Science.gov

Sample records for acid substitution mutants

  1. Pleiotropic effects of hemagglutinin amino acid substitutions of H5 influenza escape mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Rudneva, Irina A.; Timofeeva, Tatiana A.; Ignatieva, Anna V.; Shilov, Aleksandr A.; Krylov, Petr S.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.

    2013-12-15

    In the present study we assessed pleiotropic characteristics of the antibody-selected mutations. We examined pH optimum of fusion, temperatures of HA heat inactivation, and in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics of the previously obtained influenza H5 escape mutants. Our results showed that HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. Mutations of the escape mutants located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability (P<0.05). HA changes at positions 131, 144, 145, and 156 and substitutions at positions 131, 142, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 escape mutants in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Overall, a co-variation between antigenic specificity and different HA phenotypic properties has been demonstrated. We believe that the monitoring of pleiotropic effects of the HA mutations found in H5 escape mutants is essential for accurate prediction of mutants with pandemic potential. - Highlights: • HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. • Mutations located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability. • HA changes at positions 131, 142, 144, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 mutants. • Acquisition of glycosylation site could lead to the emergence of multiple pleiotropic effects.

  2. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, A A; Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Yu; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30-100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect.

  3. [Studies of gene regulation of de novo biosynthetic pathway of purine in Salmonella typhimurium. X. Isolation of purR(am) mutants and preliminary studies of amino acid substitution].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H S; Wang, A Q

    2000-01-01

    Starting from a super-repressed mutant of purR, 3-18, 439 independent candidates of purR- mutants were isolated by using NCE selecting plate with lactose as sole carbon source. Among these mutants. 11 amber mutants were detected by introducing a tRNA suppressor gene. Cotransduction analysis proved that the amber mutation sites of 11 amber mutants all located on purR. Amino acid substitution experiments were performed with three tRNA suppressors, supD, supE and supF, for each purR(am). The results showed that the same amino acid substitution occurred in different site of PurR protein could result in varied effects on purR function; different amino acid substitution occurred at the same position of PurR protein also could produced varied effects on purR function.

  4. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  5. TEM-109 (CMT-5), a Natural Complex Mutant of TEM-1 β-Lactamase Combining the Amino Acid Substitutions of TEM-6 and TEM-33 (IRT-5)†

    PubMed Central

    Robin, F.; Delmas, J.; Chanal, C.; Sirot, D.; Sirot, J.; Bonnet, R.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli CF349 exhibited a complex β-lactam resistance phenotype, including resistance to amoxicillin and ticarcillin alone and in combination with clavulanate and to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The double-disk synergy test was positive. CF349 harbored an 85-kb conjugative plasmid which encoded a β-lactamase of pI 5.9. The corresponding bla gene was identified by PCR and sequencing as a blaTEM gene. The deduced protein sequence revealed a new complex mutant of TEM-1 β-lactamase designated TEM-109 (CMT-5). TEM-109 contained both the substitutions Glu104Lys and Arg164His of the expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-6 and Met69Leu of the inhibitor-resistant TEM-33 (IRT-5). TEM-109 exhibited hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime similar to that of TEM-6 (kcat, 56 s−1 and 105 s−1, respectively; Km values, 226 and 247 μM, respectively). The 50% inhibitory concentrations of clavulanate and tazobactam (0.13 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively) were 5- to 10-fold higher for TEM-109 than for TEM-6 (0.01 and 0.06 μM, respectively) but were almost 10-fold lower than those for TEM-33. The characterization of this novel CMT, which exhibits a low level of resistance to inhibitors, highlights the emergence of this new ESBL type. PMID:16251281

  6. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  11. Bacteriorhodopsin mutants containing single substitutions of serine or threonine residues are all active in proton translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, T.; Otto, H.; Mogi, T.; Roesselet, S.J.H.; Heyn, M.P.; Khorana, H.G. )

    1991-04-15

    To study their role in proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin, 22 serine and threonine residues presumed to be located within and near the border of the transmembrane segments have been individually replaced by alanine or valine, respectively. Thr-89 was substituted by alanine, valine, and aspartic acid, and Ser-141 by alanine and cysteine. Most of the mutants showed essentially wild-type phenotype with regard to chromophore regeneration and absorption spectrum. However, replacement of Thr-89 by Val and of Ser-141 by Cys caused striking blue shifts of the chromophore by 100 and 80 nm, respectively. All substitutions of Thr-89 regenerated the chromophore at least 10-fold faster with 13-cis retinal than with all-trans retinal. The substitutions at positions 89, 90, and 141 also showed abnormal dark-light adaptation, suggesting interactions between these residues and the retinylidene chromophore. Proton pumping measurements revealed 60-75% activity for mutants of Thr-46, -89, -90, -205, and Ser-226, and about 20% for Ser-141----Cys, whereas the remaining mutants showed normal pumping. Kinetic studies of the photocycle and of proton release and uptake for mutants in which proton pumping was reduced revealed generally little alterations. The reduced activity in several of these mutants is most likely due to a lower percentage of all-trans retinal in the light-adapted state. In the mutants Thr-46----Val and Ser-226----Ala the decay of the photointer-mediate M was significantly accelerated, indicating an interaction between these residues and Asp-96 which reprotonates the Schiff base. Our results show that no single serine or threonine residue is obligatory for proton pumping.

  12. Electroanalysis of amino acid substitutions in bioengineered acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Somji, Mehdi; Dounin, Vladimir; Muench, Susanne B; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T; Kerman, Kagan

    2012-12-01

    This study reports the electrochemical profiling of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) wild-type and mutant proteins. An irreversible oxidation signal of electro-active tyrosine (Y), tryptophan (W) and cysteine (C) residues in five mutant proteins along with the wild-type AChE were detected using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Significant differences were observed in the W303L, T65Y and M301W substituted proteins showing a 25-35% higher peak current intensity compared to the Y349Y and F345Y mutants. It was predicted that AChE substituted with electrochemically active residues would produce the greatest signals and this trend was observed in the T65Y, M301W and Y349L mutants. However, conformational changes in the proteins structure as a result of the substitutions appeared to be most influential on peak current intensities. This was demonstrated by the W303L and F345Y mutant enzymes. The current intensity of W303L was greatest despite the removal of its electro-active W residue whereas the F345Y mutant had the lowest peak value despite the addition of an electro-active Y residue. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that SWV provides a promising tool to probe the presence of electro-active amino acid residues on the surface of a protein produced through bioengineering.

  13. INHIBITION OF A THYMINE-DEFICIENT MUTANT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI BY 5-SUBSTITUTED URACILS

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Jacob; Lowden, Lois; Hale, Ralph

    1962-01-01

    Shapira, Jacob (Consolidated Veterans Administration Hospital, Little Rock, Ark.), Lois Lowden, and Ralph Hale. Inhibition of a thymine-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli by 5-substituted uracils. J. Bacteriol. 83:919–923. 1962.—Small inocula of well-washed cells of a thymine-requiring mutant of Escherichia coli were incubated in a thymine-containing glucose-salts medium with a variety of 5-substituted pyrimidines and pyrimidine ribosides. After a lag phase, the turbidity of the cultures increased appreciably which, in the case of 5-ethyluracil and 5-ethyluridine, was primarily due to an elongation of the cells. 5-Ethyluracil at low thymine concentrations increased the lag phase and decreased the rate and final amount of growth. At high thymine concentrations, it had less effect on the final turbidity of the cultures. The inhibition index for this compound was relatively constant, suggesting competitive inhibition. Several other pyrimidine analogues inhibited growth. The nucleosides of 5-bromouracil and 5-aminouracil were no more effective than the free bases. The ribosides of 5-ethyluracil and 5-butyluracil were appreciably more inhibitory than the free bases and were the most potent compounds tested. It is likely that the inhibition of growth is a reflection of the effect of these compounds on ribonucleic acid synthesis by the cells. PMID:13911280

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis of Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    A series of substituted benzoic acids (SBAs) are prepared by students. The pKa shift, a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the subsistent is examined in reference to the electrophoretic migration behavior of benzoic acid.

  15. Identical substitutions in magnesium chelatase paralogs result in chlorophyll deficient soybean mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) chlorophyll deficient line MinnGold is a spontaneous mutant characterized by yellow foliage. Map-based cloning and transgenic complementation revealed that the mutant phenotype is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in the third exon of a Mg-chelat...

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  17. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  2. Bacteriorhodopsin mutants containing single tyrosine to phenylalanine substitutions are all active in proton translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, T; Stern, L J; Hackett, N R; Khorana, H G

    1987-01-01

    To study the possible role of the tyrosine residues in proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin, we have replaced these residues individually by phenylalanine. The required codon changes were introduced in the bacterioopsin gene by replacement of appropriate restriction fragments by synthetic counterparts containing the desired nucleotide changes. The denatured opsin polypeptides obtained by expression of the mutant genes in Escherichia coli were purified and treated with a mixture of detergents, phospholipids, and retinal in a previously established renaturation procedure. All of the mutant proteins folded to regenerate bacteriorhodopsin-like chromophores. Three mutants with tyrosine to phenylalanine substitutions at positions 57, 83, and 185 regenerated the chromophore more slowly than the wild-type protein, and two of these mutants, Phe-57 and -83, showed slightly blue-shifted chromophores. When reconstituted into liposomes all of the mutant proteins with single Tyr----Phe substitutions pumped protons at rates and levels comparable to those of the wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. We conclude that single substitutions of tyrosine by phenylalanine do not affect folding, retinal binding, or light-dependent proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin. PMID:3039495

  3. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. (a) Chemical... as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo- (PMN P-95-86) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. (a) Chemical... as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo- (PMN P-95-86) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. (a) Chemical... as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo- (PMN P-95-86) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. (a) Chemical... as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo- (PMN P-95-86) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1643 - Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1643 Benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo-. (a) Chemical... as a benzenesulfonic acid, amino substituted phenylazo- (PMN P-95-86) is subject to reporting...

  9. A West Nile virus mutant with increased resistance to acid-induced inactivation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for epidemics of febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. WNV gains entry into host cells through endocytosis. The acid pH inside endosomes triggers rapid conformational rearrangements of the flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein that result in fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virion envelope. Conformational rearrangements of the E glycoprotein can be induced by acid exposure in solution in the absence of target membranes, thus causing a loss of infectivity. Following a genetic approach to study this process, a WNV mutant with increased resistance to acid-induced inactivation was isolated and its complete genome was sequenced. A single amino acid substitution, T70I, in the E glycoprotein was found to be responsible for the increased acid resistance, which was linked to an increase in the sensitivity of infection to the chemical rise of endosomal pH, suggesting that the mutant required a more acid pH inside the endosomes for fusion. No alterations in viral infection kinetics, plaque size or induced mortality rates in mice of the mutant were noted. However, by means of virus competition assays, a reduction in viral fitness under standard culture conditions was observed for the mutant. These results provide new evidence of the adaptive flexibility to environmental factors--pH variation in this case--of WNV populations. Implications of the T70I replacement on the E glycoprotein structure-function relationship are discussed.

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Whittle, Edward J.

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  11. 40 CFR 721.1700 - Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). 721.1700 Section 721.1700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1700 Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1700 - Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). 721.1700 Section 721.1700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1700 Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  3. Sporulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Yousten, Allan A.; Hanson, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    A mutant of Bacillus subtilis 168 lacking aconitase (EC 4.2.1.3) was found to be blocked at stage 0 or I of sporulation. Although adenosine triphosphate levels, which normally decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle mutants at the completion of exponential growth, could be maintained at higher levels by feeding metabolizable carbon sources, this did not permit the cells to progress further into the sporulation sequence. When post-exponential-phase cells of mutants blocked in the first half of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were resuspended with an energy source in culture fluid from post-exponential-phase wild-type B. subtilis or Escherichia coli, good sporulation occurred. The spores produced retained the mutant genotype and were heat stable but lost refractility and heat stability several hours after their production. Images PMID:4110146

  4. Enzymatic activity of poliovirus RNA polymerase mutants with single amino acid changes in the conserved YGDD amino acid motif.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, S A; Luo, M; Morrow, C D

    1991-09-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases contain a highly conserved region of amino acids with a core segment composed of the amino acids YGDD which have been hypothesized to be at or near the catalytic active site of the molecule. Six mutations in this conserved YGDD region of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were made by using oligonucleotide site-directed DNA mutagenesis of the poliovirus cDNA to substitute A, C, M, P, S, or V for the amino acid G. The mutant polymerase genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified RNA polymerases were tested for in vitro enzyme activity. Two of the mutant RNA polymerases (those in which the glycine residue was replaced with alanine or serine) exhibited in vitro enzymatic activity ranging from 5 to 20% of wild-type activity, while the remaining mutant RNA polymerases were inactive. Alterations in the in vitro reaction conditions by modification of temperature, metal ion concentration, or pH resulted in no significant differences in the activities of the mutant RNA polymerases relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. An antipeptide antibody directed against the wild-type core amino acid segment containing the YGDD region of the poliovirus polymerase reacted with the wild-type recombinant RNA polymerase and to a limited extent with the two enzymatically active mutant polymerases; the antipeptide antibody did not react with the mutant RNA polymerases which did not have in vitro enzyme activity. These results are discussed in the context of secondary-structure predictions for the core segment containing the conserved YGDD amino acids in the poliovirus RNA polymerase. PMID:1651402

  5. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  6. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  7. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  8. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  9. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Paul A; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-07-13

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modification. The chemical chirality of MeP, in conjunction with mutant recombinases, reveals the stereochemical contributions of Arg-I and Arg-II. The SP preference of the native reaction is specified primarily by Arg-I. MeP reaction supported by Arg-II is nearly bias-free or RP-biased, depending on the Arg-I substituent. Positional conservation of the arginines does not translate into strict functional conservation. Charge reversal by glutamic acid substitution at Arg-I or Arg-II has opposite effects on Cre and Flp in MeP reactions. In Flp, the base immediately 5' to the scissile MeP strongly influences the choice between the catalytic tyrosine and water as the nucleophile for strand scission, thus between productive recombination and futile hydrolysis. The recombinase active site embodies the evolutionary optimization of interactions that not only favor the normal reaction but also proscribe antithetical side reactions. PMID:25999343

  10. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Paul A; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-07-13

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modification. The chemical chirality of MeP, in conjunction with mutant recombinases, reveals the stereochemical contributions of Arg-I and Arg-II. The SP preference of the native reaction is specified primarily by Arg-I. MeP reaction supported by Arg-II is nearly bias-free or RP-biased, depending on the Arg-I substituent. Positional conservation of the arginines does not translate into strict functional conservation. Charge reversal by glutamic acid substitution at Arg-I or Arg-II has opposite effects on Cre and Flp in MeP reactions. In Flp, the base immediately 5' to the scissile MeP strongly influences the choice between the catalytic tyrosine and water as the nucleophile for strand scission, thus between productive recombination and futile hydrolysis. The recombinase active site embodies the evolutionary optimization of interactions that not only favor the normal reaction but also proscribe antithetical side reactions.

  11. Citrate substitutes for homocitrate in nitrogenase of a nifV mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jihong; Madden, M.; Shah, V.K.; Burris, R.H. )

    1990-09-18

    An organic acid extracted from purified dinitrogenase isolated from a nifV mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been identified as citric acid. H{sub 2} evolution by the citrate-containing dinitrogenase is partially inhibited by CO, and by some substrates for nitrogenase. The response of maximum velocities to changes in pH for both the wild-type and the NifV{sup {minus}} dinitrogenase was compared. No substantial differences between the enzymes were observed, but there are minor differences. Both enzymes are stable in the pH range 4.8-10, but the enzyme activities dropped dramatically below pH 6.2.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  14. Reversal of the surface charge asymmetry in purple membrane due to single amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, K C; Rayfield, G W; Needleman, R

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven mutant bacteriorhodopsin's were screened to determine the PKa for reversal of the permanent electric dipole moment. The photoelectric response of an aqueous purple-membrane suspension was used to determine the direction of the purple-membrane dipole moment as a function of pH. The pK(a) for the dipole reversal of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin is 4.5. Six of the 27 mutant bacteriorhodopsin's were found to have a pK(a) for dipole reversal larger than that of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. Two of these mutants, L93T and L93W, involve a neutral amino acid substitution in the interior of the protein. The direction of the purple-membrane permanent electric dipole moment is determined by the purple-membrane surface charge asymmetry. We conclude that these two substitutions, which do not involve charge replacement, alter the pK(a) for the reversal of the purple-membrane surface charge asymmetry. We suggest that these changes to the pK(a) are due to altered protein folding at the surface of the purple-membrane induced by single-site substitutions in the protein interior. PMID:9172760

  15. Role of a single amino acid substitution of VP3 H142D for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Das, Biswajit; Sharma, Gaurav K; Khulape, Sagar A; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at pH value below 6.5. After the uptake of FMDV by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of FMDV genome inside endosomes. Nevertheless, dissociation of FMDV particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated FMD vaccine less effective. To improve the acid stability of inactivated FMD vaccine during the manufacturing process, a serotype A IND 40/2000 (in-use vaccine strain) mutant with increased resistance to acid inactivation was generated through reverse genetics approach. Based upon the earlier reports, the crucial amino acid residue, H142 of VP3 capsid protein was substituted separately to various amino acid residues Arg (R), Phe (F), Ala (A), and Asp (D) on the full-genome length cDNA clone. While the H142 → R or H142 → F or H142 → A substitutions resulted in non-infectious FMDV, H142 → D mutation on VP3 protein (H3142D) resulted in the generation of mutant virus with enhanced resistance to acid-induced inactivation. In addition, H3142D substitution did not alter the replication ability and antigenicity of mutant as compared to the parental virus. However, the virus competition experiments revealed that the H3142D substitution conferred a loss of fitness for the mutant virus. Results from this study demonstrate that the H3142D substitution is the molecular determinant of acid-resistant phenotype in FMDV serotype A. PMID:26873406

  16. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions. PMID:20384985

  17. Gas phase acidity of substituted benzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoux, Guy

    2011-04-01

    Deprotonation thermochemistry of benzene derivatives C 6H 5X (X = H, F, Cl, OH, NH 2, CN, CHO, NO 2, CH 3, C 2H 5, CHCH 2, CCH) has been examined at the G3B3 level of theory. For X = F, Cl, CN, CHO and NO 2, the most favorable deprotonation site is the ortho position of the phenyl ring. This regio-specificity is directly related to the field/inductive effect of the substituent. G3B3 gas phase acidities, Δ acidH° and Δ acidG°, compare within less than 4 kJ mol -1 with experimental data. A noticeable exception is nitrobenzene for which tabulated acidity appear to be underestimated by ca. 120 kJ mol -1.

  18. Systematic Exploration of an Efficient Amino Acid Substitution Matrix: MIQS.

    PubMed

    Tomii, Kentaro; Yamada, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid sequence comparisons to find similarities between proteins are fundamental sequence information analyses for inferring protein structure and function. In this study, we improve amino acid substitution matrices to identify distantly related proteins. We systematically sampled and benchmarked substitution matrices generated from the principal component analysis (PCA) subspace based on a set of typical existing matrices. Based on the benchmark results, we identified a region of highly sensitive matrices in the PCA subspace using kernel density estimation (KDE). Using the PCA subspace, we were able to deduce a novel sensitive matrix, called MIQS, which shows better detection performance for detecting distantly related proteins than those of existing matrices. This approach to derive an efficient amino acid substitution matrix might influence many fields of protein sequence analysis. MIQS is available at http://csas.cbrc.jp/Ssearch/ . PMID:27115635

  19. Genotoxic effect of substituted phenoxyacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Venkov, P; Topashka-Ancheva, M; Georgieva, M; Alexieva, V; Karanov, E

    2000-11-01

    The potential toxic and mutagenic action of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid has been studied in different test systems, and the obtained results range from increased chromosomal damage to no effect at all. We reexamined the effect of this herbicide by simultaneous using three tests based on yeast, transformed hematopoietic, and mouse bone marrow cells. The results obtained demonstrated that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid has cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The positive response of yeast and transformed hematopoietic cells was verified in kinetics and dose-response experiments. The analysis of metaphase chromosomes indicated a statistically proved induction of breaks, deletions, and exchanges after the intraperitoneal administration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in mice. The study of phenoxyacetic acid and its differently chlorinated derivatives showed that cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are induced by chlorine atoms at position 2 and/or 4 in the benzene ring. The mutagenic effect was abolished by introduction of a third chlorine atom at position 5. Thus 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid was found to have very weak, if any mutagenic effect; however, the herbicide preserved its toxic effect.

  20. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  1. Biosynthesis of a substituted cellulose from a mutant strain of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Vojnov, Adrián A; Bassi, Daniel E; Daniels, Michael J; Dankert, Marcelo A

    2002-02-18

    In Xanthomonas campestris the genes involved in polysaccharide (xanthan) biosynthesis are located in a gene cluster (gum) of 16 kb. A Tn5 insertion mutant with a reduced slimy phenotype has been characterized. This mutant failed to produce the pentasaccharide repeating-unit of xanthan. Only three sugars were transferred to the prenyl phosphate intermediate. Several lines of evidence suggested that the lipid-associated saccharide was the trisaccharide reducing end of the pentasaccharide from the wild-type strain. This trisaccharide was built up from UDP-Glc and GDP-Man, and a glucose residue was at the reducing end, linked to an allylic prenol through a diphosphate bridge. Results from one- or two-stage reactions showed that the trisaccharide-P-P-polyprenol was the precursor of the polymer. This new polymer, a polytrisaccharide, was detected also in vivo. The transposon responsible for the mutation was located within gumK gene. Therefore, this gene encodes for the glycosyltransferase IV, which catalyses the transfer of glucuronic acid to the lipid-linked beta-D-Manp-(1-->3)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp trisaccharide. A recombinant plasmid with the whole gum cluster restored the wild type phenotype.

  2. Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III: effect of single amino acid substitutions and relationship with functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Mastrangelo, S; Lane, D A; Girolami, A; de Moerloose, P; Sas, G; Abildgaard, U; Blajchman, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1994-02-01

    Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III (AT-III) was investigated by crossed immunoelectrofocusing (CIEF) on eleven molecular variants. A normal pattern was found in five variants while two different abnormal CIEF patterns were found in the other four and two variants, respectively. Point mutations causing a major pI change (exceeding 4.0) of the amino acid substituted lead to alterations in the overall microheterogeneity. The variants thus substituted share a first type of abnormal CIEF pattern with alterations throughout the pH range, regardless of the location of the mutation (reactive site and adjacent regions or heparin binding region). Minor amino acid pI changes in these regions do not alter the AT-III overall microheterogeneity, whatever the resulting functional defect. However, if the mutation is placed in the region around positions 404 or 429, then even minor changes of the amino acid pI seem able to alter the overall charge, leading to a second type of abnormal CIEF pattern with the main alteration at pH 4.8-4.6. Neuraminidase treatment leads to disappearance of microheterogeneity except for the variants with the Arg393 to Cys substitution. Addition of thrombin induces CIEF modifications specifically related to the functional defect. A normal formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes induces a shift towards the more acid pH range, whereas in the variants substituted at the reactive site the CIEF pattern is substantially unaffected by thrombin; variants substituted at positions 382-384 show a maximal thrombin-induced increase of the isoforms at pI 4.8-4.6. Therefore mutant antithrombins with different functional abnormalities but sharing a common CIEF pattern were well distinguished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8180341

  3. Change in oligomerization specificity of the p53 tetramerization domain by hydrophobic amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed Central

    Stavridi, E. S.; Chehab, N. H.; Caruso, L. C.; Halazonetis, T. D.

    1999-01-01

    The tumor suppressor function of the wild-type p53 protein is transdominantly inhibited by tumor-derived mutant p53 proteins. Such transdominant inhibition limits the prospects for gene therapy approaches that aim to introduce wild-type p53 into cancer cells. The molecular mechanism for transdominant inhibition involves sequestration of wild-type p53 subunits into inactive wild-type/mutant hetero-tetramers. Thus, p53 proteins, whose oligomerization specificity is altered so they cannot interact with tumor-derived mutant p53, would escape transdominant inhibition. Aided by the known three-dimensional structure of the p53 tetramerization domain and by trial and error we designed a novel domain with seven amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic core. A full-length p53 protein bearing this novel domain formed homo-tetramers and had tumor suppressor function, but did not hetero-oligomerize with tumor-derived mutant p53 and resisted transdominant inhibition. Thus, hydrophobic core residues influence the oligomerization specificity of the p53 tetramerization domain. PMID:10493578

  4. Transitions to asexuality result in excess amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Paland, Susanne; Lynch, Michael

    2006-02-17

    Theory predicts that linkage between genetic loci reduces the efficiency of purifying selection. Because of the permanent linkage of all heritable genetic material, asexual lineages may be exceptionally prone to deleterious-mutation accumulation in both nuclear and organelle genes. Here, we show that the ratio of the rate of amino acid to silent substitution (Ka/Ks) in mitochondrial protein-coding genes is higher in obligately asexual lineages than in sexual lineages of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex. Using a phylogeny-based approach to quantify the frequency of mutational-effect classes, we estimate that mitochondrial protein-coding genes in asexual lineages accumulate deleterious amino acid substitutions at four times the rate in sexual lineages. These results support the hypothesis that sexual reproduction plays a prominent role in reducing the mutational burden in populations.

  5. Teichoic acids and lipids associated with the membrane of a Bacillus licheniformis mutant and the membrane lipids of the parental strain.

    PubMed Central

    Button, D; Hemmings, N L

    1976-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 6346 MH-1 and a phosphoglucomutase-deficient poorly lytic mutant, B. licheniformis 6346 MH-5, both contain cardiolipin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidyl glycerol but are devoid of phosphoglycolipids. Gentiobiosyl diglyceride is present in the parent organism but glycolipids are absent from the mutant. Lipoteichoic acid was extracted from the whole cells of MH-5 with hot aqueous phenol and contained fatty acids, glucosamine, and 1,3-polyglycerol phosphate. The fatty acids were predominantly of the branched-chain type and were esterified to hydroxyl groups of a terminal glycerol residue. The polyglycerol phosphate chains contained, on average, 32 to 40 glycerol residues, some of which were substituted at the secondary hydroxyl group with alpha-N-acylglucosaminyl residues. Phenol extraction of the supernatant fluid that remained when walls were removed from preparations of disrupted cells of MH-5 yielded membrane teichoic acid, which consisted of substituted polyglycerol phosphate but was devoid of fatty acids. PMID:977537

  6. β-Nitro substituted carboxylic acids and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Csuk, René; Heller, Lucie; Siewert, Bianka; Gutnov, Andrey; Seidelmann, Oliver; Wendisch, Volkmar

    2014-08-15

    β-Nitro-substituted ethyl carboxylates are a new class of cytotoxic agents; they can be easily obtained in fair to good yields in a single-step reaction by a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of aryl boronic acids to 2-nitro-acrylates. Of all the tested derivatives, 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-nitropropionic acid ethyl ester (6) is most cytotoxic especially against the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 therefore making this compound an interesting candidate for further investigations.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10399 - Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10399 Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (generic). (a) Chemical... as benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (PMN P-10-501) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10399 - Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10399 Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (generic). (a) Chemical... as benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (PMN P-10-501) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10399 - Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10399 Benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (generic). (a) Chemical... as benzoic acid azo-substituted pyridine (PMN P-10-501) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical... as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No. P-92-692) is subject to reporting...

  7. Amino acid substitution converts WEREWOLF function from an activator to a repressor of Arabidopsis non-hair cell development.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji

    2012-02-01

    Root hair cell or non-hair cell fate determination in Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is model system for plant cell development. Two types of MYB transcription factors, the R2R3-type MYB, WEREWOLF (WER), and an R3-type MYB, CAPRICE (CPC), are involved in this cell fate determination process. To study the molecular basis of this process, we analyzed the functional relationship of WER and CPC. WER-CPC chimeric constructs were made from WER where all or parts of the MYB R3 region were replaced with the corresponding regions from CPC R3, and the constructs were introduced into the cpc-2 mutant. Although, the WER gene did not rescue the cpc-2 mutant 'small number of root hairs' phenotype, the WER-CPC chimera with two amino acids substitution (WC6) completely rescued the cpc-2 mutant phenotype. Furthermore, the WER-CPC chimera with 37 amino acids substitution (WC5) excessively rescued the cpc-2 mutant and induced 2.5 times more root hairs than wild-type. Consistent with this phenotype, GL2 gene expression was strongly reduced in WC5 in a cpc-2 background. Our results suggest that swapping at least two amino acids is sufficient to convert WER to CPC function. Therefore, these key residues may have strongly contributed to the selection of these important functions over evolution.

  8. Structural consequences of amino acid substitutions causing Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Kazuki; Saito, Seiji; Sugawara, Kanako; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    To determine the structural changes in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase due to amino acid substitutions causing Tay-Sachs disease, we built structural models of mutant alpha-subunits resulting from 33 missense mutations (24 infantile and 9 late-onset), and analyzed the influence of each amino acid replacement on the structure by calculating the number of atoms affected and determining the solvent-accessible surface area of the corresponding amino acid residue in the wild-type alpha-subunit. In the infantile Tay-Sachs group, the number of atoms influenced by a mutation was generally larger than that in the late-onset Tay-Sachs group in both the main chain and the side chain, and residues associated with the mutations found in the infantile Tay-Sachs group tended to be less solvent-accessible than those in the late-onset Tay-Sachs group. Furthermore, color imaging determined the distribution and degree of the structural changes caused by representative amino acid substitutions, and that there were also differences between the infantile and late-onset Tay-Sachs disease groups. Structural study is useful for elucidating the basis of Tay-Sachs disease.

  9. Structural consequences of amino acid substitutions causing Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Kazuki; Saito, Seiji; Sugawara, Kanako; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    To determine the structural changes in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase due to amino acid substitutions causing Tay-Sachs disease, we built structural models of mutant alpha-subunits resulting from 33 missense mutations (24 infantile and 9 late-onset), and analyzed the influence of each amino acid replacement on the structure by calculating the number of atoms affected and determining the solvent-accessible surface area of the corresponding amino acid residue in the wild-type alpha-subunit. In the infantile Tay-Sachs group, the number of atoms influenced by a mutation was generally larger than that in the late-onset Tay-Sachs group in both the main chain and the side chain, and residues associated with the mutations found in the infantile Tay-Sachs group tended to be less solvent-accessible than those in the late-onset Tay-Sachs group. Furthermore, color imaging determined the distribution and degree of the structural changes caused by representative amino acid substitutions, and that there were also differences between the infantile and late-onset Tay-Sachs disease groups. Structural study is useful for elucidating the basis of Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:18490185

  10. Production of amino acids by analog-resistant mutants of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, G; Sora, S; Ciferri, O

    1981-01-01

    Mutants of Spirulina platensis resistant to 5-fluorotryptophan, beta-3-thienyl-alanine, ethionine, p-fluorophenylalanine, or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid were isolated. Some of these mutants appeared to be resistant to more than one analog and to overproduce the corresponding amino acids. A second group was composed of mutants that were resistant to one analog only. Of the latter mutants, one resistant to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid was found to overproduce proline only, whereas one resistant to fluorotryptophan and one resistant to ethionine did not overproduce any of the tested amino acids. PMID:6792182

  11. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing single amino acid substitutions in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Stanker, L.H.; Branscomb, E.; Vanderlaan, M.; Jensen, R.H.

    1986-06-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to non-human primate hemoglobin referred to as Cap-4, Cap-5, Rh-2, and Rh-4, and two mAb to human hemoglobin, referred to as H-1 and H-3 were isolated and were partially characterized. Binding studies with these mAb on a panel of hemoglobins and isolated ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. globin chains revealed a unique reactivity pattern for each mAb. Amino acid sequence analysis of the antigens used to generate the binding data suggests that the specific recognition of certain hemoglobin antigens by each mAb is controlled by the presence of a particular amino acid at a specific position within the epitope. The use of synthetic peptides as antigens confirmed this observation for five of the mAb. No synthetic peptides were tested with the sixth mAb, Rh-2. The amino acids required for binding of mAb Cap-4, Cap-5, Rh-4, and Rh-2 to hemoglobin are alanine at ..beta..5, threonine at ..beta..13, glutamine at ..beta..125, and leucine at ..cap alpha..68. The non-human primate hemoglobin antibodies require a specific amino acid that is not present in human hemoglobin. The amino acid required for binding of Cap-4, Cap-5, and Rh-4 could arise by a single base change in the ..beta.. globin gene, whereas the amino acid required for Rh-2 binding could only occur if two base changes occurred. Thus these mAb are candidate probes for a somatic cell mutation assay on the basis of the detection of peripheral blood red cells that possess single amino acid substituted hemoglobin as a result of single base substitutions in the globin genes of precursor cells.

  12. Biooxidation of fatty acid distillates to dibasic acids by a mutant of Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Nandi, Sumit; Ghosh, Santinath

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process. PMID:17693693

  13. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  18. Biochemical fate of N/sup 6/ substituted purines (cytokinins) in normal ripening and mutant tomatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial rates of disappearance of cytokinins, as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography, for tomatoes which were vacuum infused with benzyladenine and isopentenyladenine were dissimilar between the normal ripening (Ohio CR-6 and Rutgers), ripening inhibited mutant (RIN) and non-ripening mutant (NOR) tomato varieties. Radiolabeled (8-/sup 14/C)Benzyladenine metabolism was followed during a 2 h period utilizing thin layer chromatography and visualization by fluorography. The (8-/sup 14/C)Benzyladenine metabolite patterns were different among the varieties. The (8-/sup 14/C)Benzyladenine metabolite pattern in Ohio CR-6 tomato changed as the fruit ripened.

  19. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:25880113

  20. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

  1. An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Takakubo, F.; Thorburn, D.R.; Dahl, H.H.M.

    1995-10-01

    A mutation in the mitochondrial targeting sequence was characterized in a male patient with X chromosome-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} deficiency. The mutation was a base substitution of G by C at nucleotide 134 in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the PDHA1 gene, resulting in an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 10 (R10P). Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was 28% of the control value, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decreased level of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha}immunoreactivity. Chimeric constructs in which the normal and mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} targeting sequences were attached to the mitochondrial matrix protein ornithine transcarbamylase were synthesized in a cell free translation system, and mitochondrial import of normal and mutant proteins was compared in vitro. The results show that ornithine transcarbamylase targeted by the mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} sequence was translocated into the mitochondrial matrix at a reduced rate, suggesting that defective import is responsible for the reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase level in mitochondria. The mutation was also present in an affected brother and the mildly affected mother. The clinical presentations of this X chromosome-linked disorder in affected family members are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amino acid substitution in a mitochondrial targeting sequence resulting in a human genetic disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effects of Hypoxanthine Substitution in Peptide Nucleic Acids Targeting KRAS2 Oncogenic mRNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Jeffrey M.; Wampole, Matthew E.; Chen, Chang-Po; Sethi, Dalip; Singh, Amrita; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Wang, Fan; Gray, Brian D.; Thakur, Mathew L.; Wickstrom, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Genetic disorders can arise from single base substitutions in a single gene. A single base substitution for wild type guanine in the twelfth codon of KRAS2 mRNA occurs frequently to initiate lung, pancreatic, and colon cancer. We have observed single base mismatch specificity in radioimaging of mutant KRAS2 mRNA in tumors in mice by in vivo hybridization with radiolabeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) dodecamers. We hypothesized that multi-mutant specificity could be achieved with a PNA dodecamer incorporating hypoxanthine, which can form Watson-Crick basepairs with adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, we show that hypoxanthine substitutions in PNAs are tolerated in KRAS2 RNA-PNA duplexes where wild type guanine is replaced by mutant uracil or adenine in RNA. To validate our predictions, we synthesized PNA dodecamers with hypoxanthine, and then measured the thermal stability of RNA-PNA duplexes. Circular dichroism thermal melting results showed that hypoxanthine-containing PNAs are more stable in duplexes where hypoxanthine-adenine and hypoxanthine-uracil base pairs are formed than single mismatch duplexes or duplexes containing hypoxanthine-guanine opposition. PMID:23972113

  3. Restoring enzyme activity in nonfunctional low erucic acid Brassica napus fatty acid elongase 1 by a single amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Katavic, Vesna; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Barton, Dennis L; Giblin, E Michael; Reed, Darwin W; Taylor, David C

    2002-11-01

    Genomic fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) clones from high erucic acid (HEA) Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and low erucic acid (LEA) B. napus cv. Westar, were amplified by PCR and expressed in yeast cells under the control of the strong galactose-inducible promoter. As expected, yeast cells expressing the FAE1 genes from HEA Brassica spp. synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids that are not normally found in yeast, while fatty acid profiles of yeast cells expressing the FAE1 gene from LEA B. napus were identical to control yeast samples. In agreement with published findings regarding different HEA and LEA B. napus cultivars, comparison of FAE1 protein sequences from HEA and LEA Brassicaceae revealed one crucial amino acid difference: the serine residue at position 282 of the HEA FAE1 sequences is substituted by phenylalanine in LEA B. napus cv. Westar. Using site directed mutagenesis, the phenylalanine 282 residue was substituted with a serine residue in the FAE1 polypeptide from B. napus cv. Westar, the mutated gene was expressed in yeast and GC analysis revealed the presence of very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (VLCMFAs), indicating that the elongase activity was restored in the LEA FAE1 enzyme by the single amino acid substitution. Thus, for the first time, the low erucic acid trait in canola B. napus can be attributed to a single amino acid substitution which prevents the biosynthesis of the eicosenoic and erucic acids.

  4. Susceptibilities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enzyme and viral variants expressing multiple resistance-engendering amino acid substitutions to reserve transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, V W; Emini, E A; Schleif, W A; Condra, J H; Schneider, C L; Long, W J; Wolfgang, J A; Graham, D J; Gotlib, L; Schlabach, A J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the potential that multiply resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants may arise during combination nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy, we constructed a series of mutant reverse transcriptase enzymes and viruses that coexpressed various combinations of resistance-associated amino acid substitutions. Substitutions at residues 100 (Leu-->Ile) and 181 (Tyr-->Cys), which mediate resistance to the nonnucleosides, suppressed resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) when coexpressed with AZT-specific substitutions. However, a number of viral variants that exhibited significantly reduced susceptibilities to both classes of inhibitors were constructed. PMID:7522428

  5. Allele-Selective Inhibition of Huntingtin and Ataxin-3 Expression by RNA Duplexes Containing Unlocked Nucleic Acid (UNA) Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuichiro; Hu, Jiaxin; Liu, Jing; Xiang, Qin; Martinez, Carlos; Corey, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is an acyclic analog of RNA that can be introduced into RNA or DNA oligonucleotides. The increased flexibility conferred by the acyclic structure fundamentally affects the strength of base-pairing, createing opportunities for improved applications and new insights into molecular recognition. Here we test how UNA substitutions affect allele-selective inhibition of trinucleotide-repeat genes Huntingtin (HTT) and Ataxin-3 (ATX-3) expression. We find that the either the combination of mismatched bases and UNA substitutions or UNA substitutions alone can improve potency and selectivity. Inhibition is potent and selectivities of > 40-fold for inhibiting mutant versus wild-type expression can be achieved. Surprisingly, even though UNA preserves the potential for complete base-pairing, the introduction of UNA substitutions at central positions within fully complementary duplexes leads to >19-fold selectivity. Like mismatched bases, the introduction of central UNA bases disrupts the potential for cleavage of substrate by Argonaute 2 (AGO2) during gene silencing. UNA-substituted duplexes are as effective as other strategies for allele-selective silencing of trinucleotide repeat disease genes. Modulation of AGO2 activity by the introduction of UNA substitutions demonstrates that backbone flexibility is as important as base-pairing for catalysis of fully complementary duplex substrates. UNA can be used to tailor RNA silencing for optimal properties and allele-selective action. PMID:24266403

  6. Evaluating Rare Amino Acid Substitutions (RGC_CAMs) in a Yeast Model Clade

    PubMed Central

    Polzin, Kenneth; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions) requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution). We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity. PMID:24637883

  7. Epistasis effects of multiple ancestral-consensus amino acid substitutions on the thermal stability of glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. NT3060.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yasuhisa; Abe, Asuka; Tamura, Takashi; Kishimoto, Takahide; Sogabe, Atsushi; Akanuma, Satoshi; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Imada, Katsumi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Thermostable variants of the Cellulomonas sp. NT3060 glycerol kinase have been constructed by through the introduction of ancestral-consensus mutations. We produced seven mutants, each having an ancestral-consensus amino acid residue that might be present in the common ancestors of both bacteria and of archaea, and that appeared most frequently at the position of 17 glycerol kinase sequences in the multiple sequence alignment. The thermal stabilities of the resulting mutants were assessed by determining their melting temperatures (Tm), which was defined as the temperature at which 50% of the initial catalytic activity is lost after 15 min of incubation, as well as when the half-life of the catalytic activity occurs at a temperature of 60°C (t1/2). Three mutants showed increased stabilities compared to the wild-type protein. We then produced five more mutants with multiple amino acid substitutions. Some of the resulting mutants showed thermal stabilities much greater than those expected given the stabilities of the respective mutants with single mutations. Therefore, the effects of mutations are not always simply additive and some amino acid substitutions, which do not affect or only slightly improve stability when individually introduced into the protein, show substantial stabilizing effects in combination with other mutations.

  8. Substituted tetrahydroquinolines as potent allosteric inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and its key mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Dai-Shi; Lim, John J.; Tinney, Elizabeth; Wan, Bang-Lin; Young, Mary Beth; Anderson, Kenneth D.; Rudd, Deanne; Munshi, Vandna; Bahnck, Carolyn; Felock, Peter J.; Lu, Meiqing; Lai, Ming-Tain; Touch, Sinoeun; Moyer, Gregory; DiStefano, Daniel J.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Liang, Yuexia; Sanchez, Rosa; Prasad, Sridhar; Yan, Youwei; Perlow-Poehnelt, Rebecca; Torrent, Maricel; Miller, Mike; Vacca, Joe P.; Williams, Theresa M.; Anthony, Neville J.; Merck

    2010-09-27

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key elements of multidrug regimens, called HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy), that are used to treat HIV-1 infections. Elucidation of the structure-activity relationships of the thiocarbamate moiety of the previous published lead compound 2 provided a series of novel tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 RT with nanomolar intrinsic activity on the WT and key mutant enzymes and potent antiviral activity in infected cells. The SAR optimization, mutation profiles, preparation of compounds, and pharmacokinetic profile of compounds are described.

  9. Identification of Amino Acid Substitutions Supporting Antigenic Change of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koel, Björn F.; Mögling, Ramona; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Fraaij, Pieter L.; Burke, David F.; van der Vliet, Stefan; de Wit, Emmie; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smith, Derek J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of currently circulating influenza A(H1N1) viruses are antigenically similar to the virus that caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. However, antigenic variants are expected to emerge as population immunity increases. Amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin protein can result in escape from neutralizing antibodies, affect viral fitness, and change receptor preference. In this study, we constructed mutants with substitutions in the hemagglutinin of A/Netherlands/602/09 in an attenuated backbone to explore amino acid changes that may contribute to emergence of antigenic variants in the human population. Our analysis revealed that single substitutions affecting the loop that consists of amino acid positions 151 to 159 located adjacent to the receptor binding site caused escape from ferret and human antibodies elicited after primary A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. The majority of these substitutions resulted in similar or increased replication efficiency in vitro compared to that of the virus carrying the wild-type hemagglutinin and did not result in a change of receptor preference. However, none of the substitutions was sufficient for escape from the antibodies in sera from individuals that experienced both seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) virus infections. These results suggest that antibodies directed against epitopes on seasonal A(H1N1) viruses contribute to neutralization of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigenic variants, thereby limiting the number of possible substitutions that could lead to escape from population immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin protein can result in escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. This allows the virus to reinfect individuals that have acquired immunity to previously circulating strains through infection or vaccination. To date, the vast majority of A(H1N1)pdm09 strains remain antigenically similar to the virus

  10. Amino acid-bile acid based molecules: extremely narrow surfactant nanotubes formed by a phenylalanine-substituted cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Leana; D'Annibale, Andrea; Schillén, Karin; Olsson, Ulf; Sennato, Simona; Pavel, Nicolae V; Galantini, Luciano

    2012-12-21

    An amino acid-substituted bile acid forms tubular aggregates with inner and outer diameters of about 3 and 6 nm. The diameters are unusually small for surfactant self-assembled tubes. The results enhance the spectrum of applications of supramolecular tubules and open up possibilities for investigating a novel class of biological amphiphiles.

  11. Lipopolysaccharides of polymyxin B-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli are extensively substituted by 2-aminoethyl pyrophosphate and contain aminoarabinose in lipid A.

    PubMed

    Nummila, K; Kilpeläinen, I; Zähringer, U; Vaara, M; Helander, I M

    1995-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of two polymyxin-resistant (pmr) mutants and the corresponding parent strain of Escherichia coli were chemically analysed for composition and subjected to 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) for assessment of phosphate substitution. Whereas the saccharide portions, fatty acids, and phosphate contents were similar in wild-type and pmr LPS, the latter contained two- to threefold higher amounts of 2-aminoethanol. The pmr LPS also contained 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinopyranose (L-Arap4N), which is normally not a component of E. coli LPS. This aminopentose has been assigned to be linked to the 4'-phosphate of lipid A. Comparative 31P-NMR analysis of the de-O-acylated LPS of the wild-type and pmr strains revealed that phosphate groups of the pmr LPS were mainly (71-79%) diphosphate diesters, which accounted for only 20% in the wild-type LPS. Diphosphate monoesters were virtually nonexistent in the pmr LPS, whereas they accounted for 42% of all phosphates in wild-type LPS. In the lipid A of the pmr strains, the 4'-phosphate was to a significant degree (35%) substituted by L-Arap4N, whereas in the wild-type LPS the L-ArapN was absent. In the pmr lipid A, 2-aminoethanol was completely substituting the glycosidic pyrophosphate but not the glycosidic monophosphate, forming a diphosphate diester linkage at this position in 40% of lipid A molecules. In the wild-type LPS the glycosidic position of lipid A carried mostly unsubstituted monophosphate and pyrophosphate. Thus the polymyxin resistance was shown to be associated, along with the esterification of the lipid A 4'-monophosphate by aminoarabinose, with extensive esterification of diphosphates in LPS by 2-aminoethanol.

  12. An amino acid substitution (Gly853-->Glu) in the collagen alpha 1(II) chain produces hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, R; Tiller, G E; Weis, M A; Gruber, H E; Rimoin, D L; Cohn, D H; Eyre, D R

    1992-11-01

    The spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia subclassification of bone dysplasias includes achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. The phenotypic expression of these disorders ranges from mild to perinatal lethal forms. We report the detection and partial characterization of a defect in type II collagen in a perinatal lethal form of hypochondrogenesis. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide of CB peptides (where CB represents cyanogen bromide) from type II collagen of the diseased cartilage showed a doublet band for peptide alpha 1(II)CB10 and evidence for post-translational overmodification of the major peptides (CB8, CB10, and CB11) seen as a retarded electrophoretic mobility. Peptide CB10 was digested by endoproteinase Asp-N; and on reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, fragments of abnormal mobility were noted. Sequence analysis of a unique peptide D12 revealed a single amino acid substitution (Gly-->Glu) at position 853 of the triple helical domain. This was confirmed by sequence analysis of amplified COL2A1 cDNA, which revealed a single nucleotide substitution (GGA-->GAA) in 5 of 10 clones. Electron micrographs of the diseased cartilage showed a sparse extracellular matrix and chondrocytes containing dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, which suggested impaired assembly and secretion of the mutant protein. This case further documents the molecular basis of the spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia spectrum of chondrodysplasias as mutations in COL2A1. PMID:1429602

  13. Fatty acid composition analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao

    2003-04-01

    Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty acid content and composition have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1ω9) and oleic (18:1ω9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic acid (18:1ω11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.

  14. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with increased salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Murphy, M.A.; Khan, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Nineteen mutant Arabidopsis families resistant to the proline analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (ACA) were characterized in terms of NaCl tolerance and proline content. Mutants were selected from about 64,000 progeny of about 16,000 self-pollinated Columbia parents which had been mutated with ethyl methane sulfonate during seed imbibition. Selections were performed during seed germination on aseptic agar medium containing 0.2 to 0.25 mM ACA. Nineteen mutant families, 12 clearly independent, retained resistance to ACA in the M{sub 4} generation. Based on germination on 150 mM NaCl, 13 of the mutant families were more tolerant than the wild type. Two mutants of intermediate resistance to ACA were markedly more salt tolerant than the others. Four mutant families appeared to overproduce proline. Of these, only 3 showed slight increases in salt tolerance.

  15. Ideal amino acid exchange forms for approximating substitution matrices.

    PubMed

    Pokarowski, Piotr; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Nowakowski, Szymon; Pokarowska, Maria; Jernigan, Robert L; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2007-11-01

    We have analyzed 29 published substitution matrices (SMs) and five statistical protein contact potentials (CPs) for comparison. We find that popular, 'classical' SMs obtained mainly from sequence alignments of globular proteins are mostly correlated by at least a value of 0.9. The BLOSUM62 is the central element of this group. A second group includes SMs derived from alignments of remote homologs or transmembrane proteins. These matrices correlate better with classical SMs (0.8) than among themselves (0.7). A third group consists of intermediate links between SMs and CPs - matrices and potentials that exhibit mutual correlations of at least 0.8. Next, we show that SMs can be approximated with a correlation of 0.9 by expressions c(0) + x(i)x(j) + y(i)y(j) + z(i)z(j), 1acids, respectively. The present paper is the continuation of our work (Pokarowski et al., Proteins 2005;59:49-57), where similar approximation were used to derive ideal amino acid interaction forms from CPs. Both approximations allow us to understand general trends in amino acid similarity and can help improve multiple sequence alignments using the fast Fourier transform (MAFFT), fast threading or another methods based on alignments of physicochemical profiles of protein sequences. The use of this approximation in sequence alignments instead of a classical SM yields results that differ by less than 5%. Intermediate links between SMs and CPs, new formulas for approximating these matrices, and the highly significant dependence of classical SMs on coil preferences are new findings.

  16. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester,...

