) to bind tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was rapidly lost when the cells were incubated in suspension with agents that can stimulate their migratory and secretory responses. Both physiological (poly)peptides (FMLP, C5a, CSF-GM) and pharmacologic agonists (PMN, calcium ionophore A23187) induced the loss of TNF receptors (TNF-R) from the cell surface. Half-maximal loss in TNF-R ensued after only approximately 2 min with 10(-7) M FMLP at 37 degrees C, and required only 10(-9) M FMLP during a 30-min exposure. However, there were no such changes even with prolonged exposure of PMN to FMLP at 4 degrees or 16 degrees C. Scatchard analysis revealed loss of TNF- binding sites without change in their affinity (Kd approximately 0.4 nM) as measured at incompletely modulating concentrations of FMLP, C5a, PMA, or A23187. The binding of anti-TNF-R mAbs to PMN decreased in parallel, providing independent evidence for the loss of TNF-R from the cell surface. At the same time, soluble TNF-R appeared in the medium of stimulated PMN. This inference was based on the PMN- and FMLP-dependent generation of a nonsedimentable activity that could inhibit the binding of TNF to fresh human PMN or to mouse macrophages, and the ability of mAbs specific for human TNF-R to abolish inhibition by PMN-conditioned medium of binding of TNF to mouse macrophages. Soluble TNF-R activity was associated with a protein of Mr approximately 28,000 by ligand blot analysis of cell-free supernatants of FMLP-treated PMN. Thus, some portion of the FMLP-induced loss of TNF-R from human PMN is due to shedding of TNF-R. Shedding was unaffected by inhibitors of serine and thiol proteases and could not be induced with phosphatidylinositol- specific phospholipase C. Loss of TNF-R from PMN first stimulated by other agents may decrease their responsiveness to TNF. TNF-R shed by PMN may be one source of the TNF-binding proteins found in body fluids, and may blunt the actions of the

  14. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKibben, C.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13??C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1 (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 103 CFU fish-1 (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those of control fish [p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml-1 on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml-1 on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 106 CFU fish-1 can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges beginning 20 darter injection.

  15. Activation of syndecan-1 ectodomain shedding by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin and beta-toxin.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyong Woo; Foster, Timothy J; Nishi, Eiichiro; Duncan, Sheila J; Klagsbrun, Michael; Chen, Ye

    2004-01-02

    Exploitation of host components by microbes to promote their survival in the hostile host environment has been a recurring theme in recent years. Available data indicate that bacterial pathogens activate ectodomain shedding of host cell surface molecules to enhance their virulence. We reported previously that several major bacterial pathogens activate ectodomain shedding of syndecan-1, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan of epithelial cells. Here we define the molecular basis of how Staphylococcus aureus activates syndecan-1 shedding. We screened mutant S. aureus strains devoid of various toxin and protease genes and found that only strains lacking both alpha-toxin and beta-toxin genes do not stimulate shedding. Mutations in the agr global regulatory locus, which positively regulates expression of alpha- and beta-toxins and other exoproteins, also abrogated the capacity to stimulate syndecan-1 shedding. Furthermore, purified S. aureus alpha- and beta-toxins, but not enterotoxin A and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, rapidly potentiated shedding in a concentration-dependent manner. These results establish that S. aureus activates syndecan-1 ectodomain shedding via its two virulence factors, alpha- and beta-toxins. Toxin-activated shedding was also selectively inhibited by antagonists of the host cell shedding mechanism, indicating that alpha- and beta-toxins shed syndecan-1 ectodomains through stimulation of the host cell's shedding machinery. Interestingly, beta-toxin, but not alpha-toxin, also enhanced ectodomain shedding of syndecan-4 and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor. Because shedding of these ectodomains has been implicated in promoting bacterial pathogenesis, activation of ectodomain shedding by alpha-toxin and beta-toxin may be a previously unknown virulence mechanism of S. aureus.