  2. Uric acid accumulation in an Arabidopsis urate oxidase mutant impairs seedling establishment by blocking peroxisome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Oliver K; Scharnberg, Jana; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Wanner, Gerhard; Giavalisco, Patrick; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2014-07-01

    Purine nucleotides can be fully catabolized by plants to recycle nutrients. We have isolated a urate oxidase (uox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that accumulates uric acid in all tissues, especially in the developing embryo. The mutant displays a reduced germination rate and is unable to establish autotrophic growth due to severe inhibition of cotyledon development and nutrient mobilization from the lipid reserves in the cotyledons. The uox mutant phenotype is suppressed in a xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh) uox double mutant, demonstrating that the underlying cause is not the defective purine base catabolism, or the lack of UOX per se, but the elevated uric acid concentration in the embryo. Remarkably, xanthine accumulates to similar levels in the xdh mutant without toxicity. This is paralleled in humans, where hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases whereas xanthinuria is asymptomatic. Searching for the molecular cause of uric acid toxicity, we discovered a local defect of peroxisomes (glyoxysomes) mostly confined to the cotyledons of the mature embryos, which resulted in the accumulation of free fatty acids in dry seeds. The peroxisomal defect explains the developmental phenotypes of the uox mutant, drawing a novel link between uric acid and peroxisome function, which may be relevant beyond plants. PMID:25052714

  3. Antifungal activity of 4-substituted crotonic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Gawiak, D E

    1976-08-01

    Twenty-three 4-substituted crotonic acid esters were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For the analogues of the methyl ester containing substituents in the 4 position, the following order of fungitoxicity was observed: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than CH3S greater than CH3O greater than F=H. Of the homologues of the esters of the 4-iodo and 4-bromo compounds which included methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, and n-hexyl, ethyl 4-iodocrotonate was most toxic to the four fungi at pH 7.0 in the presence of 10% beef serum (C. albicans, 18mug/ml, A. niger, 40 mug/ml, M. mucedo, 5 mug/ml, T. mentagrophytes, 4 mug/ml). It is believed that the mechanism of fungitoxicity is due, in part, to a nucleophilic reaction involving SH-containing compounds. This is based on the correlation of fungitoxicity with the order of leaving groups in the nucleophilic reaction and the protection against the toxicity of the test compounds to the fungi by cysteine and glutathione.

  4. An injectable oxidated hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel as a vitreous substitute.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Vitrectomy is a common procedure for treating ocular-related diseases. The surgery involves removing the vitreous humor from the center of the eye, and vitreous substitutes are needed to replace the vitreous humor after vitrectomy. In the present study, we developed a colorless, transparent and injectable hydrogel with appropriate refractive index as a vitreous substitute. The hydrogel is formed by oxidated hyaluronic acid (oxi-HA) cross-linked with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH). Hyaluronic acid (HA) was oxidized by sodium periodate to create aldehyde functional groups, which could be cross-linked by ADH. The refractive index of this hydrogel ranged between 1.3420 and 1.3442, which is quite similar to human vitreous humor (1.3345). The degradation tests demonstrated that the hydrogel could maintain the gel matrix over 35 days, depending on the ADH concentration. In addition, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on retina pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells cultivated following the ISO standard (tests for in vitro cytotoxicity), and the hydrogel was found to be non-toxic. In a preliminary animal study, the oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel was injected into the vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes. The evaluations of slit-lamp observation, intraocular pressure, cornea thickness and histological examination showed no significant abnormal biological reactions for 3 weeks. This study suggests that the injectable oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel should be a potential vitreous substitute. PMID:20843434

  5. Gluconic acid production by gad mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Wang, Chenhong; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Kim, Chul Ho; Jiang, Biao; Han, Zengsheng; Hao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae produces many economically important chemicals. Using glucose as a carbon source, the main metabolic product in K. pneumoniae is 2,3-butanediol. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of the glucose oxidation pathway. In the current study, a metabolic engineering strategy was used to develop a gluconic acid-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. Gluconic acid accumulation by K. pneumoniae Δgad was an acid-dependent aerobic process, with accumulation observed at pH 5.5 or lower, and at higher levels of oxygen supplementation. Under all other conditions tested, 2,3-butanediol was the main metabolic product of the process. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by K. pneumoniae Δgad, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g. The K. pneumoniae Δgad described in this study is the first genetically modified strain used for gluconic acid production, and this optimized method for gluconic acid production may have important industrial applications. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of this glucose oxidation pathway. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by the K. pneumoniae Δgad strain, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g.

  6. Gluconic acid production by gad mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Wang, Chenhong; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Kim, Chul Ho; Jiang, Biao; Han, Zengsheng; Hao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae produces many economically important chemicals. Using glucose as a carbon source, the main metabolic product in K. pneumoniae is 2,3-butanediol. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of the glucose oxidation pathway. In the current study, a metabolic engineering strategy was used to develop a gluconic acid-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. Gluconic acid accumulation by K. pneumoniae Δgad was an acid-dependent aerobic process, with accumulation observed at pH 5.5 or lower, and at higher levels of oxygen supplementation. Under all other conditions tested, 2,3-butanediol was the main metabolic product of the process. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by K. pneumoniae Δgad, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g. The K. pneumoniae Δgad described in this study is the first genetically modified strain used for gluconic acid production, and this optimized method for gluconic acid production may have important industrial applications. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of this glucose oxidation pathway. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by the K. pneumoniae Δgad strain, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g. PMID:27339313

  7. Amino acid substitution at the Adh locus of Drosophila is facilitated by small population size.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, T

    1993-01-01

    The number of amino acid replacement substitutions and that of synonymous substitutions are examined by using DNA sequences of the Adh locus of Drosophila. The ratio of replacement to synonymous substitutions is higher in sequence comparisons between species than in polymorphisms within species. The ratio for the between-species comparisons is highest in the Hawaiian group and lowest in the obscura group. These observations suggest that amino acid substitutions are facilitated by small population size. The result is in accord with the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution. PMID:8506297

  8. Identification and biophysical characterization of a very-long-chain-fatty-acid-substituted phosphatidylinositol in yeast subcellular membranes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Morphological analysis of a conditional yeast mutant in acetyl-CoA carboxylase acc1ts/mtr7, the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, suggested that the synthesis of C26 VLCFAs (very-long-chain fatty acids) is important for maintaining the structure and function of the nuclear membrane. To characterize this C26-dependent pathway in more detail, we have now examined cells that are blocked in pathways that require C26. In yeast, ceramide synthesis and remodelling of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchors are two pathways that incorporate C26 into lipids. Conditional mutants blocked in either ceramide synthesis or the synthesis of GPI anchors do not display the characteristic alterations of the nuclear envelope observed in acc1ts, indicating that the synthesis of another C26-containing lipid may be affected in acc1ts mutant cells. Lipid analysis of isolated nuclear membranes revealed the presence of a novel C26-substituted PI (phosphatidylinositol). This C26-PI accounts for approx. 1% of all the PI species, and is present in both the nuclear and the plasma membrane. Remarkably, this C26-PI is the only C26-containing glycerophospholipid that is detectable in wild-type yeast, and the C26-substitution is highly specific for the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone. To characterize the biophysical properties of this lipid, it was chemically synthesized. In contrast to PIs with normal long-chain fatty acids (C16 or C18), the C26-PI greatly reduced the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition of liposomes composed of 1,2-dielaidoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DEPE). The biophysical properties of this lipid are thus consistent with a possible role in stabilizing highly curved membrane domains. PMID:15270698

  9. Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Flickinger, Michael C.; Schendel, Frederick J.; Guettler, Michael V.

    2001-07-17

    A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

  10. Alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants defective in carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, P C; Vanags, R I; Chakrabarty, A M; Maitra, P K

    1983-01-01

    Mutant cells of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients were examined for their ability to synthesize alginic acid in resting cell suspensions. Unlike the wild-type strain which synthesizes alginic acid from glycerol, fructose, mannitol, glucose, gluconate, glutamate, or succinate, mutants lacking specific enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism are uniquely impaired. A phosphoglucose isomerase mutant did not synthesize the polysaccharide from mannitol, nor did a glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutant synthesize the polysaccharide from mannitol or glucose. Mutants lacking the Entner-Doudoroff pathway dehydrase or aldolase failed to produce alginate from mannitol, glucose, or gluconate, as a 3-phosphoglycerate kinase or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutant failed to produce from glutamate or succinate. These results demonstrate the primary role of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway enzymes in the synthesis of alginate from glucose, mannitol, or gluconate and the role of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction for the synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors such as glutamate. The virtual absence of any activity of phosphomannose isomerase in cell extracts of several independent mucoid bacteria and the impairment of alginate synthesis from mannitol in mutants lacking phosphoglucose isomerase or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase rule out free mannose 6-phosphate as an intermediate in alginate biosynthesis. PMID:6408061

  11. Regulation of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium: Isolation of Regulatory Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, J. M.; Freundlich, M.; Umbarger, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    5′,5′,5′-Trifluoro-dl-leucine inhibited the activity of α-isopropylmalate synthetase (the initial enzyme unique to leucine biosynthesis) as well as the growth of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutants of S. typhimurium resistant to the analogue were isolated and characterized. In most cases, they overproduced and excreted leucine or leucine, valine, and isoleucine as a result of an alteration in the regulation of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Biochemical and genetic tests allowed the mutants to be grouped into three classes: I, a moderately large group (13%) which had high, constitutive leucine biosynthetic enzyme levels and mutant sites linked to the leucine operon (operator constitutive); II, a single mutant in which the mutant site was linked to the leucine operon and in which α-isopropylmalate synthetase was not inhibited by leucine (feedback negative); III, a majority type which had constitutive levels of leucine, valine, and isoleucine biosynthetic enzymes and mutant sites unlinked to the leucine operon. Mutants of class I provide important evidence for the concept of an operon organization of genes involved in leucine biosynthesis. The properties of class III mutants indicate that there is some element involved in regulation which is common to the three pathways. Images PMID:4887507

  12. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Core Protein of West Nile Virus Increases Resistance to Acidotropic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses. PMID:23874963

  13. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Kinetic Isotope Effects on Proton Transfer Reactions between Substituted α-Methoxystyrenes and Substituted Acetic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Yiu; Richard, John P.; Gao, Jiali

    2009-01-01

    Primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on a series of carboxylic acid-catalyzed protonation reactions of aryl-substituted α-methoxystyrenes (X-1) to form oxocarbenium ions have been computed using the Kleinert variational second-order perturbation theory (KP2) in the framework of Feynman path integrals (PI) along with the potential energy surface obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Good agreement with the experimental data was obtained, demonstrating that this novel computational approach for computing KIEs of organic reactions is a viable alternative to the traditional method employing Bigeleisen equation and harmonic vibrational frequencies. Although tunneling makes relative small contributions to the lowering of the free energy barriers for the carboxylic acid catalyzed protonation reaction, it is necessary to include tunneling contributions to obtain quantitative estimates of the KIEs. Consideration of anharmonicity can further improve the calculated KIEs for the protonation of substituted α-methoxystyrenes by chloroacetic acid, but for the reactions of the parent and 4-NO2 substituted α-methoxystyrene with substituted carboxylic acids, the correction of anharmonicity overestimates the computed KIEs for strong acid catalysts. In agreement with experimental findings, the largest KIEs are found in nearly ergoneutral reactions, ΔGo ≈ 0, where the transition structures are nearly symmetric and the reaction barriers are relatively low. Furthermore, the optimized transition structures are strongly dependent on the free energy for the formation of the carbocation intermediate, i.e., the driving force ΔGo, along with a good correlation of Hammond shift in the transition state structure. PMID:19754046

  15. Theoretical analysis of kinetic isotope effects on proton transfer reactions between substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes and substituted acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kin-Yiu; Richard, John P; Gao, Jiali

    2009-10-01

    Primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on a series of carboxylic acid-catalyzed protonation reactions of aryl-substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes (X-1) to form oxocarbenium ions have been computed using the second-order Kleinert variational perturbation theory (KP2) in the framework of Feynman path integrals (PI) along with the potential energy surface obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Good agreement with the experimental data was obtained, demonstrating that this novel computational approach for computing KIEs of organic reactions is a viable alternative to the traditional method employing Bigeleisen equation and harmonic vibrational frequencies. Although tunneling makes relatively small contributions to the lowering of the free energy barriers for the carboxylic acid catalyzed protonation reaction, it is necessary to include tunneling contributions to obtain quantitative estimates of the KIEs. Consideration of anharmonicity can further improve the calculated KIEs for the protonation of substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes by chloroacetic acid, but for the reactions of the parent and 4-NO(2) substituted alpha-methoxystyrene with substituted carboxylic acids, the correction of anharmonicity overestimates the computed KIEs for strong acid catalysts. In agreement with experimental findings, the largest KIEs are found in nearly ergoneutral reactions, DeltaG(o) approximately 0, where the transition structures are nearly symmetric and the reaction barriers are relatively low. Furthermore, the optimized transition structures are strongly dependent on the free energy for the formation of the carbocation intermediate, that is, the driving force DeltaG(o), along with a good correlation of Hammond shift in the transition state structure.

  16. Enhanced thermal tolerance in a mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in palmitic acid unsaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Kunst, L.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. )

    1989-09-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, deficient in the activity of a chloroplast {omega}9 fatty acid desaturase, accumulates high amounts of palmitic acid (16:0), and exhibits an overall reduction in the level of unsaturation of chloroplast lipids. Under standard conditions the altered membrane lipid composition had only minor effects on growth rate of the mutant, net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation, photosynthetic electron transport, or chloroplast ultrastructure. Similarly, fluorescence polarization measurements indicated that the fluidity of the membranes was not significantly different in the mutant and the wild type. However, at temperatures above 28{degree}C, the mutant grew more rapidly than the wild type suggesting that the altered fatty acid composition enhanced the thermal tolerance of the mutant. Similarly, the chloroplast membranes of the mutant were more resistant than wild type to thermal inactivation of photosynthetic electron transport. These observations lend support to previous suggestions that chloroplast membrane lipid composition may be an important component of the thermal acclimation response observed in many plant species which are photosynthetically active during periods of seasonally variable temperature extremes.

  17. Zinc site redesign in T4 gene 32 protein: structure and stability of cobalt(II) complexes formed by wild-type and metal ligand substitution mutants.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Giedroc, D P

    1997-01-28

    Phage T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) is a zinc metalloprotein which binds cooperatively and preferentially to single-stranded nucleic acids and functions as a replication and recombination accessory protein. Zn(II) coordination by gp32 employs a His-Cys3 metal ligand donor set derived from the His64-X12-Cys77-X9-Cys87-X2-Cys90 sequence in the ssDNA-binding core domain of the molecule. Crystallographic studies reveal that His64 and Cys77 are derived from two independent beta-strands within a distorted three-stranded beta-sheet and are relatively more buried from solvent than are Cys87 and Cys90, which are positioned immediately before and within, respectively, an alpha-helix. In an effort to understand the origin of the stability of the metal complex, we have employed an anaerobic optical spectroscopic, competitive metal binding assay to determine the coordination geometry and association constants (Ka) for the binding of Co(II) to wild-type gp32 and a series of zinc ligand substitution mutants. At pH 7.5, 25 degrees C, wild-type gp32 binds Co(II) with a Ka approximately 1 x 10(9) M-1. Competition experiments reveal that Ka for Zn(II) is 3.0 (+/-1.0) x 10(11) M-1. We find that all non-native metal complexes retain tetrahedral or distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry but are greatly destabilized in a manner essentially of whether a new protein-derived coordination bond is formed (e.g., in H64C gp32) or not. Co(II) binding isotherms obtained for three His64 substitution mutants, H64C, H64D, and H64N gp32s, suggest that each mutant forms a dimeric Cys4 tetrathiolate intermediate complex at limiting [Co(II)]f, each then rearranges at high [Co(II)]f to form a monomolecular site of the expected geometry and Ka approximately 1 x 10(4) M-1. Like the His64 mutants, C77A gp32 appears to form at least two types of complexes over the course of a Co(II) titration: one with octahedral coordination geometry formed at low [Co(II)]f, with a second tetrahedral or five

  18. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Kamali, Anatoli; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Parks, Christopher L.

    2015-08-15

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance.

  8. Infrared and ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled substituted salicylic acids; substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer in salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Hakam Abou El-Nasr, E.; Fujii, A.; Ebata, T.; Mikami, N.

    Substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in the salicylic acid (SA) frame were studied by electronic and infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled 5-methoxylsalicylic acid (5-MeOSA), 5-methylsalicylic acid (5-MeSA), 5-fluorosalicylic acid (5-FSA), 6-fluorosalicylic acid (6-FSA), and methyl salicylate (MS). Infrared spectra were measured in the 3 µm region for both the electronic ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states. The electronic excitation/emission spectra of 5-MeSA and 6-FSA showed the typical spectral features of ESIPT, which have been found in the spectra of SA. On the other hand, 5-MeOSA and 5-FSA exhibit a mirror-image relation between their excitation and emission spectra, which has been regarded as a result of the suppression of ESIPT. Despite such a remarkable difference among the electronic spectra, IR spectroscopy shows that a drastic change of the phenolic OH stretching vibration does occur upon electronic excitation of all substituted SAs, that is, the phenolic OH band of all the SAs disappears from the 3 µm region, indicating a large elongation of the phenolic O-H bond (over 0.1 Å) in S1. This result means that the intramolecular hydrogen bond strength is remarkably enhanced by electronic excitation in all the substituted SAs. Substitution effects on ESIPT in dimers are also discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10690 - Benzenedicarboxylic acid, polymer with substituted alkanediol, dodecanedioic acid, 1,2-ethanediol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenedicarboxylic acid, polymer with substituted alkanediol, dodecanedioic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, alkanedioic acid, alkanediol,.alpha.-hydro-.omega.-hydroxypoly , 1,3-isobenzofurandione, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, 2-oxepanone, 2,2'-oxybis and polymethylene polyphenylene...

  10. A mutant leucine aminopeptidase from Streptomyces cinnamoneus with enhanced L-aspartyl L-amino acid methyl ester synthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Arima, Jiro; Kono, Mirai; Kita, Manami; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2012-06-01

    L-aspartyl L-amino acid methyl ester was synthesized using a mutant of a thermostable leucine aminopeptidase from Streptomyces cinnamoneus, D198 K SSAP, obtained in previously. A peptide of high-intensity sweetener, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, was selected as a model for demonstrating the synthesis of L-aspartyl L-amino acid methyl ester. The hydrolytic activities of D198 K SSAP toward L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine and its methyl ester were, respectively, 74-fold and fourfold higher than those of wild type. Similarly, the initial rate of the enzyme for L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester synthesis was over fivefold higher than that of wild-type SSAP in 90% methanol (v/v) in a one-pot reaction. Furthermore, other L-aspartyl L-amino acid methyl esters were synthesized efficiently using D198 K SSAP. Results show that the substitution of Asp198 of SSAP with Lys is effective for synthesizing L-aspartyl L-amino acid methyl ester.

  11. Between peptides and bile acids: self-assembly of phenylalanine substituted cholic acids.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Leana; D'Annibale, Andrea; di Gregorio, Maria Chiara; Schillén, Karin; Olsson, Ulf; Sennato, Simona; Pavel, Nicolae V; Galantini, Luciano

    2013-08-01

    Biocompatible molecules that undergo self-assembly are of high importance in biological and medical applications of nanoscience. Peptides and bile acids are among the most investigated due to their ability to self-organize into many different, often stimuli-sensitive, supramolecular structures. With the aim of preparing molecules mixing the aggregation properties of bile acid and amino acid-based molecules, we report on the synthesis and self-association behavior of two diastereomers obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group of cholic acid with a l-phenylalanine residue. The obtained molecules are amphoteric, and we demonstrate that they show a pH-dependent self-assembly. Both molecules aggregate in globular micelles at high pH, whereas they form tubular superstructures under acid conditions. Unusual narrow nanotubes with outer and inner cross-section diameters of about 6 and 3 nm are formed by the derivatives. The diasteroisomer with α orientation of the substituent forms in addition a wider tubule (17 nm cross-section diameter). The ability to pack in supramolecular tubules is explained in terms of a wedge-shaped bola-form structure of the derivatives. Parallel or antiparallel face-to-face dimers are hypothesized as fundamental building blocks for the formation of the narrow and wide nanotubes, respectively.

  12. Pseudomonas mutant strains that accumulate androstane and seco-androstane intermediates from bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Leppik, R A; Sinden, D J

    1987-01-01

    Transposon mutant strains which were affected in bile acid catabolism were isolated from four Pseudomonas spp. Two of the mutant groups isolated were found to accumulate 12 alpha-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione as the major product from deoxycholic acid. Strains in one of these two groups were able to grow on steroids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, which lacks a 12 alpha-hydroxy function, whereas the one member of the second group could not. With chenodeoxycholic acid, this latter strain accumulated a yellow muconic-like derivative, tentatively identified as 3,7-dihydroxy-5,9,17-trioxo-4(5),9(10)-disecoandrosta-1(10)2 -dien-4-oic acid. Members of two further mutant groups accumulated either 12 beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione or 3,12 beta-dihydroxy-9(10)-secoandrosta-1,3,5(10)-triene-9,17-dione as the major product from deoxycholic acid. The relationship between the catabolism of m- and p-cresol, 3-ethylphenol and the bile acids was also examined. PMID:3038076

  13. A mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in desaturation of palmitic acid in leaf lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kunst, L.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. )

    1989-07-01

    The overall fatty acid composition of leaf lipids in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was characterized by elevated amounts of palmitic acid and a decreased amount of unsaturated 16-carbon fatty acids as a consequence of a single nuclear mutation. Quantitative analysis of the fatty acid composition of individual lipids suggested that the mutant is deficient in the activity of a chloroplast {omega}9 fatty acid desaturase which normally introduces a double bond in 16-carbon acyl chains esterified to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGD). The mutant exhibited an increased ratio of 18- to 16-carbon fatty acids in MGD due to a change in the relative contribution of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways of lipid biosynthesis. This appears to be a regulated response to the loss of chloroplast {omega}9 desaturase and presumably reflects a requirement for polyunsaturated fatty acids for the normal assembly of chloroplast membranes. The reduction in mass of prokaryotic MGD species involved both a reduction in synthesis of MGD by the prokaryotic pathway and increased turnover of MGD molecular species which contain 16:0.

  14. Effect of single amino acid substitution on oxidative modifications of the Parkinson's disease-related protein, DJ-1.

    PubMed

    Madian, Ashraf G; Hindupur, Jagadish; Hulleman, John D; Diaz-Maldonado, Naomi; Mishra, Vartika R; Guigard, Emmanuel; Kay, Cyril M; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Regnier, Fred E

    2012-02-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding DJ-1 have been identified in patients with familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and are thought to inactivate a neuroprotective function. Oxidation of the sulfhydryl group to a sulfinic acid on cysteine residue C106 of DJ-1 yields the "2O " form, a variant of the protein with enhanced neuroprotective function. We hypothesized that some familial mutations disrupt DJ-1 activity by interfering with conversion of the protein to the 2O form. To address this hypothesis, we developed a novel quantitative mass spectrometry approach to measure relative changes in oxidation at specific sites in mutant DJ-1 as compared with the wild-type protein. Treatment of recombinant wild-type DJ-1 with a 10-fold molar excess of H(2)O(2) resulted in a robust oxidation of C106 to the sulfinic acid, whereas this modification was not detected in a sample of the familial PD mutant M26I exposed to identical conditions. Methionine oxidized isoforms of wild-type DJ-1 were depleted, presumably as a result of misfolding and aggregation, under conditions that normally promote conversion of the protein to the 2O form. These data suggest that the M26I familial substitution and methionine oxidation characteristic of sporadic PD may disrupt DJ-1 function by disfavoring a site-specific modification required for optimal neuroprotective activity. Our findings indicate that a single amino acid substitution can markedly alter a protein's ability to undergo oxidative modification, and they imply that stimulating the conversion of DJ-1 to the 2O form may be therapeutically beneficial in familial or sporadic PD. PMID:22104028

  15. Bovine rhodopsin: amino acid substitutions Asp-83----Asn and Glu-134----Gln prevent activation of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Zozulya, S A; Zerf, E P; Pokrovskaya, I D; Obukhova, T A; Garnovskaya, M N; Dumler, I L; Rychkova, M P

    1990-01-01

    Two bovine rhodopsin mutants with substitutions of negatively charged residues within transmembrane domains II and III by uncharged ones (Asp-83----Asn and Glu-134----Gln) were constructed. Both mutants stimulated transducin GTPase with slightly lowered efficiency, but were completely unable to activate cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. PMID:1966786

  16. Escherichia coli Mutants Thermosensitive for Deoxyribonucleic Acid Gyrase Subunit A: Effects on Deoxyribonucleic Acid Replication, Transcription, and Bacteriophage Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    1979-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive nalA mutants of Escherichia coli have been used to investigate the structure and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase. Extracts of one such mutant (nalA43) had thermosensitive DNA gyrase subunit A activity but normal gyrase subunit B activity, proving definitively that nalA is the structural gene for subunit A. Extracts of a second nalA (Ts) mutant (nalA45) had a 50-fold deficiency of gyrase subunit A activity. The residual DNA supertwisting was catalyzed by the mutant DNA gyrase rather than by a novel supertwisting enzyme. The nalA45(Ts) extract was also deficient in the nalidixic acid target, which is defined as the protein necessary to confer drug sensitivity to in vitro DNA replication directed by a nalidixic acid-resistant mutant extract. Thus, gyrase subunit A and the nalidixic acid target are one and the same protein, the nalA gene product. Shift of the nalA43(Ts) mutant to a nonpermissive temperature resulted in a precipitous decline in the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation, demonstrating an obligatory role of the nalA gene product in DNA replication. The rates of incorporation of [3H]uridine pulses and continuously administered [3H]uracil were quickly reduced approximately twofold upon temperature shift of the nalA43(Ts) mutant, and therefore some but not all transcription requires the nalA gene product. The thermosensitive growth of bacteriophages φX174 and T4 in the nalA43(Ts) host shows that these phages depend on the host nalA gene product. In contrast, the growth of phage T7 was strongly inhibited by nalidixic acid but essentially unaffected by the nalA43(Ts) mutation. The inhibition of T7 growth by nalidixic acid was, however, eliminated by temperature inactivation of the nal43 gene product. Therefore, nalidixic acid may block T7 growth by a corruption rather than a simple elimination of the nalidixic acid target. Possible mechanisms for such a corruption are considered, and their relevance to the puzzling

  17. Escherichia coli mutants thermosensitive for deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase subunit A: effects on deoxyribonucleic acid replication, transcription, and bacteriophage growth.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, K N; Cozzarelli, N R

    1979-11-01

    Temperature-sensitive nalA mutants of Escherichia coli have been used to investigate the structure and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase. Extracts of one such mutant (nalA43) had thermosensitive DNA gyrase subunit A activity but normal gyrase subunit B activity, proving definitively that nalA is the structural gene for subunit A. Extracts of a second nalA (Ts) mutant (nalA45) had a 50-fold deficiency of gyrase subunit A activity. The residual DNA supertwisting was catalyzed by the mutant DNA gyrase rather than by a novel supertwisting enzyme. The nalA45(Ts) extract was also deficient in the nalidixic acid target, which is defined as the protein necessary to confer drug sensitivity to in vitro DNA replication directed by a nalidixic acid-resistant mutant extract. Thus, gyrase subunit A and the nalidixic acid target are one and the same protein, the nalA gene product. Shift of the nalA43(Ts) mutant to a nonpermissive temperature resulted in a precipitous decline in the rate of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, demonstrating an obligatory role of the nalA gene product in DNA replication. The rates of incorporation of [(3)H]uridine pulses and continuously administered [(3)H]uracil were quickly reduced approximately twofold upon temperature shift of the nalA43(Ts) mutant, and therefore some but not all transcription requires the nalA gene product. The thermosensitive growth of bacteriophages phiX174 and T4 in the nalA43(Ts) host shows that these phages depend on the host nalA gene product. In contrast, the growth of phage T7 was strongly inhibited by nalidixic acid but essentially unaffected by the nalA43(Ts) mutation. The inhibition of T7 growth by nalidixic acid was, however, eliminated by temperature inactivation of the nal43 gene product. Therefore, nalidixic acid may block T7 growth by a corruption rather than a simple elimination of the nalidixic acid target. Possible mechanisms for such a corruption are considered, and their relevance to the puzzling

  18. Phenotypic, genetic and molecular characterization of a maize low phytic acid mutant (lpa241).

    PubMed

    Pilu, R; Panzeri, D; Gavazzi, G; Rasmussen, S K; Consonni, G; Nielsen, E

    2003-10-01

    Phytic acid, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate, is the major storage compound of phosphorous (P) in plants, predominantly accumulating in seeds (up to 4-5% of dry weight) and pollen. In cereals, phytic acid is deposited in embryo and aleurone grain tissues as a mixed "phytate" salt of potassium and magnesium, although phytates contain other mineral cations such as iron and zinc. During germination, phytates are broken down by the action of phytases, releasing their P, minerals and myo-inositol which become available to the growing seedling. Phytic acid represents an anti-nutritional factor for animals, and isolation of maize low phytic acid ( lpa) mutants provides a novel approach to study its biochemical pathway and to tackle the nutritional problems associated with it. Following chemical mutagenesis of pollen, we have isolated a viable recessive mutant named lpa 241 showing about 90% reduction of phytic acid and about a tenfold increase in seed-free phosphate content. Although germination rate was decreased by about 30% compared to wild-type, developement of mutant plants was apparentely unaffected. The results of the genetic, biochemical and molecular characterization experiments carried out by SSR mapping, MDD-HPLC and RT-PCR are consistent with a mutation affecting the MIPS1S gene, coding for the first enzyme of the phytic acid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:14523526

  19. Caproic acid grafted chitosan cationic nanocomplexes for enhanced gene delivery: effect of degree of substitution.

    PubMed

    Layek, Buddhadev; Singh, Jagdish

    2013-04-15

    This work was designed to investigate the effect of the degree of substitutions of caproic acid on plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding, cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and transfection efficiency of caproic acid grafted chitosan (CGC). The CGC with three substitution degrees (CGC-5, CGC-15, and CGC-25) were synthesized by coupling caproic acid with chitosan. Chemical characterization of graft polymers was performed using FTIR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The CGC polymers showed good pDNA condensing capacity and efficient protection of pDNA from DNase I. The nanosized CGC/pDNA polyplexes exhibited well-defined spherical shapes and stability in serum. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated reduction in CGC-pDNA binding constant with increase in the degree of caproic acid substitution. Caproic acid substitution resulted in 2-7-fold higher cellular uptake in HEK 293 cells mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway without affecting biocompatibility. In vitro transfection study suggested a dependence of transfection efficiency on the variability of caproic acid substitution. The CGC-15 polymer exhibited 31-fold and 1.33-fold higher gene expression compared to chitosan and the marketed non-viral vector FuGENEHD, respectively. These finding suggests that the CGC-15 graft polymer is a promising non-viral gene delivery vector due to its superior transfection efficiency and biocompatibility.

  20. Thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C: CutA1 mutant proteins substituted with hydrophobic and charged residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yoshinori; Takehira, Michiyo; Joti, Yasumasa; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Ono, Naoko; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2015-10-01

    Although the thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C is essential for the rational design of highly stable proteins, it is not understood well because of the associated technical difficulties. We designed certain hydrophobic mutant proteins of CutA1 from Escherichia coli, which have denaturation temperatures (Td) ranging from 101 to 113 °C and show a reversible heat denaturation. Using a hydrophobic mutant as a template, we successfully designed a hyperthermostable mutant protein (Td = 137 °C) by substituting six residues with charged ones. Thermodynamic analyses of these mutant proteins indicated that the hydrophobic mutants were stabilized by the accumulation of denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) with no entropic gain from hydrophobic solvation around 100 °C, and that the stabilization due to salt bridges resulted from both the increase in ΔH from ion-ion interactions and the entropic effect of the electrostatic solvation over 113 °C. This is the first experimental evidence that has successfully overcome the typical technical difficulties.

  1. Thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C: CutA1 mutant proteins substituted with hydrophobic and charged residues.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yoshinori; Takehira, Michiyo; Joti, Yasumasa; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Ono, Naoko; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Although the thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C is essential for the rational design of highly stable proteins, it is not understood well because of the associated technical difficulties. We designed certain hydrophobic mutant proteins of CutA1 from Escherichia coli, which have denaturation temperatures (Td) ranging from 101 to 113 °C and show a reversible heat denaturation. Using a hydrophobic mutant as a template, we successfully designed a hyperthermostable mutant protein (Td = 137 °C) by substituting six residues with charged ones. Thermodynamic analyses of these mutant proteins indicated that the hydrophobic mutants were stabilized by the accumulation of denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) with no entropic gain from hydrophobic solvation around 100 °C, and that the stabilization due to salt bridges resulted from both the increase in ΔH from ion-ion interactions and the entropic effect of the electrostatic solvation over 113 °C. This is the first experimental evidence that has successfully overcome the typical technical difficulties.

  2. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A; López-Climent, María F; Casaretto, José A; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  3. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A.; López-Climent, María F.; Casaretto, José A.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  4. Simultaneous production of catalase, glucose oxidase and gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger mutant.

    PubMed

    Fiedurek, J; Gromada, A; Pielecki, J

    1998-01-01

    The production of gluconic acid, extracellular glucose oxidase and catalase in submerged culture by a number of biochemical mutants has been evaluated. Optimization of stirrer speed, time cultivation and buffering action of some chemicals on glucose oxidase, catalase and gluconic acid production by the most active mutant, AM-11, grown in a 3-L glass bioreactor was investigated. Three hundred rpm appeared to be optimum to ensure good growth and best glucose oxidase production, but gluconic acid or catalase activity obtained maximal value at 500 or 900 rpm, respectively. Significant increase of dissolved oxygen concentration in culture (16-21%) and extracellular catalase activity were obtained when the traditional aeration was employed together with automatic dosed hydrogen peroxide.

  5. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  6. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  7. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  8. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  9. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  10. Citric acid production by selected mutants of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ikram-Ul, Haq; Ali, Sikander; Qadeer, M A; Iqbal, Javed

    2004-06-01

    The present investigation deals with citric acid production by some selected mutant strains of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. For this purpose, a conidial suspension of A. niger GCB-75, which produced 31.1 g/l citric acid from 15% (w/v) molasses sugar, was subjected to UV-induced mutagenesis. Among the 3 variants, GCM-45 was found to be a better producer of citric acid (50.0 +/- 2a) and it was further improved by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl, N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). Out of 3,2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant variants, GCMC-7 was selected as the best mutant, which produced 96.1 +/- 1.5 g/l citric acid 168 h after fermentation of potassium ferrocyanide and H2SO4 pre-treated blackstrap molasses in Vogel's medium. On the basis of kinetic parameters such as volumetric substrate uptake rate (Qs), and specific substrate uptake rate (qs), the volumetric productivity, theoretical yield and specific product formation rate, it was observed that the mutants were faster growing organisms and produced more citric acid. The mutant GCMC-7 has greater commercial potential than the parental strain with regard to citrate synthase activity. The addition of 2.0 x 10(-5) M MgSO4 x 5H2O into the fermentation medium reduced the Fe2+ ion concentration by counter-acting its deleterious effect on mycelial growth. The magnesium ions also induced a loose-pelleted form of growth (0.6 mm, diameter), reduced the biomass concentration (12.5 g/l) and increased the volumetric productivity of citric acid monohydrate (113.6 +/- 5 g/l).

  11. A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants. PMID:25610446

  12. A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants. PMID:25610446

  13. α-Mangostin, a Natural Agent, Enhances the Response of NRAS Mutant Melanoma to Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yun; Chen, Jing; Gong, Chongwen; Chen, Hongxiang; Sun, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification and use of novel compounds alone or in combination hold promise for the fight against NRAS mutant melanoma. Material/Methods We screened a kinase-specific inhibitor library through combining it with α-Mangostin in NRAS mutant melanoma cell line, and verified the enhancing effect of α-Mangostin through inhibition of the tumorigenesis pathway. Results Within the kinase inhibitors, retinoic acid showed a significant synergistic effect with α-Mangostin. α-Mangostin also can reverse the drug resistance of retinoic acid in RARa siRNA-transduced sk-mel-2 cells. Colony assay, TUNEL staining, and the expressions of several apoptosis-related genes revealed that α-Mangostin enhanced the effect of retinoic acid-induced apoptosis. The combination treatment resulted in marked induction of ROS generation and inhibition of the AKT/S6 pathway. Conclusions These results indicate that the combination of these novel natural agents with retinoid acid may be clinically effective in NRAS mutant melanoma. PMID:27104669

  14. Mapping the functional topology of the animal fatty acid synthase by mutant complementation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rangan, V S; Joshi, A K; Smith, S

    2001-09-11

    An in vitro mutant complementation approach has been used to map the functional topology of the animal fatty acid synthase. A series of knockout mutants was engineered, each mutant compromised in one of the seven functional domains, and heterodimers generated by hybridizing all possible combinations of the mutated subunits were isolated and characterized. Heterodimers comprised of a subunit containing either a beta-ketoacyl synthase or malonyl/acetyltransferase mutant, paired with a subunit containing mutations in any one of the other five domains, are active in fatty acid synthesis. Heterodimers in which both subunits carry a knockout mutation in either the dehydrase, enoyl reductase, keto reductase, or acyl carrier protein are inactive. Heterodimers comprised of a subunit containing a thioesterase mutation paired with a subunit containing a mutation in either the dehydrase, enoyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, or acyl carrier protein domains exhibit very low fatty acid synthetic ability. The results are consistent with a model for the fatty acid synthase in which the substrate loading and condensation reactions are catalyzed by cooperation of an acyl carrier protein domain of one subunit with the malonyl/acetyltransferase or beta-ketoacyl synthase domains, respectively, of either subunit. The beta-carbon-processing reactions, responsible for the complete reduction of the beta-ketoacyl moiety following each condensation step, are catalyzed by cooperation of an acyl carrier protein domain with the beta-ketoacyl reductase, dehydrase, and enoyl reductase domains associated exclusively with the same subunit. The chain-terminating reaction is carried out most efficiently by cooperation of an acyl carrier protein domain with the thioesterase domain of the same subunit. These results are discussed in the context of a revised model for the fatty acid synthase.

  15. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  20. Phytic acid prevents oxidative stress in seeds: evidence from a maize (Zea mays L.) low phytic acid mutant.

    PubMed

    Doria, Enrico; Galleschi, Luciano; Calucci, Lucia; Pinzino, Calogero; Pilu, Roberto; Cassani, Elena; Nielsen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    A maize mutant defective in the synthesis of phytic acid during seed maturation was used as a tool to study the consequences of the lack of this important reserve substance on seed survival. Data on germinability, free iron level, free radical relative abundance, protein carbonylation level, damage to DNA, degree of lipid peroxidation, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol amount and antioxidant capacity were recorded on seeds of maize B73 and of an isogenic low phytic acid mutant (lpa1-241), either unaged or incubated for 7 d in accelerated ageing conditions (46 degrees C and 100% relative humidity). The lpa1-241 mutant, compared to wild type (wt), showed a lower germination capacity, which decreased further after accelerated ageing. Whole lpa1-241 mutant kernels contained about 50% more free or weakly bound iron than wt ones and showed a higher content of free radicals, mainly concentrated in embryos; in addition, upon accelerated ageing, lpa1-241 seed proteins were more carbonylated and DNA was more damaged, whereas lipids did not appear to be more peroxidated, but the gamma-tocopherol content was decreased by about 50%. These findings can be interpreted in terms of previously reported but never proven antioxidant activity of phytic acid through iron complexation. Therefore, a novel role in plant seed physiology can be assigned to phytic acid, that is, protection against oxidative stress during the seed's life span. As in maize kernels the greater part of phytic acid (and thus of metal ions) is concentrated in the embryo, its antioxidant action may be of particular relevance in this crop. PMID:19204030

  1. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  2. Disentangling the perturbational effects of amino acid substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of p53.

    PubMed

    Wacey, A I; Cooper, D N; Liney, D; Hovig, E; Krawczak, M

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic cancer-associated missense mutations in the human TP53 gene was studied in order to assess the potential structural and functional importance of various intra-molecular properties associated with these substitutions. Relating the observed frequency of particular amino acid substitutions in the p53 DNA-binding domain to their expected frequency, as calculated from DNA sequence-dependent mutation rates, yielded estimates of their relative clinical observation likelihood (RCOL). Several biophysical properties were found to display significant covariation with RCOL values. Thus RCOL values were observed to decrease with increasing solvent accessibility of the substituted residue and with increasing distance from the p53 DNA-binding and Zn2+ -binding sites. The number of adverse steric interactions introduced by an amino acid replacement was found to be positively correlated with its RCOL value, irrespective of the magnitude of the interactions. A gain in hydrogen bond number was found to be only half as likely to come to clinical attention as mutations involving either a reduction or no change in hydrogen bond number. When the difference in potential energy between the wild-type and mutant DNA-binding domains was considered, RCOL values exhibited a minimum around changes of zero. Finally, classification of mutated residues in terms of their protein/solvent environment yielded, for somatic p53 mutations, RCOL values that resembled those previously determined for inherited mutations of human factor IX causing haemophilia B, suggesting that similar mechanisms may be responsible for the mutation-related perturbation of biological function in different protein folds.

  3. Structure and NLO properties of halogen (F, Cl) substituted formic acid dimers.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, P; Senthilkumar, L; Gayathri, M; Kolandaivel, P

    2014-11-11

    In this work, using ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods halogen substituted formic acid (FA) dimer is studied. The dimer stability is due to the hydrogen bonds, either conventional (OH⋯O, OH⋯F, OH⋯Cl) or non-conventional (CH⋯O, CH⋯F, CH⋯Cl). Among all the dimers, trans-trans form is more stable than the trans-cis, and cis-cis form. Basis set extrapolated counterpoise corrected interaction energy results for the FA dimer are in excellent agreement with BSSE corrected MP2 interaction energy. Symmetry Adopted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis reveals that the electrostatic effect plays a dominant role in stabilization among the dimers with maximum interaction energy. Chlorine substituted FA dimer has high hyperpolarizability, which makes them excellent candidate for nonlinear optical materials (NLO). The halogen substituted formic acid dimers have higher stability and polarizability value than the unsubstituted formic acid dimer. The hyperpolarizability values depend on the geometrical structures of halogenated formic acid dimers than the type of hydrogen bonds. The small excitation energy and HOMO-LUMO gap in the halogenated formic acid dimer has led to the strong nonlinear optical response. The depolarization ratio and Rayleigh scattering increases in formic acid dimer after the halogen atom substitution.

  4. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of laser fluorimetry for determining the influence of a single amino-acid substitution on the individual photophysical parameters of a fluorescent form of a fluorescent protein mRFP1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, A. A.; Vrzheshch, E. P.; Shirshin, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    Individual photophysical parameters of the chromophore of a fluorescent protein mRFP1 and its two mutants (amino-acid substitution at position 66 - mRFP1/ Q66C and mRFP1/Q66S proteins) are determined. For this purpose, apart from conventional methods of fluorimetry and spectrophotometry, nonlinear laser fluorimetry is used. It is shown that the individual extinction coefficients of the chromophore of proteins correlate (correlation coefficient above 0.9) with the volume of the substituted amino-acid residue at position 66 (similar to the positions of the absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission maxima).

  5. Application of laser fluorimetry for determining the influence of a single amino-acid substitution on the individual photophysical parameters of a fluorescent form of a fluorescent protein mRFP1

    SciTech Connect

    Banishev, A A; Vrzheshch, E P; Shirshin, E A

    2009-03-31

    Individual photophysical parameters of the chromophore of a fluorescent protein mRFP1 and its two mutants (amino-acid substitution at position 66 - mRFP1/ Q66C and mRFP1/Q66S proteins) are determined. For this purpose, apart from conventional methods of fluorimetry and spectrophotometry, nonlinear laser fluorimetry is used. It is shown that the individual extinction coefficients of the chromophore of proteins correlate (correlation coefficient above 0.9) with the volume of the substituted amino-acid residue at position 66 (similar to the positions of the absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission maxima). (laser biology and medicine)

  6. Optimisation of fermentation conditions for gluconic acid production by a mutant of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Singh, O V; Sharma, A; Singh, R P

    2001-11-01

    Aspergillus niger ORS-4, isolated from the sugarcane industry waste materials was found to produce notable level of gluconic acid. From this strain, a mutant Aspergillus niger ORS-4.410 having remarkable increase in gluconic acid production was isolated and compared for fermentation properties. Among the various substrates used, glucose resulted into maximum production of gluconic acid (78.04 g/L). 12% concentration led to maximum production. Effect of spore age and inoculum level on fermentation indicated an inoculum level of 2% of the 4-7 days old spores were best suited for gluconic acid production. Maximum gluconate production could be achieved after 10-12 days of the fermentation at 30 degrees C and at a pH of 5.5. Kinetic analysis of production indicated that growth of the mutant was favoured during initial stages of the fermentation (4-8 days) and production increased during the subsequent 8-12 days of the fermentation. CaCO3 and varying concentrations of different nutrients affected the production of gluconic acid. Analysis of variance for the factors evaluated the significant difference in the production levels.

  7. Resistance to β-Lactamase Inhibitor Protein Does Not Parallel Resistance to Clavulanic Acid in TEM β-Lactamase Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, William A.; Locke, Troy R.; Jensen, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare patterns of resistance to inhibition by clavulanic acid with patterns of resistance to inhibition by a β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP), R164S, R244S, and R164S/R244S mutant forms of TEM β-lactamase were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. When kinetic parameters were determined for these mutant and wild-type forms of TEM, the single mutants showed properties that were similar to those in the literature but the double mutant showed properties that were very different. The R164S/R244S double mutant form of TEM retained its resistance to inhibition by clavulanic acid (characteristic of the R244S mutation) but lost all its ability to hydrolyze ceftazidime (characteristic of the R164S mutation). While these characteristics are contrary to those previously reported for an R164S/R244S double mutant, this discrepancy resulted from the use of a defective mutant in the earlier study. Both the single and double mutant forms of TEM remained highly sensitive when tested for inhibition by BLIP, showing only slightly increased resistance compared to that of the wild type; this pattern of resistance is quite different from the pattern of clavulanic acid resistance. The slight increases in resistance to inhibition by BLIP seen in the mutants may have been related to the fact that all of the mutations effected changes in the net charge on the TEM protein that could impede interactions with BLIP. PMID:12384366

  8. Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung

    2014-01-01

    A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol.

  9. Regulation of the abscisic acid-responsive gene rab28 in maize viviparous mutants.

    PubMed

    Pla, M; Gómez, J; Goday, A; Pagès, M

    1991-12-01

    We have isolated a new maize gene, rab28, that responds to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. This gene has been characterized by determining the sequence of the cDNA and corresponding genomic copy, and by mapping the start site of its transcript. The rab 28 gene encodes a protein of predicted molecular weight 27713 Da which shows strong homology with the Lea D-34 protein identified in cotton. The proximal promoter region contains the conserved ABA-response element, CACGTGG, reported in other plant genes to be responsible for ABA induction. rab 28 mRNA has been identified as ABA-inducible in embryos and young leaves. It is also induced by water-stress in leaves of wild-type plants. Regulation of the rab 28 gene was studied in maize viviparous mutants. The results obtained with the ABA-insensitive vp1 mutant show that rab 28 transcripts do not accumulate to a significant level during embryogenesis. Surprisingly, induction of rab 28 mRNA can be achieved in young embryos by exogenous ABA treatment. Moreover, water-stressed or ABA-treated seedlings of vp1 contain significant levels of rab 28 mRNA which is not detectable in well-watered seedlings. Regulation of the rab 28 gene in excised young embryos of ABA-deficient vp2 mutants, in which influences of the maternal environment are absent, closely resembles that found in non-mutant excised young embryos. The significance of these results is discussed.

  10. Requirement for Asn298 on D1 protein for oxygen evolution: analyses by exhaustive amino acid substitution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kodama, Natsumi; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Ozawa, Shin-ichiro; Takahashi, Yuichiro

    2014-07-01

    PSII generates strong oxidants used for water oxidation. The secondary electron donor, Y(Z), is Tyr161 on PSII reaction center D1 protein and mediates electron transfer from the oxygen-evolving Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster to the primary electron donor, P680. The latest PSII crystal structure revealed the presence of a hydrogen bond network around Y(Z), which is anticipated to play important roles in the electron and proton transfer reactions. Y(Z) forms a hydrogen bond with His190 which in turn forms a hydrogen bond with Asn298 on D1 protein. Although functional roles of Y(Z) and His190 have already been characterized, little is known about the functional role of Asn298. Here we have generated 19 mutants from a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in which the Asn298 has been substituted by each of the other 19 amino acid residues. All mutants showed significantly impaired or no photosynthetic growth. Seven mutants capable of photosynthetic growth showed oxygen-evolving activity although at a significantly reduced rate. Interestingly the oxygen-evolving activity of these mutants was markedly photosensitive. The 19 mutants accumulated PSII at variable levels and showed a light-induced electron transfer reaction from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP), suggesting that Asn298 is important for the function and photoprotection of the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster. PMID:24853102

  11. Structural and Functional Characteristics of Oxysterol 7α-Hydroxylase with Amino-Acid Substitution R486C and Their Relation to the Appearance of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichenko, Ya. V.; Yantsevich, A. V.; Usanov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the amino-acid substitution Arg486Cys on the conformational stability of recombinant cytochrome P450 7B1 (CYP7B1, oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase) was studied. The single base change was shown to decrease the free energy of the transition of the heme-protein from its native state to a denatured one, which pointed to a lower thermodynamic stability for the mutant form of the enzyme. This could be the cause of the metabolic disruption of neurosteroids and, as a consequence, the appearance of neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Determination of substitution positions in hyaluronic acid hydrogels using NMR and MS based methods.

    PubMed

    Wende, Frida J; Gohil, Suresh; Mojarradi, Hotan; Gerfaud, Thibaud; Nord, Lars I; Karlsson, Anders; Boiteau, Jean-Guy; Kenne, Anne Helander; Sandström, Corine

    2016-01-20

    In hydrogels of cross-linked polysaccharides, the total amount of cross-linker and the degree of cross-linking influence the properties of the hydrogel. The substitution position of the cross-linker on the polysaccharide is another parameter that can influence hydrogel properties; hence methods for detailed structural analysis of the substitution pattern are required. NMR and LC-MS methods were developed to determine the positions and amounts of substitution of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) on hyaluronic acid (HA), and for the first time it is shown that BDDE can react with any of the four available hydroxyl groups of the HA disaccharide repeating unit. This was achieved by studying di-, tetra-, and hexasaccharides obtained from degradation of BDDE cross-linked HA hydrogel by chondroitinase. Furthermore, amount of linker substitution at each position was shown to be dependent on the size of the oligosaccharides. For the disaccharide, substitutions were predominantly at ΔGlcA-OH2 and GlcNAc-OH6 while in the tetra- and hexasaccharides, it was mainly at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. In the disaccharide there was no substitution at this position. Since chondroitinase is able to completely hydrolyse non-substituted HA into unsaturated disaccharides, these results indicate that the enzyme is prevented to cleave on the non-reducing side of an oligosaccharide substituted at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. The procedure can be adopted for the determination of substitution positions in other types of polymers. PMID:26572480

  13. Surface enhanced Raman spectra of carbonate, hydrocarbonate, and substituted acetic acids on silver hydrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Sun; Chaozhi, Wan; Guangzhi, Xu

    1989-01-01

    The SERS spectra of carbonate, hydrocarbonate and several substituted acetic acids absorbed on silver hydrosols are recorded. The greatest enhancement of E' modes is shown in the spectrum of carbonate, from which the carbonate is deduced to be absorbed in an "end on" configuration, rather than flat on the surface. The spectrum of the hydrocarbonate solution shows the most enhanced bands at about 925 and 620 cm -1, which cannot be explained clearly. All the substituted acids have a most enhanced bands at about 1630 cm -1, revealing that the acids are initially adsorbed in a single bonding state through the carboxyl group. The change in the SERS spectra of the acids with time indicates that a bidentate bridging adsorbed state may be formed after some time.

  14. [Generation of nalidixic acid-resistant strains and signature-tagged mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Shang, Lin; Li, Wei; Li, Liangjun; Li, Lu; Zhang, Sihua; Li, Tingting; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Lei; Guo, Zhiwei; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2008-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a very important respiratory pathogen for swine and causes great economic losses in pig industry worldwide. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is an effective method to identify virulence genes in bacteria. In this study, we selected nalidixic acid-resistant strains of APP serotypes 1 and 3 by in vitro cultivation, and used as receipt strains for constructing transposon mutants by mating with E. coli CC 118 lambdapir or S17-1 lambdapir containing mini-Tn10 tag plasmids pLOF/TAG1-48, with or without the help of E. coli DH5alpha (pRK2073). We screened mutant strains by antibiotics selection, PCR and Southern blot identification. Our data revealed that nalidixic acid-resistance of APP strains could easily be induced in vitro and the resistance was due to the mutation in the DNA gyrase A subunit gene gyrA. In the mating experiments, the bi-parental mating was more effective and easier than tri-parental mating. Different APP strains showed a different mating and transposon efficiency in the bi-parental mating, with the strains of serotype 1 much higher than serotype 3 and the reference strain of serotype 3 higher than the field strains. These data were helpful for the construction of STM mutants and pickup of virulence genes of APP. PMID:18338580

  15. L-ascorbic acid metabolism in the ascorbate-deficient arabidopsis mutant vtc1.

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, P L; Pallanca, J E; Last, R L; Smirnoff, N

    1997-01-01

    The biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is not well understood in plants. The ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant vitamin c-1 (vtc1; formerly known as soz1) is deficient in ascorbic acid, accumulating approximately 30% of wild-type levels. This deficiency could result from elevated catabolism or decreased biosynthesis. No differences that could account for the deficiency were found in the activities of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation or reduction of ascorbic acid. The absolute rate of ascorbic acid turnover is actually less in vtc1 than in wild type; however, the turnover rate relative to the pool of ascorbic acid is not significantly different. The results from [U-14C]Glc labeling experiments suggest that the deficiency is the result of a biosynthetic defect: less L-[14C]ascorbic acid as a percentage of total soluble 14C accumulates in vtc1 than in wild type. The feeding of two putative biosynthetic intermediates, D-glucosone and L-sorbosone, had no positive effect on ascorbic acid levels in either genotype. The vtc1 defect does not appear to be the result of a deficiency in L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, an enzyme able to convert L-galactono-1,4-lactone to ascorbic acid. PMID:9390448

  16. Use of the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid in the isolation of auxotrophic mutants of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P I; Schreier, H J; Saha, A L; Bernlohr, R W

    1984-01-01

    The isolation of auxotrophic mutants of Bacillus licheniformis, a microbe containing constitutive beta-lactamase activity, was found to be facilitated by the addition of clavulanic acid and cefotaxime during enrichment. PMID:6086590

  17. Time-resolved photointermediate changes in rhodopsin glutamic acid 181 mutants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James W; Szundi, Istvan; Kazmi, Manija A; Sakmar, Thomas P; Kliger, David S

    2004-10-01

    The role of glutamic acid 181 in the bovine rhodopsin retinylidene chromophore pocket was studied by expressing E181 mutants in COS cells and measuring, as a function of time, the absorbance changes produced after excitation of lauryl maltoside pigment suspensions with 7 ns laser pulses. All mutants studied except E181D showed accelerated decay of bathorhodopsin compared to wild type. Even for E181D, an anomalously large blue shift was observed in the absorption spectrum of the bathorhodopsin decay product, BSI. These observations support the idea that E181 plays a significant role in the earliest stages of receptor activation. E181 mutations have a pronounced effect on the decay of the lumirhodopsin photointermediate, primarily affecting the size of the red shift that occurs in the lumirhodopsin I to lumirhodopsin II transition that takes place on the 10 micros time scale after wild-type photoexcitation. While the spectral change that occurs in the lumirhodopsin I to lumirhodopsin II transition in wild-type rhodopsin is very small ( approximately 2 nm), making it difficult to detect, it is larger in E181D ( approximately 6 nm), making it evident even in the lower signal-to-noise ratio measurements possible with rhodopsin mutants. The change seen is even larger for the E181F mutant where significant amounts of a deprotonated Schiff base intermediate are produced with the 10 micros time constant of lumirhodopsin II formation. The E181Q mutant shows lumirhodopsin decay more similar to wild-type behavior, and no lumirhodopsin I to lumirhodopsin II transition can be resolved. The addition of chloride ion to E181Q increases the lumirhodopsin I-lumirhodopsin II spectral shift and slows the deprotonation of the Schiff base. The latter result is consistent with the idea that a negative charge at position 181 contributes to protonated Schiff base stability in the later intermediates.

  18. In Vitro Investigation of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based on Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates for Controlled Release Doxorubicin: Effect of Degree of Substitution of Deoxycholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hao; Dong, Xue-Meng; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD) chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS) of deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS) was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as the model drug. The human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line was utilized for in vitro studies and cell cytotoxicity of DOX incorporated in the HD nanoparticles was accessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles was also investigated. An increase in the degree of deoxycholic acid substitution reduced the size of the nanoparticles and also enhanced their drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), which increased with the increase of DS. A higher degree of deoxycholic acid substitution also lead to a lower release rate and an initial burst release of doxorubicin from the nanoparticles. In summary, the degree of substitution allows the modulation of the particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release rate, and cell uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles. The herein developed hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates are a good candidate for drug delivery and could potentiate therapeutic formulations for doxorubicin–mediated cancer therapy. PMID:25837468

  19. Effect of amino acid substitutions in a potential metal-binding site of AnfA on expression from the anfH promoter in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Premakumar, R; Loveless, T M; Bishop, P E

    1994-10-01

    AnfA, an activator required for transcription of the structural genes encoding nitrogenase 3 (anfHDGK) in Azotobacter vinelandii, has a potential metal-binding site [(S19)H(C21)FTGE(C26)R] in its N terminus. Growth studies and expression of an anfH-lacZ fusion in mutants containing amino acid substitutions in this site indicate that Ser-19 is not required for AnfA activity whereas Cys-21 and Cys-26 are required. Residual expression of the anfH-lacZ fusion in AnfA- mutants was found to be due to activation by VnfA, the activator required for expression of genes encoding nitrogenase 2.

  20. 10-Boronic acid substituted camptothecin as prodrug of SN-38.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xie, Shao; Ma, Longjun; Chen, Yi; Lu, Wei

    2016-06-30

    Malignant tumor cells have been found to have high levels of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), supporting the hypothesis that a prodrug could be activated by intracellular H2O2 and lead to a potential antitumor therapy. In this study, the 7-ethyl-10-boronic acid camptothecin (B1) was synthesized for the first time as prodrug of SN-38, by linking a cleavable aryl carbon-boron bond to the SN-38. Prodrug B1 selectively activated by H2O2, converted rapidly to the active form SN-38 under favorable oxidative conditions in cancer cells with elevated levels of H2O2. The cell survival assay showed that prodrug B1 was equally or more effective in inhibiting the growth of six different cancer cells, as compared to SN-38. Unexpectedly, prodrug B1 displayed even more potent Topo I inhibitory activity than SN-38, suggesting that it was not only a prodrug of SN-38 but also a typical Topo I inhibitor. Prodrug B1 also demonstrated a significant antitumor activity at 2.0 mg/kg in a xenograft model using human brain star glioblastoma cell lines U87MG. PMID:27060760

  1. Modulation of Enzymatic Activity and Biological Function of Listeria monocytogenes Broad-Range Phospholipase C by Amino Acid Substitutions and by Replacement with the Bacillus cereus Ortholog

    PubMed Central

    Zückert, Wolfram R.; Marquis, Hélène; Goldfine, Howard

    1998-01-01

    The secreted broad-range phosphatidylcholine (PC)-preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) of Listeria monocytogenes plays a role in the bacterium’s ability to escape from phagosomes and spread from cell to cell. Based on comparisons with two orthologs, Clostridium perfringens α-toxin and Bacillus cereus PLC (PLCBc), we generated PC-PLC mutants with altered enzymatic activities and substrate specificities and analyzed them for biological function in tissue culture and mouse models of infection. Two of the conserved active-site zinc-coordinating histidines were confirmed by single amino acid substitutions H69G and H118G, which resulted in proteins inactive in broth culture and unstable intracellularly. Substitutions D4E and H56Y remodeled the PC-PLC active site to more closely resemble the PLCBc active site, while a gene replacement resulted in L. monocytogenes secreting PLCBc. All of these mutants yielded similar amounts of active enzyme as wild-type PC-PLC both in broth culture and intracellularly. D4E increased activity on and specificity for PC, while H56Y and D4E H56Y showed higher activity on both PC and sphingomyelin, with reduced specificity for PC. As expected, PLCBc expressed by L. monocytogenes was highly specific for PC. During early intracellular growth in human epithelial cells, the D4E mutant and the PLCBc-expressing strain performed significantly better than the wild type, while the H56Y and D4E H56Y mutants showed a significant defect. In assays for cell-to-cell spread, the H56Y and D4E mutants had close to wild-type characteristics, while the spreading efficiency of PLCBc was significantly lower. These studies emphasize the species-specific features of PC-PLC important for growth in mammalian cells. PMID:9746585

  2. Gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger mutant ORS-4.410 in submerged and solid state surface fermentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, O V; Sharma, A; Singh, R P

    2001-07-01

    Aspergillus niger ORS-4.410, a mutant of Aspergillus niger ORS-4 was produced by repeated irradiation with UV rays. Treatments with chemical mutagnes also resulted into mutant strains. The mutants differed from the parent strain morphologically and in gluconic acid production. The relationship between UV treatment dosage, conidial survival and frequency of mutation showed the maximum frequency of positive mutants (25%) was obtained along with a conidial survival of 59% after second stage of UV irradiation. Comparison of gluconic acid production of the parent and mutant ORS-4.410 strain showed a significant increase in gluconic acid production that was 87% higher than the wild type strain. ORS-4.410 strain when transferred every 15 days and monitored for gluconic acid levels for a total period of ten months appeared stable. Mutant ORS-4.410 at 12% substrate concentration resulted into significantly higher i.e. 85-87 and 94-97% yields of gluconic acid under submerged and solid state surface conditions respectively. Further increase in substrate concentration appeared inhibitory. Maximum yield of gluconic acid was obtained after 6 days under submerged condition and decreased on further cultivation. Solid state surface culture condition on the other hand resulted into higher yield after 12 days of cultivation and similar levels of yields continued thereafter.

  3. Determination of essential fatty acid composition among mutant lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ghulam; Siddique, Aquil; Khan, Imtiaz Ahmad; Ashraf, Muhammed Yasin; Khatri, Abdullah

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), gamma-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17) of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95/16, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  4. Natural derivatives of diphenolic acid as substitutes for bisphenol-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, Johanna; Cerri, Elisa; Rizzuto, Matteo; Caretti, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    Diphenolic acid had been originally used in the first epoxy resins and was later on forgotten as it was substituted by the cheaper bisphenol A. But in the recent years major health concerns have been raised as bisphenol A has a pseudo-hormonal effect on the body, playing the role of estrogen it can cause a severe impact on the organism, especially in males. Moreover it is produced from acetone and phenol, both from fossil, and thus limited resources. On the contrary, diphenolic acid is synthesized from levulinic acid and phenol. Levulinic acid being directly produced by hydrolysis of biomass. By substituting the fossil phenol with natural phenols from lignin or plant extraction we are able to synthesize a fully renewable substitute for bisphenol A. The reactions to yield an epoxy resin have been examined and the reactivity with epichlorohydrin is satisfying. Moreover, some of the derivatives of diphenolic acid have interesting curing properties and preliminary results show excellent properties of the cured resin, including thermal stability and pencil hardness.

  5. Amino acid substitutions in inherited albumin variants from Amerindian and Japanese populations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Isobe, T.; Putnam, F.W.; Fujita, M.; Satoh, C.; Neel, J.V.

    1987-11-01

    The authors report an effort to determine the basis for the altered migration of seven inherited albumin variants detected by one-dimensional electrophoresis in population surveys involving tribal Amerindians and Japanese children. An amino acid substitution has thus far been determined for four of the variants. The randomness in the albumin polypeptide of these and the other sixteen independently ascertained amino acid substitutions of albumin and proalbumin thus far established was analyzed; the clustering of eight of these at two positions in the six-amino acid propeptide sequence seems noteworthy. By comparison with other proteins studied by electrophoresis, albumin exhibits average variability. It is a paradox that individuals who, for genetic reasons, lack albumin exhibit no obvious ill effects; yet, electrophoretic variants of albumin are no more numerous than are variants of proteins, the absence of which results in severe disease.

  6. Induction of cat-86 by chloramphenicol and amino acid starvation in relaxed mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ambulos, N P; Rogers, E J; Alexieva, Z; Lovett, P S

    1988-01-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86 is induced through a mechanism that is a variation of classical attenuation. Induction results from the destabilization of an RNA stem-loop that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome-binding site. Destabilization of the stem-loop is due to the stalling of a ribosome in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA at a position that places the A site of the stalled ribosome at leader codon 6. Two events can stall ribosomes at the correct location to induce cat-86 translation: addition of chloramphenicol to cells and starvation of cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6. Induction by amino acid starvation is an anomaly because translation of the cat-86 coding sequence requires all 20 amino acids. To explain this apparent contradiction we postulated that amino acid starvation triggers intracellular proteolysis, thereby providing levels of the deprived amino acid sufficient for cat-86 translation. Here we show that a mutation in relA, the structural gene for stringent factor, blocks intracellular proteolysis that is normally triggered by amino acid starvation. The relA mutation also blocks induction of cat-86 by amino acid starvation, but the mutation does not interfere with chloramphenicol induction. Induction by amino acid starvation can be demonstrated in relA mutant cells if the depleted amino acid is restored at very low levels (e.g., 2 micrograms/ml). A mutation in relC, which may be the gene for ribosomal protein L11, blocks induction of cat-86 by either chloramphenicol or amino acid starvation. We believe this effect is due to a structural alteration of the ribosome resulting from the relC mutation and not to the relaxed phenotype of the cells. PMID:3142854

  7. Induction of cat-86 by chloramphenicol and amino acid starvation in relaxed mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ambulos, N P; Rogers, E J; Alexieva, Z; Lovett, P S

    1988-12-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86 is induced through a mechanism that is a variation of classical attenuation. Induction results from the destabilization of an RNA stem-loop that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome-binding site. Destabilization of the stem-loop is due to the stalling of a ribosome in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA at a position that places the A site of the stalled ribosome at leader codon 6. Two events can stall ribosomes at the correct location to induce cat-86 translation: addition of chloramphenicol to cells and starvation of cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6. Induction by amino acid starvation is an anomaly because translation of the cat-86 coding sequence requires all 20 amino acids. To explain this apparent contradiction we postulated that amino acid starvation triggers intracellular proteolysis, thereby providing levels of the deprived amino acid sufficient for cat-86 translation. Here we show that a mutation in relA, the structural gene for stringent factor, blocks intracellular proteolysis that is normally triggered by amino acid starvation. The relA mutation also blocks induction of cat-86 by amino acid starvation, but the mutation does not interfere with chloramphenicol induction. Induction by amino acid starvation can be demonstrated in relA mutant cells if the depleted amino acid is restored at very low levels (e.g., 2 micrograms/ml). A mutation in relC, which may be the gene for ribosomal protein L11, blocks induction of cat-86 by either chloramphenicol or amino acid starvation. We believe this effect is due to a structural alteration of the ribosome resulting from the relC mutation and not to the relaxed phenotype of the cells.

  8. Carbapenem resistance in cystic fibrosis strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a result of amino acid substitutions in porin OprD.

    PubMed

    Richardot, Charlotte; Plésiat, Patrick; Fournier, Damien; Monlezun, Laura; Broutin, Isabelle; Llanes, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of single amino acid substitutions occurring in specific porin OprD on carbapenem resistance of cystic fibrosis (CF) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A PAO1ΔoprD mutant was complemented with the oprD genes from five carbapenem-resistant CF strains exhibiting very low amounts of mutated OprD porins in their outer membrane despite wild-type levels of oprD transcripts. Compared with wild-type porin from strain PAO1, single amino acid substitutions S403P (in periplasmic loop 8), Y242H, S278P and L345P (in β-sheets 10, 12 and 14, respectively) were found to result in reduced amounts of OprD in the outer membrane, increased carbapenem resistance, and slower growth in minimal medium containing gluconate, an OprD substrate, as the sole source of carbon and energy. This indicates that in CF strains of P. aeruginosa, loss of porin OprD may not only result from mutations downregulating the expression of or disrupting the oprD gene, but also from mutations generating deleterious amino acid substitutions in the porin structure.

  9. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    PubMed

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  10. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant. PMID:24688492

  11. Variable clinical manifestations of a glycine to glutamic acid substitution of the COL3A1 gene at residue 736

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, F.M.; Narcisi, P.; Richards, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Glycine substitutions at the 3{prime} end of the COL3A1 gene generally produce a characteristic clinical phenotype including acrogeria and severe vascular fragility. Here we report a three generation British family in which the propositus presented with aneurysms of the groins. He, his mother, sister and elder daughter all had the external clinical phenotype of vascular EDS IV whilst another daughter and nephew were clinically normal. Cultured skin fibroblasts from the propositus and his clinically affected relatives poorly secreted normal and overmodified collagen III species. Normal components of secreted proteins predominated whilst overmodified molecules were prominent in intracellular material. Surprisingly the normal children also secreted less collagen type III than expected (though more than their clinically abnormal relatives). cDNA from bases 2671 to 3714 were amplified as four overlapping PCR fragments and analysed by DGGE. The region between 2671 and 3015 was heterozygous. Sequencing showed a mutation of glycine to glutamic acid at residue 736. This mutation created an extra Apa 1 restriction site which was suitable for family studies. These showed inheritance of the mutant gene by both vascular and non-vascular clinical phenotypes. This family therefore illustrates that replacement of glycine to glutamic acid at position 736 produces variable clinical and biochemical phenotypes ranging from easily recognizable vascular EDS IV with very poor collagen secretion to an EDS III-like picture and with less severe protein disturbance. The reasons for these differences are at present unexplained.

  12. Rhizobium meliloti mutants that overproduce the R. meliloti acidic Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, D.; Glazebrook, J.; Walker, G.C. ); Leigh, J.A. )

    1988-09-01

    The acidic Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti Rm1021 plays one or more critical roles in nodule invasion and possible in nodule development. Two loci, exoR and exoS, that effect the regulation of synthesis of this exopolysaccharide were identified by screening for derivatives of strain Rm1021 that formed mucoid colonies that fluoresced extremely brightly under UV light when grown on medium containing Calcofluor. The exopolysaccharide produced in large quantities by the exoR95::Tn5 and exoS96::Tn5 strains was indistinguishable from that produced by the parental strain Rm1021, and its synthesis required the function of at least the exoA, exoB, and exoF genes. Both the exoR and exoS loci were located on the chromosome, and the exo96::Tn5 mutation was 84% linked to the trp-33 mutation by {Phi}M12 transduction. Synthesis of the Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide by strain Rm1021 was greatly stimulated by starvation for ammonia. In contrast, the exoR95::Tn5 mutant produced high levels of exopolysaccharide regardless of the presence or absence of ammonia in the medium. The exoS96::Tn5 mutant produced elevated amounts of exopolysaccharide in the presence of ammonia, but higher amounts were observed after starvation for ammonia. The presence of either mutation increased the level of expression of exoF::TnphoA and exoP::TnphoA fusions. Analyses of results obtained when alfalfa seedlings were inoculated with the exoR95::Tn5 strain indicated that the mutant strain could not invade nodules. However, pseudorevertants that retained the original exoR95::Tn5 mutant but acquired unlinked suppressors so that they produced an approximately normal amount of exopolysaccharide were able to invade nodules and fix nitrogen.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  15. Evolution of a new function in an esterase: simple amino acid substitutions enable the activity present in the larger paralog, BioH.

    PubMed

    Flores, Humberto; Lin, Steven; Contreras-Ferrat, Gabriel; Cronan, John E; Morett, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    Gene duplication and divergence are essential processes for the evolution of new activities. Divergence may be gradual, involving simple amino acid residue substitutions, or drastic, such that larger structural elements are inserted, deleted or rearranged. Vast protein sequence comparisons, supported by some experimental evidence, argue that large structural modifications have been necessary for certain catalytic activities to evolve. However, it is not clear whether these activities could not have been attained by gradual changes. Interestingly, catalytic promiscuity could play a fundamental evolutionary role: a preexistent secondary activity could be increased by simple amino acid residue substitutions that do not affect the enzyme's primary activity. The promiscuous profile of the enzyme may be modified gradually by genetic drift, making a pool of potentially useful activities that can be selected before duplication. In this work, we used random mutagenesis and in vivo selection to evolve the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 carboxylesterase PA3859, a small protein, to attain the function of BioH, a much larger paralog involved in biotin biosynthesis. BioH was chosen as a target activity because it provides a highly sensitive selection for evolved enzymatic activities by auxotrophy complementation. After only two cycles of directed evolution, mutants with the ability to efficiently complement biotin auxotrophy were selected. The in vivo and in vitro characterization showed that the activity of one of our mutant proteins was similar to that of the wild-type BioH enzyme. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to evolve enzymatic activities present in larger proteins by discrete amino acid substitutions.

  16. Mechanism for enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Kwon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Se-Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sunghyouk; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has become the main treatment modality in malignant gliomas. However unlike glioblastomas, there are inconsistent result about fluorescence status in WHO grade III gliomas. Here, we show that mutational status of IDH1 is linked to 5-ALA fluorescence. Using genetically engineered malignant glioma cells harboring wild type (U87MG-IDH1WT) or mutant (U87MG-IDH1R132H) IDH1, we demonstrated a lag in 5-ALA metabolism and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. Next, we used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to screen for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolite changes caused by 5-ALA exposure. We observed low baseline levels of NADPH, an essential cofactor for the rate-limiting step of heme degradation, in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. High levels of NADPH are required to metabolize excessive 5-ALA, giving a plausible reason for the temporarily enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence in mutant IDH1 cells. This hypothesis was supported by the results of metabolic screening in human malignant glioma samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a relationship between enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence and IDH1 mutations in WHO grade III gliomas. Low levels of NADPH in tumors with mutated IDH1 is responsible for the enhanced fluorescence. PMID:26008980

  17. Comment on "Transitions to asexuality result in excess amino acid substitutions".

    PubMed

    Butlin, Roger

    2006-09-01

    Paland and Lynch (Reports, 17 February 2006, p. 990) showed that in Daphnia pulex, the ratio of amino acid replacement to silent substitution in mitochondrial genes is higher in asexual lineages than in sexual lineages. If this base-composition bias is maintained by selection, it too should alter following transitions in reproductive mode. Analysis reveals no such change in the genomes of D. pulex.

  18. The lesion-mimic mutant cpr22 shows alterations in abscisic acid signaling and abscisic acid insensitivity in a salicylic acid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Stephen; Moeder, Wolfgang; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Joo, Se-Hwan; Urquhart, William; Klessig, Daniel F; Kim, Seong-Ki; Nambara, Eiji; Yoshioka, Keiko

    2010-04-01

    A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lesion-mimic mutants exhibit alterations in both abiotic stress responses and pathogen resistance. One of these mutants, constitutive expresser of PR genes22 (cpr22), which has a mutation in two cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, is a typical lesion-mimic mutant exhibiting elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA), spontaneous cell death, constitutive expression of defense-related genes, and enhanced resistance to various pathogens; the majority of its phenotypes are SA dependent. These defense responses in cpr22 are suppressed under high-humidity conditions and enhanced by low humidity. After shifting plants from high to low humidity, the cpr22 mutant, but not the wild type, showed a rapid increase in SA levels followed by an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Concomitantly, genes for ABA metabolism were up-regulated in the mutant. The expression of a subset of ABA-inducible genes, such as RD29A and KIN1/2, was down-regulated, but that of other genes, like ABI1 and HAB1, was up-regulated in cpr22 after the humidity shift. cpr22 showed reduced responsiveness to ABA not only in abiotic stress responses but also in germination and stomatal closure. Double mutant analysis with nahG plants that degrade SA indicated that these alterations in ABA signaling were attributable to elevated SA levels. Furthermore, cpr22 displayed suppressed drought responses by long-term drought stress. Taken together, these results suggest an effect of SA on ABA signaling/abiotic stress responses during the activation of defense responses in cpr22. PMID:20164209

  19. Molecular characterization of an acidic region deletion mutant of Cockayne syndrome group B protein.

    PubMed

    Sunesen, M; Selzer, R R; Brosh, R M; Balajee, A S; Stevnsner, T; Bohr, V A

    2000-08-15

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human genetic disorder characterized by post-natal growth failure, neurological abnormalities and premature aging. CS cells exhibit high sensitivity to UV light, delayed RNA synthesis recovery after UV irradiation and defective transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Two genetic complementation groups of CS have been identified, designated CS-A and CS-B. The CSB gene encodes a helicase domain and a highly acidic region N-terminal to the helicase domain. This study describes the genetic characterization of a CSB mutant allele encoding a full deletion of the acidic region. We have tested its ability to complement the sensitivity of UV61, the hamster homolog of human CS-B cells, to UV and the genotoxic agent N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF). Deleting 39 consecutive amino acids, of which approximately 60% are negatively charged, did not impact on the ability of the protein to complement the sensitive phenotype of UV61 cells to either UV or NA-AAF. Our data indicate that the highly acidic region of CSB is not essential for the TCR and general genome repair pathways of UV- and NA-AAF-induced DNA lesions. PMID:10931931

  20. Evaluating EDTA as a substitute for phosphoric acid-etching of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Imbery, Terence A; Kennedy, Matthew; Janus, Charles; Moon, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes released when dentin is acid-etched. The enzymes are capable of destroying unprotected collagen fibrils that are not encapsulated by the dentin adhesive. Chlorhexidine applied after etching inhibits the activation of released MMPs, whereas neutral ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) prevents the release of MMPs. The purpose of this study was to determine if conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA can be a substitute for treating acid-etching enamel and dentin with chlorhexidine. A column of composite resin was bonded to enamel and dentin after conditioning. Shear bond strengths were evaluated after 48 hours and after accelerated aging for three hours in 12% sodium hypochlorite. Shear bond strengths ranged from 15.6 MP a for accelerated aged EDTA enamel specimens to 26.8 MPa for dentin conditioned with EDTA and tested after 48 hours. A three-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test found statistically significant differences among the eight groups and the three independent variables (P < 0.05). EDTA was successfully substituted for phosphoric acid-etched enamel and dentin treated with chlorhexidine. Interactions of conditioning agent and aging were significant for dentin but not for enamel. In an effort to reduce the detrimental effects of MMPs, conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA is an alternative to treating acid-etched dentin and enamel with chlorhexidine.

  1. Anaerobic biotransformation of roxarsone and related N-substituted phenylarsonic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortinas, I.; Field, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Garbarino, J.R.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Large quantities of arsenic are introduced into the environment through land application of poultry litter containing the organoarsenical feed additive roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid). The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioconversion of roxarsone and related N-substituted phenylarsonic acid derivatives under anaerobic conditions. The results demonstrate that roxarsone is rapidly transformed in the absence of oxygen to the corresponding aromatic amine, 4-hydroxy-3-aminophenylarsonic acid (HAPA). The formation of HAPA is attributable to the facile reduction of the nitro group. Electron-donating substrates, such as hydrogen gas, glucose, and lactate, stimulated the rate of nitro group reduction, indicating a microbial role. During long-term incubations, HAPA and the closely related 4-aminophenylarsonic acid (4-APA) were slowly biologically eliminated by up to 99% under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions, whereas little or no removal occurred in heat-killed inoculum controls. Arsenite and, to a lesser extent, arsenate were observed as products of the degradation. Freely soluble forms of the inorganic arsenical species accounted for 19-28% of the amino-substituted phenylarsonic acids removed. This constitutes the first report of a biologically catalyzed rupture of the phenylarsonic group under anaerobic conditions. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Fatty Acid Oxidation Mediated by Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 3 Is Required for Mutant KRAS Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Padanad, Mahesh S; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Melegari, Margherita; Rindhe, Smita; Mitsche, Matthew; Yang, Chendong; Batten, Kimberly; Huffman, Kenneth E; Liu, Jingwen; Tang, Ximing; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Kalhor, Neda; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Wistuba, Ignacio I; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-08-01

    KRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer. Mutant KRAS aberrantly regulates metabolic networks. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism to mutant KRAS tumorigenesis is not completely understood. We report that mutant KRAS regulates intracellular fatty acid metabolism through Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3), which converts fatty acids into fatty Acyl-CoA esters, the substrates for lipid synthesis and β-oxidation. ACSL3 suppression is associated with depletion of cellular ATP and causes the death of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, mutant KRAS promotes the cellular uptake, retention, accumulation, and β-oxidation of fatty acids in lung cancer cells in an ACSL3-dependent manner. Finally, ACSL3 is essential for mutant KRAS lung cancer tumorigenesis in vivo and is highly expressed in human lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that mutant KRAS reprograms lipid homeostasis, establishing a metabolic requirement that could be exploited for therapeutic gain. PMID:27477280

  3. Vapor Phase Dehydration of Glycerol to Acrolein Over SBA-15 Supported Vanadium Substituted Phosphomolybdic Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Viswanadham, Balaga; Srikanth, Amirineni; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-07-01

    Vapor phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was investigated over heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts containing vanadium substituted phosphomolybdic acid (H4PMo11VO40) supported on mesoporous SBA-15. A series of HPA catalysts with HPA loadings varying from 10-50 wt% were prepared by impregnation method on SBA-15 support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption of NH3, pyridine adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, pore size distribution and specific surface area measurements. The nature of acidic sites was examined by pyridine adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy. XRD results suggest that the active phase containing HPA was highly dispersed at lower loadings on the support. FT-IR and Raman spectra results confirm that the presence of primary Keggin ion structure of HPA on the support and it was not affected during the preparation of catalysts. Pore size distribution results reveal that all the samples show unimodel pore size distribution with well depicted mesoporous structure. NH3-TPD results suggest that the acidity of catalysts increased with increase of HPA loading. The findings of acidity measurements by FT-IR spectra of pyridine adsorption reveals that the catalysts consist both the Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites and the amount of Brønsted acidic sites are increasing with HPA loading. SBA-15 supported vanadium substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalysts are found to be highly active during the dehydration reaction and exhibited 100% conversion of glycerol (10 wt% of glycerol) and the acrolein selectivity was appreciably changed with HPA active phase loading. The catalytic functionalities during glycerol dehydration are well correlated with surface acidity of the catalysts.

  4. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections

    PubMed Central

    Mingo, Janire; Erramuzpe, Asier; Luna, Sandra; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Amo, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Schepens, Jan T. G.; Hendriks, Wiljan J. A. J.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis. PMID:27548698

  5. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Janire; Erramuzpe, Asier; Luna, Sandra; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Amo, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Schepens, Jan T G; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Cortés, Jesús M; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis. PMID:27548698

  6. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Inhibits an Activated FGFR3 Mutant, and Blocks Downstream Signaling in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, April N.; McAndrew, Christopher W.; Donoghue, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Activating mutations within Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3), a receptor tyrosine kinase, are responsible for human skeletal dysplasias including achondroplasia and the neonatal lethal syndromes, Thanatophoric Dysplasia (TD) type I and II. Several of these same FGFR3 mutations have also been identified somatically in human cancers, including multiple myeloma, bladder carcinoma and cervical cancer. Based on reports that strongly activated mutants of FGFR3 such as the TDII (K650E) mutant signal preferentially from within the secretory pathway, the inhibitory properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which blocks protein transport through the Golgi, were investigated. NDGA was able to inhibit FGFR3 autophosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, signaling molecules downstream of FGFR3 activation such as STAT1, STAT3 and MAPK were inhibited by NDGA treatment. Using HEK293 cells expressing activated FGFR3-TDII, together with several multiple myeloma cell lines expressing activated forms of FGFR3, NDGA generally resulted in a decrease in MAPK activation by 1 hour, and resulted in increased apoptosis over 24 hours. The effects of NDGA on activated FGFR3 derivatives targeted either to the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm were also examined. These results suggest that inhibitory small molecules such as NDGA that target a specific subcellular compartment may be beneficial in the inhibition of activated receptors such as FGFR3 that signal from the same compartment. PMID:18794123

  7. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Flooding-Tolerance Mechanism in Mutant and Abscisic Acid-Treated Soybean.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojian; Nishimura, Minoru; Hajika, Makita; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-06-01

    Flooding negatively affects the growth of soybean, and several flooding-specific stress responses have been identified; however, the mechanisms underlying flooding tolerance in soybean remain unclear. To explore the initial flooding tolerance mechanisms in soybean, flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants were analyzed. In the mutant and ABA-treated soybeans, 146 proteins were commonly changed at the initial flooding stress. Among the identified proteins, protein synthesis-related proteins, including nascent polypeptide-associated complex and chaperonin 20, and RNA regulation-related proteins were increased in abundance both at protein and mRNA expression. However, these proteins identified at the initial flooding stress were not significantly changed during survival stages under continuous flooding. Cluster analysis indicated that glycolysis- and cell wall-related proteins, such as enolase and polygalacturonase inhibiting protein, were increased in abundance during survival stages. Furthermore, lignification of root tissue was improved even under flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that protein synthesis- and RNA regulation-related proteins play a key role in triggering tolerance to the initial flooding stress in soybean. Furthermore, the integrity of cell wall and balance of glycolysis might be important factors for promoting tolerance of soybean root to flooding stress during survival stages.

  8. Branching Mutant rms-2 in Pisum sativum (Grafting Studies and Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels).

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, C. A.; Ross, J. J.; Murfet, I. C.

    1994-01-01

    Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were used to determine the physiological site of action of the Rms-2 gene, which maintains apical dominance, and its effect on endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. In mutant rms-2 scions, which normally produce lateral branches below node 3 and above node 7, apical dominance was almost fully restored by grafting to Rms-2 (wild-type) stocks. In the reciprocal grafts, rms-2 stocks did not promote branching in wild-type shoots. Together, these results suggest that the Rms-2 gene inhibits branching in the shoot of pea by controlling the synthesis of a translocatable (hormone-like) substance that is produced in the roots and/or cotyledons and in the shoot. At all stages, including the stage at which aerial lateral buds commence outgrowth, the level of IAA in rms-2 shoots was elevated (up to 5-fold) in comparison with that in wild-type shoots. The internode length of rms-2 plants was 40% less than in wild-type plants, and the mutant plants allocated significantly more dry weight to the shoot than to the root in comparison with wild-type plants. Grafting to wild-type stocks did not normalize IAA levels or internode length in rms-2 scions, even though it inhibited branching, suggesting that the involvement of Rms-2 in the control of IAA level and internode length may be confined to processes in the shoot. PMID:12232140

  9. A high-throughput method for isolation of salicylic acid metabolic mutants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic pathogens in plants. Quantification of SA levels in plants is critical for dissecting the SA-mediated immune response. Although HPLC and GC/MS are routinely used to determine SA concentrations, they are expensive and time-consuming. We recently described a rapid method for a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification, which enables high-throughput analysis. In this study we describe an improved method for fast sample preparation, and present a high-throughput strategy for isolation of SA metabolic mutants. Results On the basis of the previously described biosensor-based method, we simplified the tissue collection and the SA extraction procedure. Leaf discs were collected and boiled in Luria-Bertani (LB), and then the released SA was measured with the biosensor. The time-consuming steps of weighing samples, grinding tissues and centrifugation were avoided. The direct boiling protocol detected similar differences in SA levels among pathogen-infected wild-type, npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes), and sid2 (SA induction-deficient) plants as did the previously described biosensor-based method and an HPLC-based approach, demonstrating the efficacy of the protocol presented here. We adapted this protocol to a high-throughput format and identified six npr1 suppressors that accumulated lower levels of SA than npr1 upon pathogen infection. Two of the suppressors were found to be allelic to the previously identified eds5 mutant. The other four are more susceptible than npr1 to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 and their identity merits further investigation. Conclusions The rapid SA extraction method by direct boiling of leaf discs further reduced the cost and time required for the biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA estimation, and allowed the screening for npr1 suppressors that accumulated less SA than npr1

  10. 40 CFR 721.10381 - Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and carboxylic acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10381 Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10381 - Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and carboxylic acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10381 Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10381 - Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and carboxylic acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10381 Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl...

  13. Antibody-specific model of amino acid substitution for immunological inferences from alignments of antibody sequences.

    PubMed

    Mirsky, Alexander; Kazandjian, Linda; Anisimova, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Antibodies are glycoproteins produced by the immune system as a dynamically adaptive line of defense against invading pathogens. Very elegant and specific mutational mechanisms allow B lymphocytes to produce a large and diversified repertoire of antibodies, which is modified and enhanced throughout all adulthood. One of these mechanisms is somatic hypermutation, which stochastically mutates nucleotides in the antibody genes, forming new sequences with different properties and, eventually, higher affinity and selectivity to the pathogenic target. As somatic hypermutation involves fast mutation of antibody sequences, this process can be described using a Markov substitution model of molecular evolution. Here, using large sets of antibody sequences from mice and humans, we infer an empirical amino acid substitution model AB, which is specific to antibody sequences. Compared with existing general amino acid models, we show that the AB model provides significantly better description for the somatic evolution of mice and human antibody sequences, as demonstrated on large next generation sequencing (NGS) antibody data. General amino acid models are reflective of conservation at the protein level due to functional constraints, with most frequent amino acids exchanges taking place between residues with the same or similar physicochemical properties. In contrast, within the variable part of antibody sequences we observed an elevated frequency of exchanges between amino acids with distinct physicochemical properties. This is indicative of a sui generis mutational mechanism, specific to antibody somatic hypermutation. We illustrate this property of antibody sequences by a comparative analysis of the network modularity implied by the AB model and general amino acid substitution models. We recommend using the new model for computational studies of antibody sequence maturation, including inference of alignments and phylogenetic trees describing antibody somatic hypermutation in

  14. Overproduction of bioactive retinoic acid in cells expressing disease-associated mutants of retinol dehydrogenase 12.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Popov, Ivan K; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2007-12-01

    Retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) is an NADP(+)-dependent oxidoreductase that in vitro catalyzes the reduction of all-trans-retinaldehyde to all-trans-retinol or the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde depending on substrate and cofactor availability. Recent studies have linked the mutations in RDH12 to severe early-onset autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy. The biochemical basis of photoreceptor cell death caused by mutations in RDH12 is not clear because the physiological role of RDH12 is not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrate that, although bi-directional in vitro, in living cells, RDH12 acts exclusively as a retinaldehyde reductase, shifting the retinoid homeostasis toward the increased levels of retinol and decreased levels of bioactive retinoic acid. The retinaldehyde reductase activity of RDH12 protects the cells from retinaldehyde-induced cell death, especially at high retinaldehyde concentrations, and this protective effect correlates with the lower levels of retinoic acid in RDH12-expressing cells. Disease-associated mutants of RDH12, T49M and I51N, exhibit significant residual activity in vitro, but are unable to control retinoic acid levels in the cells because of their dramatically reduced affinity for NADPH and much lower protein expression levels. These results suggest that RDH12 acts as a regulator of retinoic acid biosynthesis and protects photoreceptors against overproduction of retinoic acid from all-trans-retinaldehyde, which diffuses into the inner segments of photoreceptors from illuminated rhodopsin. These results provide a novel insight into the mechanism of retinal degeneration associated with mutations in RDH12 and are consistent with the observation that RDH12-null mice are highly susceptible to light-induced retinal apoptosis in cone and rod photoreceptors.

  15. L-Ascorbic acid can abrogate SVCT-2-dependent cetuximab resistance mediated by mutant KRAS in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-A; Lee, Dae-Hee; Moon, Jai-Hee; Hong, Seung-Woo; Shin, Jae-Sik; Hwang, Ih Yeon; Shin, Yu Jin; Kim, Jeong Hee; Gong, Eun-Yeung; Kim, Seung-Mi; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Seul; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jung Shin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, TaeWon; Lee, Wang Jae

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer patients with mutant KRAS are resistant to cetuximab, an antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is an effective clinical therapy for patients with wild-type KRAS. Numerous combinatorial therapies have been tested to overcome the resistance to cetuximab. However, no combinations have been found that can be used as effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, we demonstrate that L-ascorbic acid partners with cetuximab to induce killing effects, which are influenced by sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT-2) in human colon cancer cells with a mutant KRAS. L-Ascorbic acid treatment of human colon cancer cells that express a mutant KRAS differentially and synergistically induced cell death with cetuximab in a SVCT-2-dependent manner. The ectopic expression of SVCT-2 induced sensitivity to L-ascorbic acid treatment in human colon cancer cells that do not express SVCT-2, whereas the knockdown of endogenous SVCT-2 induced resistance to L-ascorbic acid treatment in SVCT-2-positive cells. Moreover, tumor regression via the administration of L-ascorbic acid and cetuximab in mice bearing tumor cell xenografts corresponded to SVCT-2 protein levels. Interestingly, cell death induced by the combination of L-ascorbic acid and cetuximab resulted in both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. These cell death mechanisms were related to a disruption of the ERK pathway and were represented by the impaired activation of RAFs and the activation of the ASK-1-p38 pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that resistance to cetuximab in human colon cancer patients with a mutant KRAS can be bypassed by L-ascorbic acid in an SVCT-2-dependent manner. Furthermore, SVCT-2 in mutant KRAS colon cancer may act as a potent marker for potentiating L-ascorbic acid co-treatment with cetuximab.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSTITUTED POLY(STYRENE)-b-POLY(ACRYLIC ACID) BLOCK COPOLYMER MICELLES

    SciTech Connect

    Pickel, Deanna L; Pickel, Joseph M; Devenyi, Jozsef; Britt, Phillip F

    2009-01-01

    Block copolymer micelle synthesis and characterization has been extensively studied. In particular, most studies have focused on the properties of the hydrophilic corona due to the micelle corona structure s impact on the biodistribution and biocompatibility. Unfortunately, less attention has been given to the effect of the core block on the micelle stability, morphology, and the rate of diffusion of small molecules from the core. This investigation is focused on the synthesis of block copolymers composed of meta-substituted styrenes and acrylic acid by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Micelles with cores composed of substituted styrenes having Tgs ranging from -30 to 100 oC have been prepared and the size and shape of these micelles were characterized by Static and Dynamic Light Scattering and TEM. In addition, the critical micelle concentration and rate of diffusion of small molecules from the core were determined by fluorimetry using pyrene as the probe.

  17. Rapid Germination of a Barley Mutant Is Correlated with a Rapid Turnover of Abscisic Acid Outside the Embryo.

    PubMed

    Visser, K.; Vissers, APA.; Cagirgan, M. I.; Kijne, J. W.; Wang, M.

    1996-08-01

    In our study of the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in controlling the germination of barley grains, we tested a barley mutant line with a gigantum appearance (Hordeum distichum cv Quantum) for an ABA-insensitive phenotype by assaying germination in the presence of 10-4 M ABA. Dissected embryos of the mutant germinated at least 10 h earlier than did those of the wild type. The half-maximal concentrations of ABA inhibitory for germination were determined to be 5 x 10-4 M for the mutant and 10-6 M for the wild type. Expression of an ABA-induced Rab gene was studied to determine ABA responsiveness. The ABA concentration required for a half-maximal induction of Rab gene expression was 4 x 10-6 M in isolated embryos of both the mutant and wild type. This result suggests that ABA signal transduction pathways were not affected in the mutant. When isolated embryos were allowed to imbibe in water, ABA was released from the mutant and wild-type embryos at the same rate. However, the free ABA level in the incubation medium of the mutant showed a much faster decrease than that of the wild type, as demonstrated by two independent ABA assay methods (high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Our results suggest that turnover of ABA outside the embryo is a determining factor in the germination of barley seeds.

  18. Dominant negative mutant of retinoic acid receptor alpha inhibits retinoic acid-induced P19 cell differentiation by binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Costa, S L; McBurney, M W

    1996-05-25

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent inducer of P19 cell differentiation. RA activity is thought to be mediated by nuclear RA receptors (RARs), transcription factors whose activity is dependent on RA. There are three RARs called alpha, beta, and gamma. We created truncated versions of the three RARs and compared their activities as inhibitors of RA-mediated gene transcription and of P19 cell differentiation. Only mutants of the RAR alpha were inhibitory in these assays. A mutant of RAR alpha carrying a 10-amino-acid insert was able to heterodimerize with RXRbeta or with the normal RAR alpha and the inhibitory activity of this mutant was dependent on an intact DNA binding domain. We conclude that dominant negative mutants of RAR alpha act by heterodimerizing with RXRs or RARs and binding to RA response elements on DNA, thereby preventing binding of the normal receptors to those sites. PMID:8635515

  19. Spectroscopic determination of acid dissociation constants of N-substituted-6-acylbenzothiazolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sıdır, Yadigar Gülseven; Sıdır, Isa; Berber, Halil

    2011-05-26

    The acid dissociation constants of twelve novel drug precursor N-substituted-6-acylbenzothiazolone derivatives were determined by using the UV-vis spectroscopic technique. The protonation and deprotonation behaviors of the investigated molecules were researched from the super basic to super acid regions (i.e., 8 mol·L(-1) KOH to 98% H(2)SO(4)) including the pH region. It is observed that all of the molecules are protonated in the super acidic region. The calculated relative stability values of possible tautomer structures indicate that the keto form of investigated molecules is favored over the enol form. It was predicted that protonation occurs at the amide (oxo) group found in the keto form.

  20. The Synthesis and Characterization of Substituted Polyaniline Hollow Spheres doped with a Polymeric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Kilmartin, Paul A.

    2009-07-01

    Self-assembled poly(o-toluidine) (POT) and poly(o-anisidine) (POA) hollow spheres were prepared by oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulfate as the oxidant in the presence of 5% by weight of a polymeric acid, poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (PMVEA). The substituent at the ortho position had a significant effect on the size of the hollow nanospheres as determined by SEM and TEM. The nanospheres were of a very uniform size in the presence of the polymeric acid, with average diameters of 338±25 nm for POT and 210±20 nm for POA. The POT and POA hollow spheres were also characterized by FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the chemical identity of the substituted polyanilines.

  1. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Early senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis saul1 mutants involves the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Vogelmann, Katja; Drechsel, Gabriele; Bergler, Johannes; Subert, Christa; Philippar, Katrin; Soll, Jürgen; Engelmann, Julia C; Engelsdorf, Timo; Voll, Lars M; Hoth, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Age-dependent leaf senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) requires activation of the transcription factor ORESARA1 (ORE1) and is not initiated prior to a leaf age of 28 d. Here, we investigate the conditional execution of events that regulate early senescence and cell death in senescence-associated ubiquitin ligase1 (saul1) mutants, deficient in the PLANT U-BOX-ARMADILLO E3 ubiquitin ligase SAUL1. In saul1 mutants challenged with low light, the switch of age-dependent cell death was turned on prematurely, as indicated by the accumulation of ORE1 transcripts, induction of the senescence marker gene SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE12, and cell death. However, ORE1 accumulation by itself was not sufficient to cause saul1 phenotypes, as demonstrated by double mutant analysis. Exposure of saul1 mutants to low light for only 24 h did not result in visible symptoms of senescence; however, the senescence-promoting transcription factor genes WRKY53, WRKY6, and NAC-LIKE ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI were up-regulated, indicating that senescence in saul1 seedlings was already initiated. To resolve the time course of gene expression, microarray experiments were performed at narrow intervals. Differential expression of the genes involved in salicylic acid and defense mechanisms were the earliest events detected, suggesting a central role for salicylic acid in saul1 senescence and cell death. The salicylic acid content increased in low-light-treated saul1 mutants, and application of exogenous salicylic acid was indeed sufficient to trigger saul1 senescence in permissive light conditions. Double mutant analyses showed that PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) but not NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is essential for saul1 phenotypes. Our results indicate that saul1 senescence depends on the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway but does not require NPR1 signaling.

  3. Substitution of DNA-Contacting Amino Acids with Functional Variants in the Gata-1 Zinc Finger: A Structurally and Phylogenetically Guided Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vonderfecht, Tyson R.; Schroyer, Daniel L.; Schenck, Brandy L.; McDonough, Virginia M.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    DNA binding functionality among transcription factor proteins is afforded by a number of structural motifs, such as the helix-turn-helix, helix-loop-helix, and zinc finger domains. The common thread among these diverse structures is their sequence-specific binding to essential promoter or other genetic regulatory sequences with high selectivity and affinity. One such motif, present in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to vertebrates, is the Gata-type zinc finger. This family of DNA-binding proteins is characterized by the presence of one or two (Cys)4 metal binding sites which recognize the protein’s eponymous binding site, GATA. Unlike other conserved DNA binding domains, Gata proteins appear to be restricted to binding consensus GATA sequences, or near variations, in DNA. Since the architecture of the Gata finger seems built around recognizing this particular sequence, we set out to define the allowable range of amino acid substitutions along the DNA-binding surface of a Gata finger that could continue to support sequence specific DNA binding activity. Accordingly, we set up a one-hybrid screen in yeast based on the chicken Gata-1 C-terminal zinc finger. Mutant libraries were generated at five amino acids identified in the Gata-DNA structure as likely to mediate sequence-specific contacts between the Gata finger and DNA. These libraries were designed to give as exhaustive amino acid coverage as possible such that almost all alternative amino acids were screened at each of the five probed positions. Screening and characterization of these libraries revealed several functional amino acid substitutions at two leucines which contact the DNA at the 3’ and 5’ flanks of the GATA binding site, but no functional substituents for amino acids near the core of the binding site. This pattern is consistent with amino acid sequences of known DNA-binding Gata fingers. PMID:18328814

  4. Investigation of acid-base catalysis in the extradiol and intradiol catechol dioxygenase reactions using a broad specificity mutant enzyme and model chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Michela; Schlosrich, Janne; Ahmad, Mark; Tolond, Caroline; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2009-04-01

    The extradiol and intradiol catechol dioxygenase reaction mechanisms proceed via a common proximal hydroperoxide intermediate, which is processed via different Criegee 1,2-rearrangements. An R215W mutant of extradiol dioxygenase MhpB, able to produce a mixture of extradiol and intradiol cleavage products, was analysed at pH 5.2-8.6, and the yield of extradiol product was found to be highly pH-dependent, whereas the yield of intradiol product was pH-independent. The acid-base chemistry of a biomimetic reaction for extradiol oxidative catechol cleavage was also investigated, using 1,4,7-triazacyclononane, FeCl(2), and pyridine in methanol, in which pyridine is proposed to act as both a general base and (in protonated form) a general acid. Kinetic experiments using a range of meta- and para-substituted pyridines gave a Brønsted plot of log(v) vs. pK(a) showing a bell-shaped plot. Oxidative catechol cleavage by a pyridine-monosubstituted beta-cyclodextrin in the presence of TACN and FeCl(2) in methanol yielded only intradiol cleavage products. It is therefore proposed that bifunctional acid-base catalysis is required for iron (ii)-dependent extradiol catechol cleavage, whereas the rate-determining step for intradiol catechol cleavage does not involve acid-base catalysis.