  16. Necroptosis in acute kidney injury: a shedding light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S; Zhang, C; Hu, L; Yang, C

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe clinical condition with a heavy healthy burden around the world. In spite of supportive therapies, the mortality associated with AKI remains high. Our limited understanding of the complex cell death mechanism in the process of AKI impedes the development of desirable therapeutics. Necroptosis is a recently identified novel form of cell death contributing to numerable diseases and tissue damages. Increasing evidence has suggested that necroptosis has an important role in the pathogenesis of various types of AKI. Therefore, we present here the signaling pathways and main regulators of necroptosis that are potential candidate for therapeutic strategies. Moreover, we emphasize on the potential role and corresponding mechanisms of necroptosis in AKI based on recent advances, and also discuss the possible therapeutic regimens based on manipulating necroptosis. Taken together, the progress in this field sheds new light into the prevention and management of AKI in clinical practice. PMID:26938298

  17. Vortex shedding from slender cones at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papangelou, A.

    1992-09-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments on the flows created by a number of slightly tapered models of circular cross-section have shown the presence of spanwise cells (regions of constant shedding frequency) at Reynolds numbers of the order of 100. The experiments have also shown a number of other interesting features of these flows: the cellular flow configuration is dependent on the base Reynolds number and independent of the tip Reynolds number, the frequency jump between adjacent cells is a function of flow speed, taper angle and kinematic viscosity, but is constant along a cone's span, and the unsteady hot-wire anemometer signal is both amplitude and phase modulated. A mathematical model is proposed based on the complex Landau-Stuart equation with a spanwise diffusive coupling term. Numerical solutions of this equation have shown many of the qualitative features observed in the experiments.

  18. Particle shedding and migration from silicone genitourinary prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, D.M.; O'Sullivan, D.C.; Malizia, A.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Abell-Aleff, P.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Of 26 patients undergoing revision of genitourinary prostheses the surrounding reactive fibrous capsule was biopsied in 25 and the draining lymph nodes also were biopsied in 4. The prostheses included 16 inflatable and 14 flexible penile devices, and 10 artificial urinary sphincters. Tissue was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray microanalysis was done on intracellular and extracellular foreign material from each specimen. Silicone was found in 18 of the 25 periprosthetic specimens and in all 4 lymph nodes. Foreign body granulomas were identified in 14 of these 29 specimens. Examination of new and explanted versions of each prosthesis by scanning electron microscopy revealed free particles of silicone or silicates on the surface of most devices. Pitting and microfissuring were seen on a few of the new devices and on nearly all of the used ones. Thus, genitourinary prostheses shed silicone particles that can be found in the fibrous capsule and draining lymph nodes.

  19. Coxiella burnetii Shedding by Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, D; Almería, S; Caro, M R; Salinas, J; Ortiz, J A; Gortázar, C; Ruiz-Fons, F

    2015-10-01

    Wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of Coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of Q fever. Currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human Q fever cases. However, a human case of Q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (Cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with C. burnetii and ascertain the implication of C. burnetii in reproductive failure in the farm. Blood serum and vaginal swabs were collected from hinds either experiencing or not reproductive failure and tested to detect the presence of antibodies and DNA, respectively, of C. burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Serology and PCR results suggest C. burnetii was the primary cause of the reproductive failure. We identified vaginal shedding of C. burnetii in hinds, confirming red deer as a source of Q fever zoonotic infection.

  20. Prediction of subsonic vortex shedding from forebodies with chines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    An engineering prediction method and associated computer code VTXCHN to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular forebodies with sharp chine edges in subsonic flow at angles of attack and roll are presented. Axisymmetric bodies are represented by point sources and doublets, and noncircular cross sections are transformed to a circle by either analytical or numerical conformal transformations. The lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes along the body; thus the three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented for noncircular bodies alone and forebodies with sharp chines.