  5. Decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated during malt whisky fermentation.

    PubMed

    van Beek, S; Priest, F G

    2000-12-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation.

  6. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Amino Acid Substitutions in Radiolabeled Neurotensin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Mindt, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled derivatives of the peptide neurotensin (NT) and its binding sequence NT(8-13) have been studied as potential imaging probes and therapeutics for NT-1-receptor-positive cancer. However, a direct comparison of reported NT analogues, even if radiolabeled with the same radionuclide, is difficult because different techniques and models have been used for preclinical evaluations. In an effort to identify a suitable derivative of NT(8-13) for radiotracer development, we herein report a side-by-side in vitro comparison of radiometallated NT derivatives bearing some of the most commonly reported amino acid substitutions in their sequence. Performed investigations include cell internalization experiments, determinations of receptor affinity, measurements of the distribution coefficient, and blood serum stability studies. Of the [(177)Lu]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-labeled examples studied, analogues of NT(8-13) containing a short hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol (PEG4 ) spacer between the peptide and the radiometal complex, and a minimum number of substitutions of amino acid residues, exhibited the most promising properties in vitro. PMID:26593062

  7. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Amino Acid Substitutions in Radiolabeled Neurotensin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Mindt, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled derivatives of the peptide neurotensin (NT) and its binding sequence NT(8-13) have been studied as potential imaging probes and therapeutics for NT-1-receptor-positive cancer. However, a direct comparison of reported NT analogues, even if radiolabeled with the same radionuclide, is difficult because different techniques and models have been used for preclinical evaluations. In an effort to identify a suitable derivative of NT(8-13) for radiotracer development, we herein report a side-by-side in vitro comparison of radiometallated NT derivatives bearing some of the most commonly reported amino acid substitutions in their sequence. Performed investigations include cell internalization experiments, determinations of receptor affinity, measurements of the distribution coefficient, and blood serum stability studies. Of the [(177)Lu]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-labeled examples studied, analogues of NT(8-13) containing a short hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol (PEG4 ) spacer between the peptide and the radiometal complex, and a minimum number of substitutions of amino acid residues, exhibited the most promising properties in vitro.

  8. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers by accelerating EGFR turnover.

    PubMed

    Nam, Boas; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Myung; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-10-01

    Gallic acid is a common botanic phenolic compound, which is present in plants and foods worldwide. Gallic acid is implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Indeed, gallic acid has been shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced apoptosis in cancer, particularly lung cancer, are still unclear. Here, we report that gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in EGFR-WT NSCLC cells. Treatment with gallic acid resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation and induction of apoptosis, only in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Interestingly, treatment with gallic acid led to a robust decrease in EGFR levels, which is critical for NSCLC survival. Treatment with gallic acid had no significant effect on transcription, but induced EGFR turnover. Indeed, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor dramatically reversed gallic acid-induced EGFR downregulation. Moreover, treatment with gallic acid induced EGFR turnover leading to apoptosis in EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines, which are dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. Thus, these studies suggest that gallic acid can induce apoptosis in EGFR-dependent lung cancers that are dependent on EGFR for growth and survival via acceleration of EGFR turnover.

  9. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers by accelerating EGFR turnover.

    PubMed

    Nam, Boas; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Myung; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-10-01

    Gallic acid is a common botanic phenolic compound, which is present in plants and foods worldwide. Gallic acid is implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Indeed, gallic acid has been shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced apoptosis in cancer, particularly lung cancer, are still unclear. Here, we report that gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in EGFR-WT NSCLC cells. Treatment with gallic acid resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation and induction of apoptosis, only in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Interestingly, treatment with gallic acid led to a robust decrease in EGFR levels, which is critical for NSCLC survival. Treatment with gallic acid had no significant effect on transcription, but induced EGFR turnover. Indeed, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor dramatically reversed gallic acid-induced EGFR downregulation. Moreover, treatment with gallic acid induced EGFR turnover leading to apoptosis in EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines, which are dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. Thus, these studies suggest that gallic acid can induce apoptosis in EGFR-dependent lung cancers that are dependent on EGFR for growth and survival via acceleration of EGFR turnover. PMID:27597244

  10. Enhanced L-lactic acid production from biomass-derived xylose by a mutant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Cai, Cong; Jiang, Ting; Zhao, Mingyue; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-08-01

    Xylose effective utilization is crucial for production of bulk chemicals from low-cost lignocellulosic substrates. In this study, an efficient L-lactate production process from xylose by a mutant Bacillus coagulans NL-CC-17 was demonstrated. The nutritional requirements for L-lactate production by B. coagulans NL-CC-17 were optimized statistically in shake flask fermentations. Corn steep liquor powder and yeast exact were identified as the most significant factors by the two-level Plackett-Burman design. Steepest ascent experiments were applied to approach the optimal region of the two factors, and a central composite design was employed to determine their optimal levels. The optimal medium was used to perform batch fermentation in a 3-l bioreactor. A maximum of 90.29 g l(-1)  L-lactic acid was obtained from 100 g l(-1) xylose in 120 h. When using corn stove prehydrolysates as substrates, 23.49 g l(-1)  L-lactic acid was obtained in 36 h and the yield was 83.09 %. PMID:24879598

  11. Amino Acid Substitutions in Cold-Adapted Proteins from Halorubrum lacusprofundi, an Extremely Halophilic Microbe from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    DasSarma, Shiladitya; Capes, Melinda D.; Karan, Ram; DasSarma, Priya

    2013-01-01

    The halophilic Archaeon Halorubrum lacusprofundi, isolated from the perennially cold and hypersaline Deep Lake in Antarctica, was recently sequenced and compared to 12 Haloarchaea from temperate climates by comparative genomics. Amino acid substitutions for 604 H. lacusprofundi proteins belonging to conserved haloarchaeal orthologous groups (cHOGs) were determined and found to occur at 7.85% of positions invariant in proteins from mesophilic Haloarchaea. The following substitutions were observed most frequently: (a) glutamic acid with aspartic acid or alanine; (b) small polar residues with other small polar or non-polar amino acids; (c) small non-polar residues with other small non-polar residues; (d) aromatic residues, especially tryptophan, with other aromatic residues; and (e) some larger polar residues with other similar residues. Amino acid substitutions for a cold-active H. lacusprofundi β-galactosidase were then examined in the context of a homology modeled structure at residues invariant in homologous enzymes from mesophilic Haloarchaea. Similar substitutions were observed as in the genome-wide approach, with the surface accessible regions of β-galactosidase displaying reduced acidity and increased hydrophobicity, and internal regions displaying mainly subtle changes among smaller non-polar and polar residues. These findings are consistent with H. lacusprofundi proteins displaying amino acid substitutions that increase structural flexibility and protein function at low temperature. We discuss the likely mechanisms of protein adaptation to a cold, hypersaline environment on Earth, with possible relevance to life elsewhere. PMID:23536799

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging parameters describing acid phosphate substitution in biologic hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Spevak, Lyudmila; Flach, Carol R; Hunter, Tracey; Mendelsohn, Richard; Boskey, Adele

    2013-05-01

    Acid phosphate substitution into mineralized tissues is an important determinant of their mechanical properties and their response to treatment. This study identifies and validates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI) spectral parameters that provide information on the acid phosphate (HPO4) substitution into hydroxyapatite in developing mineralized tissues. Curve fitting and Fourier self-deconvolution were used to identify subband positions in model compounds (with and without HPO4). The intensity of subbands at 1127 and 1110 cm(-1) correlated with the acid phosphate content in these models. Peak height ratios of these subbands to the ν3 vibration at 1096 cm(-1) found in stoichiometric apatite were evaluated in the model compounds and mixtures thereof. FTIRI spectra of bones and teeth at different developmental ages were analyzed using these spectral parameters. Factor analysis (a chemometric technique) was also conducted on the tissue samples and resulted in factor loadings with spectral features corresponding to the HPO4 vibrations described above. Images of both factor correlation coefficients and the peak height ratios 1127/1096 and 1112/1096 cm(-1) demonstrated higher acid phosphate content in younger vs. more mature regions in the same specimen. Maps of the distribution of acid phosphate content will be useful for characterizing the extent of new bone formation, the areas of potential decreased strength, and the effects of therapies such as those used in metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease) on mineral composition. Because of the wider range of values obtained with the 1127/1096 cm(-1) parameter compared to the 1110/1096 cm(-1) parameter and the smaller scatter in the slope, it is suggested that this ratio should be the parameter of choice.

  13. Mutations in the Prokaryotic Pathway Rescue the fatty acid biosynthesis1 Mutant in the Cold.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinpeng; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-09-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid biosynthesis1 (fab1) mutant has increased levels of the saturated fatty acid 16:0 due to decreased activity of 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase II. In fab1 leaves, phosphatidylglycerol, the major chloroplast phospholipid, contains up to 45% high-melting-point molecular species (molecules that contain only 16:0, 16:1-trans, and 18:0), a trait associated with chilling-sensitive plants, compared with less than 10% in wild-type Arabidopsis. Although they do not exhibit typical chilling sensitivity, when exposed to low temperatures (2°C-6°C) for long periods, fab1 plants do suffer collapse of photosynthesis, degradation of chloroplasts, and eventually death. A screen for suppressors of this low-temperature phenotype has identified 11 lines, some of which contain additional alterations in leaf-lipid composition relative to fab1. Here, we report the identification of two suppressor mutations, one in act1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and one in lpat1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. These enzymes catalyze the first two steps of the prokaryotic pathway for glycerolipid synthesis, so we investigated whether other mutations in this pathway would rescue the fab1 phenotype. Both the gly1 mutation, which reduces glycerol-3-phosphate supply to the prokaryotic pathway, and fad6, which is deficient in the chloroplast 16:1/18:1 fatty acyl desaturase, were discovered to be suppressors. Analyses of leaf-lipid compositions revealed that mutations at all four of the suppressor loci result in reductions in the proportion of high-melting-point molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol relative to fab1. We conclude that these reductions are likely the basis for the suppressor phenotypes.

  14. Immune escape mutants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 selected using polyclonal sera: identification of key amino acids in the HA protein.

    PubMed

    Sitaras, Ioannis; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin; Peeters, Ben; de Jong, Mart C M

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of Avian Influenza (AI) viruses--especially of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype--is a major issue for the poultry industry. HPAI H5N1 epidemics are associated with huge economic losses and are sometimes connected to human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination (either as a preventive measure or as a means to control outbreaks) is an approach that splits the scientific community, due to the risk of it being a potential driving force in HPAI evolution through the selection of mutants able to escape vaccination-induced immunity. It is therefore essential to study how mutations are selected due to immune pressure. To this effect, we performed an in vitro selection of mutants from HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1), using immune pressure from homologous polyclonal sera. After 42 rounds of selection, we identified 5 amino acid substitutions in the Haemagglutinin (HA) protein, most of which were located in areas of antigenic importance and suspected to be prone to selection pressure. We report that most of the mutations took place early in the selection process. Finally, our antigenic cartography studies showed that the antigenic distance between the selected isolates and their parent strain increased with passage number.

  15. Destabilization of pea lectin by substitution of a single amino acid in a surface loop.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaeker, F J; van Eijsden, R R; Díaz, C L; de Pater, B S; Kijne, J W

    1993-09-01

    Legume lectins are considered to be antinutritional factors (ANF) in the animal feeding industry. Inactivation of ANF is an important element in processing of food. In our study on the stability of Pisum sativum L. lectin (PSL), a conserved hydrophobic amino acid (Val103) in a surface loop was replaced with alanine. The mutant lectin, PSL V103A, showed a decrease in unfolding temperature (Tm) by some 10 degrees C in comparison with wild-type (wt) PSL, and the denaturation energy (delta H) is only about 55% of that of wt PSL. Replacement of an adjacent amino acid (Phe104) with alanine did not result in a significant difference in stability in comparison with wt PSL. Both mutations did not change the sugar-binding properties of the lectin, as compared with wt PSL and with PSL from pea seeds, at ambient temperatures. The double mutant, PSL V103A/F104A, was produced in Escherichia coli, but could not be isolated in an active (i.e. sugar-binding) form. Interestingly, the mutation in PSL V103A reversibly affected sugar-binding at 37 degrees C, as judged from haemagglutination assays. These results open the possibility of production of lectins that are active in planta at ambient temperatures, but are inactive and possibly non-toxic at 37 degrees C in the intestines of mammals. PMID:8400124

  16. Oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene mutants of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum do not accumulate oxalic acid, but do produce limited lesions on host plants.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaofei; Liberti, Daniele; Li, Moyi; Kim, Young-Tae; Hutchens, Andrew; Wilson, Ron; Rollins, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-01

    The oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH, EC 3.7.1.1)-encoding gene Ss-oah1 was cloned and functionally characterized from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ss-oah1 transcript accumulation mirrored oxalic acid (OA) accumulation with neutral pH induction dependent on the pH-responsive transcriptional regulator Ss-Pac1. Unlike previously characterized ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxalate-deficient mutants ('A' mutants) which retain the capacity to accumulate OA, gene deletion Δss-oah1 mutants did not accumulate OA in culture or during plant infection. This defect in OA accumulation was fully restored on reintroduction of the wild-type (WT) Ss-oah1 gene. The Δss-oah1 mutants were also deficient in compound appressorium and sclerotium development and exhibited a severe radial growth defect on medium buffered at neutral pH. On a variety of plant hosts, the Δss-oah1 mutants established very restricted lesions in which the infectious hyphae gradually lost viability. Cytological comparisons of WT and Δss-oah1 infections revealed low and no OA accumulation, respectively, in subcuticular hyphae. Both WT and mutant hyphae exhibited a transient association with viable host epidermal cells at the infection front. In summary, our experimental data establish a critical requirement for OAH activity in S. sclerotiorum OA biogenesis and pathogenesis, but also suggest that factors independent of OA contribute to the establishment of primary lesions. PMID:25285668

  17. Isolation of a spontaneous CHO amino acid transport mutant by a combination of tritium suicide and replica plating

    SciTech Connect

    Dantzig, A.H.; Slayman, C.W.; Adelberg, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    A spontaneous transport mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, CHY-1, was isolated by a combination of (/sup 3/H)proline suicide and replica plating. The mutant took up less tritium than the parent, resulting in a lower killing rate during storage. Transport by four separate amino acid transport systems (A, ASC, L, Ly+) was examined. The CHY-1 mutant exhibited normal uptake via the ASC, L, and Ly+ systems. By contrast, uptake of the most specific substrate of the A system, 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, was significantly reduced at low, but not high, concentrations, due to a 3.5-fold increase in Km and a 1.5-fold increase in Vmax. Taken together, these data suggest that the CHY-1 mutation may be in the structural gene coding for the A transport protein. The tritium suicide procedure is discussed, and general equations are derived to predict the maximum storage time for the survival of one mutant cell and the optimum size of the cell population for maximum mutant enrichment.

  18. The Amino Acid Substitution Q65H in the 2C Protein of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus Confers Resistance to Golgi Disrupting Drugs.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Caridi, Flavia; González-Magaldi, Mónica; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Sobrino, Francisco; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine pathogen and a member of the species Enterovirus B within the Picornaviridae family. Brefeldin A (BFA) is an inhibitor of guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf proteins that induces Golgi complex disassembly and alters the cellular secretory pathway. Since BFA has been shown to inhibit the RNA replication of different enteroviruses, including SVDV, we have analyzed the effect of BFA and of golgicide A (GCA), another Golgi disrupting drug, on SVDV multiplication. BFA and GCA similarly inhibited SVDV production. To investigate the molecular basis of the antiviral effect of BFA, SVDV mutants with increased resistance to BFA were isolated. A single amino acid substitution, Q65H, in the non-structural protein 2C was found to be responsible for increased resistance to BFA. These results provide new insight into the relationship of enteroviruses with the components of the secretory pathway and on the role of SVDV 2C protein in this process.

  19. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  4. Effect of ring substitution on the metabolic fate and anti-inflammatory activity of some prodolic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W T; Martel, R R; Ferdinandi, E; Kraml, M

    1977-12-01

    Prodolic acid, 1-n-propyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1-acetic acid, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in adjuvant arthritic rats. The potency of prodolic acid is enhanced by indole ring substitution. This increase correlated well with higher and sustained drug concentrations in the serum of normal animals. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that ring substitution prolonged the serum half-life without affecting the absorption or volume of distribution. Because, in the rat, indole ring hydroxylation is a major pathway for the disposition of prodolic acid, we ascribe the increased pharmacological activity of ring substituted derivatives to the interference of substituents with the hydroxylation reaction. PMID:925966

  5. Amino acid substitutions in mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 associated with reduced susceptibility to cefixime in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Sho; Senju, Nami; Osaki, Yumi; Yoshida, Takuji; Ida, Takashi

    2006-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms of reduced susceptibility to cefixime in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly amino acid substitutions in mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), were examined. The complete sequence of ponA, penA, and por genes, encoding, respectively, PBP1, PBP2, and porin, were determined for 58 strains isolated in 2002 from Japan. Replacement of leucine 421 by proline in PBP1 and the mosaic-like structure of PBP2 were detected in 48 strains (82.8%) and 28 strains (48.3%), respectively. The presence of mosaic PBP2 was the main cause of the elevated cefixime MIC (4- to 64-fold). In order to identify the mutations responsible for the reduced susceptibility to cefixime in isolates with mosaic PBP2, penA genes with various mutations were transferred to a susceptible strain by genetic transformation. The susceptibility of partial recombinants and site-directed mutants revealed that the replacement of glycine 545 by serine (G545S) was the primary mutation, which led to a two- to fourfold increase in resistance to cephems. Replacement of isoleucine 312 by methionine (I312M) and valine 316 by threonine (V316T), in the presence of the G545S mutation, reduced susceptibility to cefixime, ceftibuten, and cefpodoxime by an additional fourfold. Therefore, three mutations (G545S, I312M, and V316T) in mosaic PBP2 were identified as the amino acid substitutions responsible for reduced susceptibility to cefixime in N. gonorrhoeae.

  6. Study of effect of substitution of the penultimate amino acid residue on expression, structure, and functional properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis OmpY porin.

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, T F; Tischenko, N M; Khomenko, V A; Portnyagina, O Y; Kim, N Y; Likhatskaya, G N; Novikova, O D; Isaeva, M P

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis proteins, wild-type porin OmpY and the mutant porin OmpY designated as OmpY-Q having the uncharged amino acid residue Gln instead of positively charged Arg at the penultimate position in the same heterologous host. According to the literature, a similar substitution (Lys to Gln) of the penultimate amino acid residue in Neisseria meningitidis porin PorA drastically improved the assembly of the protein in the E. coli outer membrane in vivo. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace Arg by Gln (R338Q) in OmpY, and the conditions for optimal expression and maturation of OmpY-Q were selected. It was found that the growth rates of E. coli strains producing OmpY and OmpY-Q and the expression levels of the porins were approximately equal. Comparative analysis of recombinant OmpY and OmpY-Q did not show significant differences in structure, antigenic, and functional properties of the porins, or any noticeable effect of the R338Q substitution in OmpY on its assembly in the E. coli outer membrane in vivo. The probable causes of discrepancies between our results and the previous data on porin PorA are discussed considering the known mechanisms of biogenesis of porins at the periplasmic stage.

  7. Amino acid substitutions in GyrA and ParC are associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycoplasma bovis isolates from Japanese dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toyotaka; Okubo, Torahiko; Usui, Masaru; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations to fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin) susceptibility in 58 Mycoplasma bovis isolates from dairy cattle in Japan. Fluoroquinolone non-resistant isolates (fluoroquinolone-MICs≤2 μg/ml) possessed no QRDR mutations (19 isolates) or Ser83Leu in GyrA (32 isolates). Fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (fluoroquinolone-MICs≥4 μg/ml) possessed Ser83Leu in GyrA and Ser81Pro in ParC (3 isolates) or Ser83Phe in GyrA and Ser80Ile in ParC (4 isolates). Laboratory-derived fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants selected from 2 isolates (possessing Ser83Leu in GyrA) had an amino acid substitution in ParC at the same position (Ser80Ile or Ser81Tyr) as fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, suggesting a concurrent amino acid substitution in ParC (Ser80 or Ser81) is important in fluoroquinolone resistance in M. bovis isolates.

  8. An active site mutant of Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase forms new non-natural fatty acids providing insights on the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    E, Guangqi; Drujon, Thierry; Correia, Isabelle; Ploux, Olivier; Guianvarc'h, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    We have produced and purified an active site mutant of the Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) by replacing the strictly conserved G236 within cyclopropane synthases, by a glutamate residue, which corresponds to E146 of the homologous mycolic acid methyltransferase, Hma, producing hydroxymethyl mycolic acids. The G236E CFAS mutant had less than 1% of the in vitro activity of the wild type enzyme. We expressed the G236E CFAS mutant in an E. coli (DE3) strain in which the chromosomal cfa gene had been deleted. After extraction of phospholipids and conversion into the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), we observed the formation of cyclopropanated FAMEs suggesting that the mutant retained some of the normal activity in vivo. However, we also observed the formation of new C17 methyl-branched unsaturated FAMEs whose structures were determined using GC/MS and NMR analyses. The double bond was located at different positions 8, 9 or 10, and the methyl group at position 10 or 9. Thus, this new FAMEs are likely arising from a 16:1 acyl chain of a phospholipid that had been transformed by the G236E CFAS mutant in vivo. The reaction catalyzed by this G236E CFAS mutant thus starts by the methylation of the unsaturated acyl chain at position 10 or 9 yielding a carbocation at position 9 or 10 respectively. It follows then two competing steps, a normal cyclopropanation or hydride shift/elimination events giving different combinations of alkenes. This study not only provides further evidence that cyclopropane synthases (CSs) form a carbocationic intermediate but also opens the way to CSs engineering for the synthesis of non-natural fatty acids.

  9. Improvement of L-lactic acid production by osmotic-tolerant mutant of Lactobacillus casei at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang-Yang; Yuan, Jian; Qin, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2011-01-01

    L-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei was used as a model to study the mechanism of substrate inhibition and the strategy for enhancing L-lactic acid production. It was found that the concentration of cell growth and L-lactate decreased with the increase of glucose concentration and fermentation temperature. To enhance the osmotic stress resistance of the strain at high temperature, a mutant G-03 was screened and selected with 360 g/L glucose at 45°C as the selective criterion. To further increase the cell growth for lactic acid production, 3 g/L of biotin was supplemented to the medium. As a result, L: -lactate concentration by the mutant G-03 reached 198.2 g/L (productivity of 5.5 g L(-1) h(-1)) at 41°C in a 7-L fermentor with 210 g/L glucose as carbon source. L: -Lactate concentration and productivity of mutant G-03 were 115.2% and 97.8% higher than those of the parent strain, respectively. The strategy for enhancing L: -lactic acid production by increasing osmotic stress resistance at high temperature may provide an alternative approach to enhance organic acid production with other strains. PMID:20857288

  10. Biochemical characterization of temperature-induced changes in lipid metabolism in a high oleic acid mutant of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Guerra, D J

    1994-11-15

    We have characterized a Brassica rapa mutant (WR586) that has low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (D.L. Auld et al., 1992, Crop Sci. 32, 657-662). The mutant lacked oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine desaturase (ODS) activity when assayed in 6-day-old seedlings. To further characterize the mutant, the leaf fatty acid composition and major galactolipids and phospholipids were characterized in mutant (WR586) and control (cultivar "Tobin") plants grown at either 26 degrees C/26 degrees C or 10 degrees C/5 degrees C. Fatty acid profiles show significantly higher 18:1 levels in WR586 throughout 12 days of germination. The amount of saturated fatty acids decreased with a concomitant increase of 18:1. Ratios of 18:1/18:2 revealed that WR586 maintains higher mole percent of 18:1 than Tobin at all times and temperature regimes because of a lack of desaturation to 18:2. Values for monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol 18:1/18:2 ratios indicate a disparity in the concentration of 18:1 between WR586 and Tobin grown in either temperature during early germination. The phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine 18:1/18:2 ratios were higher in WR586 compared to Tobin and remained higher throughout the 12-day period. In WR586, 18:1 always accumulated to higher levels in the cooler temperature. In Tobin, 18:1 concentrations paralleled 18:2 in both temperature regimes. These results indicate that the lesion in the mutant WR586 resides at the ODS locus, 18:1 synthesis is chilling induced, and the microsomal desaturation pathway is the most prominent in early developing Brassica seedlings.

  11. Biochemical and biological analysis of Mek1 phosphorylation site mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W; Kessler, D S; Erikson, R L

    1995-01-01

    Recently, we described the constitutive activation of Mek1 by mutation of its two serine phosphorylation sites. We have now characterized the biochemical properties of these Mek1 mutants and performed microinjection experiments to investigate the effect of an activated Mek on oocyte maturation. Single acidic substitution of either serine 218 or 222 activated Mek1 by 10-50 fold. The double acidic substitutions, [Asp218, Asp222] and [Asp218, Glu222], activated Mek1 over 6000-fold. The specific activity of the [Asp218, Asp222] and [Asp218, Glu222] Mek1 mutants, 29 nanomole phosphate per minute per milligram, is similar to that of wild-type Mek1 activated by Raf-1 in vitro. Although the mutants with double acidic substitutions could not be further activated by Raf-1, three of those with single acidic substitution were activated by Raf-1 to the specific activity of activated wild-type Mek1. Injection of the [Asp218, Asp222] Mek1 mutant into Xenopus oocytes activated both MAP kinase and histone H1 kinase and induced germinal vesicle breakdown, an effect that was only partially blocked by inhibition of protein synthesis. These data provide a measure of Mek's potential to influence cell functions and a quantitative basis to assess the biological effects of Mek1 mutants in a variety of circumstances. Images PMID:7612960

  12. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Vogel, Heiko; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-10-13

    For sexual communication, moths primarily use blends of fatty acid derivatives containing one or more double bonds in various positions and configurations, called sex pheromones (SPs). To study the molecular basis of novel SP component (SPC) acquisition, we used the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), which uses a blend of mono-, di-, and uncommon triunsaturated fatty acid (3UFA) derivatives as SP. We identified pheromone-biosynthetic fatty acid desaturases (FADs) MsexD3, MsexD5, and MsexD6 abundantly expressed in the M. sexta female pheromone gland. Their functional characterization and in vivo application of FAD substrates indicated that MsexD3 and MsexD5 biosynthesize 3UFAs via E/Z14 desaturation from diunsaturated fatty acids produced by previously characterized Z11-desaturase/conjugase MsexD2. Site-directed mutagenesis of sequentially highly similar MsexD3 and MsexD2 demonstrated that swapping of a single amino acid in the fatty acyl substrate binding tunnel introduces E/Z14-desaturase specificity to mutated MsexD2. Reconstruction of FAD gene phylogeny indicates that MsexD3 was recruited for biosynthesis of 3UFA SPCs in M. sexta lineage via gene duplication and neofunctionalization, whereas MsexD5 representing an alternative 3UFA-producing FAD has been acquired via activation of a presumably inactive ancestral MsexD5. Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. PMID:26417103

  13. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    PubMed Central

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Vogel, Heiko; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    For sexual communication, moths primarily use blends of fatty acid derivatives containing one or more double bonds in various positions and configurations, called sex pheromones (SPs). To study the molecular basis of novel SP component (SPC) acquisition, we used the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), which uses a blend of mono-, di-, and uncommon triunsaturated fatty acid (3UFA) derivatives as SP. We identified pheromone-biosynthetic fatty acid desaturases (FADs) MsexD3, MsexD5, and MsexD6 abundantly expressed in the M. sexta female pheromone gland. Their functional characterization and in vivo application of FAD substrates indicated that MsexD3 and MsexD5 biosynthesize 3UFAs via E/Z14 desaturation from diunsaturated fatty acids produced by previously characterized Z11-desaturase/conjugase MsexD2. Site-directed mutagenesis of sequentially highly similar MsexD3 and MsexD2 demonstrated that swapping of a single amino acid in the fatty acyl substrate binding tunnel introduces E/Z14-desaturase specificity to mutated MsexD2. Reconstruction of FAD gene phylogeny indicates that MsexD3 was recruited for biosynthesis of 3UFA SPCs in M. sexta lineage via gene duplication and neofunctionalization, whereas MsexD5 representing an alternative 3UFA-producing FAD has been acquired via activation of a presumably inactive ancestral MsexD5. Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. PMID:26417103

  14. Effects of ion substitution on bile acid-dependent and -independent bile formation by rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, R W; Stephens, J E; Scharschmidt, B F

    1982-01-01

    To characterize the transport mechanisms responsible for formation of canalicular bile, we have examined the effects of ion substitution on bile acid-dependent and bile acid-independent bile formation by the isolated perfused rat liver. Complete replacement of perfusate sodium with choline and lithium abolished taurocholate-induced choleresis and reduced biliary taurocholate output by greater than 70%. Partial replacement of perfusate sodium (25 of 128 mM) by choline reduced bile acid-independent bile formation by 30% and replacement of the remaining sodium (103 mM) by choline reduced bile acid-independent bile formation by an additional 64%. In contrast, replacement of the remaining sodium (103 mM) by lithium reduced bile acid-independent bile formation by only an additional 20%, while complete replacement of sodium (128 mM) by lithium reduced bile formation by only 17%, and lithium replaced sodium as the predominant biliary cation. Replacement of perfusate bicarbonate by Tricine, a zwitterionic amino acid buffer, decreased bile acid-independent bile formation by greater than or equal to 50% and decreased biliary bicarbonate output by approximately 60%, regardless of the accompanying cation. In separate experiments, replacement of sodium by lithium essentially abolished Na,K-ATPase activity measured either as ouabain-suppressible ATP hydrolysis in rat liver or kidney homogenates, or as ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake by cultured rat hepatocytes. These studies indicate that bile acid(taurocholate)-dependent bile formation by rat liver exhibits a specific requirement for sodium, a finding probably attributable to the role(s) of sodium in hepatic sodium-coupled taurocholate uptake and/or in maintenance of Na,K-ATPase activity. The surprising finding that bile acid-independent bile formation was substantially unaltered by complete replacement of sodium with the permeant cation lithium does not appear to be explained by Na,K-ATPase-mediated lithium transport. Although

  15. Graviresponsiveness and abscisic-acid content of roots of carotenoid-deficient mutants of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Smith, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The abscisic-acid (ABA) content of roots of the carotenoid-deficient w-3, vp-5, and vp-7 mutants of Z. mays was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with an analysis sensitivity of 6 ng ABA g-1 fresh weight (FW). Roots of normal seedlings of the same lines were characterized by the following amounts of ABA (as ng ABA g-1 FW, +/- standard deviation): w-3, 279 +/- 43; vp-5, 237 +/- 26; vp-7, 338 +/- 61. We did not detect any ABA in roots of any of the mutants. Thus, the lack of carotenoids in these mutants correlated positively with the apparent absence of ABA. Primary roots of normal and mutant seedlings were positively gravitropic, with no significant differences in the curvatures of roots of normal as compared with mutant seedlings. These results indicate that ABA 1) is synthesized in maize roots via the carotenoid pathway, and 2) is not necessary for positive gravitropism by primary roots of Z. mays.

  16. An amino acid substitution (L925V) associated with resistance to pyrethroids in Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Davies, T G Emyr; Field, Linda M; Kennedy, Peter J; Williamson, Martin S

    2013-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an important pest of honeybees and has played a prominent role in the decline in bee colony numbers over recent years. Although pyrethroids such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin can be highly effective in removing the mites from hives, their intensive use has led to many reports of resistance. To investigate the mechanism of resistance in UK Varroa samples, the transmembrane domain regions of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel (the main target site for pyrethroids) were PCR amplified and sequenced from pyrethroid treated/untreated mites collected at several locations in Central/Southern England. A novel amino acid substitution, L925V, was identified that maps to a known hot spot for resistance within the domain IIS5 helix of the channel protein; a region that has also been proposed to form part of the pyrethroid binding site. Using a high throughput diagnostic assay capable of detecting the mutation in individual mites, the L925V substitution was found to correlate well with resistance, being present in all mites that had survived tau-fluvalinate treatment but in only 8 % of control, untreated samples. The potential for using this assay to detect and manage resistance in Varroa-infected hives is discussed.

  17. Effect of D-amino acid substitutions on Ni(II)-assisted peptide bond hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Hanieh H; Polkowska-Nowakowska, Agnieszka; Bal, Wojciech

    2013-03-01

    Previously we demonstrated the sequence-specific hydrolysis of the R1-(Ser/Thr)-peptide bond in Ni(II) complexes of peptides with a general R1-(Ser/Thr)-Xaa-His-Zaa-R2 sequence (R1 and R2 being any sequences) (Kopera, E.; Krezel, A.; Protas, A. M.; Belczyk, A.; Bonna, A.; Wyslouch-Cieszynska, A.; Poznanski, J.; Bal, W. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 6636). In order to refine our understanding of the mechanism of this reaction and to find ways to accelerate it, we undertook a systematic study of effects of d-amino acid substitutions in the template Ac-Gly-Ala-Ser-Arg-His-Trp-Lys-Phe-Leu-NH2 peptide on the hydrolysis rate constants. We found that all stereochemical alterations made around the Ni(II) chelate plane resulted in the decrease of the reaction rate. However, the Ni(II) coordination, a prerequisite to the reaction, was not compromised by these substitutions. We demonstrated that the reaction is only possible when either the side chain of the crucial Ser (or Thr) residue is on the same part of the chelate plane as the next residue in the sequence (Arg), or the side chain of the residue following His (Trp) resides on the opposite side of the plane. The rate of reaction is the fastest when both these conditions are fulfilled. Another novel effect is the strong dependence of the rate of the acyl shift step on the character of the leaving group. PMID:23427909

  18. Kinetic studies of guanine recognition and a phosphate group subsite on ribonuclease T1 using substitution mutants at Glu46 and Lys41.

    PubMed

    Jo Chitester, Betty; Walz, Frederick G

    2002-10-01

    pH-Dependent kinetic studies were performed with ribonuclease T1 (RNase T1) and its Glu46Ser, Lys41Met, and Lys41Thr mutants with GpC and polyinosinic acid (PolyI) as substrates. Plots of pH versus log(k(cat)/K(M)) for both substrates had ascending slopes that were significantly greater for RNase T1 compared with Glu46Ser-RNase T1, which indicated that the gamma-carboxyl group of conserved Glu46 must be deprotonated (anionic) for maximal interaction with N1H and N2H of the guanine moiety of GpC or the N1H of the hypoxanthine moiety of PolyI. The involvement of the epsilon -ammonium group of nonconserved Lys41 at the 2p subsite (i.e., for an RNA phosphate group two nucleotide positions 5'-upstream from the active site) was supported by comparisons of Lys41Met-RNase T1 and Lys41Thr-RNase T1 with wild-type. These mutants shared identical catalytic properties (i.e., k(cat) and K(M)) with wild-type using GpC as a substrate. However, k(cat)/K(M) for both were identical with each other but lower than those for wild-type when PolyI was the substrate (PolyI has a phosphate group that could interact at a putative 2p site). The pH dependence of this latter difference can be interpreted as reflecting the loss of the 2p subsite interaction with the wild-type enzyme upon deprotonation of the epsilon -ammonium group of Lys41. Subsite interactions for ribonucleases are shown to mainly increase k(cat) and result in an attenuated pH dependence of k(cat)/K(M). PMID:12234492

  19. Cu(II) /TEMPO-promoted one-pot synthesis of highly substituted pyrimidines from amino acid esters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nini; Xie, Tao; Li, Zhongle; Xie, Zhixiang

    2014-12-22

    A novel, Cu(OAc)2/TEMPO promoted one-step approach for the preparation of fully substituted pyrimidines from readily available amino acid esters has been described. In this reaction, the amino acid esters act as the only N-C sources for the construction of corresponding pyrimidines. The mechanism of this process includes oxidative dehydrogenation, the generation of an imine radical, and a formal [3+3] cycloaddition. This methodology proves to be a high atom-economic and straightforward strategy for the synthesis of pyrimidines and diverse substrates which are substituted by various functional groups have been afforded in moderate to good yield. PMID:25377658

  20. Characterization of binding and structural properties of rat liver fatty-acid-binding protein using tryptophan mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Thumser, A E; Wilton, D C

    1994-01-01

    Rat liver fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) does not contain tryptophan. Three mutant proteins have been produced in which a single tryptophan residue has been inserted by site-directed mutagenesis at positions 3 (F3W), 18 (F18W) and 69 (C69W). These tryptophans have been strategically located in order to provide fluorescent reporter groups to study the binding and structural characteristics of rat liver FABP. Two fluorescent fatty acid analogues, DAUDA (11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1- sulphonyl)amino]undecanoic acid) and 3-[p-(6-phenyl)-hexa-1,3,5-trienyl]phenylpropionic acid, showed no significant difference in binding affinities for the different mutant proteins, although maximum fluorescence values were decreased for F3W and increased for C69W. These findings were confirmed by studies of DAUDA displacement by oleate. Protein-denaturation studies in the presence of urea indicated subtle differences for the three mutants which could be explained by multiple unfolding pathways. Fatty acid binding increased tryptophan fluorescence emission in the case of the F18W protein, but had no effect on the F3W and C69W proteins. Fluorescence quenching studies with 2-bromopalmitate showed that a fatty acid carboxylate is close to the tryptophan in the F18W protein. Energy-transfer studies showed that the fluorescent moiety of DAUDA is equidistant from the three mutated amino acids and is bound within the beta-clam solvent cavity of liver FABP. This interpretation of the fluorescence quenching and energy-transfer data supports the difference in ligand orientation between intestinal and liver FABP observed in previous studies. PMID:8010966

  1. Acid mine drainage simulated leaching behavior of goethite and cobalt substituted goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penprase, S. B.; Kimball, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Though most modern day mining aims to eliminate the seepage of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the local watershed, historical mines regularly receive little to no remediation, and often release acidic, metal-rich drainage and particles to the environment. Treatment of AMD often includes neutralizing pH to facilitate the precipitation of Fe-oxides and dissolved trace metals, thereby forming Trace Metal Substituted (TMS) forms of known minerals, such as goethite (α-FeOOH). The stability of TMS precipitates is not fully understood. As a result, we conducted a 20 day leach experiment using laboratory synthesized pure (Gt) and cobalt-substituted (CoGt) goethites with a dilute ultrapure HCl solution (pH = 3.61) at T = 23.3±2.5ºC. Leached solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy paired with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Leach solutions were sampled for pH and conductivity, and dissolved chemistry was determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Preliminary results indicate Gt and CoGt filtered leach solutions experienced constant pH (Gt = 3.9 ± 0.1, CoGt = 6.8 ± 0.2) and conductivity (Gt = 69 ± 6.6 μS/cm, CoGt = 81 ± 16 μS/cm) for t = 0-20 days. Micro-focused XRD results indicate that leached solids did not change in mineralogy throughout the experiment, and SEM images show minor disintegration along mineral grain edges, but little overall change in shape. Preliminary ICP-MS results show lower dissolved Fe concentrations for CoGt (1.1 ± 1.1 ppb) compared to Gt (17 ± 8.9 ppb) over time. Dissolved Co concentrations ranged from 560 - 830 ppb and increased over time. Compared to leaching of pure Gt, leaching of CoGt generated significantly higher pH, slightly higher conductivity, and significantly less dissolved Fe. During the CoGt leach, Co was preferentially leached over Fe. The differences in leaching behavior between pure and TMS goethite in the laboratory have implications for

  2. Species-Dependent Phenotypes of Replication-Temperature-Sensitive trfA Mutants of Plasmid RK2: a Codon-Neutral Base Substitution Stimulates Temperature Sensitivity by Leading to Reduced Levels of trfA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Ponniah; Blatny, Janet Martha; Ertesvåg, Helga; Valla, Svein

    1998-01-01

    TrfA is the only plasmid-encoded protein required for initiation of replication of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2. Here we describe the isolation of four trfA mutants temperature sensitive for replication in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of the mutations led to substitution of arginine 247 with cysteine. This mutant has been previously described to be temperature sensitive for replication, but poorly functional, in Escherichia coli. The remaining three mutants were identical, and each of them carried two mutations, one leading to substitution of arginine 163 with cysteine (mutation 163C) and the other a codon-neutral mutation changing the codon for glycine 235 from GGC to GGU (mutation 235). Neither of the two mutations caused a temperature-sensitive phenotype alone in P. aeruginosa, and the effect of the neutral mutation was caused by its ability to strongly reduce the trfA expression level. The double mutant and mutant 163C could not be stably maintained in E. coli, but mutant 235 could be established and, surprisingly, displayed a temperature-sensitive phenotype in this host. Mutation 235 strongly reduced the trfA expression level also in E. coli. The glycine 85 codon in trfA mRNA is GGU, and a change of this to GGC did not significantly affect expression. In addition, we found that wild-type trfA was expressed at much lower levels in E. coli than in P. aeruginosa, indicating that this level is a key parameter in the determination of the temperature-sensitive phenotypes in different species. The E. coli lacZ gene was translationally fused at the 3′ end and internally in trfA, in both cases leading to elimination of the effect of mutation 235 on expression. We therefore propose that this mutation acts through an effect on mRNA structure or stability. PMID:9683473

  3. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    PubMed Central

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  4. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Benjamin B; Stecker, Kelly E; Sussman, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)¹ is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  5. A combined physiological and proteomic approach to reveal lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang and its mutant with enhanced lactic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei has traditionally been recognized as a probiotic and frequently used as an adjunct culture in fermented dairy products, where acid stress is an environmental condition commonly encountered. In the present study, we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic study to investigate lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang (WT) and its acid-resistant mutant. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the mutant exhibited 33.8% higher glucose phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system activity and lower glycolytic pH compared with the WT under acidic conditions. In addition, significant differences were detected in both cells during acid stress between intracellular physiological state, including intracellular pH, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. Comparison of the proteomic data based on 2D-DIGE and i-TRAQ indicated that acid stress invoked a global change in both strains. The mutant protected the cells against acid damage by regulating the expression of key proteins involved in cellular metabolism, DNA replication, RNA synthesis, translation, and some chaperones. Proteome results were validated by Lactobacillus casei displaying higher intracellular aspartate and arginine levels, and the survival at pH 3.3 was improved 1.36- and 2.10-fold by the addition of 50-mM aspartate and arginine, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that aspartate may be involved in acid tolerance in Lactobacillus casei. Results presented here may help us understand acid resistance mechanisms and help formulate new strategies to enhance the industrial applications of this species. PMID:22159611

  6. Amino-acid substitution in alpha-spectrin commonly coinherited with nondominant hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tse, W T; Gallagher, P G; Jenkins, P B; Wang, Y; Benoit, L; Speicher, D; Winkelmann, J C; Agre, P; Forget, B G; Marchesi, S L

    1997-03-01

    Nondominant hereditary spherocytosis (ndHS) is a disorder characterized in some patients by severe hemolytic anemia and marked deficiency of erythrocyte spectrin. This report describes the identification of a variant spectrin chain, alpha-spectrin Bughill or alpha(BH), that is associated with this disorder in a number of patients. Tryptic maps of spectrin from affected individuals revealed an acidic shift in isoelectric point of the alphaII domain peptides at 46 kD and 35 kD. A point mutation at codon 970 of the alpha-spectrin gene (GCT-->GAT), that changes the encoded amino acid from an alanine to an aspartic acid, was identified in genomic DNA of affected patients. The alpha(BH) variant was present in 8 patients with ndHS from five different kindreds but was absent in 4 patients from two other kindreds. The 8 ndHS patients with the alpha(BH) variant appeared to be homozygous for the alpha(BH) variant by analysis of peptide maps of limited tryptic digests of erythrocyte spectrin. However, following genomic DNA analysis, only 2 of these patients were true homozygotes, whereas 6 were found to be doubly heterozygous for the alpha(BH) allele and a second, presumably abnormal, alpha-spectrin gene. These results suggest that, in these 6 patients, the second alpha-spectrin allele is in fact associated with one or more genetic defect(s), causing decreased accumulation of alpha-spectrin. The pattern of transmission of the alpha(BH) allele in certain families suggests that the alpha(BH) amino-acid substitution is not itself responsible for ndHS but is more likely a polymorphic variant that, in some but not all cases, is in linkage disequilibrium with another uncharacterized alpha-spectrin gene defect that itself is a cause of ndHS. PMID:9067503

  7. Substitution of a single amino acid residue in the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter alters the transport profiles of tonoplast aquaporin homologs.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Yoshikawa, Naoki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and some small solutes across cellular membranes. X-ray crystallography of aquaporins indicates that four amino acids constitute an aromatic/arginine (ar/R) pore constriction known as the selectivity filter. On the basis of these four amino acids, tonoplast aquaporins called tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) are divided into three groups in Arabidopsis. Herein, we describe the characterization of two group I TIP1s (TgTIP1;1 and TgTIP1;2) from tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). TgTIP1;1 and TgTIP1;2 have a novel isoleucine in loop E (LE2 position) of the ar/R filter; the residue at LE2 is a valine in all group I TIPs from model plants. The homologs showed mercury-sensitive water channel activity in a fast kinetics swelling assay upon heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. Heterologous expression of both homologs promoted the growth of P. pastoris on ammonium or urea as sole sources of nitrogen and decreased growth and survival in the presence of H(2)O(2). TgTIP1;1- and TgTIP1;2-mediated H(2)O(2) conductance was demonstrated further by a fluorescence assay. Substitutions in the ar/R selectivity filter of TgTIP1;1 showed that mutants that mimicked the ar/R constriction of group I TIPs could conduct the same substrates that were transported by wild-type TgTIP1;1. In contrast, mutants that mimicked group II TIPs showed no evidence of urea or H(2)O(2) conductance. These results suggest that the amino acid residue at LE2 position is critical for the transport selectivity of the TIP homologs and group I TIPs might have a broader spectrum of substrate selectivity than group II TIPs.

  8. Acidic Dicationic Iron(II) Dihydrogen Complexes and Compounds Related by H(2) Substitution.

    PubMed

    Landau, Shaun E.; Morris, Robert H.; Lough, Alan J.

    1999-12-27

    [trans-Fe(H(2))(CO)(dppe)(2)](2+) (3) (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) was generated by protonation of [trans-FeH(CO)(dppe)(2)](+) in CD(2)Cl(2). [trans-Fe(H(2))(CO)(depe)(2)](2+) (6) (depe = 1,2-bis(diethylphosphino)ethane) was generated by the treatment of [trans-FeCl(CO)(depe)(2)](+) in CD(2)Cl(2) with AgSbF(6) under 1 atm of H(2). Complex 3 is more acidic than trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (HOTf) in CD(2)Cl(2), while 6 is suspected to be less acidic than [Et(2)OH](+). 3[OTf](2) is stable to H(2) loss under reduced pressure for several hours, an indication of strong three-center (Fe-H(2)), two-electron sigma-bonding. Both complexes 3 and 6 undergo H(2) substitution reactions. There is evidence of the formation of [trans-Fe(H(2)O)(CO)(dppe)(2)](2+) and [trans-Fe(OTf)(CO)(dppe)(2)](+), although these complexes could not be isolated. [trans-FeY(CO)(depe)(2)]Y complexes (Y(-) = [BF(4)](-), 7[BF(4)]; Y(-) = [OTf](-), 8[OTf]) were isolated from the corresponding reactions of [trans-FeH(CO)(depe)(2)]Y with [Et(2)OH][BF(4)] or HOTf. 7[BF(4)] was structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Attempts to grow crystals of 8[OTf] yielded salts containing the complex [trans-Fe(H(2)O)(CO)(depe)(2)](2+) (9), which were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Coordination of [BF(4)](-) in 7[BF(4)] was demonstrated, by variable-temperature (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy, to be dynamic. Dissolving 7[BF(4)] in methanol results in nucleophilic substitution at B to yield the new complex [trans-FeF(CO)(depe)(2)](+) (10). An attempt to grow crystals of 10[BF(4)] from the reaction mixture resulted in crystals of [H(2)(depe)][BF(4)], which were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  9. A unique tumor antigen produced by a single amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Monach, P A; Meredith, S C; Siegel, C T; Schreiber, H

    1995-01-01

    Mice immunized against a cancer recognize antigens unique to that cancer, but the molecular structures of such antigens are unknown. We isolated CD4+ T cell clones recognizing an antigen uniquely expressed on the UV-induced tumor 6132A; some clones inhibited the growth of tumors bearing the specific antigen. A T cell hybridoma was used to purify this antigen from nuclear extracts by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE using T cell immunoblot assays. A partial amino acid sequence was nearly identical to a sequence in ribosomal protein L9. The cDNA sequence of L9 from 6132A PRO cells differed from the normal sequence at one nucleotide; this mutation encoded histidine instead of leucine at position 47. A synthetic peptide containing this mutation was over 1000-fold more stimulatory of T cells than was the wild-type peptide. These results indicate that this unique tumor antigen is derived from a single amino acid substitution in a cellular protein.

  10. Tissue persistence and vaccine efficacy of tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism mutant strains of Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Neeti; Abdelhamed, Hossam; Karsi, Attila; Lawrence, Mark L

    2014-06-30

    Edwardsiella ictaluri causes enteric septicemia in fish. Recently, we reported construction of E. ictaluri mutants with single and double gene deletions in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and one-carbon (C-1) metabolism. Here, we report the tissue persistence, virulence, and vaccine efficacy of TCA cycle (EiΔsdhC, EiΔfrdA, and EiΔmdh), C-1 metabolism (EiΔgcvP and EiΔglyA), and combination mutants (EiΔfrdAΔsdhC, EiΔgcvPΔsdhC, EiΔmdhΔsdhC, and EiΔgcvPΔglyA) in channel catfish. The tissue persistence study showed that EiΔsdhC, EiΔfrdA, EiΔfrdAΔsdhC, and EiΔgcvPΔsdhC were able to invade catfish and persist until 11 days post-infection. Vaccination of catfish fingerlings with all nine mutants provided significant (P<0.05) protection against subsequent challenge with the virulent parental strain. Vaccinated catfish fingerlings had 100% survival when subsequently challenged by immersion with wild-type E. ictaluri except for EiΔgcvPΔglyA and EiΔgcvP. Mutant EiΔgcvPΔsdhC was found to be very good at protecting catfish fry, as evidenced by 10-fold higher survival compared to non-vaccinated fish.

  11. Orthogonal selectivity with cinnamic acids in 3-substituted benzofuran synthesis through C-H olefination of phenols.

    PubMed

    Agasti, Soumitra; Sharma, Upendra; Naveen, Togati; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-03-28

    A palladium catalyzed intermolecular annulation of cinnamic acids and phenols has been achieved for the selective synthesis of 3-substituted benzofurans. Isotope labeling, competition experiments, kinetic studies, and intermediate trapping have supported a sequence of C-C bond formation and decarboxylation followed by the C-O cyclization pathway.

  12. Many amino acid substitution variants identified in DNA repair genes during human population screenings are predicted to impact protein function

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, T; Jones, I M; Mohrenweiser, H W

    2003-11-03

    Over 520 different amino acid substitution variants have been previously identified in the systematic screening of 91 human DNA repair genes for sequence variation. Two algorithms were employed to predict the impact of these amino acid substitutions on protein activity. Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) classified 226 of 508 variants (44%) as ''Intolerant''. Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen) classed 165 of 489 amino acid substitutions (34%) as ''Probably or Possibly Damaging''. Another 9-15% of the variants were classed as ''Potentially Intolerant or Damaging''. The results from the two algorithms are highly associated, with concordance in predicted impact observed for {approx}62% of the variants. Twenty one to thirty one percent of the variant proteins are predicted to exhibit reduced activity by both algorithms. These variants occur at slightly lower individual allele frequency than do the variants classified as ''Tolerant'' or ''Benign''. Both algorithms correctly predicted the impact of 26 functionally characterized amino acid substitutions in the APE1 protein on biochemical activity, with one exception. It is concluded that a substantial fraction of the missense variants observed in the general human population are functionally relevant. These variants are expected to be the molecular genetic and biochemical basis for the associations of reduced DNA repair capacity phenotypes with elevated cancer risk.

  13. Synthesis of sterically encumbered C10-arylated benzo[h]quinolines using ortho-substituted aryl boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Weimar, Marko; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    The challenging coupling of 10-halobenzo[h]quinolines with ortho-substituted aryl boronic acids has been achieved using Pd(OAc)(2)/P(O)Ph(3) as the catalytic system. High yields were obtained for diversely functionalised substrates under mild reaction conditions. PMID:23069777

  14. [Cu(OH)(TMEDA)]₂Cl₂-catalyzed regioselective 2-arylation of 5-substituted tetrazoles with boronic acids under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Takuya; Umemoto, Hideaki; Miki, Yasuyoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Maegawa, Tomohiro

    2014-07-18

    A mild and regioselective 2-arylation of 5-substituted tetrazoles is described. The reaction proceeds regioselectively with a variety of arylboronic acids in the presence of [Cu(OH)(TMEDA)]2Cl2 to afford 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles. This is the first report of highly regioselective arylation of 5-alkyltetrazoles. PMID:24962401

  15. Highly regio- and diastereoselective synthesis of CF3-substituted lactones via photoredox-catalyzed carbolactonization of alkenoic acids.

    PubMed

    Yasu, Yusuke; Arai, Yusuke; Tomita, Ren; Koike, Takashi; Akita, Munetaka

    2014-02-01

    Trifluoromethylative lactonization of both terminal and internal alkenoic acids by photoredox catalysis has been developed. The use of a Ru photocatalyst and Umemoto's reagent as a CF3 source is key in the present carbolactonization. This is the first example of a highly endo- and diastereoselective synthesis of CF3-substituted five-, six-, and seven-membered ring lactones from internal alkenoic acids. PMID:24422891

  16. Aberrant mitochondria in a Bethlem myopathy patient with a homozygous amino acid substitution that destabilizes the collagen VI α2(VI) chain.

    PubMed

    Zamurs, Laura K; Idoate, Miguel A; Hanssen, Eric; Gomez-Ibañez, Asier; Pastor, Pau; Lamandé, Shireen R

    2015-02-13

    Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) sit at opposite ends of a clinical spectrum caused by mutations in the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI. Bethlem myopathy is relatively mild, and patients remain ambulant in adulthood while many UCMD patients lose ambulation by their teenage years and require respiratory interventions. Dominant and recessive mutations are found across the entire clinical spectrum; however, recessive Bethlem myopathy is rare, and our understanding of the molecular pathology is limited. We studied a patient with Bethlem myopathy. Electron microscopy of his muscle biopsy revealed abnormal mitochondria. We identified a homozygous COL6A2 p.D871N amino acid substitution in the C-terminal C2 A-domain. Mutant α2(VI) chains are unable to associate with α1(VI) and α3(VI) and are degraded by the proteasomal pathway. Some collagen VI is assembled, albeit more slowly than normal, and is secreted. These molecules contain the minor α2(VI) C2a splice form that has an alternative C terminus that does include the mutation. Collagen VI tetramers containing the α2(VI) C2a chain do not assemble efficiently into microfibrils and there is a severe collagen VI deficiency in the extracellular matrix. We expressed wild-type and mutant α2(VI) C2 domains in mammalian cells and showed that while wild-type C2 domains are efficiently secreted, the mutant p.D871N domain is retained in the cell. These studies shed new light on the protein domains important for intracellular and extracellular collagen VI assembly and emphasize the importance of molecular investigations for families with collagen VI disorders to ensure accurate diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  17. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production.

  18. Improved Synthesis of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles via the [3+2] Cycloaddition of Nitriles and Sodium Azide Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhenting; Si, Changmei; Li, Youqiang; Wang, Yin; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A silica supported sulfuric acid catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide to form 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles is described. The protocol can provide a series of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles using silica sulfuric acid from nitriles and sodium azide in DMF in 72%–95% yield. PMID:22606004

  19. Fatty acid elongation in yeast--biochemical characteristics of the enzyme system and isolation of elongation-defective mutants.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, F; Zajonc, D; Hühne, K; Hoja, U; Ekici, A; Greiner, E; Klein, H; Hofmann, J; Bessoule, J J; Sperling, P; Schweizer, E

    1998-03-15

    Elongation of long-chain fatty acids was investigated in yeast mutants lacking endogenous de novo fatty acid synthesis. In this background, in vitro fatty acid elongation was dependent strictly on the substrates malonyl-CoA, NADPH and a medium-chain or long-chain acyl-CoA primer of 10 or more carbon atoms. Maximal activity was observed with primers containing 12-14 carbon atoms, while shorter-chain-length acyl-CoA were almost (octanoyl-CoA) or completely (hexanoyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA) inactive. In particular, acetyl-CoA was inactive as a primer and as extender unit. The Michaelis constants for octanoyl-CoA (0.33 mM), decanoyl-CoA (0.83 mM) lauroyl-CoA (0.05 mM), myristoyl-CoA (0.4 mM) and palmitoyl-CoA (0.13 mM) were determined and were comparable for fatty acid synthesis and elongation. In contrast, the affinity of malonyl-CoA was 17-fold lower for elongation (Km = 0.13 mM) than for the fatty acid synthase (FAS) system. With increasing chain length of the primer (> or = 12:0), fatty acid elongation becomes increasingly sensitive to substrate inhibition. Due to the activation of endogenous fatty acids, ATP exhibits a stimulatory effect at suboptimal but not at saturating substrate concentrations. In the yeast cell homogenate, the specific activity of fatty acid elongation is about 10-20-fold lower than that of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The same elongation activity is observed in respiratory competent and in mitochondrially defective cells. The products of in vitro fatty acid elongation are fatty acids of 15-17 or 22-26 carbon atoms, depending on whether tridecanoyl-CoA or stearoyl-CoA is used as a primer. In vitro, the elongation products are converted in part, by alpha-oxidation, to their odd-chain-length lower homologues or are hydrolyzed to fatty acids. In contrast, no odd-chain-length elongation products or very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) shorter than 26:0 are observed in vivo. Hence, VLCFA synthesis exhibits a higher processivity in vivo than in the cell

  20. The rib1 Mutant Is Resistant to Indole-3-Butyric Acid, an Endogenous Auxin in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as an endogenous auxin in Arabidopsis has been recently demonstrated. However, the in vivo role of IBA remains to be elucidated. We present the characterization of a semi-dominant mutant that is affected in its response to IBA, but shows a wild-type response to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the predominant and most studied form of auxin. We have named this mutant rib1 for resistant to IBA. Root elongation assays show that rib1 is specifically resistant to IBA, to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and to auxin transport inhibitors. rib1 does not display increased resistance to IAA, to the synthetic auxin naphthalene acetic acid, or to other classes of plant hormones. rib1 individuals also have other root specific phenotypes including a shortened primary root, an increased number of lateral roots, and a more variable response than wild type to a change in gravitational vector. Adult rib1 plants are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants. These phenotypes suggest that rib1 alters IBA activity in the root, thereby affecting root development and response to environmental stimuli. We propose models in which RIB1 has a function in either IBA transport or response. Our experiments also suggest that IBA does not use the same mechanism to exit cells as does IAA and we propose a model for IBA transport. PMID:11115890

  1. Prenatal folic acid treatment suppresses acrania and meroanencephaly in mice mutant for the Cart1 homeobox gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Behringer, R R; de Crombrugghe, B

    1996-07-01

    The paired-class homeobox-containing gene, Cart1, is expressed in forebrain mesenchyme, branchial arches, limb buds and cartilages during embryogenesis. Here, we show that Cart1-homozygous mutant mice are born alive with acrania and meroanencephaly but die soon after birth-a phenotype that strikingly resembles a corresponding human syndrome caused by a neural tube closure defect. Developmental studies suggest that Cart1 is required for forebrain mesenchyme survival and that its absence disrupts cranial neural tube morphogenesis by blocking the initiation of closure in the midbrain region that ultimately leads to the generation of lethal craniofacial defects. Prenatal treatment of Cart1 homozygous mutants with folic acid suppresses the development of the acrania/meroanencephaly phenotype. PMID:8673125

  2. Whole-cell biocatalytic production of variously substituted β-aryl- and β-heteroaryl-β-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Nishanka Dilini; Theisen, Chelsea; Walter, Tyler; Walker, Kevin D

    2016-01-10

    Biologically-active β-peptides and pharmaceuticals that contain key β-amino acids are emerging as target therapeutics; thus, synthetic strategies to make substituted, enantiopure β-amino acids are increasing. Here, we use whole-cell Escherichia coli (OD600 ∼ 35) engineered to express a Pantoea agglomerans phenylalanine aminomutase (PaPAM) biocatalyst. In either 5 mL, 100mL, or 1L of M9 minimal medium containing α-phenylalanine (20mM), the cells produced ∼ 1.4 mg mL(-1) of β-phenylalanine in each volume. Representative pilot-scale 5-mL cultures, fermentation reactions converted 18 variously substituted α-arylalanines to their (S)-β-aryl-β-amino acids in vivo and were not toxic to cells at mid- to late-stage growth. The β-aryl-β-amino acids made ranged from 0.043 mg (p-nitro-β-phenylalanine, 4% converted yield) to 1.2mg (m-bromo-β-phenylalanine, 96% converted yield) over 6h in 5 mL. The substituted β-amino acids made herein can be used in redox and Stille-coupling reactions to make synthetic building blocks, or as bioisosteres in drug design.

  3. Amino acid substitutions in genetic variants of human serum albumin and in sequences inferred from molecular cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Blumberg, B.S.; Putnam, F.W.

    1987-07-01

    The structural changes in four genetic variants of human serum albumin were analyzed by tandem high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the tryptic peptides, HPLC mapping and isoelectric focusing of the CNBr fragments, and amino acid sequence analysis of the purified peptides. Lysine-372 of normal (common) albumin A was changed to glutamic acid both in albumin Naskapi, a widespread polymorphic variant of North American Indians, and in albumin Mersin found in Eti Turks. The two variants also exhibited anomalous migration in NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE, which is attributed to a conformational change. The identity of albumins Naskapi and Mersin may have originated through descent from a common mid-Asiatic founder of the two migrating ethnic groups, or it may represent identical but independent mutations of the albumin gene. In albumin Adana, from Eti Turks, the substitution site was not identified but was localized to the region from positions 447 through 548. The substitution of aspartic acid-550 by glycine was found in albumin Mexico-2 from four individuals of the Pima tribe. Although only single-point substitutions have been found in these and in certain other genetic variants of human albumin, five differences exist in the amino acid sequences inferred from cDNA sequences by workers in three other laboratories. However, our results on albumin A and on 14 different genetic variants accord with the amino acid sequence of albumin deduced from the genomic sequence. The apparent amino acid substitutions inferred from comparison of individual cDNA sequences probably reflect artifacts in cloning or in cDNA sequence analysis rather than polymorphism of the coding sections of the albumin gene.

  4. Amino acid substitutions in genetic variants of human serum albumin and in sequences inferred from molecular cloning.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Takahashi, Y; Blumberg, B S; Putnam, F W

    1987-07-01

    The structural changes in four genetic variants of human serum albumin were analyzed by tandem high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the tryptic peptides, HPLC mapping and isoelectric focusing of the CNBr fragments, and amino acid sequence analysis of the purified peptides. Lysine-372 of normal (common) albumin A was changed to glutamic acid both in albumin Naskapi, a widespread polymorphic variant of North American Indians, and in albumin Mersin found in Eti Turks. The two variants also exhibited anomalous migration in NaDodSO4/PAGE, which is attributed to a conformational change. The identity of albumins Naskapi and Mersin may have originated through descent from a common mid-Asiatic founder of the two migrating ethnic groups, or it may represent identical but independent mutations of the albumin gene. In albumin Adana, from Eti Turks, the substitution site was not identified but was localized to the region from positions 447 through 548. The substitution of aspartic acid-550 by glycine was found in albumin Mexico-2 from four individuals of the Pima tribe. Although only single-point substitutions have been found in these and in certain other genetic variants of human albumin, five differences exist in the amino acid sequences inferred from cDNA sequences by workers in three other laboratories. However, our results on albumin A and on 14 different genetic variants accord with the amino acid sequence of albumin deduced from the genomic sequence. The apparent amino acid substitutions inferred from comparison of individual cDNA sequences probably reflect artifacts in cloning or in cDNA sequence analysis rather than polymorphism of the coding sections of the albumin gene.

  5. Predicting the functional consequences of cancer-associated amino acid substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hashem A.; Gough, Julian; Cooper, David N.; Day, Ian N. M.; Gaunt, Tom R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The number of missense mutations being identified in cancer genomes has greatly increased as a consequence of technological advances and the reduced cost of whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing methods. However, a high proportion of the amino acid substitutions detected in cancer genomes have little or no effect on tumour progression (passenger mutations). Therefore, accurate automated methods capable of discriminating between driver (cancer-promoting) and passenger mutations are becoming increasingly important. In our previous work, we developed the Functional Analysis through Hidden Markov Models (FATHMM) software and, using a model weighted for inherited disease mutations, observed improved performances over alternative computational prediction algorithms. Here, we describe an adaptation of our original algorithm that incorporates a cancer-specific model to potentiate the functional analysis of driver mutations. Results: The performance of our algorithm was evaluated using two separate benchmarks. In our analysis, we observed improved performances when distinguishing between driver mutations and other germ line variants (both disease-causing and putatively neutral mutations). In addition, when discriminating between somatic driver and passenger mutations, we observed performances comparable with the leading computational prediction algorithms: SPF-Cancer and TransFIC. Availability and implementation: A web-based implementation of our cancer-specific model, including a downloadable stand-alone package, is available at http://fathmm.biocompute.org.uk. Contact: fathmm@biocompute.org.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23620363

  6. Adipose reduction by beta,beta'-tetramethyl-substituted hexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16).

    PubMed

    Tzur, R; Smith, E; Bar-Tana, J

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of normal rats kept on a balanced laboratory chow diet with beta,beta'-tetramethyl-substituted hexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16) (Bar-Tana et al., 1985, J. Biol. Chem, 260, 8404-8410) resulted in an acute reduction in adiposity, which was already established during the first week of treatment and was sustained as long as the drug was administered. Adipose reduction consisted of 30-80 percent decrease in the perirenal, omental, epididymal, parametrial and subcutaneous fat with a concomitant 50 percent decrease in total body neutral lipid mass. The reduction in adiposity was accounted for by a respective decrease in the lipid content of individual adipocytes together with a transient or sustained decrease in the number of adipocytes of selected adipose tissues. The decrease in the lipid content resulted from (a) an extensive hypotriglyceridemia in MEDICA 16-treated rats; (b) inhibition of adipose lipogenesis by MEDICA 16; (c) increased sensitivity to catecholamines-. ACTH- and forskolin-induced lipolysis in MEDICA 16 adipocytes. Adipose reduction by MEDICA 16 was not compromised by a decrease in overall net caloric intake but was accompanied by a 40 percent increase in resting metabolic rate. PMID:2670791

  7. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

    2011-12-31

    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  8. Reactivity of substituted charged phenyl radicals toward components of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Arizmendi, Luis E; Heidbrink, Jenny L; Guler, Leonard P; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2003-02-26

    Reactions of differently substituted phenyl radicals with components of nucleic acids have been investigated in the gas phase. A positively charged group located meta with respect to the radical site was employed to allow manipulation of the radicals in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. All of these electrophilic radicals react with sugars via exclusive hydrogen atom abstraction, with adenine and uracil almost exclusively via addition (likely at the C8 and C5 carbons, respectively), and with the nucleoside thymidine by hydrogen atom abstraction and addition at C5 in the base moiety (followed by elimination of (*)CH(3)). These findings parallel the reactivity of the phenyl radical with components of nucleic acids in solution, except that the selectivity for addition is different. Like HO(*), the electrophilic charged phenyl radicals appear to favor addition to the C5-end of the C5-C6 double bond of thymine and thymidine, whereas the phenyl radical preferentially adds to C6. The charged phenyl radicals do not predominantly add to thymine, as the neutral phenyl radical and HO(*), but mainly react by hydrogen atom abstraction from the methyl group (some addition to C5 in the base followed by loss of (*)CH(3) also occurs). Adenine appears to be the preferred target among the nucleobases, while uracil is the least favored. A systematic increase in the electrophilicity of the radicals by modification of the radicals' structures was found to facilitate all reactions, but the addition even more than hydrogen atom abstraction. Therefore, the least reactive radicals are most selective toward hydrogen atom abstraction, while the most reactive radicals also efficiently add to the base. Traditional enthalpy arguments do not rationalize the rate variations. Instead, the rates reflect the radicals' electron affinities used as a measure for their ability to polarize the transition state of each reaction.

  9. Identification of Amino Acid Substitutions with Compensational Effects in the Attachment Protein of Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Ursula; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Avila, Mislay; Pilo, Paola; Langedijk, Johannes P.; Ader-Ebert, Nadine; Alves, Lisa A.; Plattet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hemagglutinin (H) gene of canine distemper virus (CDV) encodes the receptor-binding protein. This protein, together with the fusion (F) protein, is pivotal for infectivity since it contributes to the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane. Of the two receptors currently known for CDV (nectin-4 and the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM]), SLAM is considered the most relevant for host susceptibility. To investigate how evolution might have impacted the host-CDV interaction, we examined the functional properties of a series of missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) naturally accumulating within the H-gene sequences during the transition between two distinct but related strains. The two strains, a wild-type strain and a consensus strain, were part of a single continental outbreak in European wildlife and occurred in distinct geographical areas 2 years apart. The deduced amino acid sequence of the two H genes differed at 5 residues. A panel of mutants carrying all the combinations of the SNPs was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The selected mutant, wild type, and consensus H proteins were functionally evaluated according to their surface expression, SLAM binding, fusion protein interaction, and cell fusion efficiencies. The results highlight that the most detrimental functional effects are associated with specific sets of SNPs. Strikingly, an efficient compensational system driven by additional SNPs appears to come into play, virtually neutralizing the negative functional effects. This system seems to contribute to the maintenance of the tightly regulated function of the H-gene-encoded attachment protein. IMPORTANCE To investigate how evolution might have impacted the host-canine distemper virus (CDV) interaction, we examined the functional properties of naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the hemagglutinin gene of two related but distinct strains of CDV. The hemagglutinin gene encodes

  10. Fatty Acids Composition and Biofilm Production of Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium dam and seqA Mutants After Exposure to UV-C.

    PubMed

    Abdelwaheb, Chatti; Lobna, Maalej; Bouchra, BelHadj Abdallah; Selma, Kloula; Ahmed, Landoulsi

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this work was the investigation of correlation between some peculiarities of membrane fatty acids composition, biofilm formation, and motility of dam and/or seqA mutants in Salmonella typhimurium bacterial cells and UV-C radiations. The exposure changed the fatty acids composition of dam and seqA/dam strains. Significant increase of unsaturated fatty acids was observed. Swarming and swimming were enhanced only in dam mutant and biofilm formation increased significantly in all tested strains after UV-C exposure. These results suggest that increased sensitivity toward UV-C rays in dam strains might be due to fatty acid alteration.

  11. Short branched-chain C6 carboxylic acids result in increased growth, novel 'unnatural' fatty acids and increased membrane fluidity in a Listeria monocytogenes branched-chain fatty acid-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Hantak, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotolerant food borne pathogen, responsible for the high fatality disease listeriosis, and expensive food product recalls. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) of the membrane play a critical role in providing appropriate membrane fluidity and optimum membrane biophysics. The fatty acid composition of a BCFA-deficient mutant is characterized by high amounts of straight-chain fatty acids and even-numbered iso fatty acids, in contrast to the parent strain where odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids predominate. The presence of 2-methylbutyrate (C5) stimulated growth of the mutant at 37°C and restored growth at 10°C along with the content of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids. The C6 branched-chain carboxylic acids 2-ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate also stimulated growth to a similar extent as 2-methylbutyrate. However, 3-methylpentanoate was ineffective in rescuing growth. 2-Ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate led to novel major fatty acids in the lipid profile of the membrane that were identified as 12-ethyltetradecanoic acid and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid respectively. Membrane anisotropy studies indicated that growth of strain MOR401 in the presence of these precursors increased its membrane fluidity to levels of the wild type. Cells supplemented with 2-methylpentanoate or 2-ethylbutyrate at 10°C shortened the chain length of novel fatty acids, thus showing homeoviscous adaptation. These experiments use the mutant as a tool to modulate the membrane fatty acid compositions through synthetic precursor supplementation, and show how existing enzymes in L. monocytogenes adapt to exhibit non-native activity yielding unique 'unnatural' fatty acid molecules, which nevertheless possess the correct biophysical properties for proper membrane function in the BCFA-deficient mutant.

  12. Short branched-chain C6 carboxylic acids result in increased growth, novel 'unnatural' fatty acids and increased membrane fluidity in a Listeria monocytogenes branched-chain fatty acid-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Hantak, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotolerant food borne pathogen, responsible for the high fatality disease listeriosis, and expensive food product recalls. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) of the membrane play a critical role in providing appropriate membrane fluidity and optimum membrane biophysics. The fatty acid composition of a BCFA-deficient mutant is characterized by high amounts of straight-chain fatty acids and even-numbered iso fatty acids, in contrast to the parent strain where odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids predominate. The presence of 2-methylbutyrate (C5) stimulated growth of the mutant at 37°C and restored growth at 10°C along with the content of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids. The C6 branched-chain carboxylic acids 2-ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate also stimulated growth to a similar extent as 2-methylbutyrate. However, 3-methylpentanoate was ineffective in rescuing growth. 2-Ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate led to novel major fatty acids in the lipid profile of the membrane that were identified as 12-ethyltetradecanoic acid and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid respectively. Membrane anisotropy studies indicated that growth of strain MOR401 in the presence of these precursors increased its membrane fluidity to levels of the wild type. Cells supplemented with 2-methylpentanoate or 2-ethylbutyrate at 10°C shortened the chain length of novel fatty acids, thus showing homeoviscous adaptation. These experiments use the mutant as a tool to modulate the membrane fatty acid compositions through synthetic precursor supplementation, and show how existing enzymes in L. monocytogenes adapt to exhibit non-native activity yielding unique 'unnatural' fatty acid molecules, which nevertheless possess the correct biophysical properties for proper membrane function in the BCFA-deficient mutant. PMID:26225744

  13. Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture.

    PubMed

    Wright, J L; Carstensen, J T

    1986-06-01

    The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent. PMID:3016234

  14. Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.; Carstensen, J.T.

    1986-06-01

    The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent.

  15. Photophysical properties and photochemistry of substituted cinnamates and cinnamic acids for UVB blocking: effect of hydroxy, nitro, and fluoro substitutions at ortho, meta, and para positions.

    PubMed

    Promkatkaew, Malinee; Suramitr, Songwut; Karpkird, Thitinun; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Ehara, Masahiro; Hannongbua, Supa

    2014-03-01

    Photophysical properties and photochemistry of various substituted cinnamates and cinnamic acids for ultraviolet B blocking were investigated experimentally and theoretically. This series includes monohydroxy, -nitro, and -fluoro derivatives. The absorption spectra were satisfactorily reproduced by the direct SAC-CI method with respect to the peak position and intensity. The transition character of the low-lying two ππ* and σπ* states for these 18 derivatives was analyzed. The para derivatives have a different transition character of the ππ* transitions compared with those of the ortho and meta derivatives. To elucidate the relaxation mechanism, the emission spectra were observed with oxygen quenching and the photostability was examined experimentally. The calculated radiative lifetimes indicate that the ortho- and meta-substituted derivatives have longer lifetimes for emission than the para derivatives. The potential energy curves of the first and second singlet excited states of the hydroxy derivatives as well as the vertical singlet and triplet transitions were examined to investigate the relaxation qualitatively. The ortho and meta derivatives have an energy barrier or flat surface in S1 resulting in fluorescence, whereas the para derivatives show nonradiative decay without an energy barrier. The para-hydroxy derivative was found to be an excellent UV absorber based on its broad absorption in the UVB/UVA regions, less emission, and higher photostability.

  16. Electronic Effects of 11β Substituted 17β-Estradiol Derivatives and Instrumental Effects on the Relative Gas Phase Acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Fournier, Françoise; Afonso, Carlos; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Jacquot, Yves; Pèpe, Claude; Leclercq, Guy; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted the role of the proton donor characteristics of the phenol group of 17β-estradiol (E2) in its association with the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Since the substitutions at position C(11) have been reported to modulate this association, we hypothesized that such substitutions may modify the phenol acidity. Hence, phenol gas-phase acidity of nine C(11)-substituted E2-derivatives were evaluated using the extended Cooks' kinetic method, which is a method widely used to determine thermochemical properties by mass spectrometry. To enhance accuracy in data collection we recorded data from several instruments, including quadrupole ion trap, triple quadrupole, and hybrid QqTOF. Indeed, we report for the first time the use of the QqTOF instrument to provide a novel means to improve data accuracy by giving access to an intermediate effective temperature range. All experimental gas-phase acidity values were supported by theoretical calculations. Our results confirmed the ability of distant substituents at C(11) to modulate the phenol acidity through electrostatic interactions, electron withdrawing inductive effects, and mesomeric effects. However, no relationship was found between the phenol gas-phase acidity of investigated steroids and their binding affinity for ERα assessed in solution. Thus, our results highlight that the intrinsic properties of the hormone do not influence sufficiently the stabilization of the hormone/ERα complex. It is more likely that such stabilization would be more related to factors depending on the environment within the binding pocket such as hydrophobic, steric as well as direct intermolecular electrostatic effects between ERα residues and the substituted steroidal estrogens.

  17. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase: amino acid substitution in the beta 2 beta 2 Oriental isozyme explains functional properties, establishes an active site structure, and parallels mutational exchanges in the yeast enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jörnvall, H; Hempel, J; Vallee, B L; Bosron, W F; Li, T K

    1984-01-01

    The homodimeric Oriental beta 2 beta 2 isozyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, corresponding to an allelic variant at the ADH2 gene locus, was studied in order to define the amino acid exchange in relation to the beta 1 beta 1 isozyme, the predominant allelic form among Caucasians. Sequence analysis reveals that the amino acid substitution occurs at position 7 of the largest CNBr fragment, corresponding to position 47 of the whole protein chain. Here, the beta 2 form has a histidine residue, while, in common with other characterized mammalian liver alcohol dehydrogenases, the beta 1 form has an arginine residue. This exchange does not affect the adjacent cysteine-46 residue, which is a protein ligand to the active-site zinc atom, thus clarifying previously inconsistent results. The histidine/arginine-47 mutational replacement corresponds to a position that binds the pyrophosphate group of the coenzyme NAD(H); this explains the functional differences between the beta 1 beta 1 and beta 2 beta 2 isozymes, including both a lower pH optimum and higher turnover number of beta 2 beta 2, which is likely to be the mutant form. The exchange demonstrates the existence of parallel but separate mutations in the evolution of alcohol dehydrogenases because these mammalian enzymes differ at exactly the same position by the same type of substitution as is found between a mutant and the wild-type constitutive forms of the corresponding yeast enzyme. PMID:6374651

  18. Single amino acid substitutions in either YhjD or MsbA confer viability to 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid-depleted Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Uwe; Meredith, Timothy C; Aggarwal, Parag; Kühl, Annika; Kirchhoff, Paul; Lindner, Buko; Hanuszkiewicz, Anna; Sun, Jennifer; Holst, Otto; Woodard, Ronald W

    2008-02-01

    The Escherichia coli K-12 strain KPM22, defective in synthesis of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo), is viable with an outer membrane (OM) composed predominantly of lipid IV(A), a precursor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis that lacks any glycosylation. To sustain viability, the presence of a second-site suppressor was proposed for transport of lipid IV(A) from the inner membrane (IM), thus relieving toxic side-effects of lipid IV(A) accumulation and providing sufficient amounts of LPS precursors to support OM biogenesis. We now report the identification of an arginine to cysteine substitution at position 134 of the conserved IM protein YhjD in KPM22 that acts as a compensatory suppressor mutation of the lethal DeltaKdo phenotype. Further, the yhjD400 suppressor allele renders the LPS transporter MsbA dispensable for lipid IV(A) transmembrane trafficking. The independent derivation of a series of non-conditional KPM22-like mutants from the Kdo-dependent parent strain TCM15 revealed a second class of suppressor mutations localized to MsbA. Proline to serine substitutions at either residue 18 or 50 of MsbA relieved the Kdo growth dependence observed in the isogenic wild-type strain. The possible impact of these suppressor mutations on structure and function are discussed by means of a computationally derived threading model of MsbA.

  19. Cysteine Substitution of Transmembrane Domain Amino Acids Alters the Ethanol Inhibition of GluN1/GluN2A N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Minfu; Smothers, C. Thetford

    2015-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are inhibited by behaviorally relevant concentrations of ethanol, and residues within transmembrane (TM) domains of NMDARs, including TM3 GluN1 phenylalanine 639 (F639), regulate this sensitivity. In the present study, we used cysteine (C) mutagenesis to determine whether there are additional residues within nearby TM domains that regulate ethanol inhibition on NMDARs. GluN1(F639C)/GluN2A receptors were less inhibited by ethanol than wild-type receptors, and inhibition was restored to wild-type levels following treatment with ethanol-like methanethiosulfonate reagents. Molecular modeling identified six residues in the GluN1 TM1 domain (valine V566; serine S569) and the GluN2A TM4 domain (methionine, M817; V820, F821, and leucine, L824) that were in close vicinity to the TM3 F639 residue, and these were individually mutated to cysteine and tested for ethanol inhibition and receptor function. The F639C-induced decrease in ethanol inhibition was blunted by coexpression of GluN1 TM1 mutants V566C and S569C, and statistically significant interactions were observed for ethanol inhibition among V566C, F639C, and GluN2A TM4 mutants V820C and F821C and S569C, F639C, and GluN2A TM4 mutants F821C and L824C. Ethanol inhibition was also reduced when either GluN1 TM1 mutant V566C or S569C was combined with GluN2A V820C, suggesting a novel TM1:TM4 intrasubunit site of action for ethanol. Cysteines substituted at TM3 and TM4 sites previously suggested to interact with ethanol had less dramatic effects on ethanol inhibition. Overall, the results from these studies suggest that interactions among TM1, TM3, and TM4 amino acids in NMDARs are important determinants of ethanol action at these receptors. PMID:25635140

  20. Constitutive and hyperresponsive signaling by mutant forms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid sensor Ssy1.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Richard F; Ottow, Kim; Andersen, Helge A; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2003-10-01

    Sensing of extracellular amino acids results in transcriptional induction of amino acid permease genes in yeast. Ssy1, a membrane protein resembling amino acid permeases, is required for signaling but is apparently unable to transport amino acids and is thus believed to be a sensor. By using a novel genetic screen in which potassium uptake was made dependent on amino acid signaling, we obtained gain-of-function mutations in SSY1. Some alleles confer inducer-independent signaling; others increase the apparent affinity for inducers. The results reveal that amino acid transport is not required for signaling and support the notion that sensing by Ssy1 occurs via its direct interaction with extracellular amino acids. PMID:14555474

  1. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in an ORANGE Protein Promotes Carotenoid Overaccumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Owsiany, Katherine; Sheeja, T E; Zhou, Xiangjun; Rodriguez, Caroline; Li, Yongxi; Welsch, Ralf; Chayut, Noam; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Ari; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. Here, we demonstrated that alteration of a single amino acid in a wild-type OR greatly enhanced its ability to promote carotenoid accumulation. Whereas overexpression of OR from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtOR) or from the agronomically important crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbOR) increased carotenoid levels up to 2-fold, expression of AtOR(His) (R90H) or SbOR(His) (R104H) variants dramatically enhanced carotenoid accumulation by up to 7-fold in the Arabidopsis calli. Moreover, we found that AtOR(Ala) (R90A) functioned similarly to AtOR(His) to promote carotenoid overproduction. Neither AtOR nor AtOR(His) greatly affected carotenogenic gene expression. AtOR(His) exhibited similar interactions with phytoene synthase (PSY) as AtOR in posttranscriptionally regulating PSY protein abundance. AtOR(His) triggered biogenesis of membranous chromoplasts in the Arabidopsis calli, which shared structures similar to chromoplasts found in the curd of the orange cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) mutant. By contrast, AtOR did not cause plastid-type changes in comparison with the controls, but produced plastids containing larger and electron-dense plastoglobuli. The unique ability of AtOR(His) in mediating chromoplast biogenesis is responsible for its induced carotenoid overproduction. Our study demonstrates OR(His/Ala) as powerful tools for carotenoid enrichment in plants, and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying OR(His)-regulated carotenoid accumulation.

  2. Imidase catalyzing desymmetric imide hydrolysis forming optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Masutoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shizawa, Hiroaki; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Yasohara, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The recent use of optically active 3-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs in human therapeutics has identified a need for an efficient, stereoselective method of their synthesis. Here, bacterial strains were screened for enzymes capable of stereospecific hydrolysis of 3-substituted glutarimides to generate (R)-3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides. The bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis NBRC13111 and Burkholderia phytofirmans DSM17436 were discovered to hydrolyze 3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutarimide (CGI) to (R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutaric acid monoamide (CGM) with 98.1% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) and 97.5% e.e., respectively. B. phytofirmans DSM17436 could also hydrolyze 3-isobutyl glutarimide (IBI) to produce (R)-3-isobutyl glutaric acid monoamide (IBM) with 94.9% e.e. BpIH, an imidase, was purified from B. phytofirmans DSM17436 and found to generate (R)-CGM from CGI with specific activity of 0.95 U/mg. The amino acid sequence of BpIH had a 75% sequence identity to that of allantoinase from A. faecalis NBRC13111 (AfIH). The purified recombinant BpIH and AfIH catalyzed (R)-selective hydrolysis of CGI and IBI. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the enzymatic properties of BpIH and AfIH revealed that both enzymes were stable in the range of pH 6-10, with an optimal pH of 9.0, stable at temperatures below 40 °C, and were not metalloproteins. These results indicate that the use of this class of hydrolase to generate optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamide could simplify the production of specific chiral GABA analogs for drug therapeutics.

  3. Amino-acid mutations to extend the biological half-life of a therapeutically valuable mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Hou, Shurong; Xue, Liu; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused and addictive drug without an FDA-approved medication. Our recently designed and discovered cocaine hydrolase, particularly E12-7 engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), has the promise of becoming a valuable cocaine abuse treatment. An ideal anti-cocaine therapeutic enzyme should have not only a high catalytic efficiency against cocaine, but also a sufficiently long biological half-life. However, recombinant human BChE and the known BChE mutants have a much shorter biological half-life compared to the native human BChE. The present study aimed to extend the biological half-life of the cocaine hydrolase without changing its high catalytic activity against cocaine. Our strategy was to design possible amino-acid mutations that can introduce cross-subunit disulfide bond(s) and, thus, change the distribution of the oligomeric forms and extend the biological half-life. Three new BChE mutants (E364-532, E377-516, and E535) were predicted to have a more stable dimer structure with the desirable cross-subunit disulfide bond(s) and, therefore, a different distribution of the oligomeric forms and a prolonged biological half-life. The rational design was followed by experimental tests in vitro and in vivo, confirming that the rationally designed new BChE mutants, i.e. E364-532, E377-516, and E535, indeed had a remarkably different distribution of the oligomeric forms and prolonged biological half-life in rats from ∼7 to ∼13h without significantly changing the catalytic activity against (-)-cocaine. This is the first demonstration that rationally designed amino-acid mutations can significantly prolong the biological half-life of a high-activity enzyme without significantly changing the catalytic activity.

  4. Expression and functional characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 amino acid substitution variants in T-pilus biogenesis, virulence, and transient transformation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2-) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir-), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2-/Vir-, ExB2-/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2-/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus-/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency. PMID:24971727

  5. Reactivity of Cations and Zwitterions Formed in Photochemical and Acid-Catalyzed Reactions from m-Hydroxycycloalkyl-Substituted Phenol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cindro, Nikola; Antol, Ivana; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Halasz, Ivan; Wan, Peter; Basarić, Nikola

    2015-12-18

    Three m-substituted phenol derivatives, each with a labile benzylic alcohol group and bearing either protoadamantyl 4, homoadamantyl 5, or a cyclohexyl group 6, were synthesized and their thermal acid-catalyzed and photochemical solvolytic reactivity studied, using preparative irradiations, fluorescence measurements, nanosecond laser flash photolysis, and quantum chemical calculations. The choice of m-hydroxy-substitution was driven by the potential for these phenolic systems to generate m-quinone methides on photolysis, which could ultimately drive the excited-state pathway, as opposed to forming simple benzylic carbocations in the corresponding thermal route. Indeed, thermal acid-catalyzed reactions gave the corresponding cations, which undergo rearrangement and elimination from 4, only elimination from 5, and substitution and elimination from 6. On the other hand, upon photoexcitation of 4-6 to S1 in a polar protic solvent, proton dissociation from the phenol, coupled with elimination of the benzylic OH (as hydroxide ion) gave zwitterions (formal m-quinone methides). The zwitterions exhibit reactivity different from the corresponding cations due to a difference in charge distribution, as shown by DFT calculations. Thus, protoadamantyl zwitterion has a less nonclassical character than the corresponding cation, so it does not undergo 1,2-shift of the carbon atom, as observed in the acid-catalyzed reaction. PMID:26595342

  6. Enantioconvergent Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Racemic Alkyne-Dicobalt Complex (Nicholas Reaction) Catalyzed by Chiral Brønsted Acid.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masahiro; Ota, Yusuke; Li, Feng; Toda, Yasunori; Kondoh, Azusa

    2016-08-31

    Catalytic enantioselective syntheses enable a practical approach to enantioenriched molecules. While most of these syntheses have been accomplished by reaction at the prochiral sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom, little attention has been paid to enantioselective nucleophilic substitution at the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom. In particular, substitution at the chiral sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom of racemic electrophiles has been rarely exploited. To establish an unprecedented enantioselective substitution reaction of racemic electrophiles, enantioconvergent Nicholas reaction of an alkyne-dicobalt complex derived from racemic propargylic alcohol was developed using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. In the present enantioconvergent process, both enantiomers of the racemic alcohol were transformed efficiently to a variety of thioethers with high enantioselectivity. The key to achieving success is dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) of enantiomeric cationic intermediates generated via dehydroxylation of the starting racemic alcohol under the influence of the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The present fascinating DYKAT involves the efficient racemization of these enantiomeric intermediates and effective resolution of these enantiomers through utilization of the chiral conjugate base of the phosphoric acid. PMID:27490239

  7. Enantioconvergent Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Racemic Alkyne-Dicobalt Complex (Nicholas Reaction) Catalyzed by Chiral Brønsted Acid.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masahiro; Ota, Yusuke; Li, Feng; Toda, Yasunori; Kondoh, Azusa

    2016-08-31

    Catalytic enantioselective syntheses enable a practical approach to enantioenriched molecules. While most of these syntheses have been accomplished by reaction at the prochiral sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom, little attention has been paid to enantioselective nucleophilic substitution at the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom. In particular, substitution at the chiral sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom of racemic electrophiles has been rarely exploited. To establish an unprecedented enantioselective substitution reaction of racemic electrophiles, enantioconvergent Nicholas reaction of an alkyne-dicobalt complex derived from racemic propargylic alcohol was developed using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. In the present enantioconvergent process, both enantiomers of the racemic alcohol were transformed efficiently to a variety of thioethers with high enantioselectivity. The key to achieving success is dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) of enantiomeric cationic intermediates generated via dehydroxylation of the starting racemic alcohol under the influence of the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The present fascinating DYKAT involves the efficient racemization of these enantiomeric intermediates and effective resolution of these enantiomers through utilization of the chiral conjugate base of the phosphoric acid.

  8. Evolution of a double amino acid substitution in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Eleusine indica conferring high-level glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R Douglas; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I+P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. PMID:25717039

  9. Evolution of a Double Amino Acid Substitution in the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase in Eleusine indica Conferring High-Level Glyphosate Resistance1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R. Douglas; Powles, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I + P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. PMID:25717039

  10. Evolution of a double amino acid substitution in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Eleusine indica conferring high-level glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R Douglas; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I+P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action.

  11. A mutant streptokinase lacking the C-terminal 42 amino acids is less immunogenic.

    PubMed

    Torrèns, I; Ojalvo, A G; Seralena, A; Hayes, O; de la Fuente, J

    1999-12-01

    Streptokinase (SK) is the most widely used compound for the treatment of myocardial infarction and the least expensive thrombolytic agent, but a drawback to its use is the widespread presence of anti-SK antibodies (Abs). Clinical failure of the activation of the fibrinolytic system by SK has been reported due to the presence of a high titer of anti-SK neutralizing Abs. Patients receiving SK therapy develop high anti-SK antibody titers, which might provoke severe allergic reactions. These Abs are sufficient to neutralize a standard dose of SK up to four years after initial SK administration. This is a clinical problem because of the increasing number of patients who have been treated once with SK for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and are likely to require plasminogen activator treatment in the future. In previous in vitro studies, we have shown that a deletion mutant (mut-C42), lacking the 42 C-terminal residues, was significantly less antigenic when compared with the native molecule (SKC-2). In this study, 14 monkeys were subjected to treatment with SKC-2 and mut-C42 in order to compare their humoral response by determining SK neutralizing activity in monkey's sera. All monkeys developed anti-SKC-2 Ab titers, but in the case where treatment induced Abs directed against the C-terminus of SKC-2, neutralizing activity against the native protein was significantly higher than that developed against mutant SK mut-C42. PMID:10656677

  12. Development of PCR-Based DNA markers flanking three low phytic acid mutant loci in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid (PA) is the most abundant form of phosphorus (P) in cereal grains. PA chelates mineral cations to form an indigestible salt, and is thus regarded as an antinutritional agent and a contributor to water pollution. Grain with low phytic acid (lpa) genotypes could aid in mitigating this prob...

  13. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Marc A.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  14. Synthesis of ω-Oxo Amino Acids and trans-5-Substituted Proline Derivatives Using Cross-Metathesis of Unsaturated Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Salih, Nabaz; Adams, Harry; Jackson, Richard F W

    2016-09-16

    A range of 7-oxo, 8-oxo, and 9-oxo amino acids, analogues of 8-oxo-2-aminodecanoic acid, one of the key components of the cyclic tetrapeptide apicidin, have been prepared by a three-step process involving copper-catalyzed allylation of serine-, aspartic acid-, and glutamic acid-derived organozinc reagents, followed by cross-metathesis of the resulting terminal alkenes with unsaturated ketones and hydrogenation. The intermediate 7-oxo-5-enones underwent a highly diastereoselective (dr ≥96:4) acid-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction to give trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, 5-substituted proline derivatives. The aza-Michael reaction was first observed when the starting enones were allowed to stand in solution in deuterochloroform but can be efficiently promoted by catalytic amounts of dry HCl. PMID:27529354

  15. The Amino Acid Substitution Q65H in the 2C Protein of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus Confers Resistance to Golgi Disrupting Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Caridi, Flavia; González-Magaldi, Mónica; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Sobrino, Francisco; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine pathogen and a member of the species Enterovirus B within the Picornaviridae family. Brefeldin A (BFA) is an inhibitor of guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf proteins that induces Golgi complex disassembly and alters the cellular secretory pathway. Since BFA has been shown to inhibit the RNA replication of different enteroviruses, including SVDV, we have analyzed the effect of BFA and of golgicide A (GCA), another Golgi disrupting drug, on SVDV multiplication. BFA and GCA similarly inhibited SVDV production. To investigate the molecular basis of the antiviral effect of BFA, SVDV mutants with increased resistance to BFA were isolated. A single amino acid substitution, Q65H, in the non-structural protein 2C was found to be responsible for increased resistance to BFA. These results provide new insight into the relationship of enteroviruses with the components of the secretory pathway and on the role of SVDV 2C protein in this process. PMID:27199941

  16. Salicylic acid differentially affects suspension cell cultures of Lotus japonicus and one of its non-symbiotic mutants.

    PubMed

    Bastianelli, Fiorenza; Costa, Alex; Vescovi, Marco; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Zottini, Michela; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella

    2010-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is known to play an important role in the interaction between plant and micro-organisms, both symbiotic and pathogen. In particular, high levels of SA block nodule formation and mycorrhizal colonization in plants. A mutant of Lotus japonicus, named Ljsym4-2, was characterized as unable to establish positive interactions with Rhizobium and fungi (NOD(-), MYC(-)); in particular, it does not recognize signal molecules released by symbiotic micro-organisms so that eventually, epidermal cells undergo PCD at the contact area. We performed a detailed characterization of wild-type and Ljsym4-2 cultured cells by taking into account several parameters characterizing cell responses to SA, a molecule strongly involved in defense signaling pathways. In the presence of 0.5 mM SA, Ljsym4-2 suspension-cultured cells reduce their growth and eventually die, whereas in order to induce the same effects in wt suspension cells, SA concentration must be raised to 1.5 mM. An early and short production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in wt-treated cells. In contrast, a continuous production of NO and a double-peak ROS response, similar to that reported after a pathogenic attack, was observed in the mutant Ljsym4-2 cells. At the molecular level, a constitutive higher level of a SA-inducible pathogenesis related gene was observed. The analysis in planta revealed a strong induction of the LjPR1 gene in the Ljsym4-2 mutant inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti. PMID:20012170

  17. Impact of retinoic acid exposure on midfacial shape variation and manifestation of holoprosencephaly in Twsg1 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Charles J.; Schmidt, Brian; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Petryk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a developmental anomaly characterized by inadequate or absent midline division of the embryonic forebrain and midline facial defects. It is believed that interactions between genes and the environment play a role in the widely variable penetrance and expressivity of HPE, although direct investigation of such effects has been limited. The goal of this study was to examine whether mice carrying a mutation in a gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist twisted gastrulation (Twsg1), which is associated with a low penetrance of HPE, are sensitized to retinoic acid (RA) teratogenesis. Pregnant Twsg1+/− dams were treated by gavage with a low dose of all-trans RA (3.75 mg/kg of body weight). Embryos were analyzed between embryonic day (E)9.5 and E11.5 by microscopy and geometric morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were used to examine potential mechanisms mediating the combined effects of increased BMP and retinoid signaling. Although only 7% of wild-type embryos exposed to RA showed overt HPE or neural tube defects (NTDs), 100% of Twsg1−/− mutants exposed to RA manifested severe HPE compared to 17% without RA. Remarkably, up to 30% of Twsg1+/− mutants also showed HPE (23%) or NTDs (7%). The majority of shape variation among Twsg1+/− mutants was associated with narrowing of the midface. In P19 cells, RA induced the expression of Bmp2, acted in concert with BMP2 to increase p53 expression, caspase activation and oxidative stress. This study provides direct evidence for modifying effects of the environment in a genetic mouse model carrying a predisposing mutation for HPE in the Twsg1 gene. Further study of the mechanisms underlying these gene-environment interactions in vivo will contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of birth defects and present an opportunity to explore potential preventive interventions. PMID:25468951

  18. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  19. A single amino acid substitution makes ERK2 susceptible to pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, T.; Coll, J. T.; Xie, X.; Ford, P. J.; Germann, U. A.; Porter, M. D.; Pazhanisamy, S.; Fleming, M. A.; Galullo, V.; Su, M. S.; Wilson, K. P.

    1998-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are serine/threonine kinases that mediate intracellular signal transduction pathways. Pyridinyl imidazole compounds block pro-inflammatory cytokine production and are specific p38 kinase inhibitors. ERK2 is related to p38 in sequence and structure, but is not inhibited by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors. Crystal structures of two pyridinyl imidazoles complexed with p38 revealed these compounds bind in the ATP site. Mutagenesis data suggested a single residue difference at threonine 106 between p38 and other MAP kinases is sufficient to confer selectivity of pyridinyl imidazoles. We have changed the equivalent residue in human ERK2, Q105, into threonine and alanine, and substituted four additional ATP binding site residues. The single residue change Q105A in ERK2 enhances the binding of SB202190 at least 25,000-fold compared to wild-type ERK2. We report enzymatic analyses of wild-type ERK2 and the mutant proteins, and the crystal structure of a pyridinyl imidazole, SB203580, bound to an ERK2 pentamutant, I103L, Q105T, D106H, E109G. T110A. These ATP binding site substitutions induce low nanomolar sensitivity to pyridinyl imidazoles. Furthermore, we identified 5-iodotubercidin as a potent ERK2 inhibitor, which may help reveal the role of ERK2 in cell proliferation. PMID:9827991

  20. Inter-relationships between solubilities, distribution coefficients and melting points of some substituted benzoic and phenylacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N A; James, K C; Wong, C K

    1979-09-01

    Ten 4-hydroxy and 4-alkoxy benzoic and phenylalkanoic acids have been investigated. Solubilities in aqueous buffer at pH 1.2 were determined, together with distribution coefficients between the buffer and either octanol or isopropyl myristate. When plotted against the total number of carbon atoms in the side chains, log octanol/water distribution coefficients gave two parallel straight lines, one for the substituted benzoic acids, and the other for the substituted phenylalkanoic acids. The slopes approximated to 0.5, the generally accepted value for methylene. Similar plots could be obtained with isopropyl myristate, provided the hydroxy acid results were ignored, and also when log aqueous solubilities were plotted against carbon number, although there was considerable scatter. The differences between the distribution coefficient results were explained in terms of solute-solvent interactions, and the scatter attributed to variations in the heats of fusion of the solutes. Yalkowsky's equation (1977), linking aqueous solubilities and melting points with distribution coefficients, was applied to the results, and found to be of limited predictive value. PMID:41067

  1. The Lys234Arg Substitution in the Enzyme SHV-72 Is a Determinant for Resistance to Clavulanic Acid Inhibition▿

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Nuno; Manageiro, Vera; Robin, Frédéric; Salgado, M. José; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela; Bonnet, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The new β-lactamase SHV-72 was isolated from clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae INSRA1229, which exhibited the unusual association of resistance to the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination (MIC, 64 μg/ml) and susceptibility to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and imipenem. SHV-72 (pI 7.6) harbored the three amino acid substitutions Ile8Phe, Ala146Val, and Lys234Arg. SHV-72 had high catalytic efficiency against penicillins (kcat/Km, 35 to 287 μM−1·s−1) and no activity against oxyimino β-lactams. The concentration of clavulanic acid necessary to inhibit the enzyme activity by 50% was 10-fold higher for SHV-72 than for SHV-1. Molecular-dynamics simulation suggested that the Lys234Arg substitution in SHV-72 stabilized an atypical conformation of the Ser130 side chain, which moved the Oγ atom of Ser130 around 3.5 Å away from the key Oγ atom of the reactive serine (Ser70). This movement may therefore decrease the susceptibility to clavulanic acid by preventing cross-linking between Ser130 and Ser70. PMID:18316518

  2. The keto- and imine-epoxide rearrangements in the formation of substituted tetrahydrofurans and piperidines: Synthesis of ([+-])-teneraic acid; approahces to ([+-])-nemorensic acid and (+)-desoxoprosopinine

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharczyk, R.