  1. Microparticles: new light shed on the understanding of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Qi, Xiao-long; Xu, Ming-xin; Mao, Yu; Liu, Ming-lin; Song, Hao-ming

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane fragments shed primarily from blood and endothelial cells during either activation or apoptosis. There is mounting evidence suggesting that microparticles perform a large array of biological functions and contribute to various diseases. Of these disease processes, a significant link has been established between microparticles and venous thromboembolism. Advances in research on the role of microparticles in thrombosis have yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms, diagnoses and therapeutic targets of venous thromboembolism. In this review, we discuss the definition and properties of microparticles and venous thromboembolism, provide a synopsis of the evidence detailing the contributions of microparticles to venous thromboembolism, and propose potential mechanisms, by which venous thromboembolism occurs. Moreover, we illustrate a possible role of microparticles in cancer-related venous thromboembolism. PMID:25152025

  2. Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding during isolation at the South Pole.

    PubMed

    Muchmore, H G; Parkinson, A J; Humphries, J E; Scott, E N; McIntosh, D A; Scott, L V; Cooney, M K; Miles, J A

    1981-01-15

    Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding in healthy young adults occurred throughout the 8 1/2-month winter isolation period at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during 1978. Two episodes of respiratory illness were observed after 10 and 29 weeks of complete social isolation. Throat swabs collected both routinely, and during each outbreak of respiratory illness, were directly inoculated into cell cultures. Parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 were recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects throughout the winter. No other viruses were obtained by these efforts. The presence of parainfluenza virus in these subjects long after the accepted incubation period for viral upper respiratory illness, and when the introduction of new virus to this community was impossible, suggests its persistence in man.

  3. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.

  4. Furin processing dictates ectodomain shedding of human FAT1 cadherin.

    PubMed

    Sadeqzadeh, Elham; de Bock, Charles E; Wojtalewicz, Natalie; Holt, Janet E; Smith, Nathan D; Dun, Matthew D; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard; Thorne, Rick F

    2014-04-15

    Fat1 is a single pass transmembrane protein and the largest member of the cadherin superfamily. Mouse knockout models and in vitro studies have suggested that Fat1 influences cell polarity and motility. Fat1 is also an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, at least in lower vertebrates, and hence may play a role in growth control. In previous work we have established that FAT1 cadherin is initially cleaved by proprotein convertases to form a noncovalently linked heterodimer prior to expression on the cell surface. Such processing was not a requirement for cell surface expression, since melanoma cells expressed both unprocessed FAT1 and the heterodimer on the cell surface. Here we further establish that the site 1 (S1) cleavage step to promote FAT1 heterodimerisation is catalysed by furin and we identify the cleavage site utilised. For a number of other transmembrane receptors that undergo heterodimerisation the S1 processing step is thought to occur constitutively but the functional significance of heterodimerisation has been controversial. It has also been generally unclear as to the significance of receptor heterodimerisation with respect to subsequent post-translational proteolysis that often occurs in transmembrane proteins. Exploiting the partial deficiency of FAT1 processing in melanoma cells together with furin-deficient LoVo cells, we manipulated furin expression to demonstrate that only the heterodimer form of FAT1 is subject to cleavage and subsequent release of the extracellular domain. This work establishes S1-processing as a clear functional prerequisite for ectodomain shedding of FAT1 with general implications for the shedding of other transmembrane receptors.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  7. Vortex shedding behind tapered obstacles in neutral & stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Ian; Vosper, Simon; Paisley, Martin; Hayden, Paul

    2001-10-01

    Results of laboratory and numerical experiments on both homogeneous and density-stratified flow over single, bluff obstacles of various shapes are presented. The obstacle height is in most cases of the same order as the base diameter and the major controlling (flow) parameter is the Froude number, defined here as Fh= U/ Nh, where U is the (uniform) upstream velocity, h the obstacle height and N is the buoyancy frequency. Attention is concentrated, firstly, on the case of homogeneous flows over rather weakly tapered obstacles and, secondly, for bodies whose height is similar to their base width, on the case Fh=0.1, representing stratification sufficiently strong that lee-wave motions do not play a significant role in the flow dynamics. For right-circular cones it is shown that the sectional contributions to the total fluctuating side force (lift) show significant phase variations up the height of the obstacle, which are not always reflected in the developed vortex street further downstream. For some obstacle shapes, the vortex lines linking the von Karman eddies at different heights can be significantly tilted, particularly in the upper part of the wake. Vortex convection speeds do not appear generally to vary greatly with height and, as found in previous work, the shedding frequency remains constant with height, despite the strong variation of cross-stream obstacle width. By comparison with the homogeneous results, it is suggested that the stratification enhances the shedding instability, which would otherwise be very weak for squat obstacles, but does not annihilate the ability of the flow at one level to influence that at another.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L; Stowe, R P; Phillips, T M; Lugg, D J; Mehta, S K

    2005-05-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  9. Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Wald, A; Ericsson, M; Krantz, E; Selke, S; Corey, L

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 reactivate preferentially in the oral and genital area, respectively. We aimed to define frequency and characteristics associated with oral shedding of HSV-2. Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data of patients with documented HSV-2 infection and at least one oral viral culture obtained were selected from the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic database. Results: Of 1388 people meeting the entry criteria, 44 (3.2%) had HSV-2 isolated at least once from their mouths. In comparison with the 1344 people who did not have HSV-2 isolated from their mouth, participants with oral HSV-2 were more likely to be male (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7), HIV positive (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.0), and homosexual (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2), and to have collected a larger number of oral specimens (median 32 v 4, p<0.001). Of the 58 days with oral HSV-2 isolation, 15 (25%) occurred during newly acquired HSV-2 infection, 12 (21%) during a recurrence with genital lesions, three (5%) during a recurrence with oral lesions, and three (5%) during a recurrence with oral and genital lesions; 25 (43%) occurred during asymptomatic shedding. Oral HSV-2 was found less frequently than oral HSV-1 (0.06% v 1%, p<0.001) in people with HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibody, and less frequently than genital HSV-2 (0.09% v 7%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Oral reactivation of HSV-2 as defined by viral isolation is uncommon and usually occurs in the setting of first episode of genital HSV-2 or during genital recurrence of HSV-2. PMID:15295123

  10. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  11. Analysis and Prediction of Ice Shedding for a Full-Scale Heated Tail Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Work, Andrew; Douglass, Rebekah; Gazella, Matthew; Koster, Zakery; Turk, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    When helicopters are to fly in icing conditions, it is necessary to consider the possibility of ice shed from the rotor blades. In 2013, a series of tests were conducted on a heated tail rotor at NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The tests produced several shed events that were captured on camera. Three of these shed events were captured at a sufficiently high frame rate to obtain multiple images of the shed ice in flight that had a sufficiently long section of shed ice for analysis. Analysis of these shed events is presented and compared to an analytical Shedding Trajectory Model (STM). The STM is developed and assumes that the ice breaks off instantly as it reaches the end of the blade, while frictional and viscous forces are used as parameters to fit the STM. The trajectory of each shed is compared to that predicted by the STM, where the STM provides information of the shed group of ice as a whole. The limitations of the model's underlying assumptions are discussed in comparison to experimental shed events.

  12. Chemotherapy stimulates syndecan-1 shedding: A potentially negative effect of treatment that may promote tumor relapse

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Vishnu C.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2015-01-01