    1992-01-01

    Previous work by Wasserman and co-workers showed that 2,7-dioxabicyclo-[2.21]heptanes can be formed via a thermal of Lewis acid-catalyzed rearrangement of 3,4-epoxy ketones. The author utilized this keto-epoxide rearrangement in the approach to the synthesis of nemorensic acid. A novel reaction of Grignard reagents with bicyclic acetals was developed permitting the stereoselective construction o9f highly substituted tetrahydrofurans. Thus, treatment of 1,4-dimethy1-2,7-dioxa-bicyclo[2.21]heptane with vinyl magnesium bromide resulted in Lewis acid-catalyzed acetal opening with subsequent chelation-controlled addition of the vinyl group to afford the tetrasubstituted tetrahydrofuran. Further functional group transformations demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in forming substituted tetrahydrofurans related to nemorensic acid. The carbonyl-epoxide rearrangement described above has been extended to imine epoxides in earlier work by Rusiecki. The resulting bicyclic oxazolidines can be stereoselectively reduced with hydride reagents to form substituted piperidines. The utility was demonstrated of this rearrangement/reduction methodology in the synthesis of [+-]-teneraic acid. The key steps in the synthesis were the formation of the bicyclic oxazolidine via the imine-epoxide rearrangement, and stereoselective hydride reduction to yield the trans piperidine. Oxidation of the t-butyloxycarbonyl-protected piperidine diol to the diacid, followed by deprotection of the amine, completed the synthesis of [+-]-teneraic acid. In seeking to apply the imine-epoxide rearrangement/reduction methodology in enantioselective syntheses, the author investigated an approach to the synthesis of (+)-desoxoprosopinine. This work has resulted in the successful construction of the desired intermediate keto epoxide which, with zinc chloride, rearranges cleanly to the corresponding bicyclic acetal. The corresponding imine-epoxide rearrangement has not been accomplished.

  3. Molecular genetics of para-aminosalicylic acid resistance in clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Vanessa; Wintjens, René; Lefevre, Philippe; Bertout, Julie; Singhal, Amit; Kiass, Mehdi; Kurepina, Natalia; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Mathema, Barun; Baulard, Alain; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Bifani, Pablo

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to first-line antibiotics has renewed interest in second-line antitubercular agents. Here, we aimed to extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) resistance by analysis of six genes of the folate metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides (thyA, dfrA, folC, folP1, folP2, and thyX) and three N-acetyltransferase genes [nhoA, aac(1), and aac(2)] among PAS-resistant clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants. Mutations in thyA were identified in only 37% of the clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants. Overall, 24 distinct mutations were identified in the thyA gene and 3 in the dfrA coding region. Based on structural bioinformatics techniques, the altered ThyA proteins were predicted to generate an unfolded or dysfunctional polypeptide. The MIC was determined by Bactec/Alert and dilution assay. Sixty-three percent of the PAS-resistant isolates had no mutations in the nine genes considered in this study, revealing that PAS resistance in M. tuberculosis involves mechanisms or targets other than those pertaining to the biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides. The alternative mechanism(s) or pathway(s) associated with PAS resistance appears to be PAS concentration dependent, in marked contrast to thyA-mutated PAS-resistant isolates.

  4. Unusual coupling reactions of aldehydes and alkynes: a novel preparation of substituted phthalic acid derivatives by automated synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel; Neumann, Helfried; Gördes, Dirk; Klaus, Stefan; Jiao, Haijun; Spannenberg, Anke; Krüger, Thomas; Wendler, Christian; Thurow, Kerstin; Stoll, Norbert; Beller, Matthias

    2003-05-23

    Based upon a highly versatile multicomponent methodology, a new one-pot synthesis of substituted phthalic acid derivatives from alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes was developed. The reaction involves the intermediacy of an acetamidodiene species which undergoes Diels-Alder addition to diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate. The resultant acetamidocyclohexadiene is subject to elimination of acetamide under the reaction conditions to give rise to substituted diethyl phthalates in good yields. This domino condensation-cycloaddition-elimination sequence has been applied to a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the exploitation of parallelized and automated synthesis technology for the rapid screening of reaction conditions and compositions. Detailed studies revealed the catalytic role of the employed acetamide and the occurrence of a stereoselective 1,4-syn elimination pathway under standard conditions.

  5. Identification of amino acids in lac repressor protein cross-linked to operator DNA specifically substituted with bromodeoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Allen, T D; Wick, K L; Matthews, K S

    1991-04-01

    Amino acids in lac repressor protein which form cross-links to lac operator DNA specifically substituted with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) have been identified. Five sites of cross-linking in BrdU-substituted operator DNA were found at positions +3, +4, +14, +18, and +19 relative to the initiation site for transcription (Wick, K.L., and Matthews, K.S. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 6106-6112). Irradiation of complexes of repressor and each of these five singly substituted operator DNAs was executed under large scale conditions to generate sufficient complex for proteolysis, separation of the peptide-DNA, and peptide sequencing. The DNAs substituted with BrdU for thymidine at positions +3, +18, and +19 yielded cross-links to the peptide spanning residues 23-33, with the cross-link identified at His-29. Substitution at position +14 resulted in a cross-link to Tyr-17 within the peptide containing amino acids 13-22. These results are consistent with the structure determined by NMR and molecular dynamics calculations of the NH2-terminal headpiece-symmetric operator complex (Lamerichs, R.M.J.N., Boelens, R., van der Marel, G.A., van Boom, J.H., Kaptein, R., Buck, F., Fera, B., and Rüterjans, H. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 2895-2991; de Vlieg, J., Berendsen, H.J.C., and van Gunsteren, W.F. (1989) Proteins 6, 104-127). This structure indicates proximity of His-29 in the major groove to thymidines at positions +3 and +4. Since base pairs at positions +18 and +19 occupy symmetrical positions to +3 and +4 in the promoter distal region of the operator, it would be anticipated that cross-links similar to the +3 and +4 positions would form at these sites; this prediction is not borne out by the behavior at +4/+18, as no peptide could be identified cross-linked to DNA substituted at +4. Molecular dynamics simulations and the NMR data indicate that Tyr-17 interacts with the thymine at position +8, which is symmetrically related to position +14. Although BrdU-associated strand scission at +8

  6. Analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) substituted in the 2 position as GABAC receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chebib, M; Vandenberg, R J; Johnston, G A

    1997-12-01

    1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) have been shown to activate GABAC receptors. In this study, a range of C2, C3, C4 and N-substituted GABA and TACA analogues were examined for activity at GABAC receptors. 2. The effects of these compounds were examined by use of electrophysiological recording from Xenopus oocytes expressing the human rho 1 subunit of GABAC receptors with the two-electrode voltage-clamp method. 3. trans-4-Amino-2-fluorobut-2-enoic acid was found to be a potent agonist (KD = 2.43 microM). In contrast, trans-4-amino-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid was found to be a moderately potent antagonist (IC50 = 31.0 microM and KB = 45.5 microM). These observations highlight the possibility that subtle structural substitutions may change an agonist into an antagonist. 4. 4-Amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (KD = 189 microM), 4-amino-2-methylenebutanoic acid (KD = 182 microM) and 4-amino-2-chlorobutanoic acid (KD = 285 microM) were weak partial agonists. The intrinsic activities of these compounds were 12.1%, 4.4% and 5.2% of the maximal response of GABA, respectively. These compounds more effectively blocked the effects of the agonist, GABA, giving rise to KB values of 53 microM and 101 microM, respectively. 5. The sulphinic acid analogue of GABA, homohypotaurine, was found to be a potent partial agonist (KD = 4.59 microM, intrinsic activity 69%). 6. It was concluded that substitution of a methyl or a halo group in the C2 position of GABA or TACA is tolerated at GABAC receptors. However, there was dramatic loss of activity when these groups were substituted at the C3, C4 and nitrogen positions of GABA and TACA. 7. Molecular modelling studies on a range of active and inactive compounds indicated that the agonist/competitive antagonist binding site of the GABAC receptor may be smaller than that of the GABAA and GABAB receptors. It is suggested that only compounds that can attain relatively flat conformations may bind to the GABAC receptor

  7. A New Dioic Acid from a wbl Gene Mutant of Deepsea-Derived Streptomyces somaliensis SCSIO ZH66

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huiming; Li, Huayue; Qiu, Yanhong; Hou, Lukuan; Ju, Jianhua; Li, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    The wblAso gene functions as a global regulatory gene in a negative manner in deepsea-derived Streptomyces somaliensis SCSIO ZH66. A new dioic acid (1) as well as two known butenolides (2 and 3) were isolated from the ΔwblAso mutant strain of S. somaliensis SCSIO ZH66. The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, including MS and NMR techniques. In the cell growth inhibitory evaluation, compound 3 exhibited moderate activity against the human hepatic carcinoma cell line (Huh7.5) with an IC50 value of 19.4 μg/mL, while compounds 1 and 2 showed null activity up to 100 μg/mL. PMID:27763499

  8. The green-absorbing Drosophila Rh6 visual pigment contains a blue-shifting amino acid substitution that is conserved in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Farrell, David M; Zheng, Lijun; Phistry, Meridee; Bagg, Eve E; Britt, Steven G

    2009-02-27

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate invertebrate visual pigment absorption are poorly understood. Through sequence analysis and functional investigation of vertebrate visual pigments, numerous amino acid substitutions important for this adaptive process have been identified. Here we describe a serine/alanine (S/A) substitution in long wavelength-absorbing Drosophila visual pigments that occurs at a site corresponding to Ala-292 in bovine rhodopsin. This S/A substitution accounts for a 10-17-nm absorption shift in visual pigments of this class. Additionally, we demonstrate that substitution of a cysteine at the same site, as occurs in the blue-absorbing Rh5 pigment, accounts for a 4-nm shift. Substitutions at this site are the first spectrally significant amino acid changes to be identified for invertebrate pigments sensitive to visible light and are the first evidence of a conserved tuning mechanism in vertebrate and invertebrate pigments of this class. PMID:19126545

  9. Structure-function relationships of purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans based on heterologously expressed mutants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Ngoc Thanh; Naseri, Joseph Itor; Vogel, Andreas; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, B

    2005-08-01

    Purple acid phosphatases are binuclear metalloenzymes, which catalyze the conversion of orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. The enzyme from red kidney beans is characterized with a Fe(III)-Zn(II) active center. So far, the reaction mechanisms postulated for PAPs assume the essentiality of two amino acids, residing near the bimetallic active site. Based on the amino acid sequence of kidney bean PAP (kbPAP), residues H296 and H202 are believed to be essential for catalytic function of the enzyme. In the present study, the role of residue H202 has been elucidated. Mutants H202A and H202R were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Based on kinetic studies, residue H202 is assumed to play a role in stabilizing the transition state, particularly in charge compensation, steric positioning of the substrate, and facilitating the release of the product by protonating the substrate leaving groups. The study confirmed the essentiality and elucidates the functional role of H202 in the catalytic mechanism of kbPAP.

  10. Transcriptional activation by TFIIB mutants that are severely impaired in interaction with promoter DNA and acidic activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, S; Struhl, K

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical experiments indicate that the general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) can interact directly with acidic activation domains and that activators can stimulate transcription by increasing recruitment of TFIIB to promoters. For promoters at which recruitment of TFIIB to promoters is limiting in vivo, one would predict that transcriptional activity should be particularly sensitive to TFIIB mutations that decrease the association of TFIIB with promoter DNA and/or with activation domains; i.e., such TFIIB mutations should exacerbate a limiting step that occurs in wild-type cells. Here, we describe mutations on the DNA-binding surface of TFIIB that severely affect both TATA-binding protein (TBP)-TFIIB-TATA complex formation and interaction with the VP16 activation domain in vitro. These TFIIB mutations affect the stability of the TBP-TFIIB-TATA complex in vivo because they are synthetically lethal in combination with TBP mutants impaired for TFIIB binding. Interestingly, these TFIIB derivatives support viability, and they efficiently respond to Gal4-VP16 and natural acidic activators in different promoter contexts. These results suggest that in vivo, recruitment of TFIIB is not generally a limiting step for acidic activators. However, one TFIIB derivative shows reduced transcription of GAL4, suggesting that TFIIB may be limiting at a subset of promoters in vivo. PMID:9372910

  11. Structure-function relationships of purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans based on heterologously expressed mutants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Ngoc Thanh; Naseri, Joseph Itor; Vogel, Andreas; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, B

    2005-08-01

    Purple acid phosphatases are binuclear metalloenzymes, which catalyze the conversion of orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. The enzyme from red kidney beans is characterized with a Fe(III)-Zn(II) active center. So far, the reaction mechanisms postulated for PAPs assume the essentiality of two amino acids, residing near the bimetallic active site. Based on the amino acid sequence of kidney bean PAP (kbPAP), residues H296 and H202 are believed to be essential for catalytic function of the enzyme. In the present study, the role of residue H202 has been elucidated. Mutants H202A and H202R were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Based on kinetic studies, residue H202 is assumed to play a role in stabilizing the transition state, particularly in charge compensation, steric positioning of the substrate, and facilitating the release of the product by protonating the substrate leaving groups. The study confirmed the essentiality and elucidates the functional role of H202 in the catalytic mechanism of kbPAP. PMID:16009331

  12. Abscisic acid-responsive guard cell metabolomes of Arabidopsis wild-type and gpa1 G-protein mutants.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaofen; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Zhu, Mengmeng; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Albert, Reka; Chen, Sixue; Assmann, Sarah M

    2013-12-01

    Individual metabolites have been implicated in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells, but a metabolite profile of this specialized cell type is lacking. We used liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for targeted analysis of 85 signaling-related metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell protoplasts over a time course of ABA treatment. The analysis utilized ∼ 350 million guard cell protoplasts from ∼ 30,000 plants of the Arabidopsis Columbia accession (Col) wild type and the heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit mutant, gpa1, which has ABA-hyposensitive stomata. These metabolomes revealed coordinated regulation of signaling metabolites in unrelated biochemical pathways. Metabolites clustered into different temporal modules in Col versus gpa1, with fewer metabolites showing ABA-altered profiles in gpa1. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents sphingosine-1-phosphate and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose exhibited weaker ABA-stimulated increases in gpa1. Hormone metabolites were responsive to ABA, with generally greater responsiveness in Col than in gpa1. Most hormones also showed different ABA responses in guard cell versus mesophyll cell metabolomes. These findings suggest that ABA functions upstream to regulate other hormones, and are also consistent with G proteins modulating multiple hormonal signaling pathways. In particular, indole-3-acetic acid levels declined after ABA treatment in Col but not gpa1 guard cells. Consistent with this observation, the auxin antagonist α-(phenyl ethyl-2-one)-indole-3-acetic acid enhanced ABA-regulated stomatal movement and restored partial ABA sensitivity to gpa1.

  13. Isolation of mutants of the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  14. Isolation of Mutants of the Nitrogen-Fixing Actinomycete Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  15. Succinic acid production from hemicellulose hydrolysate by an Escherichia coli mutant obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma and adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haijiao; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Jiang, Youming; Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Chen, Kequan; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric and room temperature plasma and adaptive evolution were combined to generate Escherichia coli mutants, which can simultaneously and efficiently utilize glucose and xylose to produce succinic acid in chemically defined medium under exclusively anaerobic condition. Compared to the parent strain BA305, a pflB, ldhA, ppc, and ptsG deletion strain overexpressing ATP-forming phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (PEPCK), the sugar consumption rate and succinic acid productivity of mutant BA408 were significantly improved with a marked increase in the key enzyme activities. Subsequent anaerobic fermentation of BA408 with corn stalk hydrolysate produced a final succinic acid concentration of 23.1 g L(-1) with a yield of 0.85 g g(-1) sugar mixture. The observed synthesis of succinic acid from the corn stalk hydrolysate showed a great potential usage of renewable biomass as a feedstock for an economical succinic acid production using E. coli.

  16. Salicylic acid induction-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis express PR-2 and PR-5 and accumulate high levels of camalexin after pathogen inoculation.

    PubMed Central

    Nawrath, C; Métraux, J P

    1999-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, systemic acquired resistance against pathogens has been associated with the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of the pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5. We report here the isolation of two nonallelic mutants impaired in the pathway leading to SA biosynthesis. These SA induction-deficient (sid) mutants do not accumulate SA after pathogen inoculation and are more susceptible to both virulent and avirulent forms of Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica. However, sid mutants are not as susceptible to these pathogens as are transgenic plants expressing the nahG gene encoding an SA hydroxylase that degrades SA to catechol. In contrast to NahG plants, only the expression of PR-1 is strongly reduced in sid mutants, whereas PR-2 and PR-5 are still expressed after pathogen attack. Furthermore, the accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin is normal. These results indicate that SA-independent compensation pathways that do not operate in NahG plants are active in sid mutants. One of the mutants is allelic to eds5 (for enhanced disease susceptibility), whereas the other mutant has not been described previously. PMID:10449575

  17. Cytochrome c Trp65Ser substitution results in inhibition of acetic acid-induced programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    To gain further insight into the role of cytochrome c (cyt c) in yeast programmed cell death induced by acetic acid (AA-PCD), comparison was made between wild type and two mutant cells, one lacking cyt c and the other (W65Scyc1) expressing a mutant iso-1-cyt c in a form unable to reduce cyt c oxidase, with respect to occurrence of AA-PCD, cyt c release, ROS production and caspase-like activity. We show that in W65Scyc1 cells: i. no release of mutant cyt c occurs with inhibition of W65Scyc1 cell AA-PCD shown to be independent on impairment of electron flow, ii. there is a decrease in ROS production and an increase in caspase-like activity. We conclude that cyt c release does not depend on cyt c function as an electron carrier and that when still associated to the mitochondrial membrane, cyt c in its reduced form has a role in AA-PCD, by regulating ROS production and caspase-like activity. PMID:21907312

  18. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  19. Enhanced succinic acid productivity by expression of mgtCB gene in Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Le; Wang, Dan; Dong, Lichun; Chen, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a novel engineering Escherichia coli strain (CBMG111) with the expression of mgtCB gene was constructed for the enhanced fermentative production of succinic acid by utilizing the synergetic effect of mgtC gene to improve the growth of strains at the environment of low Mg(2+) concentration and mgtB to enhance the transport of Mg(2+) into cells. After the effect of the expression of the individual genes (mgtA, mgtB, mgtC) on the growth of E. coli was clarified, the fermentative production of succinic acid by CBMG111 was studied with the low-price mixture of Mg(OH)2 and NH3·H2O as the alkaline neutralizer and the biomass hydrolysates as the carbon sources, which demonstrated that the expression of mgtCB gene can significantly increase the productivity of succinic acid (2.97 g L(-1) h(-1)) compared with that by using the engineering strain with the overexpression of mgtA gene. PMID:26711444

  20. A yeast acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase mutant links very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis to the structure and function of the nuclear membrane-pore complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schneiter, R; Hitomi, M; Ivessa, A S; Fasch, E V; Kohlwein, S D; Tartakoff, A M

    1996-01-01

    The conditional mRNA transport mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acc1-7-1 (mtr7-1), displays a unique alteration of the nuclear envelope. Unlike nucleoporin mutants and other RNA transport mutants, the intermembrane space expands, protuberances extend from the inner membrane into the intermembrane space, and vesicles accumulate in the intermembrane space. MTR7 is the same gene as ACC1, encoding acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (Acc1p), the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Genetic and biochemical analyses of fatty acid synthesis mutants and acc1-7-1 indicate that the continued synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the enzymatic product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is required for an essential pathway which is independent from de novo synthesis of fatty acids. We provide evidence that synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26 atoms) is inhibited in acc1-7-1, suggesting that very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis is required to maintain a functional nuclear envelope. PMID:8943372

  1. Mutants of Streptomyces clavuligerus with Disruptions in Different Genes for Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis Produce Large Amounts of Holomycin: Possible Cross-Regulation of Two Unrelated Secondary Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Alvaro; Lorenzana, Luis M.; Martín, Juan F.; Liras, Paloma

    2002-01-01

    A Streptomyces clavuligerus ccaR::aph strain, which has a disruption in the regulatory gene ccaR, does not produce cephamycin C or clavulanic acid, but does produce a bioactive compound that was identified as holomycin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and infrared and mass spectrometry. S. clavuligerus strains with disruptions in different genes of the clavulanic acid pathway fall into three groups with respect to holomycin biosynthesis. (i) Mutants with mutations in the early steps of the pathway blocked in the gene ceaS (pyc) (encoding carboxyethylarginine synthase), bls (encoding a β-lactam synthetase), or open reading frame 6 (ORF6; coding for an acetyltransferase of unknown function) are holomycin nonproducers. (ii) Mutants blocked in the regulatory gene ccaR or claR or blocked in the last gene of the pathway encoding clavulanic acid reductase (car) produce holomycin at higher levels than the wild-type strain. (iii) Mutants with disruption in cyp (coding for cytochrome P450), ORF12, and ORF15, genes that appear to be involved in the conversion of clavaminic acid into clavaldehyde or in secretion steps, produce up to 250-fold as much holomycin as the wild-type strain. An assay for holomycin synthetase was developed. This enzyme forms holomycin from holothin by using acetyl coenzyme A as an acetyl group donor. The holomycin synthase activities in the different clavulanic acid mutants correlate well with their production of holomycin. PMID:12426344

  2. Highly Amino Acid Selective Hydrolysis of Myoglobin at Aspartate Residues as Promoted by Zirconium(IV)-Substituted Polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Ly, Hong Giang T; Absillis, Gregory; Janssens, Rik; Proost, Paul; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2015-06-15

    SDS-PAGE/Edman degradation and HPLC MS/MS showed that zirconium(IV)-substituted Lindqvist-, Keggin-, and Wells-Dawson-type polyoxometalates (POMs) selectively hydrolyze the protein myoglobin at Asp-X peptide bonds under mildly acidic and neutral conditions. This transformation is the first example of highly sequence selective protein hydrolysis by POMs, a novel class of protein-hydrolyzing agents. The selectivity is directed by Asp residues located on the surface of the protein and is further assisted by electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged POMs and positively charged surface patches in the vicinity of the cleavage site.

  3. Radiation chemistry of salicylic and methyl substituted salicylic acids: Models for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceutical compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, Shakiba; Kalnina, Daina; Song, Weihua; Turks, Maris; Cooper, William J.

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivatives are components of many medications and moieties found in numerous pharmaceutical compounds. They have been used as models for various pharmaceutical compounds in pharmacological studies, for the treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and, reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the radiation chemistry of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and four methyl substituted salicylic acids (MSA) is reported. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical reaction with benzoic and salicylic acids as well as 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 5-methyl-, and 6-methyl-salicylic acid were determined (5.86±0.54)×109, (1.07±0.07)×1010, (7.48±0.17)×109, (7.31±0.29)×109, (5.47±0.25)×109, (6.94±0.10)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The hydrated electron reaction rate constants were measured (3.02±0.10)×109, (8.98±0.27)×109, (5.39±0.21)×109, (4.33±0.17)×109, (4.72±0.15)×109, (1.42±0.02)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The transient absorption spectra for the six model compounds were examined and their role as model compounds for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceuticals investigated.

  4. Arsenic scavenging by aluminum-substituted ferrihydrites in a circumneutral pH river impacted by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Adra, Areej; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Menguy, Nicolas; Maillot, Fabien; Casiot, Corinne; Bruneel, Odile; Lebrun, Sophie; Juillot, Farid; Brest, Jessica

    2013-11-19

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a nanocrystalline ferric oxyhydroxide involved in the retention of pollutants in natural systems and in water-treatment processes. The status and properties of major chemical impurities in natural Fh is however still scarcely documented. Here we investigated the structure of aluminum-rich Fh, and their role in arsenic scavenging in river-bed sediments from a circumneutral river (pH 6-7) impacted by an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge shows that Fh is the predominant mineral phase forming after neutralization of the AMD, in association with minor amount of schwertmannite transported from the AMD. TEM-EDXS elemental mapping and SEM-EDXS analyses combined with EXAFS analysis indicates that Al(3+) substitutes for Fe(3+) ions into the Fh structure in the natural sediment samples, with local aluminum concentration within the 25-30 ± 10 mol %Al range. Synthetic aluminous Fh prepared in the present study are found to be less Al-substituted (14-20 ± 5 mol %Al). Finally, EXAFS analysis at the arsenic K-edge indicates that As(V) form similar inner-sphere surface complexes on the natural and synthetic Al-substituted Fh studied. Our results provide direct evidence for the scavenging of arsenic by natural Al-Fh, which emphasize the possible implication of such material for scavenging pollutants in natural or engineered systems.

  5. A Delicate Balance When Substituting a Small Hydrophobe onto Low Molecular Weight Polyethylenimine to Improve Its Nucleic Acid Delivery Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Meneksedag-Erol, Deniz; KC, Remant Bahadur; Tang, Tian; Uludağ, Hasan

    2015-11-11

    High molecular weight (HMW) polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most versatile nonviral gene vectors that was extensively investigated over the past two decades. The cytotoxic profile of HMW PEI, however, encouraged a search for safer alternatives. Because of lack of cytotoxicity of low molecular weight (LMW) PEI, enhancing its performance via hydrophobic modifications has been pursued to this end. Since the performance of modified PEIs depends on the nature and extent of substituents, we systematically investigated the effect of hydrophobic modification of LMW (1.2 kDa) PEI with a short propionic acid (PrA). Moderate enhancements in PEI hydrophobicity resulted in enhanced cellular uptake of polyplexes and siRNA-induced silencing efficacy, whereas further increase in PrA substitution abolished the uptake as well as the silencing. We performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanistic details behind these observations. A new assembly mechanism was observed by the presence of hydrophobic PrA moieties, where PrA migrated to core of the polyplex. This phenomenon caused higher surface hydrophobicity and surface charge density at low substitutions, and it caused deleterious effects on surface hydrophobicity and cationic charge at higher substitutions. It is evident that an optimal balance of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity is needed to achieve the desired polyplex properties for an efficient siRNA delivery, and our mechanistic findings should provide valuable insights for the design of improved substituents on nonviral carriers.

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of some 5-substituted aminomethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline-7-sulphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Yanni, A S; Mohharam, A M

    1990-01-01

    5-Aryl (or alkyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline-7-sulphonic acids have been prepared by the Mannich reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-sulphonic acid with primary and secondary amines. Their bactericidal activities have been determined.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10107 Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy... chemical substance identified generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy- , metal salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10107 Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy... chemical substance identified generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy- , metal salt (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10107 Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy... chemical substance identified generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy- , metal salt (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10107 Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy... chemical substance identified generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy- , metal salt (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10107 Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy... chemical substance identified generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, azo]-hydroxy- , metal salt (PMN...

  17. Altered Glycine Decarboxylation Inhibition in Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide-Resistant Mutant Callus Lines and in Regenerated Plants and Seed Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Zelitch, Israel; Berlyn, Mary B.

    1982-01-01

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH), an inhibitor of the photorespiratory pathway blocking the conversion of glycine to serine and CO2, has been used as a selective agent to obtain INH-resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cells. Of 22 cell lines that were INH-resistant, none were different from wild-type cells in their ability to take up [3H]INH or to oxidize INH to isonicotinic acid. In 7 of the 22 cell lines, INH resistance was associated with decreased inhibition of NAD-dependent glycine decarboxylation activity in isolated mitochondrial preparations. In the cell line that was most extensively investigated (I 24), this biochemical phenotype (exhibiting a 3-fold higher Ki with INH) was observed in leaf mitochondria of regenerated plants and of plants produced from them by self-fertilization. After crosses between resistant and sensitive plants, the decreased inhibition of glycine decarboxylation was observed among F2 and backcross progeny only in those plants previously identified as INH-resistant by callus growth tests. In contrast, in siblings identified as INH-sensitive, glycine decarboxylation was inhibited by INH at the wild-type level. This demonstration of the transfer of an altered enzyme property from callus to regenerated plants and through seed progeny fulfills an important requirement for the use of somatic cell genetics to produce biochemical mutants of higher plants. PMID:16662158

  18. Production of L-lactic acid by a thermophilic Bacillus mutant using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    A sodium lactate tolerant mutant strain named Bacillus sp. Na-2 was obtained and applied to sodium hydroxide-based L-lactic acid (LA) production process. The influences of aeration and pH were investigated to further improve the resistance of strain Na-2 against sodium lactate stress and to obtain the most efficient L-LA production process. Although mild aeration was favorable for cell growth and L-LA production, vigorous aeration resulted in a metabolic shift from homolactic to mixed-acid/acetoin fermentation. Therefore, a two-stage aeration control strategy was employed. Optimum pH was found to be 6.0. A total of 106.0 g/l L-LA was produced in 30 h by Bacillus sp. Na-2 using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent. Productivity, conversion rate and optical purity were 3.53 g/l/h, 94% and 99.5%, respectively. The remarkable fermentation traits of Bacillus sp. Na-2 and the environment-friendly characteristics of NaOH-based process represent new insight for industrial scale production of L-LA.

  19. A single amino acid substitution confers high cinchonidine oxidation activity comparable with that of rabbit to monkey aldehyde oxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Fukiya, Kensuke; Itoh, Kunio; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kishiba, Akiko; Adachi, Mayuko; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2010-02-01

    Aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) is a major member of the xanthine oxidase family belonging to the class of complex molybdo-flavoenzymes and plays an important role in the nucleophilic oxidation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds and various aldehydes. The enzyme has been well known to show remarkable species differences. Comparing the rabbit and monkey enzymes, the former showed extremely high activity toward cinchonidine and methotrexate, but the latter exhibited only marginal activities. In contrast, monkey had several times greater activity than did rabbit toward zonisamide and (+)-4-(4-cyanoanilino)-5,6-dihydro-7-hydroxy-7H-cyclopenta[d]-pyrimidine [(S)-RS-8359]. In this report, we tried to confer high cinchonidine oxidation activity comparable with that of rabbit AOX1 to monkey AOX1. The chimera proteins prepared by restriction enzyme digestion and recombination methods between monkey and rabbit AOX1s indicated that the sequences from Asn993 to Ala1088 of rabbit AOX1 are essential for the activity. The kinetic parameters were then measured using monkey AOX1 mutants prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. The monkey V1085A mutant acquired the high cinchonidine oxidation activity. Inversely, the reciprocal rabbit A1081V mutant lost the activity entirely: amino acid 1081 of rabbit AOX1 corresponding to amino acid 1085 of monkey AOX1. Thus, cinchonidine oxidation activity was drastically changed by mutation of a single residue in AOX1. However, this might be true for bulky substrates such as cinchonidine but not for small substrates. The mechanism of substrate-dependent species differences in AOX1 activity toward bulky substrates is discussed.

  20. Effect of the amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain of the Fur regulator on production of pyoverdine.

    PubMed

    Valešová, Renáta; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Stěpánek, Václav; Babiak, Peter; Kyslík, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator gene (fur), its promoter region and Fur box of pvdS gene involved in siderophore-mediated iron uptake system were sequenced in the parent strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and in the fur mutant FPA121 derived from the strain PAO1. We identified the gene fur 179 bearing a novel, single-point mutation that changed the amino acid residue Gln60Pro in the DNA-binding domain of the Fur protein. The synthesis of pyoverdine was studied in cultures of the strains PAO1 and FPA121 grown in iron-deplete and iron-replete (60 μmol/L FeIII) medium. The amino acid replacement in the regulatory Fur protein is responsible for the overproduction of pyoverdine in iron-deplete and iron-replete medium. No mutation was identified in the Fur box of the gene pvdS.

  1. Comparative effects of wild type Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and its indole acetic acid-deficient mutants on wheat.

    PubMed

    Hassan, T U; Bano, A

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation evaluated the role of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and its IAA-deficient mutant on soil health and plant growth under salinity stress in the presence of tryptophan. In the first phase, S. maltophilia isolated from roots of the halo- phytic herb, Cenchrus ciliaris was used as bio-inoculant on wheat grown in saline sodic soil. A field experiment was conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute during 2010-2011. Treatments included seed inoculation with S. maltophilia with or without tryptophan; uninoculated untreated plants were taken as control. An aqueous solution of tryptophan was added to rhizosphere soil at 1 μg l(_1) after seed germination. Inoculation with S. maltophilia significantly increased soil organic matter, enhanced (20-30%) availability of P, K, Ca and NO3 -N and decreased Na content and electrical conductivity of rhizosphere soil. Plant height, fresh weight, proline and phytohormone content of leaves were increased 30-40% over the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were 40-50% higher than control. Addition of tryptophan further augmented (10-15%) growth parameters, whereas NO3 -N, P, K and Ca content, proline content and SOD and POD increased 20-30%. In a second phase, indoleacetic acid (IAA)-deficient mutants of S. maltophilia were constructed and evaluated for conversion of tryptophan to IAA at the University of Calgary, Canada, during 2013-2014. About 1800 trans-conjugants were constructed that were unable to produce IAA in the presence of tryptophan. The results suggest that tryptophan assisted S. maltophilia in the amelioration of salt stress, and that IAA played positive role in induction of salt tolerance. PMID:27263526

  2. Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Jared R; Torrence, Margaret E; Danai, Laura V; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Davidson, Shawn M; Bauer, Matthew R; Lau, Allison N; Ji, Brian W; Dixit, Purushottam D; Hosios, Aaron M; Muir, Alexander; Chin, Christopher R; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Jacks, Tyler; Wolpin, Brian M; Vitkup, Dennis; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2016-09-01

    Tumor genetics guides patient selection for many new therapies, and cell culture studies have demonstrated that specific mutations can promote metabolic phenotypes. However, whether tissue context defines cancer dependence on specific metabolic pathways is unknown. Kras activation and Trp53 deletion in the pancreas or the lung result in pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma (PDAC) or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively, but despite the same initiating events, these tumors use branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) differently. NSCLC tumors incorporate free BCAAs into tissue protein and use BCAAs as a nitrogen source, whereas PDAC tumors have decreased BCAA uptake. These differences are reflected in expression levels of BCAA catabolic enzymes in both mice and humans. Loss of Bcat1 and Bcat2, the enzymes responsible for BCAA use, impairs NSCLC tumor formation, but these enzymes are not required for PDAC tumor formation, arguing that tissue of origin is an important determinant of how cancers satisfy their metabolic requirements. PMID:27609895

  3. Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Jared R; Torrence, Margaret E; Danai, Laura V; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Davidson, Shawn M; Bauer, Matthew R; Lau, Allison N; Ji, Brian W; Dixit, Purushottam D; Hosios, Aaron M; Muir, Alexander; Chin, Christopher R; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Jacks, Tyler; Wolpin, Brian M; Vitkup, Dennis; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2016-09-01

    Tumor genetics guides patient selection for many new therapies, and cell culture studies have demonstrated that specific mutations can promote metabolic phenotypes. However, whether tissue context defines cancer dependence on specific metabolic pathways is unknown. Kras activation and Trp53 deletion in the pancreas or the lung result in pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma (PDAC) or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively, but despite the same initiating events, these tumors use branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) differently. NSCLC tumors incorporate free BCAAs into tissue protein and use BCAAs as a nitrogen source, whereas PDAC tumors have decreased BCAA uptake. These differences are reflected in expression levels of BCAA catabolic enzymes in both mice and humans. Loss of Bcat1 and Bcat2, the enzymes responsible for BCAA use, impairs NSCLC tumor formation, but these enzymes are not required for PDAC tumor formation, arguing that tissue of origin is an important determinant of how cancers satisfy their metabolic requirements.

  4. Polyvinyl alcohol and amino acids as substitutes for bovine serum albumin in culture media for mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Biggers, J D; Summers, M C; McGinnis, L K

    1997-01-01

    The effect of replacing bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a simple defined medium (KSOM) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or amino acids on the percentages of mouse zygotes that develop to at least the blastocyst stage and that hatch at least partially or completely is reported. Blastocysts could form when BSA was replaced with only PVA, but at a moderately reduced rate; however, partial hatching, and hence complete hatching, were severely impaired when BSA was replaced with only PVA. The substitution of BSA with amino acids alone resulted in a high rate of blastocyst formation and moderate impairment of hatching. The addition of PVA to BSA-free KSOM supplemented with amino acids had no extra effect. BSA had significant effects when added to BSA-free KSOM supplemented with amino acids. The BSA caused a significant increase in the rate of partial hatching, and may even have had a small effect on the rate of blastocyst formation. The results also showed that glucose, at a high concentration of 5.56 mM, does not inhibit the development of mouse zygotes to hatched blastocysts when cultured in KSOM supplemented with amino acids. PMID:9286737

  5. Design, synthesis and SAR studies of GABA uptake inhibitors derived from 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Steffan, Tobias; Renukappa-Gutke, Thejavathi; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we disclose the design and synthesis of a series of 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid as core structures and the N-arylalkyl derivatives thereof as potential GABA transport inhibitors. The 2-position in the side chain of pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives was substituted with alkyl, hydroxy and amino groups to modulate the activity and selectivity to mGAT1 and mGAT4 proteins. SAR studies of the compounds performed for the four mouse GABA transporter proteins (mGAT1-mGAT4) implied significant potencies and subtype selectivities for 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives. The racemate rac-(u)-13c exhibited the highest potency (pIC50 5.67) at and selectivity for mGAT1 in GABA uptake assays. In fact, the potency of rac-(u)-13c at hGAT-1 (pIC50 6.14) was even higher than its potency at mGAT1. These uptake results for rac-(u)-13c are in line with the binding affinities to the aforesaid proteins mGAT1 (pKi 6.99) and hGAT-1 (pKi 7.18) determined by MS Binding Assay based on NO711 as marker quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis. Interestingly, the 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid rac-(u)-13d containing 2-{[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)]methoxy} ethyl group at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidine ring showed high potency at mGAT4 and a comparatively better selectivity for this protein (>15 against mGAT3) than the well known mGAT4 uptake inhibitor (S)-SNAP-5114.

  6. Antibacterial and anticancer activity of a series of novel peptides incorporating cyclic tetra-substituted C(α) amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rickey P

    2016-09-15

    Eleven antimicrobial peptides (AMP) based on the incorporation of cyclic tetra substituted C(α) amino acids, as well as other unnatural amino acids were designed, synthesized and screened for in vitro activity against 18 strains of bacteria as well as 12 cancer cell lines. The AMPs discussed herein are derived from the following peptide sequence: Ac-GF(X)G(X)B(X)G(X)F(X)G(X)GB(X)BBBB-amide, X=any one of the following residues, A5c, A6c, Tic or Oic and B=any one of the following residues, Arg, Lys, Orn, Dpr or Dab. A diversity of in vitro inhibitory activity was observed for these AMPs. Several analogs exhibited single digit μM activity against drug resistant bacteria including; multiple drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, extremely drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and MRSA. The physicochemical properties of the basic amino acid residues incorporated into these AMPs seem to play a major role in defining antibacterial activity. Overall hydrophobicity seems to play a limited role in defining antibacterial activity. The ESKAPE pathogens were used to compare the activity of these AMPs to another family of synthetic AMPs incorporating the unnatural amino acids Tic and Oic. In most cases similarly substituted members of both families exhibited similar inhibitory activity against the ESKAPE pathogens. In specific cases differences in activity as high as 15 fold were observed between analogs. In addition four of these AMPs exhibited promising IC50 (<7.5μM) values against 12 different and diverse cancer cell lines. Five other AMPs exhibited promising IC50 (<7.5μM) values against selected cancer cell lines. PMID:27387357

  7. Antibacterial and anticancer activity of a series of novel peptides incorporating cyclic tetra-substituted C(α) amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rickey P

    2016-09-15

    Eleven antimicrobial peptides (AMP) based on the incorporation of cyclic tetra substituted C(α) amino acids, as well as other unnatural amino acids were designed, synthesized and screened for in vitro activity against 18 strains of bacteria as well as 12 cancer cell lines. The AMPs discussed herein are derived from the following peptide sequence: Ac-GF(X)G(X)B(X)G(X)F(X)G(X)GB(X)BBBB-amide, X=any one of the following residues, A5c, A6c, Tic or Oic and B=any one of the following residues, Arg, Lys, Orn, Dpr or Dab. A diversity of in vitro inhibitory activity was observed for these AMPs. Several analogs exhibited single digit μM activity against drug resistant bacteria including; multiple drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, extremely drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and MRSA. The physicochemical properties of the basic amino acid residues incorporated into these AMPs seem to play a major role in defining antibacterial activity. Overall hydrophobicity seems to play a limited role in defining antibacterial activity. The ESKAPE pathogens were used to compare the activity of these AMPs to another family of synthetic AMPs incorporating the unnatural amino acids Tic and Oic. In most cases similarly substituted members of both families exhibited similar inhibitory activity against the ESKAPE pathogens. In specific cases differences in activity as high as 15 fold were observed between analogs. In addition four of these AMPs exhibited promising IC50 (<7.5μM) values against 12 different and diverse cancer cell lines. Five other AMPs exhibited promising IC50 (<7.5μM) values against selected cancer cell lines.

  8. Characterization of chicken-liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-1 and A2-2 isoenzymes and their site-directed mutants heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli: identification of Lys-15 and Ser-208 on cGSTA1-1 as residues interacting with ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L F; Liaw, Y C; Tam, M F

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli-expressed chicken-liver glutathione S-transferase, cGSTA1-1, displays high ethacrynic acid (EA)-conjugating activity. Molecular modelling of cGSTA1-1 with EA in the substrate binding site reveals that the side chain of Phe-111 protrudes into the substrate binding site and possibly interacts with EA. Replacement of Phe-111 with alanine resulted in an enzyme (F111A mutant) with a 4.5-fold increase in EA-conjugating activity (9.2 mmol/min per mg), and an incremental Gibbs free energy (DeltaDeltaG) of 4.0 kJ/mol lower than that of the wild-type cGSTA1-1. Two other amino acid residues that possibly interact with EA are Ser-208 and Lys-15. Substitution of Ser-208 with methionine generated a cGSTA1-1(F111AS208M) double mutant that has low EA-conjugating activity (2.0 mmol/min per mg) and an incremental Gibbs free energy of +3.9 kJ/mol greater than the cGSTA1-1(F111A) single mutant. The cGSTA1-1(F111A) mutant, with an additional Lys-15-to-leucine substitution, lost 90% of the EA-conjugating activity (0.55 mmol/min per mg). The Km values of the cGSTA1-1(F111A) and cGSTA1-1(F111AK15L) mutants for EA are nearly identical. The wild-type cGSTA2-2 isoenzyme has a low EA-conjugating activity (0.56 mmol/min per mg). The kcat of this reaction can be increased 2. 5-fold by substituting Arg-15 and Glu-104 with lysine and glycine respectively. The KmEA of the cGSTA2-2(R15KE104G) double mutant is nearly identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. Another double mutant, cGSTA2-2(E104GL208S), has a KmEA that is 3.3-fold lower and a kcat that is 1.8-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results, taken together, illustrate the interactions of Lys-15 and Ser-208 on cGSTA1-1 with EA. PMID:9359434

  9. Arabidopsis serotonin N-acetyltransferase knockout mutant plants exhibit decreased melatonin and salicylic acid levels resulting in susceptibility to an avirulent pathogen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Yool; Byeon, Yeong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway in plants. We examined the effects of SNAT gene inactivation in two Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant lines. After inoculation with the avirulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato DC3000 harboring the elicitor avrRpt2 (Pst-avrRpt2), melatonin levels in the snat knockout mutant lines were 50% less than in wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 plants. The snat knockout mutant lines exhibited susceptibility to pathogen infection that coincided with decreased induction of defense genes including PR1, ICS1, and PDF1.2. Because melatonin acts upstream of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, the reduced melatonin levels in the snat mutant lines led to decreased SA levels compared to wild-type, suggesting that the increased pathogen susceptibility of the snat mutant lines could be attributed to decreased SA levels and subsequent attenuation of defense gene induction. Exogenous melatonin treatment failed to induce defense gene expression in nahG Arabidopsis plants, but restored the induction of defense gene expression in the snat mutant lines. In addition, melatonin caused translocation of NPR1 (nonexpressor of PR1) protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus indicating that melatonin-elicited pathogen resistance in response to avirulent pathogen attack is SA-dependent in Arabidopsis.

  10. Effect of forced aeration on citric acid production by Aspergillus sp. mutants in SSF.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Sturm, Wilerson; Dergint, Dario E A; Spier, Michele Rigon; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Soccol, Carlos R

    2013-12-01

    Citric acid (CA) is one of the most important products of fermentation in the world. A great variety of agro-industrial residues can be used in solid state fermentation. Aspergillus niger parental strain (CCT 7716) and two strains obtained by mutagenesis (CCT 7717 and CCT 7718) were evaluated in Erlenmeyer flasks and glass columns using citric pulp (CP) as substrate/support, sugarcane molasses and methanol. Best results using glass columns (forced aeration) were found in the fourth day of fermentation: 278.4, 294.9 and 261.1 g CA/kg of dry CP with CCT 7716, CCT 7718 and CCT 7717, respectively. In Erlenmeyer flasks (aeration by diffusion) CA reached 410.7, 446.8 and 492.7 g CA/kg of dry CP with CCT 7716, CCT 7718 and CCT 7717, respectively. The aeration by diffusion improved CA production by the three strains. A data acquisition system specially developed for biotechnological processes analysis was used to perform the respirometric parameters measurement.

  11. 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids as prodrugs of L-cysteine. Protection of mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H.T.; Goon, D.J.; Muldoon, W.P.; Zera, R.T.

    1984-05-01

    A number of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids were evaluated for their protective effect against hepatotoxic deaths produced in mice by LD/sub 90/ doses of acetaminophen. 2(RS)-Methyl-, 2(RS)-n-propyl-, and 2(RS)-n- pentylthiazolidine -4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1b,d,e, respectively) were nearly equipotent in their protective effect based on the number of surviving animals at 48 h as well as by histological criteria. 2(RS)-Ethyl-, 2(RS)-phenyl-, and 2(RS)-(4-pyridyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1c,f,g) were less protective. The enantiomer of 1b, viz., 2(RS)- methylthiazolidine -4(S)-carboxylic acid (2b), was totally ineffective in this regard. Thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (1a), but not its enantiomer, 2a, was a good substrate for a solubilized preparation of rat liver mitochondrial proline oxidase (K/sub m/ 1.1 x 10(-4) M; V/sub max/ . 5.4 mumol min-1 (mg of protein)-1). Compound 1b was not a substrate for proline oxidase but dissociated to L-cysteine in this system. At physiological pH and temperature, the hydrogens on the methyl group of 1b underwent deuterium exchange with solvent D/sub 2/O (k1 . 2.5 X 10(-5) s), suggesting that opening of the thiazolidine ring must have taken place. Indeed, 1b labeled with /sup 14/C in the 2 and methyl positions was rapidly metabolized by the rat to produce /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, 80% of the dose being excreted in this form in the expired air after 24 h. It is suggested that these 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids are prodrugs of L-cysteine that liberate this sulfhydryl amino acid in vivo by nonenzymatic ring opening, followed by solvolysis.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  17. A More Challenging Interpretative Nitration Experiment Employing Substituted Benzoic Acids and Acetanilides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Edward M.; Lin, Tung-Yin

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described involving the nitration of ortho or meta monosubstituted benzoic acids (XC[subscript 6]H[subscript 4]CO[subscript 2]H, X = Halogen, Me, OH, or OMe) and monochlorinated acetanilides with nitric acid to determine the regioselectivity of addition by [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Students were…

  18. Chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of C3-substituted indoles to β,γ-unsaturated α-ketimino esters.