    In patients with multiple myeloma, the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) is shed from the surface of tumor cells and accumulates in the serum and within the extracellular matrix of the bone marrow where it promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In the present study we discovered that commonly used anti-myeloma drugs stimulate syndecan-1 shedding both in vitro and in animals bearing myeloma tumors. Enhanced shedding is accompanied by increased syndecan-1 synthesis prior to drug induced tumor cell death. Addition of a caspase inhibitor blocks the drug-induced shedding of syndecan-1 in vitro indicating that shedding is linked to the onset of apoptosis. ADAMs inhibitors or siRNA targeting ADAMs blocked drug-induced shedding suggesting that up regulation or activation of ADAMs is responsible for cleaving syndecan-1 from the tumor cell surface. These results reveal that myeloma chemotherapy stimulates synthesis and shedding of syndecan-1, a potentially negative side effect that may lead to accumulation of high levels of syndecan-1 to establish a microenvironment that nurtures relapse and promotes tumor progression. Interestingly, we also found that chemotherapeutic drugs stimulated syndecan-1 shedding from pancreatic cancer cells as well, indicating that drug-induced shedding of syndecan-1 may occur in many cancer types. Overall, our results indicate that use of metalloproteinase inhibitors (to inhibit syndecan-1 shedding) in combination with chemotherapy may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent re-establishment of a microenvironment conducive for tumor relapse. PMID:24145151

  13. Effects of Various Penetration Enhancers on Penetration of Aminophylline Through Shed Snake Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kouchak, Maryam; Handali, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cellulite is the accumulation of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue in tights and buttocks. Xanthines, such as aminophylline, are used as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and are also adenosine receptor antagonists. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro aminophylline transdermal absorption through shed snake skin, and to investigate the absorption enhancing effect of various enhancers. Materials and Methods: Aminophylline gels were prepared using theophylline and ethylenediamine as raw materials of aminophylline, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) F4M as gelling agent, and propylene glycol as a co-solvent. Sodium tauroglycocholate (STGC) (100, 200, and 500 μg/mL), lauric acid (1.7 and 15%), and ethanol (60%) were added as enhancers. In vitro percutaneous absorption experiments were performed on snake skin using Franz diffusion cells. Flux (J), permeability coefficient (P), and enhancement factor (EF) for each formulation were calculated. Results: The results indicated that all of enhancers significantly enhanced drug permeability. This effect was decreased by increasing the concentration of STGC; in contrast, by increasing the concentration of lauric acid from 1.7 to 15%, EF was enhanced Although ethanol (60%) and STGC (100 μg/mL) showed the highest EFs, the effect of ethanol on drug permeability appeared with a lag time. Conclusions: According to the findings, type and concentration of penetration enhancers can effect on transdermal permeation of drug. PMID:24644435

  14. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  15. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  16. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster <10 years ago, which provides a boost in cell-medicated immunity to VZV (2). No VZV DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease

  17. Cervical shedding of cytomegalovirus in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women.

    PubMed

    Mostad, S B; Kreiss, J K; Ryncarz, A J; Overbaugh, J; Mandaliya, K; Chohan, B; Ndinya-Achola, J; Bwayo, J J; Corey, L

    1999-12-01

    Cervical shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is important in transmission of CMV to exposed sexual partners and neonates. We evaluated prevalence and correlates of CMV DNA shedding in cervical secretions from a large cohort of HIV-1-seropositive women. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, CMV DNA was detected in 183 (59%) cervical swab samples from 311 women. Cervical shedding of CMV DNA was significantly associated with shedding of HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.8). CMV shedding was also more frequent in women with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis infections, but these associations were not statistically significant. Cervical shedding of CMV in HIV-1-infected women is very frequent and may reflect higher risk of transmission to sexual partners and neonates than previously appreciated.

  18. Inhibition of Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated K Channel (KCa3.1) and Fibroblast Mitogenesis by α-Linolenic Acid and Alterations of Channel Expression in the Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Fabry Disease, and Niemann Pick C.