    PubMed

    Bi, Bo; Lou, Qin-Xin; Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Sheng-Wei; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-01

    A highly enantioselective C2 Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of 3-substituted indoles to β,γ-unsaturated α-ketimino esters has been developed. This reaction was efficiently catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The corresponding C2-substituted indole derivatives, bearing an α-ketimino ester motif, were obtained in moderate to high yields (up to 93%) and with high enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee). PMID:25594307

  19. Identification and Structural Analysis of Amino Acid Substitutions that Increase the Stability and Activity of Aspergillus niger Glucose Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Navarro, Julia; Roupain, Nicole; Talens-Perales, David; Polaina, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Glucose oxidase is one of the most conspicuous commercial enzymes due to its many different applications in diverse industries such as food, chemical, energy and textile. Among these applications, the most remarkable is the manufacture of glucose biosensors and in particular sensor strips used to measure glucose levels in serum. The generation of ameliorated versions of glucose oxidase is therefore a significant biotechnological objective. We have used a strategy that combined random and rational approaches to isolate uncharacterized mutations of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase with improved properties. As a result, we have identified two changes that increase significantly the enzyme's thermal stability. One (T554M) generates a sulfur-pi interaction and the other (Q90R/Y509E) introduces a new salt bridge near the interphase of the dimeric protein structure. An additional double substitution (Q124R/L569E) has no significant effect on stability but causes a twofold increase of the enzyme's specific activity. Our results disclose structural motifs of the protein which are critical for its stability. The combination of mutations in the Q90R/Y509E/T554M triple mutant yielded a version of A. niger glucose oxidase with higher stability than those previously described. PMID:26642312

  20. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. PMID:27299847

  1. The acquisition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum mutants with improved bioproduction under acidic conditions after two rounds of heavy-ion beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Shu-Yang; Liang, Jian-Ping; Lu, Xi-Hong; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    End-product inhibition is a key factor limiting the production of organic acid during fermentation. Two rounds of heavy-ion beam irradiation may be an inexpensive, indispensable and reliable approach to increase the production of butyric acid during industrial fermentation processes. However, studies of the application of heavy ion radiation for butyric acid fermentation engineering are lacking. In this study, a second 12C6+ heavy-ion irradiation-response curve is used to describe the effect of exposure to a given dose of heavy ions on mutant strains of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Versatile statistical elements are introduced to characterize the mechanism and factors contributing to improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance in adapted mutant strains harvested from the fermentations. We characterized the physiological properties of the strains over a large pH value gradient, which revealed that the mutant strains obtained after a second round of radiation exposure were most resistant to harsh external pH values and were better able to tolerate external pH values between 4.5 and 5.0. A customized second round of heavy-ion beam irradiation may be invaluable in process engineering. PMID:27426447

  2. The acquisition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum mutants with improved bioproduction under acidic conditions after two rounds of heavy-ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Shu-Yang; Liang, Jian-Ping; Lu, Xi-Hong; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    End-product inhibition is a key factor limiting the production of organic acid during fermentation. Two rounds of heavy-ion beam irradiation may be an inexpensive, indispensable and reliable approach to increase the production of butyric acid during industrial fermentation processes. However, studies of the application of heavy ion radiation for butyric acid fermentation engineering are lacking. In this study, a second (12)C(6+) heavy-ion irradiation-response curve is used to describe the effect of exposure to a given dose of heavy ions on mutant strains of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Versatile statistical elements are introduced to characterize the mechanism and factors contributing to improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance in adapted mutant strains harvested from the fermentations. We characterized the physiological properties of the strains over a large pH value gradient, which revealed that the mutant strains obtained after a second round of radiation exposure were most resistant to harsh external pH values and were better able to tolerate external pH values between 4.5 and 5.0. A customized second round of heavy-ion beam irradiation may be invaluable in process engineering. PMID:27426447

  3. [Studies on the mechanism of thermostability and thermophilicity change of thermostable alkaline phosphatase and its mutants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Zhe

    2003-07-01

    The relationship among the substituted amino acids, the 3D structure simulated on PC through CPHmodels Server ( http://www.cbs.dtu. dk/services/CPHmodels/) and the thermostable performance of 4 thermostable alkaline phosphatase(TAP) mutants selected from a clone bank of more than 200 mutants were analyzed to explore the mechanism of thermostability change. These mutants are TAP(A410T) (A410-->T), TAP(P396S) (P396-->S), TAP2(N100S T320-->I) and TAP4(N100-->S P396-->S A410 -->V P490-->S). TAP and the mutants' thermostable performance was evaluated by measuring the highest tolerable temperature (T1/2) and the optimal reaction temperature (Topt). The 3D structure neighboring the substituted amino acids was simulated by Swiss-PDBViewer to observe the relationship between the structure change and the thermostable performance of TAP and its mutants. The results displayed that all these amino acid substitutions except the T320-->I mutant brought about only a little local change on TAP's 3D structure and very little effect on their optimal reaction temperature, but a significant decrease (nearly 10 degrees C) on their highest tolerable temperature. However, the T320-->I mutation due to close to TAP's active sites did bring about a significant descendents of the mutant in both the highest tolerable temperature and the optimal reaction temperature. Thus, it seems to be able to conclude that most of the amino acid substitutions, no matter where they locate and what structure change they may make, can cause TAP's highest tolerable temperature reduced significantly. What's more, if the mutation occurring near or in the active sites, it can also cause TAP's optimal reaction temperature reduced significantly at the same time.

  4. Systematic methodology for the development of biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing cascades: application to the synthesis of chiral α-substituted carboxylic acids from α-substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tanja; Mutti, Francesco G; Humphreys, Luke D; Turner, Nicholas J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-01-01

    Ene-reductases (ERs) are flavin dependent enzymes that catalyze the asymmetric reduction of activated carbon-carbon double bonds. In particular, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g. enals and enones) as well as nitroalkenes are rapidly reduced. Conversely, α,β-unsaturated esters are poorly accepted substrates whereas free carboxylic acids are not converted at all. The only exceptions are α,β-unsaturated diacids, diesters as well as esters bearing an electron-withdrawing group in α- or β-position. Here, we present an alternative approach that has a general applicability for directly obtaining diverse chiral α-substituted carboxylic acids. This approach combines two enzyme classes, namely ERs and aldehyde dehydrogenases (Ald-DHs), in a concurrent reductive-oxidative biocatalytic cascade. This strategy has several advantages as the starting material is an α-substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, a class of compounds extremely reactive for the reduction of the alkene moiety. Furthermore no external hydride source from a sacrificial substrate (e.g. glucose, formate) is required since the hydride for the first reductive step is liberated in the second oxidative step. Such a process is defined as a hydrogen-borrowing cascade. This methodology has wide applicability as it was successfully applied to the synthesis of chiral substituted hydrocinnamic acids, aliphatic acids, heterocycles and even acetylated amino acids with elevated yield, chemo- and stereo-selectivity. A systematic methodology for optimizing the hydrogen-borrowing two-enzyme synthesis of α-chiral substituted carboxylic acids was developed. This systematic methodology has general applicability for the development of diverse hydrogen-borrowing processes that possess the highest atom efficiency and the lowest environmental impact.

  5. Self-assembled nanoparticles based on chondroitin sulfate-deoxycholic acid conjugates for docetaxel delivery: Effect of degree of substitution of deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengrui; Du, Hongliang; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophobically-modified polymers based on chondroitin sulfate with different degree of substitution (DS) of deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were developed for docetaxel delivery. Chondroitin sulfate-deoxycholic acid (CSAD) bioconjugates were synthesized via the linker of adipic dihydrazide by amide bond. They were characterized with spherical shape, mean diameter of around 165.2nm and negative zeta potential (-14.87 to -20.53mV). An increase of DOCA DS reduced size of nanoparticles, while increasing drug loading efficiency. Drug release in vitro showed a triphasic sustained pattern and higher accumulative drug release percentage was observed with increased DS of DOCA on polymer. Self-assemblies with higher DS also had enhanced internalization of nanoparticles and stronger cytotoxicity at the cellular level. The self-assemble nanoparticles demonstrate to be excellent targeting drug delivery systems and the desired therapeutics can be achieved via the alteration of DS. PMID:27343846

  6. In Vitro characterization of low modulus linoleic acid coated strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite containing PMMA bone cement.

    PubMed

    Lam, W M; Pan, H B; Fong, M K; Cheung, W S; Wong, K L; Li, Z Y; Luk, K D K; Chan, W K; Wong, C T; Yang, C; Lu, W W

    2011-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is widely used in vertebral body augmentation procedures such as vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty. Filling high modulus PMMA increases the modulus of filled verterbra, increasing the risk of fracture in the adjacent vertebra. On the other hand, in porous PMMA bone cements, wear particle generation and deterioration of mechanical performance are the major drawbacks. This study adopts a new approach by utilizing linoleic acid coated strontium substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (Sr-5 HA) and linoleic acid as plasticizer reducing bone cement's modulus with minimal impact on its strength. We determined the compressive strength (UCS) and modulus (Ec), hydrophobicity, injectability, in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of this bone cement at different filler and linoleic acid loading. At 20 wt % Sr5-HA incorporation, UCS and Ec were reduced from 63 ± 2 MPa, 2142 ± 129 MPa to 58 ± 2 MPa, 1785 ± 64 MPa, respectively. UCS and Ec were further reduced to 49 ± 2 MPa and 774 ± 70 MPa respectively when 15 v/v of linoleic acid was incorporated. After 7 days of incubation, pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) attached on 20 wt % Sr5-HA and 20 wt % Sr5-HA with 15 v/v of linoleic acid group were higher (3.73 ± 0.01 x 10⁴, 2.27 ± 0.02 x 10⁴) than their PMMA counterpart (1.83 ± 0.04 x 10⁴). Incorporation of Sr5-HA with linoleic acid in monomer phase is more effective in reducing the bone cement's stiffness than Sr5-HA alone. Combination of low stiffness and high mechanical strength gives the novel bone cement the potential for use in vertebroplasty cement applications. PMID:21053263

  7. Vapor pressures of substituted polycarboxylic acids are much lower than previously reported

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, A. J.; Krieger, U. K.; Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.

    2013-07-01

    The partitioning of compounds between the aerosol and gas phase is a primary focus in the study of the formation and fate of secondary organic aerosol. We present measurements of the vapor pressure of 2-methylmalonic (isosuccinic) acid, 2-hydroxymalonic (tartronic) acid, 2-methylglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-3-carboxy-glutaric (citric) acid and DL-2,3-dihydroxysuccinic (DL-tartaric) acid, which were obtained from the evaporation rate of supersaturated liquid particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. Our measurements indicate that the pure component liquid vapor pressures at 298.15 K for tartronic, citric and tartaric acids are much lower than the same quantity that was derived from solid state measurements in the only other room temperature measurement of these materials (made by Booth et al., 2010). This strongly suggests that empirical correction terms in a recent vapor pressure estimation model to account for the inexplicably high vapor pressures of these and similar compounds should be revisited, and that due caution should be used when the estimated vapor pressures of these and similar compounds are used as inputs for other studies.

  8. Functional impact of polar and acidic substitutions in the lactose repressor hydrophobic monomer.monomer interface with a buried lysine.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hongli; Sun, Zhifei; Matthews, Kathleen Shive

    2009-02-17

    Despite predicted energetic penalties, the charged K84 side chains of tetrameric lactose repressor protein (LacI) are found buried within the highly hydrophobic monomer.monomer interface that includes side chains of V94 and V96. Once inducer binding has occurred, these K84 side chains move to interact with the more solvent-exposed side chains of D88 and E100'. Previous studies demonstrated that hydrophobic substitutions for K84 increased protein stability and significantly impaired the allosteric response. These results indicated that enhanced hydrophobic interactions at the monomer.monomer interface remove the energetic driving force of the buried charges, decreasing the likelihood of a robust conformational change and stabilizing the structure. We hypothesized that creating a salt bridge network with the lysine side chains by including nearby negatively charged residues might result in a similar outcome. To that end, acidic residues, D and E, and their neutral amides, N and Q, were substituted for the valines at positions 94 and 96. These variants exhibited one or more of the following functional changes: weakened inducer binding, impaired allosteric response, and diminished protein stability. For V96D and V96E, ion pair formation with K84 appears optimal, and the loss of inducer response exceeds that of the hydrophobic K84A and -L variants. However, impacts on functional properties indicate that stabilizing the buried positive charge with polar or ion pair interactions is not functionally equivalent to structural stabilization via hydrophobic enhancement. PMID:19166325

  9. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. PMID:25172757

  10. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana Toc159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that a null mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis and incapable of importing photosynthetic proteins. The mutant is referred to as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2, and has an albino phenotype. In this study, we measured ...

  11. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that a mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks the Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis. The mutant is referred as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2 and has an albino phenotype due to its inability to import the photosynthetic proteins. In this study, we measured...

  12. Uptake of benzoic acid and chloro-substituted benzoic acids by alcaligenes denitrificans BRI 3010 and BRI 6011

    SciTech Connect

    Miguez, C.B.; Ingram, J.M.; MacLeod, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The mechanism of uptake of benzoic and 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,4-DCBA) by Alcaligenes denitrificans BRI 3010 and BRI 6011 and Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, three organisms capable of degrading isomers of chlorinated benzoic acids, was investigated. In all three organisms, uptake of benzoic acid was inducible. For benzoic acid uptake into BRI 3010, monophasic saturation kinetics with apparent K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 1.4 {mu}M and 3.2 nmol/min/mg of cell dry weight, respectively, were obtained. For BRI 6011, biphasic saturation kinetics were observed, suggesting presence of two uptake systems for benzoic acid with distinct K{sub m} (0.72 and 5.3 {mu}M) and V{sub max} (3.3 and 4.6 nmol/min/mg of cell dry weight) values. BRI 3010 and BRI 6011 accumulated benzoic acid against a concentration gradient by a factor of 8 and 10, respectively. A wide range of structural analogs, at 50-fold excess concentrations, inhibited benzoic acid uptake by BRI 3010 and BRI 6011, whereas with B13, only 3-chlorobenzoic acid was an effective inhibitor. For BRI 3010 and BRI 6011, the inhibition by the structural analogs was not of a competitive nature. Uptake of benzoic acid by BRI 3010 and BRI 6011 was inhibited by KCN, by the protonophore 3,5,3`, 4`-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), and, for BRI 6011, by anaerobiosis unless nitrate was present, thus indicating that energy was required for the uptake process. Uptake of 2,4-DCBA by BRI 6011 was constitutive and saturation uptake kinetics were not observed. Uptake of 2,4-DCBA by BRI 6011 was inhibited by KCN, TCS, and anaerobiosis even if nitrate was present, but the compound was not accumulated intracellularly against a concentration gradient. Uptake of 2,4-DCBA by BRI 6011 appears to occur by passive diffusion into the cell down its concentration gradient, which is maintained by the intracellular metabolism of the compound. This process could play an important role in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds by microorganisms.

  13. [Evaluation of folate substitution in women with epilepsy. Determination of erythrocyte folic acid concentrations].

    PubMed

    Bauer, J; Bös, M; Rück, J; Stoffel-Wagner, B

    2011-04-01

    Insufficient maternal folate concentrations appear to be a fetal risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). Erythrocyte folate concentrations are widely accepted as an indicator of tissue folate storage. We retrospectively evaluated erythrocyte folate concentrations to examine if a recommended daily dosage of 5 mg folic acid is sufficient to balance the impact of antiepileptic drugs (AED) on folate metabolism in women with epilepsy. Data of 48 women (mean age 30.3 years) with idiopathic epilepsy with generalized seizures (n=12) or symptomatic epilepsy with focal seizures (n=36) were available, 43 women submitted to further analysis and 30 women received AED monotherapy. Duration of folic acid supplementation varied between 0.5 and 12 months. The daily dosage of folic acid ranged from 0.4 to 15 mg and 32 women received 5 mg/day. Erythrocyte folate concentrations ranged from 282 to 1596 ng/ml (mean 780 ng/ml). In 29 out of the 32 women (90.6%) on 5 mg folic acid per day, red cell folate was ≥400 ng/ml. In previous studies the risk for NTD was estimated to be 0.8‰ if red cell folate was ≥400 ng/ml. Our results suggest that 5 mg/day folic acid as preconception supplementation in women with epilepsy is effective to balance the impact of AEDs on folate metabolism in women with epilepsy.

  14. Amino acid substitution in Cryptococcus neoformans lanosterol 14-α-demethylase involved in fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Borgeat, María E; Mazza, Mariana; Taverna, Constanza G; Córdoba, Susana; Murisengo, Omar A; Vivot, Walter; Davel, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans has been poorly studied. A common azole resistance mechanism in Candida species is the acquisition of point mutations in the ERG11 gene encoding the enzyme lanosterol 14-α-demethylase, target of the azole class of drugs. In C. neoformans only two mutations were described in this gene. In order to evaluate other mutations that could be implicated in fluconazole resistance in C. neoformans we studied the genomic sequence of the ERG11 gene in 11 clinical isolates with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to fluconazole of ≥16μg/ml. The sequencing revealed the G1855A mutation in 3 isolates, resulting in the enzyme amino acid substitution G484S. These strains were isolated from two fluconazole-treated patients. This mutation would not intervene in the susceptibility to itraconazole and voriconazole. PMID:27311753

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg

    2013-11-15

    A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (∼2.7 × 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup −2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

  16. Morphology of the diastereomeric salt of the alkaloid ephedrine and a chlorine substituted cyclic phosphoric acid (CLINAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, C. S.; Leusen, F. J. J.; Geertman, R. M.; Ariaans, G. J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of the diastereomeric salt of the alkaloid ephedrine and a chlorine substituted cyclic phosphoric acid is studied theoretically by means of a first-principles application of Hartman's PBC theory. A rigorous graph-theoretic derivation of the F slices of CLINAM and 2,4-DICLINAM has yielded all possible growth layers and their orientations. The Coulomb and Van der Waals contributions to the energy quantities characterizing CLINAM are calculated, using the Ewald formulation adjusted to lamina shapes, exactly and free from adjustable parameters. Several schemes of computing partial charges, in combination with energy minimization techniques are used for computing the atomic point charges. The structural morphology follows from the total attachment energies. The theoretical growth habit depends sensitively on the choice of the employed atomic charge scheme. The theoretical morphology of CLINAM crystals is discussed in the light of experimental results.

  17. Global transcription analysis of Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle mutants reveals an alternating pattern of gene expression and effects on hypoxic and oxidative genes.

    PubMed

    McCammon, Mark T; Epstein, Charles B; Przybyla-Zawislak, Beata; McAlister-Henn, Lee; Butow, Ronald A

    2003-03-01

    To understand the many roles of the Krebs tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in cell function, we used DNA microarrays to examine gene expression in response to TCA cycle dysfunction. mRNA was analyzed from yeast strains harboring defects in each of 15 genes that encode subunits of the eight TCA cycle enzymes. The expression of >400 genes changed at least threefold in response to TCA cycle dysfunction. Many genes displayed a common response to TCA cycle dysfunction indicative of a shift away from oxidative metabolism. Another set of genes displayed a pairwise, alternating pattern of expression in response to contiguous TCA cycle enzyme defects: expression was elevated in aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutants, diminished in alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA ligase mutants, elevated again in succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase mutants, and diminished again in malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase mutants. This pattern correlated with previously defined TCA cycle growth-enhancing mutations and suggested a novel metabolic signaling pathway monitoring TCA cycle function. Expression of hypoxic/anaerobic genes was elevated in alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase mutants, whereas expression of oxidative genes was diminished, consistent with a heme signaling defect caused by inadequate levels of the heme precursor, succinyl-CoA. These studies have revealed extensive responses to changes in TCA cycle function and have uncovered new and unexpected metabolic networks that are wired into the TCA cycle.

  18. Acquisition of Desiccation Tolerance and Longevity in Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (A Comparative Study Using Abscisic Acid-Insensitive abi3 Mutants).

    PubMed

    Ooms, JJJ.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K. M.; Bartels, D.; Koornneef, M.; Karssen, C. M.

    1993-08-01

    Two new abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana affected in the abi3 locus are described. These new mutants are severely ABA insensitive. Like the earlier described abi3-1 and the ABA-deficient and -insensitive double mutant aba,abi3, these new mutants vary in the extent of ABA-correlated physiological responses. Mutant seeds fail to degrade chlorophyll during maturation and show no dormancy, and desiccation tolerance and longevity are poorly developed. Carbohydrate accumulation as well as synthesis of LEA or RAB proteins are often suggested to be essential for acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this work two points are demonstrated. (a) Accumulation of carbohydrates as such does not correlate with acquisition of desiccation tolerance or longevity. It is suggested that a low ratio of mono- to oligosac-charides rather than the absolute amount of carbohydrates controls seed longevity or stability to desiccation tolerance. (b) Synthesis of a few assorted proteins, which is responsive to ABA in the later part of seed maturation, is not correlated with desiccation tolerance or longevity.

  19. Genetic and biochemical interactions involving tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) function using a collection of mutants defective in all TCA cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Przybyla-Zawislak, B; Gadde, D M; Ducharme, K; McCammon, M T

    1999-05-01

    The eight enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle are encoded by at least 15 different nuclear genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed a set of yeast strains defective in these genes as part of a comprehensive analysis of the interactions among the TCA cycle proteins. The 15 major TCA cycle genes can be sorted into five phenotypic categories on the basis of their growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. We have previously reported a novel phenotype associated with mutants defective in the IDH2 gene encoding the Idh2p subunit of the NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH). Null and nonsense idh2 mutants grow poorly on glycerol, but growth can be enhanced by extragenic mutations, termed glycerol suppressors, in the CIT1 gene encoding the TCA cycle citrate synthase and in other genes of oxidative metabolism. The TCA cycle mutant collection was utilized to search for other genes that can suppress idh2 mutants and to identify TCA cycle genes that display a similar suppressible growth phenotype on glycerol. Mutations in 7 TCA cycle genes were capable of functioning as suppressors for growth of idh2 mutants on glycerol. The only other TCA cycle gene to display the glycerol-suppressor-accumulation phenotype was IDH1, which encodes the companion Idh1p subunit of NAD-IDH. These results provide genetic evidence that NAD-IDH plays a unique role in TCA cycle function.

  20. Divergent reactivity in palladium-catalyzed annulation with diarylamines and α,β-unsaturated acids: direct access to substituted 2-quinolinones and indoles.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Rajesh; Naveen, Togati; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-06-01

    A palladium-catalyzed CH activation strategy has been successfully employed for exclusive synthesis of a variety of 3-substituted indoles. A [3+3] annulation for synthesizing substituted 2-quinolinones was recently developed by reaction of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids with diarylamines under acidic conditions. In the present work, an analogous [3+2] annulation is achieved from the same set of starting materials under basic conditions to generate 1,3-disubstituted indoles exclusively. Mechanistic studies revealed an ortho-palladation-π-coordination-β-migratory insertion-β-hydride elimination reaction sequence to be operative under the reaction conditions. PMID:25941155

  1. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Kamalika Roy; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK.

  2. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, William T.; Benton, Donald J.; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P. J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hay, Alan J.; McCauley, John W.; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997–2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  3. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, William T; Benton, Donald J; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P J; Daniels, Rodney S; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T; Hay, Alan J; McCauley, John W; Reeve, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997-2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  4. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, William T; Benton, Donald J; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P J; Daniels, Rodney S; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T; Hay, Alan J; McCauley, John W; Reeve, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997-2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens.

  5. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Analogs Substituted on the Nicotinic Acid and Adenine Ribosides. Effects on Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Trabbic, Christopher J.; Zhang, Fan; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca2+ releasing intracellular second messenger in both mammals and echinoderms. We report that large functionalized substituents introduced at the nicotinic acid 5-position are recognized by the sea urchin receptor, albeit with a 20–500 fold loss in agonist potency. 5-(3-Azidopropyl)-NAADP was shown to release Ca2+ with an EC50 of 31 µM and to compete with NAADP for receptor binding with an IC50 of 56 nM. Attachment of charged groups to the nicotinic acid of NAADP is associated with loss of activity, suggesting that the nicotinate riboside moiety is recognized as a neutral zwitterion. Substituents (Br- and N3-) can be introduced at the 8-adenosyl position of NAADP while preserving high potency and agonist efficacy and an NAADP derivative substituted at both the 5-position of the nicotinic acid and at the 8-adenosyl position was also recognized although the agonist potency was significantly reduced. PMID:25826221

  6. Greater efficiency of photosynthetic carbon fixation due to single amino-acid substitution

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Judith Katharina; Schlieper, Daniel; Groth, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The C4-photosynthetic carbon cycle is an elaborated addition to the classical C3-photosynthetic pathway, which improves solar conversion efficiency. The key enzyme in this pathway, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, has evolved from an ancestral non-photosynthetic C3 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. During evolution, C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase has increased its kinetic efficiency and reduced its sensitivity towards the feedback inhibitors malate and aspartate. An open question is the molecular basis of the shift in inhibitor tolerance. Here we show that a single-point mutation is sufficient to account for the drastic differences between the inhibitor tolerances of C3 and C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases. We solved high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of a C3 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and a closely related C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The comparison of both structures revealed that Arg884 supports tight inhibitor binding in the C3-type enzyme. In the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoform, this arginine is replaced by glycine. The substitution reduces inhibitor affinity and enables the enzyme to participate in the C4 photosynthesis pathway. PMID:23443546

  7. Single amino acid substitutions on the needle tip protein IpaD increased Shigella virulence.

    PubMed

    Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Schiavolin, Lionel; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-07-01

    Infection of colonic epithelial cells by Shigella is associated with the type III secretion system, which serves as a molecular syringe to inject effectors into host cells. This system includes an extracellular needle used as a conduit for secreted proteins. Two of these proteins, IpaB and IpaD, dock at the needle tip to control secretion and are also involved in the insertion of a translocation pore into host cell membrane allowing effector delivery. To better understand the function of IpaD, we substituted thirteen residues conserved among homologous proteins in other bacterial species. Generated variants were tested for their ability to surface expose IpaB and IpaD, to control secretion, to insert the translocation pore, and to invade host cells. In addition to a first group of seven ipaD variants that behaved similarly to the wild-type strain, we identified a second group with mutations V314D and I319D that deregulated secretion of all effectors, but remained fully invasive. Moreover, we identified a third group with mutations Y153A, T161D, Q165L and Y276A, that exhibited increased levels of translocators secretion, pore formation, and cell entry. Altogether, our results offer a better understanding of the role of IpaD in the control of Shigella virulence.

  8. A sensitive real-time PCR based assay to estimate the impact of amino acid substitutions on the competitive replication fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Holte, Sarah; Rao, Ushnal; McClure, Jan; Konopa, Philip; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn; Kim, Moon; Chen, Lennie; Mullins, James I

    2013-04-01

    Fixation of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), such as those conferring drug resistance and immune escape, can result in a change in replication fitness. To assess these changes, a real-time TaqMan PCR detection assay and statistical methods for data analysis were developed to estimate sensitively relative viral fitness in competitive viral replication experiments in cell culture. Chimeric viruses with the gene of interest in an HIV-1NL4-3 backbone were constructed in two forms, vifA (native vif gene in NL4-3) and vifB (vif gene with six synonymous nucleotide differences from vifA). Subsequently, mutations of interest were introduced into the chimeric viruses in NL4-3VifA backbones, and the mutants were competed against the chimera with the isogenic viral sequence in the NL4-3VifB backbone in cell culture. In order to assess subtle fitness differences, culture supernatants were sampled longitudinally, and the viruses differentially quantified using vifA- and vifB-specific primers in real-time PCR assays. Based on an exponential net growth model, the growth rate of each virus was determined and the fitness cost of the mutation(s) distinguishing the two viruses represented as the net growth rate difference between the mutant and the native variants. Using this assay, the fitness impact of eight amino acid substitutions was quantitated at highly conserved sites in HIV-1 Gag and Env. PMID:23201292

  9. Isolation and characterization of pediocin AcH chimeric protein mutants with altered bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Miller, K W; Schamber, R; Osmanagaoglu, O; Ray, B

    1998-06-01

    A collection of pediocin AcH amino acid substitution mutants was generated by PCR random mutagenesis of DNA encoding the bacteriocin. Mutants were isolated by cloning mutagenized DNA into an Escherichia coli malE plasmid that directs the secretion of maltose binding protein-pediocin AcH chimeric proteins and by screening transformant colonies for bactericidal activity against Lactobacillus plantarum NCDO955 (K. W. Miller, R. Schamber, Y. Chen, and B. Ray, 1998. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:14-20, 1998). In all, 17 substitution mutants were isolated at 14 of the 44 amino acids of pediocin AcH. Seven mutants (N5K, C9R, C14S, C14Y, G37E, G37R, and C44W) were completely inactive against the pediocin AcH-sensitive strains L. plantarum NCDO955, Listeria innocua Lin11, Enterococcus faecalis M1, Pediococcus acidilactici LB42, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides Ly. A C24S substitution mutant constructed by other means also was inactive against these bacteria. Nine other mutants (K1N, W18R, I26T, M31T, A34D, N41K, H42L, K43N, and K43E) retained from <1% to approximately 60% of wild-type activity when assayed against L. innocua Lin11. One mutant, K11E, displayed approximately 2. 8-fold-higher activity against this indicator. About one half of the mutations mapped to amino acids that are conserved in the pediocin-like family of bacteriocins. All four cysteines were found to be required for activity, although only C9 and C14 are conserved among pediocin-like bacteriocins. Several basic amino acids as well as nonpolar amino acids located within the hydrophobic C-terminal region also were found to be important. The mutations are discussed in the context of structural models that have been proposed for the bacteriocin.

  10. Degradation of chloro- and methyl-substituted benzoic acids by a genetically modified microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.; Deckwer, W.D.; Hecht, V.

    1996-09-05

    Degradation of 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3CB), 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CB), and 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MB) as single substrates (carbon sources) and as a substrate mixture were studied in batch and continuous culture using the genetically modified microorganism Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 SN45P. The strain was able to mineralize the single compounds as well as the substrate mixture completely. Conversion of the three compounds in the substrate mixture proceeded simultaneously. Maximum specific substrate conversion rates were calculated to be 0.9 g g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for 3 CB and 4CB and 1.1 g g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for 4MB. Mass balances indicated the transient accumulation of pathway intermediates during batch cultivations. Hence, the rate limiting step in the degradative pathway is not the initial microbial attack of the original substrate or its transport through the cell membrane. Degradation rates on 3CB were comparable to those of the parent strain Pseudomonas sp. B13. The stability of the degradation pathways of strain Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 SN45P could be demonstrated in a continuous cultivation over 3.5 months (734 generation times) on 3CB, 4MB, and 4CB, which were used a single carbon sources one after the other.

  11. Functional role of positively selected amino acid substitutions in mammalian rhodopsin evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sampedro, Miguel A.; Invergo, Brandon M.; Ramon, Eva; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Garriga, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Visual rhodopsins are membrane proteins that function as light photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina. Specific amino acids have been positively selected in visual pigments during mammal evolution, which, as products of adaptive selection, would be at the base of important functional innovations. We have analyzed the top candidates for positive selection at the specific amino acids and the corresponding reverse changes (F13M, Q225R and A346S) in order to unravel the structural and functional consequences of these important sites in rhodopsin evolution. We have constructed, expressed and immunopurified the corresponding mutated pigments and analyzed their molecular phenotypes. We find that position 13 is very important for the folding of the receptor and also for proper protein glycosylation. Position 225 appears to be important for the function of the protein affecting the G-protein activation process, and position 346 would also regulate functionality of the receptor by enhancing G-protein activation and presumably affecting protein phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase. Our results represent a link between the evolutionary analysis, which pinpoints the specific amino acid positions in the adaptive process, and the structural and functional analysis, closer to the phenotype, making biochemical sense of specific selected genetic sequences in rhodopsin evolution. PMID:26865329

  12. Engineering of chromosomal wax ester synthase integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for improved biosynthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made to engineer robust microbes for overproducing biochemical products from renewable resources. These accomplishments have to a large extend been based on plasmid based methods. However, plasmid maintenance may cause a metabolic burden on the host cell and plasmid-based overexpression of genes can result in genetically unstable strains, which contributes to loss in productivity. Here, a chromosome engineering method based on delta integration was applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which can be directly used as biodiesel and would be a possible substitute for conventional petroleum-based diesel. An integration construct was designed and integrated into chromosomal delta sequences by repetitive transformation, which resulted in 1-6 copies of the integration construct per genome. The corresponding FAEE production increased up to 34 mg/L, which is an about sixfold increase compared to the equivalent plasmid-based producer. The integrated cassette in the yeast genome was stably maintained in nonselective medium after deletion of RAD52 which is essential for efficient homologous recombination. To obtain a further increase of FAEE production, genes encoding endogenous acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1) and a bacterial NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapN) were overexpressed in the final integration strain, which resulted in another 40% percent increase in FAEE production. Our integration strategy enables easy engineering of strains with adjustable gene copy numbers integrated into the genome and this allows for an easy evaluation of the effect of the gene copy number on pathway flux. It therefore represents a valuable tool for introducing and expressing a heterologous pathway in yeast. PMID:24752598

  13. Insights into regioselective metabolism of mefenamic acid by cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants through crystallography, docking, molecular dynamics, and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Capoferri, Luigi; Leth, Rasmus; ter Haar, Ernst; Mohanty, Arun K; Grootenhuis, Peter D J; Vottero, Eduardo; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars; Geerke, Daan P

    2016-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 BM3 (CYP102A1) mutant M11 is able to metabolize a wide range of drugs and drug-like compounds. Among these, M11 was recently found to be able to catalyze formation of human metabolites of mefenamic acid and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Interestingly, single active-site mutations such as V87I were reported to invert regioselectivity in NSAID hydroxylation. In this work, we combine crystallography and molecular simulation to study the effect of single mutations on binding and regioselective metabolism of mefenamic acid by M11 mutants. The heme domain of the protein mutant M11 was expressed, purified, and crystallized, and its X-ray structure was used as template for modeling. A multistep approach was used that combines molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and binding free-energy calculations to address protein flexibility. In this way, preferred binding modes that are consistent with oxidation at the experimentally observed sites of metabolism (SOMs) were identified. Whereas docking could not be used to retrospectively predict experimental trends in regioselectivity, we were able to rank binding modes in line with the preferred SOMs of mefenamic acid by M11 and its mutants by including protein flexibility and dynamics in free-energy computation. In addition, we could obtain structural insights into the change in regioselectivity of mefenamic acid hydroxylation due to single active-site mutations. Our findings confirm that use of MD and binding free-energy calculation is useful for studying biocatalysis in those cases in which enzyme binding is a critical event in determining the selective metabolism of a substrate.

  14. Use of an osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspp. shermanii for the simultaneous productions of organic acids and trehalose from biodiesel waste based crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Ruhal, Rohit; Choudhury, Bijan

    2012-04-01

    Recently suitability of crude glycerol for trehalose and propionic acid productions was reported using Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspp. shermanii and it was concluded that presence of KCl in crude glycerol was the probable reason for higher trehalose accumulation with crude glycerol medium. To further improve trehalose production, an osmotic sensitive mutant of this strain (non-viable in medium with 3% NaCl) with higher trehalose yield was isolated. In mutant, trehalose yields achieved with respect to biomass and substrate consumed (391 mg/g of biomass, 90 mg/g of substrate consumed) were three and four times higher, respectively as compared to parent strain when crude glycerol was used as a carbon source. Other major fermentation products obtained were propionic acid (0.42 g/g of substrate consumed) and lactic acid (0.3g/g of substrate consumed). It was also observed that in mutant higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was probably responsible for higher trehalose accumulation. PMID:22306074

  15. WHIM syndrome caused by a single amino acid substitution in the carboxy-tail of chemokine receptor CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Chen, Haoqian; Ojode, Teresa; Gao, Xiangxi; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Turner, Nicholas A.; Ulrick, Jean; DeCastro, Rosamma; Kelly, Corin; Cardones, Adela R.; Gold, Stuart H.; Hwang, Eugene I.; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Malech, Harry L.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    WHIM syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, immunodeficiency disorder so-named because it is characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (defective neutrophil egress from the BM). Gain-of-function mutations that truncate the C-terminus of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by 10-19 amino acids cause WHIM syndrome. We have identified a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of WHIM syndrome that is caused by a missense mutation in CXCR4, E343K (1027G → A). This mutation is also located in the C-terminal domain, a region responsible for negative regulation of the receptor. Accordingly, like CXCR4R334X, the most common truncation mutation in WHIM syndrome, CXCR4E343K mediated approximately 2-fold increased signaling in calcium flux and chemotaxis assays relative to wild-type CXCR4; however, CXCR4E343K had a reduced effect on blocking normal receptor down-regulation from the cell surface. Therefore, in addition to truncating mutations in the C-terminal domain of CXCR4, WHIM syndrome may be caused by a single charge-changing amino acid substitution in this domain, E343K, that results in increased receptor signaling. PMID:22596258

  16. A Val-25-to-Ile substitution in the envelope precursor polyprotein, gPr80env, is responsible for the temperature sensitivity, inefficient processing of gPr80env, and neurovirulence of ts1, a mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB.

    PubMed Central

    Szurek, P F; Yuen, P H; Ball, J K; Wong, P K

    1990-01-01

    ts1 is a neurovirulent spontaneous temperature-sensitive mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB which causes hindlimb paralysis in mice. Previously, it had been shown that the temperature-sensitive defect resided in the env gene. At the restrictive temperature, the envelope precursor polyprotein, gPr80env, is inefficiently processed intracellularly into two cleavage products, gp70 and Prp15E. This inefficient processing of gPr80env is correlated with neurovirulence. In this study, it was shown that a single amino acid substitution, Val-25----Ile in gPr80env, is responsible for the temperature sensitivity, inefficient processing of gPr80env at the restrictive temperature, and neurovirulence of ts1. At the restrictive temperature, a steady-state level of nonprocessed, endoglycosidase H-sensitive gPr80env remained in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells infected by ts1, but no endoglycosidase H-resistant gPr80env and only trace amounts of gp70 were detected in the infected cells. Since the host cell-encoded processing protease resides in the cis cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, inefficient processing of gPr80env at the restrictive temperature is most likely due to inefficient transport of gPr80env from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cis cisternae of the Golgi apparatus rather than due to misfolded gPr80env being a poor substrate for the processing protease at the restrictive temperature. Images PMID:2296075

  17. A single amino-acid substitution toggles chloride dependence of the alpha-amylase paralog amyrel in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis species.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Gaëlle; Feller, Georges; Bonneau, Magalie; Da Lage, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    In animals, most α-amylases are chloride-dependent enzymes. A chloride ion is required for allosteric activation and is coordinated by one asparagine and two arginine side chains. Whereas the asparagine and one arginine are strictly conserved, the main chloride binding arginine is replaced by a glutamine in some rare instances, resulting in the loss of chloride binding and activation. Amyrel is a distant paralogue of α-amylase in Diptera, which was not characterized biochemically to date. Amyrel shows both substitutions depending on the species. In Drosophila melanogaster, an arginine is present in the sequence but in Drosophila virilis, a glutamine occurs at this position. We have investigated basic enzymological parameters and the dependence to chloride of Amyrel of both species, produced in yeast, and in mutants substituting arginine to glutamine or glutamine to arginine. We found that the amylolytic activity of Amyrel is about thirty times weaker than the classical Drosophila α-amylase, and that the substitution of the arginine by a glutamine in D. melanogaster suppressed the chloride-dependence but was detrimental to activity. In contrast, changing the glutamine into an arginine rendered D. virilis Amyrel chloride-dependent, and interestingly, significantly increased its catalytic efficiency. These results show that the chloride ion is not mandatory for Amyrel but stimulates the reaction rate. The possible phylogenetic origin of the arginine/glutamine substitution is also discussed. PMID:27312592

  18. The nucleotide sequence of HLA-B{sup *}2704 reveals a new amino acid substitution in exon 4 which is also present in HLA-B{sup *}2706

    SciTech Connect

    Rudwaleit, M.; Bowness, P.; Wordsworth, P.

    1996-12-31

    The HLA-B27 subtype HLA-B{sup *}2704 is virtually absent in Caucasians but common in Orientals, where it is associated with ankylosing spondylitis. The amino acid sequence of HLA-B{sup *}2704 has been established by peptide mapping and was shown to differ by two amino acids from HLA-B{sup *}2705, HLA-B{sup *}2704 is characterized by a serine for aspartic acid substitution at position 77 and glutamic acid for valine at position 152. To date, however, no nucleotide sequence confirming these changes at the DNA level has been published. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, M.C.; Fathallah, D.M.; Bergamaschini, L.; Alicot, E.M. ); Isenman, D.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The C4B isotype of the fourth component of human complement (C4) displays 3- to 4-fold greater hemolytic activity than does its other isotype C4A. This correlates with differences in their covalent binding efficiencies to erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement C1. C4A binds to a greater extent when C1 is on IgG immune aggregates. The differences in covalent binding properties correlate only with amino acid changes between residues 1101 and 1106 (pro-C4 numbering)-namely, Pro-1101, Cys-1102, Leu-1105, and Asp-1106 in C4A and Leu-1101, Ser-1102, Ile-1105, and His-1106 in C4B, which are located in the C4d region of the {alpha} chain. To more precisely identify the residues that are important for the functional differences, C4A-C4B hybrid proteins were constructed by using recombinant DNA techniques. Comparison of these by hemolytic assay and binding to IgG aggregates showed that the single substitution of aspartic acid for histidine at position 1106 largely accounted for the change in functional activity and nature of the chemical bond formed. Surprisingly, substitution of a neutral residue, alanine, for histidine at position 1106 resulted in an increase in binding to immune aggregates without subsequent reduction in the hemolytic activity. This result strongly suggests that position 1106 is not catalytic as previously proposed but interacts sterically/electrostatically with potential acceptor sites and serves to select binding sites on potential acceptor molecules.

  20. Lewis acid-promoted reactions of zirconacyclopentadienes with isocyanates. A one-pot three-component synthesis of multiply-substituted iminocyclopentadienes from one isocyanate and two alkynes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiang; Mao, Guoliang; Zhang, Wenxiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2005-10-14

    Multiply-substituted iminocyclopentadienes were formed from Lewis acid-promoted reactions of zirconacyclopentadienes and isocyanates via a one-pot three-component coupling process; the C=O double bond of the RN=C=O moiety in the isocyanate was cleaved, and the isocyanates behaved formally as a one-carbon unit with Lewis acid-dependent and substituent-dependent reactions being realized.

  1. Dipeptide Nanotubes Containing Unnatural Fluorine-Substituted β(2,3)-Diarylamino Acid and L-Alanine as Candidates for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Andrea; Pellegrino, Sara; Das, Priyadip; Yuran, Sivan; Bucci, Raffaella; Ferri, Nicola; Meneghetti, Fiorella; Castellano, Carlo; Reches, Meital; Gelmi, Maria Luisa

    2015-09-18

    The synthesis and the structural characterization of dipeptides composed of unnatural fluorine-substituted β(2,3)-diarylamino acid and L-alanine are reported. Depending on the stereochemistry of the β amino acid, these dipeptides are able to self-assemble into proteolytic stable nanotubes. These architectures were able to enter the cell and locate in the cytoplasmic/perinuclear region and represent interesting candidates for biomedical applications.

  2. Enhanced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies in a variant of equine infectious anemia virus is linked to amino acid substitutions in the surface unit envelope glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R F; Berger, S L; Rushlow, K E; McManus, J M; Cook, S J; Harrold, S; Raabe, M L; Montelaro, R C; Issel, C J

    1995-01-01

    Serial passage of the prototype (PR) cell-adapted Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in fetal donkey dermal (FDD) rather than fetal horse (designated fetal equine kidney [FEK]) cell cultures resulted in the generation of a variant virus strain which produced accelerated cytopathic effects in FDD cells and was 100- to 1,000-fold more sensitive to neutralizing antibodies than its parent. This neutralization-sensitive variant was designated the FDD strain. Although there were differences in glycosylation between the PR and FDD strains, passage of the FDD virus in FEK cells did not reduce its sensitivity to neutralizing antibody. Nucleotide sequencing of the region encoding the surface unit (SU) protein from the FDD strain revealed nine amino acid substitutions compared with the PR strain. Two of these substitutions resulted in changes in the polarity of charge, four caused the introduction of a charged residue, and three had no net change in charge. Nucleotide sequence analysis was extended to the region of the FDD virus genome encoding the extracellular domain of the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (TM). Unlike the situation with the FDD virus coding region, there were minor variations in nucleotide sequence between individual molecular clones containing this region of the TM gene. Although each clone contained three nucleotide substitutions compared with the PR strain, only one of these was common to all, and this did not affect the amino acid content. Of the remaining two nucleotide substitutions, only one resulted in an amino acid change, and in each case, this change appeared to be conservative. To determine if amino acid substitutions in the SU protein of FDD cell-grown viruses were responsible for the enhanced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, chimeric viruses were constructed by using an infectious molecular clone of EIAV. These chimeric viruses contained all of the amino acid substitutions found in the FDD virus strain and were

  3. Molecular distribution of amino acid substitutions on neuraminidase from the 2009 (H1N1) human influenza pandemic virus.

    PubMed

    Quiliano, Miguelmiguel; Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Olivares, Carlos; Requena, David; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Reyes-Loyola, Paola; Tolentino-Lopez, Luis E; Sheen, Patricia; Briz, Verónica; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria A; Correa-Basurto, José; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic influenza AH1N1 (2009) caused an outbreak of human infection that spread to the world. Neuraminidase (NA) is an antigenic surface glycoprotein, which is essential to the influenza infection process, and is the target of anti-flu drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. Currently, NA inhibitors are the pillar pharmacological strategy against seasonal and global influenza. Although mutations observed after NA-inhibitor treatment are characterized by changes in conserved amino acids of the enzyme catalytic site, it is possible that specific amino acid substitutions (AASs) distant from the active site such as H274Y, could confer oseltamivir or zanamivir resistance. To better understand the molecular distribution pattern of NA AASs, we analyzed NA AASs from all available reported pandemic AH1N1 NA sequences, including those reported from America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and specifically from Mexico. The molecular distributions of the AASs were obtained at the secondary structure domain level for both the active and catalytic sites, and compared between geographic regions. Our results showed that NA AASs from America, Asia, Europe, Oceania and Mexico followed similar molecular distribution patterns. The compiled data of this study showed that highly conserved amino acids from the NA active site and catalytic site are indeed being affected by mutations. The reported NA AASs follow a similar molecular distribution pattern worldwide. Although most AASs are distributed distantly from the active site, this study shows the emergence of mutations affecting the previously conserved active and catalytic site. A significant number of unique AASs were reported simultaneously on different continents.

  4. Molecular distribution of amino acid substitutions on neuraminidase from the 2009 (H1N1) human influenza pandemic virus

    PubMed Central

    Quiliano, MiguelMiguel; Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Olivares, Carlos; Requena, David; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Reyes-Loyola, Paola; Tolentino-Lopez, Luis E; Sheen, Patricia; Briz, Verónica; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria A; Correa-Basurto, José; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic influenza AH1N1 (2009) caused an outbreak of human infection that spread to the world. Neuraminidase (NA) is an antigenic surface glycoprotein, which is essential to the influenza infection process, and is the target of anti-flu drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. Currently, NA inhibitors are the pillar pharmacological strategy against seasonal and global influenza. Although mutations observed after NA-inhibitor treatment are characterized by changes in conserved amino acids of the enzyme catalytic site, it is possible that specific amino acid substitutions (AASs) distant from the active site such as H274Y, could confer oseltamivir or zanamivir resistance. To better understand the molecular distribution pattern of NA AASs, we analyzed NA AASs from all available reported pandemic AH1N1 NA sequences, including those reported from America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and specifically from Mexico. The molecular distributions of the AASs were obtained at the secondary structure domain level for both the active and catalytic sites, and compared between geographic regions. Our results showed that NA AASs from America, Asia, Europe, Oceania and Mexico followed similar molecular distribution patterns. The compiled data of this study showed that highly conserved amino acids from the NA active site and catalytic site are indeed being affected by mutations. The reported NA AASs follow a similar molecular distribution pattern worldwide. Although most AASs are distributed distantly from the active site, this study shows the emergence of mutations affecting the previously conserved active and catalytic site. A significant number of unique AASs were reported simultaneously on different continents. PMID:23930018

  5. Amino acid substitutions in naturally occurring variants of ail result in altered invasion activity.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, K B; Miller, V L

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the causative agent of a variety of gastrointestinal syndromes ranging from acute enteritis to mesenteric lymphadenitis. In addition, systemic infections resulting in high mortality rates can occur in elderly and immunocompromised patients. More than 50 serotypes of Y. enterocolitica have been identified, but only a few of them commonly cause disease in otherwise healthy hosts. Those serotypes that cause disease have been divided into two groups, American and non-American, based on their geographical distributions, biotypes, and pathogenicity. We have been studying two genes, inv and ail, from Y. enterocolitica that confer in tissue culture assays an invasive phenotype that strongly correlates with virulence. Some differences between the American and non-American serotypes at the ail locus were noted previously and have been investigated further in this report. The ail locus was cloned from seven Y. enterocolitica strains (seven different serotypes). Although the different clones produced similar amounts of Ail, the product of the ail gene from non-American serotypes (AilNA) was less able to promote invasion by Escherichia coli than was the product of the ail gene from American serotypes (AilA). This difference is probably due to one or more of the eight amino acid changes found in the derived amino acid sequence for the mature form of AilNA compared with that of AilA. Seven of these changes are predicted to be in cell surface domains of the protein (a model for the proposed folding of Ail within the outer membrane is presented). These results are discussed in relation to the growing family of outer membrane proteins, which includes Lom from bacteriophage lambda, PagC from salmonella typhimurium, and OmpX from Enterobacter cloacae. Images PMID:1370953

  6. Assembly of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei: mutants deficient in the D-alanyl ester content of this amphiphile

    SciTech Connect

    Ntamere, A.S.; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

    1987-04-01

    D-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (D-alanyl-LTA) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 contains a poly(glycerophosphate) moiety that is acylated with D-alanyl ester residues. The physiological function of these residues is not well understood. Five mutant strains of this organism that are deficient in the esters of this amphiphile were isolated and characterized. When compared with the parent, strains AN-1 and AN-4 incorporated less than 10% of D-(/sup 14/C)alanine into LTA, whereas AN-2, AN-3, and AN-5 incorporated 50%. The synthesis of D-(/sup 14/C)alanyl-lipophilic LTA was virtually absent in the first group and was approximately 30% in the second group. The mutant strains synthesized and selected the glycolipid anchor for LTA assembly. In addition, all of the strains synthesized the poly(glycerophosphate) moiety of LTA to the same extent as did the parent or to a greater extent. It was concluded that the membranes from the mutant strains AN-1 and AN-4 are defective for D-alanylation of LTA even though acceptor LTA is present. Mutant strains AN-2 and AN-3 appear to be partially deficient in the amount of the D-alanine-activating enzyme. Aberrant morphology and defective cell separation appear to result from this deficiency in D-alanyl ester content.

  7. Disease causing mutants of TDP-43 nucleic acid binding domains are resistant to aggregation and have increased stability and half-life

    PubMed Central

    Austin, James A.; Wright, Gareth S. A.; Watanabe, Seiji; Grossmann, J. Günter; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Yamanaka, Koji; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades many secrets of the age-related human neural proteinopathies have been revealed. A common feature of these diseases is abnormal, and possibly pathogenic, aggregation of specific proteins in the effected tissue often resulting from inherent or decreased structural stability. An archetype example of this is superoxide dismutase-1, the first genetic factor to be linked with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant or posttranslationally modified TAR DNA binding protein-32 (TDP-43) is also strongly associated with ALS and an increasingly large number of other neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Cytoplasmic mislocalization and elevated half-life is a characteristic of mutant TDP-43. Furthermore, patient age at the onset of disease symptoms shows a good inverse correlation with mutant TDP-43 half-life. Here we show that ALS and FTLD-associated TDP-43 mutations in the central nucleic acid binding domains lead to elevated half-life and this is commensurate with increased thermal stability and inhibition of aggregation. It is achieved without impact on secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure. We propose that tighter structural cohesion contributes to reduced protein turnover, increasingly abnormal proteostasis and, ultimately, faster onset of disease symptoms. These results contrast our perception of neurodegenerative diseases as misfolded proteinopathies and delineate a novel path from the molecular characteristics of mutant TDP-43 to aberrant cellular effects and patient phenotype. PMID:24591609

  8. Double D-π-A dye linked by 2,2'-bipyridine dicarboxylic acid: influence of para- and meta-substituted carboxyl anchoring group.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Paramaguru; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Gao, Peng; Rajalingam, Renganathan; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 2,2'-bipyridine dicarboxylic acid, two new (D-π-A)2 sensitizers, including m-DA with the carboxyl anchoring group substituted meta to the donor-bridge moiety and p-DA with a para-substituted anchoring group, were synthesized in order to evaluate the impact of the position of the anchoring group on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. p-DA exhibits red-shifted absorption behavior compared to m-DA, owing to the more efficiently extended π-conjugation with para substitution. Both m-DA and p-DA are adsorbed on the mesoporous TiO2 surface by using both of their carboxylic acid groups in a bianchoring mode, which is confirmed through attenuated total reflectance FTIR analysis. Red-shifted absorption of p-DA assists the achievement of a red-shifted incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and a higher short-circuit current density than m-DA. The photogenerated electron lifetime in TiO2 is also found to be higher for para substituted p-DA than the meta-substituted m-DA, which results in a higher open-circuit voltage. All of the results suggest that dicarboxyl-2,2'-bipyridine can be used as an acceptor for metal-free organic sensitizers. However, the anchoring segments should be adjusted to the favorable position of the corresponding donor-bridge moieties for better conjugation.