    PubMed

    Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Lozano-Gerona, Javier; López de Frutos, Laura; Cebolla, Jorge J; Irún, Pilar; Abarca-Lachen, Edgar; García-Malinis, Ana J; García-Otín, Ángel Luis; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Giraldo, Pilar; Köhler, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The calcium/calmodulin-gated KCa3.1 channel regulates normal and abnormal mitogenesis by controlling K(+)-efflux, cell volume, and membrane hyperpolarization-driven calcium-entry. Recent studies suggest modulation of KCa3.1 by omega-3 fatty acids as negative modulators and impaired KCa3.1 functions in the inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), Fabry disease (FD). In the first part of present study, we characterize KCa3.1 in murine and human fibroblasts and test the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on fibroblast proliferation. In the second, we study whether KCa3.1 is altered in the LSDs, FD, and Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Our patch-clamp and mRNA-expression studies on murine and human fibroblasts show functional expression of KCa3.1. KCa currents display the typical pharmacological fingerprint of KCa3.1: Ca(2+)-activation, potentiation by the positive-gating modulators, SKA-31 and SKA-121, and inhibition by TRAM-34, Senicapoc (ICA-17043), and the negative-gating modulator, 13b. Considering modulation by omega-3 fatty acids we found that α-linolenic acid (α-LA) and docosahexanenoic acid (DHA) inhibit KCa3.1 currents and strongly reduce fibroblast growth. The α-LA-rich linseed oil and γ-LA-rich borage oil at 0.5% produce channel inhibition while α-LA/γ-LA-low oils has no anti-proliferative effect. Concerning KCa3.1 in LSD, mRNA expression studies, and patch-clamp on primary fibroblasts from FD and NPC patients reveal lower KCa3.1-gene expression and membrane expression than in control fibroblasts. In conclusion, the omega-3 fatty acid, α-LA, and α-LA/γ-LA-rich plant oils, inhibit fibroblast KCa3.1 channels and mitogenesis. Reduced fibroblast KCa3.1 functions are a feature and possible biomarker of cell dysfunction in FD and NPC and supports the concept that biased lipid metabolism is capable of negatively modulating KCa3.1 expression.

  19. Inhibition of Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated K Channel (KCa3.1) and Fibroblast Mitogenesis by α-Linolenic Acid and Alterations of Channel Expression in the Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Fabry Disease, and Niemann Pick C

    PubMed Central

    Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Lozano-Gerona, Javier; López de Frutos, Laura; Cebolla, Jorge J.; Irún, Pilar; Abarca-Lachen, Edgar; García-Malinis, Ana J.; García-Otín, Ángel Luis; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Giraldo, Pilar; Köhler, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The calcium/calmodulin-gated KCa3.1 channel regulates normal and abnormal mitogenesis by controlling K+-efflux, cell volume, and membrane hyperpolarization-driven calcium-entry. Recent studies suggest modulation of KCa3.1 by omega-3 fatty acids as negative modulators and impaired KCa3.1 functions in the inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), Fabry disease (FD). In the first part of present study, we characterize KCa3.1 in murine and human fibroblasts and test the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on fibroblast proliferation. In the second, we study whether KCa3.1 is altered in the LSDs, FD, and Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Our patch-clamp and mRNA-expression studies on murine and human fibroblasts show functional expression of KCa3.1. KCa currents display the typical pharmacological fingerprint of KCa3.1: Ca2+-activation, potentiation by the positive-gating modulators, SKA-31 and SKA-121, and inhibition by TRAM-34, Senicapoc (ICA-17043), and the negative-gating modulator, 13b. Considering modulation by omega-3 fatty acids we found that α-linolenic acid (α-LA) and docosahexanenoic acid (DHA) inhibit KCa3.1 currents and strongly reduce fibroblast growth. The α-LA-rich linseed oil and γ-LA-rich borage oil at 0.5% produce channel inhibition while α-LA/γ-LA-low oils has no anti-proliferative effect. Concerning KCa3.1 in LSD, mRNA expression studies, and patch-clamp on primary fibroblasts from FD and NPC patients reveal lower KCa3.1-gene expression and membrane expression than in control fibroblasts. In conclusion, the omega-3 fatty acid, α-LA, and α-LA/γ-LA-rich plant oils, inhibit fibroblast KCa3.1 channels and mitogenesis. Reduced fibroblast KCa3.1 functions are a feature and possible biomarker of cell dysfunction in FD and NPC and supports the concept that biased lipid metabolism is capable of negatively modulating KCa3.1 expression. PMID:28197106

  20. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.