  9. Controlling the Photoreactivity of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Chromophore by Substituting at the p-Coumaric Acid Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We have performed ab initio CASSCF, CASPT2, and EOM-CCSD calculations on doubly deprotonated p-coumaric acid (pCA2−), the chromophore precursor of the photoactive yellow protein. The results of the calculations demonstrate that pCA2− can undergo only photoisomerization of the double bond. In contrast, the chromophore derivative with the acid replaced by a ketone (p-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, pCK−) undergoes both single- and double-bond photoisomerization, with the single-bond relaxation channel more favorable than the double-bond channel. The substitution alters the nature of the first excited states and the associated potential energy landscape. The calculations show that the electronic nature of the first two (π,π*) excited states are interchanged in vacuo due to the substitution. In pCK−, the first excited state is a charge-transfer (CT π,π*) state, in which the negative charge has migrated from the phenolate ring onto the alkene tail of the chromophore, whereas the locally excited (LE π,π*) state, in which the excitation involves the orbitals on the phenol ring, lies higher in energy and is the fourth excited state. In pCA2−, the CT state is higher in energy due the presence of a negative charge on the tail of the chromophore, and the first excited state is the LE state. In isolated pCA2−, there is a 68 kJ/mol barrier for double-bond photoisomerization on the potential energy surface of this LE state. In water, however, hydrogen bonding with water molecules reduces this barrier to 9 kJ/mol. The barrier separates the local trans minimum near the Franck−Condon region from the global minimum on the excited-state potential energy surface. The lowest energy conical intersection was located near this minimum. In contrast to pCK−, single-bond isomerization is highly unfavorable both in the LE and CT states of pCA2−. These results demonstrate that pCA2− can only decay efficiently in water and exclusively by double-bond photoisomerization

  10. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  11. Mutation of a novel ABC transporter gene is responsible for the failure to incorporate uric acid in the epidermis of ok mutants of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Kiuchi, Takashi; Fujii, Tsuguru; Daimon, Takaaki; Li, Muwang; Banno, Yutaka; Kikuta, Shingo; Kikawada, Takahiro; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2013-07-01

    ok mutants of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, exhibit highly translucent larval skin resulting from the inability to incorporate uric acid into the epidermal cells. Here we report the identification of a gene responsible for the ok mutation using positional cloning and RNAi experiments. In two independent ok mutant strains, we found a 49-bp deletion and a 233-bp duplication, respectively, in mRNAs of a novel gene, Bm-ok, which encodes a half-type ABC transporter, each of which results in translation of a truncated protein in each mutant. Although the Bm-ok sequence was homologous to well-known transporter genes, white, scarlet, and brown in Drosophila, the discovery of novel orthologs in the genomes of lepidopteran, hymenopteran, and hemipteran insects identifies it as a member of a new distinct subfamily of transporters. Embryonic RNAi of Bm-ok demonstrated that repression of Bm-ok causes a translucent phenotype in the first-instar silkworm larva. We discuss the possibility that Bm-ok forms a heterodimer with another half-type ABC transporter, Bmwh3, and acts as a uric acid transporter in the silkworm epidermis.

  12. Elevated salicylic acid levels conferred by increased expression of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1 contribute to hyperaccumulation of SUMO1 conjugates in the Arabidopsis mutant early in short days 4.

    PubMed

    Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Elrouby, Nabil; Nordström, Karl; Griebel, Thomas; Bachmair, Andreas; Coupland, George

    2014-07-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is essential for plant growth and development. Mutations in the SUMO protease early in short days 4 (ESD4) cause hyperaccumulation of conjugates formed between SUMO and its substrates, and phenotypically are associated with extreme early flowering and impaired growth. We performed a suppressor mutagenesis screen of esd4 and identified a series of mutants called suppressor of esd4 (sed), which delay flowering, enhance growth and reduce hyperaccumulation of SUMO conjugates. Genetic mapping and genome sequencing indicated that one of these mutations (sed111) is in the gene salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 (SID2), which encodes ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE I, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA). Analyses showed that compared with wild-type plants, esd4 contains higher levels of SID2 mRNA and about threefold more SA, whereas sed111 contains lower SA levels. Other sed mutants also contain lower SA levels but are not mutant for SID2, although most reduce SID2 mRNA levels. Therefore, higher SA levels contribute to the small size, early flowering and elevated SUMO conjugate levels of esd4. Our results support previous data indicating that SUMO homeostasis influences SA biosynthesis in wild-type plants, and also demonstrate that elevated levels of SA strongly increase the abundance of SUMO conjugates.

  13. A new vaccine escape mutant of hepatitis B virus causes occult infection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    There is growing public concern regarding assay sensitivity to HBsAg mutants in clinical diagnosis and vaccine escape. The aim of this study is to introduce a new HBsAg mutant strain. The serum samples were those of patient X at the age of 3 months and 3 years respectively, and of her mother immediately before parturition, which were used to amplify the HBsAg-coding DNA fragments by PCR. The HBsAg DNA sequences were translated into their corresponding amino acid sequences and then aligned in pubmed with nucleotide blast. The sequencing data of S coding regions shows that patient X has been infected by a new HBV variant with an A to C substitution at nt431, resulting in an Asp(GAC)to Ala(GCC) substitution at aa144 of major protein; CC to AA substitution at nt359 and nt360, resulting in an Pro(CCC) to Gln(CAA) substitution at aa120 of pre "a" epitope; A to G substitution at nt491, resulting in an Glu(GAG) to Gly(GGG) substitution at aa164 of post "a" epitope. Three new mutations (S171F, S174N and Q181R) at the antigenic epitopes of HBV presented by HLA class I molecules are found. The HBV mutant strain causes vaccine escape and occult infection. PMID:25692622

  14. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis.

  15. l-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)—commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation—was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs—as in humans—is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. PMID:26609560

  16. Preparation of a nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane modified silica in deep eutectic solvents for solid-phase extraction of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wang, Jiamin; Liao, Yuan; Shao, Shijun

    2016-05-01

    A new sorbent for solid-phase extraction was synthesized by chemical immobilization of nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane on silica in new and green deep eutectic solvents. Elemental analysis results indicated that deep eutectic solvents could be an alternative to the traditional solvents in preparing nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane modified silica. Coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, the extraction performance of the sorbent was evaluated by using four organic acids as model analytes. The rebinding experiments results showed that the nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane modified silica sorbent had a good adsorption capacity towards the selected organic acids. Under the appropriate experimental conditions, good precision and wide linear ranges with coefficient of determination (R(2)) of higher than 0.9957 were obtained, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.50-2.0μgL(-1) for the organic acids tested. The developed solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (SPE-HPLC-DAD) method was successfully applied for the determination of organic acids in two drinking samples with recoveries ranging from 76.7% to 110.0% and 67.7% to 104.0% for all the selected organic acids, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marc A.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2010-02-16

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group.

  18. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  19. Increased adenosine levels in mice expressing mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes result in failure of induction of LTP reversal (depotentiation) in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenji F; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2014-08-26

    Astrocytes regulate the activity of neighboring neurons by releasing chemical transmitters, including ATP. Adenosine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of mice that express a mutant human glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes are slightly elevated compared to those in wild type mice and this might result from the observed increased release by mutant astrocytes of ATP, which can be used to produce adenosine. Using hippocampal slices from these mutant mice, we examined whether the increased endogenous adenosine levels in the hippocampus modulate the reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP), i.e. depotentiation (DP), in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from wild type mice, a stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 100 pulses at 100 Hz, and this was reversed by a train of low frequency stimulation (LFS) of 500 pulses at 1 Hz applied 30 min later. This induction of DP was inhibited by application of either 100 nM adenosine or 0.5 nM N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, during LFS, indicating that the increase in extracellular adenosine levels attenuated DP induction by acting on adenosine A1 receptors. In contrast, although a stable LTP was also induced in hippocampal slices from mutant mice, induction of DP was inhibited, but DP could be induced by application, during LFS, of 50 nM 8-cyclopentyltheophylline, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that a small increase in extracellular adenosine levels resulting from increased ATP release by astrocytes results in attenuation of DP in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the mutant mice.

  20. Increased adenosine levels in mice expressing mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes result in failure of induction of LTP reversal (depotentiation) in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenji F; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2014-08-26

    Astrocytes regulate the activity of neighboring neurons by releasing chemical transmitters, including ATP. Adenosine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of mice that express a mutant human glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes are slightly elevated compared to those in wild type mice and this might result from the observed increased release by mutant astrocytes of ATP, which can be used to produce adenosine. Using hippocampal slices from these mutant mice, we examined whether the increased endogenous adenosine levels in the hippocampus modulate the reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP), i.e. depotentiation (DP), in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from wild type mice, a stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 100 pulses at 100 Hz, and this was reversed by a train of low frequency stimulation (LFS) of 500 pulses at 1 Hz applied 30 min later. This induction of DP was inhibited by application of either 100 nM adenosine or 0.5 nM N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, during LFS, indicating that the increase in extracellular adenosine levels attenuated DP induction by acting on adenosine A1 receptors. In contrast, although a stable LTP was also induced in hippocampal slices from mutant mice, induction of DP was inhibited, but DP could be induced by application, during LFS, of 50 nM 8-cyclopentyltheophylline, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that a small increase in extracellular adenosine levels resulting from increased ATP release by astrocytes results in attenuation of DP in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the mutant mice. PMID:25017946

  1. Characterization of low-acetic-acid-producing yeast isolated from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants and its application to high-gravity brewing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Akihiro; Tabei, Hideaki; Iwahuti, Masahumi

    2006-01-01

    We isolated a mutant with low acetic acid and high ethanol productivities from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of brewers' yeast NCYC1245 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To determine the mechanism for these properties in the mutant (2DGR19) during fermentation, gene expression and enzyme activity related to acetic acid and ethanol production were investigated. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional levels of many genes involved in glycolysis were higher in 2DGR19 than in NCYC1245. Among these transcriptional levels of 2DGR19 relative to NCYC1245, the expression level of ADH4 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was highest, which corresponded to the high ADH activity in 2DGR19. Quantitative PCR analysis also revealed that the transcriptional level of ADH4 was the highest among ADH1 to ADH4. Although no significant differences in the transcriptional levels of ALD2 to ALD6 encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) between 2DGR19 and NCYC1245 were observed, ALD activity in 2DGR19 was lower. Using quantitative PCR analysis, ALD6 was found to be the most highly expressed among the ALD2 to ALD6 genes. These results indicate that ALD6 contributes to a low ALD activity, depending on post-transcriptional regulation. A high ADH activity appeared to be the major reason for the high ethanol productivity of 2DGR19. A low ALD activity was considered to be principally responsible for a low acetic acid productivity, although a high ADH activity also might have played a role. Beer brewed using 2DGR19 in pilot-scale high-gravity brewing contained about half as much acetic acid and 1.1% more ethanol compared with that brewed using NCYC1245. The use of 2DGR19 may overcome difficulties associated with high-gravity brewing.

  2. Identification of amino acid substitutions associated with neutralization phenotype in the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C gp120

    PubMed Central

    Kirchherr, Jennifer L; Hamilton, Jennifer; Lu, Xiaozhi; Gnanakaran, S; Muldoon, Mark; Daniels, Marcus; Kasongo, Webster; Chalwe, Victor; Mulenga, Chanda; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Musonda, Rosemary M; Yuan, Xing; Montefiori, David C; Korber, Bette T; Haynes, Barton F; Gao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) are thought to play an important role in prevention and control of HIV-1 infection and should be targeted by an AIDS vaccine. It is critical to understand how HIV-1 induces Nabs by analyzing viral sequences in both tested viruses and sera. Neutralization susceptibility to antibodies in autologous and heterologous plasma was determined for multiple Envs (3–6) from each of 15 subtype C infected-individuals. Heterologous neutralization was divided into two distinct groups: plasma with strong, cross-reactive neutralization (N=9) and plasma with weak neutralization (N=6). Plasma with cross-reactive heterologous Nabs also more potently neutralized contemporaneous autologous viruses. Analysis of Env sequences in plasma from both groups revealed a three-amino acid substitution pattern in the V4 region that was associated with greater neutralization potency and breadth. Identification of such potential neutralization signatures may have important implications for the development of HIV-1 vaccines capable of inducing Nabs to subtype C HIV-1. PMID:21036380

  3. Improvement of the reverse tetracycline transactivator by single amino acid substitutions that reduce leaky target gene expression to undetectable levels

    PubMed Central

    Roney, Ian J.; Rudner, Adam D.; Couture, Jean-François; Kærn, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Conditional gene expression systems that enable inducible and reversible transcriptional control are essential research tools and have broad applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. The reverse tetracycline transcriptional activator is a canonical system for engineered gene expression control that enables graded and gratuitous modulation of target gene transcription in eukaryotes from yeast to human cell lines and transgenic animals. However, the system has a tendency to activate transcription even in the absence of tetracycline and this leaky target gene expression impedes its use. Here, we identify single amino-acid substitutions that greatly enhance the dynamic range of the system in yeast by reducing leaky transcription to undetectable levels while retaining high expression capacity in the presence of inducer. While the mutations increase the inducer concentration required for full induction, additional sensitivity-enhancing mutations can compensate for this effect and confer a high degree of robustness to the system. The novel transactivator variants will be useful in applications where tight and tunable regulation of gene expression is paramount. PMID:27323850

  4. Two single amino acid substitutions in the intervening region of Newcastle disease virus HN protein attenuate viral replication and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Ji, Yanhong; Lin, Zhongqing; Fu, Yuguang; Muhammad Dafallah, Rihab; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Among the proteins encoded by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the attachment protein (HN) is an important determinant of virulence and pathogenicity. HN has been molecularly characterized at the protein level; however, the relationship between the molecular character of HN and the animal pathotype it causes has not been well explored. Here, we revisited the intervening region (IR) of the HN stalk and extended the known biological functions of HN. Three distinct substitutions (A89Q, P93A, and L94A) in the IR of genotype VII NDV (G7 strain) HN protein were analyzed. The A89Q and L94A mutations weakened the fusion promotion activity of HN to 44% and 41% of that of wild type, respectively, whereas P93A decreased the neuraminidase activity to 21% of the parental level. At the virus level, P93A and L94A-bearing viruses displayed impaired receptor recognition ability, neuraminidase activity, and fusion-promoting activity, all of which led to virus attenuation. In addition, the L94A-mutated virus showed a dramatic decline in replication and was attenuated in cells and in chickens. Our data demonstrate that the HN biological activities and functions modulated by these specific amino acids in the IR are associated with NDV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:26267791

  5. Designing inhibitors of cytochrome c/cardiolipin peroxidase complexes: mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianfei; Bakan, Ahmet; Kapralov, Alexandr A; Silva, K Ishara; Huang, Zhentai; Amoscato, Andrew A; Peterson, James; Garapati, Venkata Krishna; Saxena, Sunil; Bayir, Hülya; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Bahar, Ivet; Kagan, Valerian E

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the major regulatory platform responsible for the coordination of numerous metabolic reactions as well as cell death processes, whereby the execution of intrinsic apoptosis includes the production of reactive oxygen species fueling oxidation of cardiolipin (CL) catalyzed by cytochrome (Cyt) c. As this oxidation occurs within the peroxidase complex of Cyt c with CL, the latter represents a promising target for the discovery and design of drugs with antiapoptotic mechanisms of action. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new group of mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted analogs of stearic acid TPP-n-ISAs with various positions of the attached imidazole group on the fatty acid (n = 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14). By using a combination of absorption spectroscopy and EPR protocols (continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance and electron spin echo envelope modulation) we demonstrated that TPP-n-ISAs indeed were able to potently suppress CL-induced structural rearrangements in Cyt c, paving the way to its peroxidase competence. TPP-n-ISA analogs preserved the low-spin hexa-coordinated heme-iron state in Cyt c/CL complexes whereby TPP-6-ISA displayed a significantly more effective preservation pattern than TPP-14-ISA. Elucidation of these intermolecular stabilization mechanisms of Cyt c identified TPP-6-ISA as an effective inhibitor of the peroxidase function of Cyt c/CL complexes with a significant antiapoptotic potential realized in mouse embryonic cells exposed to ionizing irradiation. These experimental findings were detailed and supported by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the experimental data and computation predictions, we identified TPP-6-ISA as a candidate drug with optimized antiapoptotic potency.

  6. Designing Inhibitors of Cytochrome c/Cardiolipin Peroxidase Complexes: Mitochondria-Targeted Imidazole-Substituted Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianfei; Bakan, Ahmet; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Silva, K. Ishara; Huang, Zhentai; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Peterson, James; Garapati, Venkata Krishna; Saxena, Sunil; Bayir, Hülya; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Bahar, Ivet; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the major regulatory platform responsible for coordination of numerous metabolic reactions as well as cell death processes, whereby the execution of intrinsic apoptosis includes the production of reactive oxygen species fueling oxidation of cardiolipin (CL) catalyzed by cytochrome (cyt) c. As this oxidation occurs within the peroxidase complex of cyt c with CL, the latter represents a promising target for the discovery and design of drugs with anti-apoptotic mechanism of action. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new group of mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted analogues of stearic acid TPP-n-ISA with different positions of the attached imidazole group on the fatty acid (n=6, 8, 10, 13 and 14). By using a combination of absorption spectroscopy and EPR protocols (continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance, and electron spin echo envelope modulation) we demonstrated that TPP-n-ISA indeed were able to potently suppress CL induced structural re-arrangements in cyt c paving the way to its peroxidase competence. TPP-n-ISA analogues preserved the low spin hexa-coordinated heme iron state in cyt c/CL complexes whereby TPP-6-ISA displayed a significantly more effective preservation pattern than TPP-14-ISA. Elucidation of these intermolecular stabilization mechanisms of cyt c identified TPP-6-ISA as an effective inhibitor of the peroxidase function of cyt c/CL complexes with a significant anti-apoptotic potential realized in mouse embryonic cells exposed to ionizing irradiation. These experimental findings were detailed and supported by all atom molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the experimental data and computations predictions, we identified TPP-6-ISA as a candidate drug with optimized anti-apoptotic potency. PMID:24631490

  7. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 Null Mutant Shows Increased Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid, Salt, and Osmotic Stress in Germination and Post-germination Stages

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Ortega-Amaro, Maria A.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid (ABA). The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher ABA sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signaling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26941772

  8. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 Null Mutant Shows Increased Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid, Salt, and Osmotic Stress in Germination and Post-germination Stages.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A; Ortega-Amaro, Maria A; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid (ABA). The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher ABA sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signaling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26941772

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL. PMID:26820485

  10. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL.

  11. The same substitution, glutamic acid----lysine at position 501, occurs in three alloalbumins of Asiatic origin: albumins Vancouver, Birmingham, and Adana.

    PubMed Central

    Huss, K; Madison, J; Ishioka, N; Takahashi, N; Arai, K; Putnam, F W

    1988-01-01

    A strategy is described for identifying structural changes in genetic variants of human serum albumin (alloalbumins). By use of this strategy we have determined an amino acid substitution in three alloalbumins of Asiatic origin. The same amino acid exchange, glutamic acid----lysine at position 501, occurs in albumins Vancouver and Birmingham, both from families that migrated from northern India, and also in albumin Adana from Turkey. This exchange corresponds to a single base mutation in the codon GAG to AAG and accords with the slow mobility of the three albumins at pH 8.6. Each of the three alloalbumins had been reported to be a new variant, yet they have the same substitution. These results emphasize the need for structural study of genetic variants that have been differentiated only by nonspecific physical criteria such as dye binding and electrophoretic mobility. We know of no other description of the substitution involved in an alloalbumin originating from the Indian subcontinent. However, the same change of glutamic acid----lysine at position 501 may be present in several other named variants reported for populations in north India and the surrounding regions. Images PMID:2901102

  12. Development of a Nuclear Transformation System for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and Genetic Complementation of a Mutant Strain, Deficient in Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Shapira, Michal; Kaye, Yuval; Tourasse, Nicolas; Vallon, Olivier; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are considered a promising source for various high value products, such as carotenoids, ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The unicellular green alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa is an outstanding candidate for the efficient phototrophic production of arachidonic acid (AA), an essential ω-6 PUFA for infant brain development and a widely used ingredient in the baby formula industry. Although phototrophic production of such algal products has not yet been established, estimated costs are considered to be 2–5 times higher than competing heterotrophic production costs. This alga accumulates unprecedented amounts of AA within triacylglycerols and the molecular pathway of AA biosynthesis in L. incisa has been previously elucidated. Thus, progress in transformation and metabolic engineering of this high value alga could be exploited for increasing the efficient production of AA at competitive prices. We describe here the first successful transformation of L. incisa using the ble gene as a selection marker, under the control of the endogenous RBCS promoter. Furthermore, we have succeeded in the functional complementation of the L. incisa mutant strain P127, containing a mutated, inactive version of the delta-5 (Δ5) fatty acid desaturase gene. A copy of the functional Δ5 desaturase gene, linked to the ble selection marker, was transformed into the P127 mutant. The resulting transformants selected for zeocine resistant, had AA biosynthesis partially restored, indicating the functional complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type gene. The results of this study present a platform for the successful genetic engineering of L. incisa and its long-chain PUFA metabolism. PMID:25133787

  13. Rapid selection of nonhotspot mutants among hisD+ revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in Ames test by peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping.

    PubMed

    Takiya, Toshiyuki; Horie, Yoshiaki; Futo, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Kawai, Keiichi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    Ames test is the most popular method of assessing mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator. Recently, sequence analyses have been introduced for the investigation of mutation mechanisms. Most revertants (>70%) carry 2-bp deletion within an 8-bp CG repeat in hisD (hotspot mutation) in the Ames test using S. typhimurium TA98. We developed a new specific amplification method for nonhotspot mutants by peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping. It markedly reduces the labor and cost of this kind of studies. PMID:16233580

  14. Structural characterization of V57D and V57P mutants of human cystatin C, an amyloidogenic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Orlikowska, Marta; Szymańska, Aneta; Skowron, Piotr; Jankowska, Elżbieta

    2013-04-01

    Val57 point mutants of human cystatin C, which were designed to assess the influence of changes in the properties of the L1 loop on the dimerization propensity, were structurally characterized. Wild-type human cystatin C (hCC wt) is a low-molecular-mass protein (120 amino-acid residues, 13 343 Da) that is found in all nucleated cells. Physiologically, it functions as a potent regulator of cysteine protease activity. While the biologically active hCC wt is a monomeric protein, all crystallization efforts to date have resulted in a three-dimensional domain-swapped dimeric structure. In the recently published structure of a mutated hCC, the monomeric fold was preserved by a stabilization of the conformationally constrained loop L1 caused by a single amino-acid substitution: Val57Asn. Additional hCC mutants were obtained in order to elucidate the relationship between the stability of the L1 loop and the propensity of human cystatin C to dimerize. In one mutant Val57 was substituted by an aspartic acid residue, which is favoured in β-turns, and in the second mutant proline, a residue known for broadening turns, was substituted for the same Val57. Here, 2.26 and 3.0 Å resolution crystal structures of the V57D andV57P mutants of hCC are reported and their dimeric architecture is discussed in terms of the stabilization and destabilization effects of the introduced mutations.

  15. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  16. Properties of a recombinant human hemoglobin with aspartic acid 99(beta), an important intersubunit contact site, substituted by lysine.

    PubMed Central

    Yanase, H.; Cahill, S.; Martin de Llano, J. J.; Manning, L. R.; Schneider, K.; Chait, B. T.; Vandegriff, K. D.; Winslow, R. M.; Manning, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of an important subunit contact site, Asp-99(beta), by a Lys residue (D99K(beta)) was proven by sequencing the entire beta-globin gene and the mutant tryptic peptide. Oxygen equilibrium curves of the mutant hemoglobin (Hb) (2-15 mM in heme) indicated that it had an increased oxygen affinity and a lowered but significant amount of cooperativity compared to native HbA. However, in contrast to normal HbA, oxygen binding of the recombinant mutant Hb was only marginally affected by the allosteric regulators 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or inositol hexaphosphate and was not at all responsive to chloride. The efficiency of oxygen binding by HbA in the presence of allosteric regulators was limited by the mutant Hb. At concentrations of 0.2 mM or lower in heme, the mutant D99K(beta) Hb was predominantly a dimer as demonstrated by gel filtration, haptoglobin binding, fluorescence quenching, and light scattering. The purified dimeric recombinant Hb mutant exists in 2 forms that are separable on isoelectric focusing by about 0.1 pH unit, in contrast to tetrameric hemoglobin, which shows 1 band. These mutant forms, which were present in a ratio of 60:40, had the same masses for their heme and globin moieties as determined by mass spectrometry. The elution positions of the alpha- and beta-globin subunits on HPLC were identical. Circular dichroism studies showed that one form of the mutant Hb had a negative ellipticity at 410 nm and the other had positive ellipticity at this wavelength. The findings suggest that the 2 D99K(beta) recombinant mutant forms have differences in their heme-protein environments. PMID:7987216

  17. A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar; Raddatz, Natalia; Aman, Rashid; Kim, Songmi; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Jan, Masood; Baek, Dongwon; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Oh, Dong-Ha; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A; Lee, Keun Woo; Maggio, Albino; Pardo, Jose M; Bohnert, Hans J; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-07-01

    A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na(+) from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K(+) transporter in the presence of Na(+) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1(N-D)) complemented K(+)-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1(N) (-) (D) and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than lines complemented by the wild-type AtHKT1 Electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the functional properties of these transporters and the differential selectivity for Na(+) and K(+) based on the n/d variance in the pore region. This change also dictated inward-rectification for Na(+) transport. Thus, the introduction of Asp, replacing Asn, in HKT1-type transporters established altered cation selectivity and uptake dynamics. We describe one way, based on a single change in a crucial protein that enabled some crucifer species to acquire improved salt tolerance, which over evolutionary time may have resulted in further changes that ultimately facilitated colonization of saline habitats.

  18. A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Akhtar; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Jan, Masood; Baek, Dongwon; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Oh, Dong-Ha; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A.; Lee, Keun Woo; Maggio, Albino; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na+ from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K+ transporter in the presence of Na+ in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T. salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1N-D) complemented K+-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1N-D and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than lines complemented by the wild-type AtHKT1. Electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the functional properties of these transporters and the differential selectivity for Na+ and K+ based on the n/d variance in the pore region. This change also dictated inward-rectification for Na+ transport. Thus, the introduction of Asp, replacing Asn, in HKT1-type transporters established altered cation selectivity and uptake dynamics. We describe one way, based on a single change in a crucial protein that enabled some crucifer species to acquire improved salt tolerance, which over evolutionary time may have resulted in further changes that ultimately facilitated colonization of saline habitats. PMID:27208305

  19. A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar; Raddatz, Natalia; Aman, Rashid; Kim, Songmi; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Jan, Masood; Baek, Dongwon; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Oh, Dong-Ha; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A; Lee, Keun Woo; Maggio, Albino; Pardo, Jose M; Bohnert, Hans J; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-07-01

    A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na(+) from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K(+) transporter in the presence of Na(+) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1(N-D)) complemented K(+)-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1(N) (-) (D) and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than lines complemented by the wild-type AtHKT1 Electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the functional properties of these transporters and the differential selectivity for Na(+) and K(+) based on the n/d variance in the pore region. This change also dictated inward-rectification for Na(+) transport. Thus, the introduction of Asp, replacing Asn, in HKT1-type transporters established altered cation selectivity and uptake dynamics. We describe one way, based on a single change in a crucial protein that enabled some crucifer species to acquire improved salt tolerance, which over evolutionary time may have resulted in further changes that ultimately facilitated colonization of saline habitats. PMID:27208305

  20. A Computational Study of Cytotoxicity of Substituted Amides of Pyrazine- 2-carboxylic acids Using QSAR and DFT Based Molecular Surface Electrostatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sharieh; Monajjemi, Majid; Rajaeian, Elahe; Haghgu, Mohammad; Salari, Aliakbar; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Pyrazine derivatives are important class of compounds with diverse biological and cytotoxic activities and clinical applications. In this study, B3 p 86 / 6 – 31 + + G * was used to compute and map the molecular surface electrostatic potentials of a group of substituted amides of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids to identify common features related to their subsequent cytotoxicities. Several statistical properties including potentials extrema (Vs ,min,Vs ,max), the average of positive electrostatic potential on the surface (Vs+), the average of V(r) over the surface (Vs) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) and system cytotoxicities were computed. Statistically, the most significant correlation is a five -parameter equation with correlation coefficient, R² values of 0.922 and R²adj = 0.879. The obtained models allowed us to reveal cytotoxic activity of substituted amides of Pyrazine2- carboxcylic acid. PMID:24523754

  1. Efficient continuous-flow synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole-substituted β-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid derivatives with gram-scale production

    PubMed Central

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Georgiádes, Ádám; Mándity, István M; Kiss, Lóránd

    2013-01-01

    Summary The preparation of novel multi-substituted 1,2,3-triazole-modified β-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid derivatives in a simple and efficient continuous-flow procedure is reported. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions were performed with copper powder as a readily accessible Cu(I) source. Initially, high reaction rates were achieved under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions. Subsequently, the reaction temperature was lowered to room temperature by the joint use of both basic and acidic additives to improve the safety of the synthesis, as azides were to be handled as unstable reactants. Scale-up experiments were also performed, which led to the achievement of gram-scale production in a safe and straightforward way. The obtained 1,2,3-triazole-substituted β-aminocyclohexanecarboxylates can be regarded as interesting precursors for drugs with possible biological effects. PMID:23946850

  2. Identification of trans-dominant HIV-1 rev protein mutants by direct transfer of bacterially produced proteins into human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mermer, B; Felber, B K; Campbell, M; Pavlakis, G N

    1990-01-01

    A synthetic rev gene containing substitutions which introduced unique restriction sites but did not alter the deduced amino acid sequence was used as a vehicle to construct mutations in rev. Insertion or substitution mutations within a domain of Rev resulted in proteins able to inhibit the function of Rev protein in trans. Rev function was monitored in a cell line, HLfB, which contained a rev- mutant provirus. HLfB cells require the presence of rev for virus production, which was conveniently monitored by immunoblot detection of p24gag. Trans-dominant mutants were identified after expression in bacteria and delivery into HLfB cells by protoplast fusion. In addition, the trans-dominant phenotype was verified by expression of the mutant proteins in HLfB cells after cotransfection. These studies define a region between amino acid residues 81 and 88 of rev, in which different mutations result in proteins capable of inhibiting Rev function. Images PMID:2186373

  3. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues.

  4. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues. PMID:26454048

  5. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  6. Characterization of epitopes on the rabies virus glycoprotein by selection and analysis of escape mutants.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Firouzeh; Wandeler, Alexander I; Nadin-Davis, Susan A

    2016-07-15

    The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV). No escape mutants were generated from either of the bat-associated viral variants but two neutralization mutants were derived from the WSKV isolate. Seven independent ERA mutants were recovered using Mabs directed against antigenic sites I (four mutants) and IIIa (three mutants) of the glycoprotein. The cross-neutralization patterns of these viral mutants were used to determine the precise location and nature of the G protein epitopes recognized by these Mabs. Nucleotide sequencing of the G gene indicated that those mutants derived using Mabs directed to antigenic site (AS) III all contained amino acid substitutions in this site. However, of the four mutants selected with AS I Mabs, two bore mutations within AS I as expected while the remaining two carried mutations in AS II. WSKV mutants exhibited mutations at the sites appropriate for the Mabs used in their selection. All ERA mutant preparations were more cytopathogenic than the parental virus when propagated in cell culture; when in vivo pathogenicity in mice was examined, three of these mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity while the remaining four mutants exhibited comparable pathogenic properties to those of the parent virus. PMID:27132040

  7. The role of local and remote amino acid substitutions for optimizing fluorescence in bacteriophytochromes: A case study on iRFP

    PubMed Central

    Buhrke, David; Velazquez Escobar, Francisco; Sauthof, Luisa; Wilkening, Svea; Herder, Nico; Tavraz, Neslihan N.; Willoweit, Mario; Keidel, Anke; Utesch, Tillmann; Mroginski, Maria-Andrea; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Hildebrandt, Peter; Friedrich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophytochromes are promising tools for tissue microscopy and imaging due to their fluorescence in the near-infrared region. These applications require optimization of the originally low fluorescence quantum yields via genetic engineering. Factors that favour fluorescence over other non-radiative excited state decay channels are yet poorly understood. In this work we employed resonance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to analyse the consequences of multiple amino acid substitutions on fluorescence of the iRFP713 benchmark protein. Two groups of mutations distinguishing iRFP from its precursor, the PAS-GAF domain of the bacteriophytochrome P2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, have qualitatively different effects on the biliverdin cofactor, which exists in a fluorescent (state II) and a non-fluorescent conformer (state I). Substitution of three critical amino acids in the chromophore binding pocket increases the intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield of state II from 1.7 to 5.0% due to slight structural changes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Whereas these changes are accompanied by an enrichment of state II from ~40 to ~50%, a major shift to ~88% is achieved by remote amino acid substitutions. Additionally, an increase of the intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield of this conformer by ~34% is achieved. The present results have important implications for future design strategies of biofluorophores. PMID:27329837

  8. The role of local and remote amino acid substitutions for optimizing fluorescence in bacteriophytochromes: A case study on iRFP.

    PubMed

    Buhrke, David; Velazquez Escobar, Francisco; Sauthof, Luisa; Wilkening, Svea; Herder, Nico; Tavraz, Neslihan N; Willoweit, Mario; Keidel, Anke; Utesch, Tillmann; Mroginski, Maria-Andrea; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Hildebrandt, Peter; Friedrich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophytochromes are promising tools for tissue microscopy and imaging due to their fluorescence in the near-infrared region. These applications require optimization of the originally low fluorescence quantum yields via genetic engineering. Factors that favour fluorescence over other non-radiative excited state decay channels are yet poorly understood. In this work we employed resonance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to analyse the consequences of multiple amino acid substitutions on fluorescence of the iRFP713 benchmark protein. Two groups of mutations distinguishing iRFP from its precursor, the PAS-GAF domain of the bacteriophytochrome P2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, have qualitatively different effects on the biliverdin cofactor, which exists in a fluorescent (state II) and a non-fluorescent conformer (state I). Substitution of three critical amino acids in the chromophore binding pocket increases the intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield of state II from 1.7 to 5.0% due to slight structural changes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Whereas these changes are accompanied by an enrichment of state II from ~40 to ~50%, a major shift to ~88% is achieved by remote amino acid substitutions. Additionally, an increase of the intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield of this conformer by ~34% is achieved. The present results have important implications for future design strategies of biofluorophores. PMID:27329837

  9. Interaction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) mutant proteins with interleukin-2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, S.M.; Lee, N.; Chollet, A.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have previously produced several human IL-2 mutant proteins by site specific mutagenesis. Deletion or substitution of alanine for cysteine at positions 58 and 105 results in the decrease of biological activities. Substitution of serine for cysteine at position 125 does not affect the activity, however, deletion of this cysteine or amino acids in its vicinity causes a dramatic loss of activity. In this study, the interaction of these mutant proteins with IL-2 receptors has been analyzed by evaluating the competition between these mutant proteins and recombinant DNA derived IL-2 (rIL-2) for the binding to murine CTLL-2, an IL-2 dependent cell line. Addition of unlabeled rIL-2 (1 x 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -7/M) inhibited the binding of I/sup 125/-labeled rIL-2 (1 x 10/sup -10/M, specific activity 39.6 uCi/mg) to CTLL-2 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Mutant proteins with substitution of alanine for cysteine at position 58 (Ala 58) or deletion of cysteine at position 125 (Des-Cys 125) required a 100-fold higher concentration than rIL-2 to reach 50% inhibition. These results indicate that the decrease of biological activity in mutant proteins is partly, if not primarily, due to the attenuation in their abilities to bind IL-2 receptors.

  10. Amino acid substitutions in malate dehydrogenases of piezophilic bacteria isolated from intestinal contents of deep-sea fishes retrieved from the abyssal zone.

    PubMed

    Saito, Rie; Kato, Chiaki; Nakayama, Akihiko

    2006-02-01

    To examine the occurrence in other deep-sea bacteria of two amino acid substitutions (Ala-180 and His-229) in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) found previously in the deep-sea piezophilic Moritella sp. strain 2D2, we cloned and sequenced MDH genes of deep-sea piezophilic Moritella and Shewanella strains isolated from intestinal contents of deep-sea fishes, as well as other Moritella species from deep-sea water and sediments: M. marina, M. japonica, and M. yayanosii. The piezophilic Moritella strains had a Val residue or an Ala residue at position 180 and all the Moritella strains except for one had a His residue at position 229. However, four piezophilic-strain-specific substitutions at positions 103, 111, 229, and 283 were found to be completely conserved in the MDH of the intestinal Moritella strains of deep-sea fishes, indicating the substitutions may be habitat-specific. The piezophilic Shewanella strains had a Val residue and a Gln residue at positions 180 and 229, respectively. However, the MDHs of the Shewanella strains had five piezophilic-strain-specific substitutions at positions 61, 65, 107, 161, and 202. Therefore, the enzymatic strategies for responding to deep-sea high pressure environments of the MDHs between the genera Moritella and Shewanella are potentially different. Moreover, homology modeling shows these substitutions found in the MDHs of both genera except for position 229 in the subunit interface are located on the exposed region of the MDH molecules, indicating the substitutions may be related to the hydration state of the molecules. PMID:16598154

  11. Sulfonic acid functionalized nano-γ-Al2O3: a new, efficient, and reusable catalyst for synthesis of 3-substituted-2H-1,4-benzothiazines.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Lin; Tian, Shuan Bao; Zhu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient synthetic protocol has been developed for the synthesis of 3-substituted-2H-1,4-benzothiazines by using a novel sulfonic acid functionalized nano-γ-Al2O3 catalyst, devoid of corrosive acidic, and basic reagents. The developed method has the advantages of good to excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, and a recyclable catalyst. The catalyst can be prepared by a simple procedure from inexpensive and readily available nano-γ-Al2O3 and has been shown to be recoverable and reusable up to six cycles without any loss of activity.

  12. Identification of acidic and aromatic residues in the Zta activation domain essential for Epstein-Barr virus reactivation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z; Chen, C J; Zerby, D; Delecluse, H J; Lieberman, P M

    2001-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle transcription and DNA replication require the transcriptional activation function of the viral immediate-early protein Zta. We describe a series of alanine substitution mutations in the Zta activation domain that reveal two functional motifs based on amino acid composition. Alanine substitution of single or paired hydrophobic aromatic amino acid residues resulted in modest transcription activation defects, while combining four substitutions of aromatic residues (F22/F26/W74/F75) led to more severe transcription defects. Substitution of acidic amino acid residue E27, D35, or E54 caused severe transcription defects on most viral promoters. Promoter- and cell-specific defects were observed for some substitution mutants. Aromatic residues were required for Zta interaction with TFIIA-TFIID and the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and for stimulation of CBP histone acetyltransferase activity in vitro. In contrast, acidic amino acid substitution mutants interacted with TFIIA-TFIID and CBP indistinguishably from the wild type. The nuclear domain 10 (ND10) protein SP100 was dispersed by most Zta mutants, but acidic residue mutations led to reduced, while aromatic substitution mutants led to increased SP100 nuclear staining. Acidic residue substitution mutants had more pronounced defects in transcription activation of endogenous viral genes in latently infected cells and for viral replication, as measured by the production of infectious virus. One mutant, K12/F13, was incapable of stimulating EBV lytic replication but had only modest transcription defects. These results indicate that Zta stimulates viral reactivation through two nonredundant structural motifs, one of which interacts with general transcription factors and coactivators, and the other has an essential but as yet not understood function in lytic transcription.

  13. Increased valinomycin production in mutants of Streptomyces sp. M10 defective in bafilomycin biosynthesis and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wan; Ng, Bee Gek; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-11-01

    Streptomyces sp. M10 is a valinomycin-producing bacterial strain that shows potent bioactivity against Botrytis blight of cucumber plants. During studies to increase the yield of valinomycin (a cyclododecadepsipeptide) in strain M10, additional antifungal metabolites, including bafilomycin derivatives (macrolide antibiotics), were identified. To examine the effect of bafilomycin biosynthesis on valinomycin production, the bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was cloned from the genome of strain M10, as were two branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) gene clusters related to precursor supply for bafilomycin biosynthesis. A null mutant (M10bafm) of one bafilomycin biosynthetic gene (bafV) failed to produce bafilomycin, but resulted in a 1.2- to 1.5-fold increase in the amount of valinomycin produced. In another null mutant (M10bkdFm) of a gene encoding a subunit of the BCDH complex (bkdF), bafilomycin production was completely abolished and valinomycin production increased fourfold relative to that in the wild-type M10 strain. The higher valinomycin yield was likely the result of redistribution of the metabolic flux from bafilomycin to valinomycin biosynthesis, because the two antibiotics share a common precursor, 2-ketoisovaleric acid, a deamination product of valine. The results show that directing precursor flux toward active ingredient biosynthesis could be used as a prospective tool to increase the competence of biofungicides.

  14. Identification of the plasma membrane H+-biotin symporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by rescue of a fatty acid-auxotrophic mutant.

    PubMed

    Stolz, J; Hoja, U; Meier, S; Sauer, N; Schweizer, E

    1999-06-25

    Bakers' yeast is auxotrophic for biotin (vitamin H) and depends on the efficient uptake of this compound from the environment. A mutant strain with strongly reduced biotin uptake and with reduced levels of protein biotinylation was identified. The strain was auxotrophic for long-chain fatty acids, and this auxotrophy could be suppressed with high levels of biotin in the medium. After transformation of this mutant with a yeast genomic library, the unassigned open reading frame YGR065C was identified to complement this mutation. This gene codes for a protein with 593 amino acids and 12 putative transmembrane helices. Northern blot analysis revealed that, in wild-type cells, the corresponding mRNA levels were increased at low biotin concentrations. Likewise, cellular biotin uptake was increased with decreasing biotin availability. Expression of YGR065C under the control of the constitutive ADH1 promoter resulted in very high biotin transport rates across the plasma membrane that were no longer regulated by the biotin concentration in the growth medium. We conclude that YGR065C encodes the first biotin transporter identified for a non-mammalian organism and designate this gene VHT1 for vitamin H transporter 1. PMID:10373489

  15. Asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted β-lactones through oxidative carbene catalysis with LiCl as cooperative Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Bera, Srikrishna; Samanta, Ramesh C; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Studer, Armido

    2014-09-01

    The reaction of enals with β-diketones, β-ketoesters, and malonates bearing a β-oxyalkyl substituent at the α-position by oxidative NHC catalysis to provide highly substituted β-lactones is described. Reactions occur with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The organo cascade comprises two CC bond formations and one CO bond formation. Up to four contiguous stereogenic centers including two fully substituted stereocenters are formed in the cascade.

  16. Comparison of three chiral stationary phases with respect to their enantio- and diastereoselectivity for cyclic beta-substituted alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Schlauch, Michael; Kos, Olha; Frahm, August W

    2002-01-15

    Three chiral stationary phases were examined for the enantio- and diastereoseparation of cycloaliphatic beta-substituted alpha-quaternary alpha-amino acids. Resolution of diastereomeric analytes is feasible with a chiral crown ether based column, whereas the separation of enantiomers, except for one pair of amino acids, could not be achieved. The two chiral stationary phases with the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin and with the copper(II)-D-penicillamine complex, respectively, are, however, both very potent in the separation of the enantiomeric, as well as of the diastereomeric amino acids. A baseline separation of all four stereoisomeric forms in one chromatographic run was possible with the exception of one type of amino acid. The results of the method development are presented in this paper.

  17. Determination of small halogenated carboxylic acid residues in drug substances by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection following derivatization with nitro-substituted phenylhydrazines.

    PubMed

    Hou, Desheng; Fan, Jingjing; Han, Lingfei; Ruan, Xiaoling; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Zheng, Feng

    2016-03-18

    A method for the determination of small halogenated carboxylic acid (HCA) residues in drug substances is urgently needed because of the potential of HCAs for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. We have now developed a simple method, involving derivatization followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), for the determination of six likely residual HCAs (monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, 2-chloropropionic acid, 2-bromopropionic acid and 3-chloropropionic acid) in drug substances. Different nitro-substituted phenylhydrazines (NPHs) derivatization reagents were systematically compared and evaluated. 2-Nitrophenylhydrazine hydrochloride (2-NPH·HCl) was selected as the most suitable choice since its derivatives absorb strongly at 392 nm, a region of the spectrum where most drug substances and impurities absorb very weakly. During the derivatization process, the commonly used catalyst, pyridine, caused rapid dechlorination or chlorine substitution of α-halogenated derivatives. To avoid these unwanted side reactions, a reliable derivatization method that did not use pyridine was developed. Reaction with 2-NPH·HCl using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride as coupling agent in acetonitrile-water (70:30) at room temperature for 2h gave complete reaction and avoided degradation products. The derivatives were analyzed, without any pretreatment, using gradient HPLC with detection in the near visible region. Organic acids commonly found in drug substances and other impurities did not interfere with the analysis. Good linearity (r>0.999) and low limits of quantitation (0.05-0.12 μg mL(-1)) were obtained. The mean recoveries were in the range of 80-115% with RSD <5.81% except for 3-CPA in ibuprofen which was 78.5%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were expressed as RSD <1.98% and <4.39%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for the residue

  18. Determination of small halogenated carboxylic acid residues in drug substances by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection following derivatization with nitro-substituted phenylhydrazines.

    PubMed

    Hou, Desheng; Fan, Jingjing; Han, Lingfei; Ruan, Xiaoling; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Zheng, Feng

    2016-03-18

    A method for the determination of small halogenated carboxylic acid (HCA) residues in drug substances is urgently needed because of the potential of HCAs for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. We have now developed a simple method, involving derivatization followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), for the determination of six likely residual HCAs (monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, 2-chloropropionic acid, 2-bromopropionic acid and 3-chloropropionic acid) in drug substances. Different nitro-substituted phenylhydrazines (NPHs) derivatization reagents were systematically compared and evaluated. 2-Nitrophenylhydrazine hydrochloride (2-NPH·HCl) was selected as the most suitable choice since its derivatives absorb strongly at 392 nm, a region of the spectrum where most drug substances and impurities absorb very weakly. During the derivatization process, the commonly used catalyst, pyridine, caused rapid dechlorination or chlorine substitution of α-halogenated derivatives. To avoid these unwanted side reactions, a reliable derivatization method that did not use pyridine was developed. Reaction with 2-NPH·HCl using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride as coupling agent in acetonitrile-water (70:30) at room temperature for 2h gave complete reaction and avoided degradation products. The derivatives were analyzed, without any pretreatment, using gradient HPLC with detection in the near visible region. Organic acids commonly found in drug substances and other impurities did not interfere with the analysis. Good linearity (r>0.999) and low limits of quantitation (0.05-0.12 μg mL(-1)) were obtained. The mean recoveries were in the range of 80-115% with RSD <5.81% except for 3-CPA in ibuprofen which was 78.5%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were expressed as RSD <1.98% and <4.39%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for the residue

  19. An In silico Based Comparison of Drug Interactions in Wild and Mutant Human β-tubulin through Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chellasamy, Selvaakumar; Mohammed, Sudheer M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tubulin protein being the fundamental unit of microtubules is actively involved in cell division thus making them a potential anti-cancer drug target. In spite of many reported drugs against tubulin, few of them have started developing resistance in human β-tubulin due to amino acid substitutions. Methods In this study we generated three mutants (F270V, A364T and Q292E) using Modeller9v10 which were targeted with compounds from higher and lower plants along with marine isolates using iGEMDOCK2.0 to identify their residual interactions. Results The mutant F270V does not bring in any increase in the binding affinity in comparison with the taxol-wild type due to their conservative substitutions. However, it increases the volume of the active site. A364T mutant brings a better binding among few of the marine and higher plants isolates due to the substitution of the non-reactive methyl group with the polar residue. But this leads to reduced active site volume. Finally the mutant Q292E from epothilone binding site brings a remarkable change in drug binding in the mutants in comparison with the wild type due to the substitution of uncharged residue with the charged one. But as such there was no change in the volume of the active site observed in them. Conclusion Lower plants extracts were reported to exhibit better interactions with the taxol and epothilone binding sites. Whereas marine and higher plants isolates shows significant interactions only in the wild type instead of the mutants. In addition to this, the residual substitutions were also found to alter the conformations of the active sites in mutants PMID:24834310

  20. Nitrogenase-catalyzed ethane production and CO-sensitive hydrogen evolution from MoFe proteins having amino acid substitutions in an alpha-subunit FeMo cofactor-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Scott, D J; Dean, D R; Newton, W E

    1992-10-01

    Unlike wild type, certain Mo-dependent nitrogenases, which are expressed in non-N2-fixing mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii and have single amino acid substitutions within a region of the MoFe protein alpha-subunit proposed to encompass an FeMo cofactor-binding domain, are able to catalyze the reduction of acetylene by both two and four electrons to yield ethylene and ethane, respectively (Scott, D. J., May, H. D., Newton, W. E., Brigle, K. E., and Dean, D. R. (1990) Nature 343, 188-190). Although the V-dependent nitrogenase is also able to catalyze the reduction of acetylene to the same two- and four-electron products (Dilworth, M. J., Eady, R. R., Robson, R. L., and Miller, R. W. (1987) Nature 327, 167-168), we find that ethane formation from acetylene catalyzed by the altered Mo-dependent nitrogenases occurs by a different mechanism, which is distinguished by: (i) an increased sensitivity to CO; (ii) the absence of a lag; and (iii) no temperature dependence of product distribution among ethylene and ethane during acetylene reduction. An altered MoFe protein, which was purified from one such mutant strain having the alpha-subunit glutaminyl 191 residue substituted by lysyl, exhibited both a changed S = 3/2 EPR spectrum and changes in the distribution of electrons to various products when compared to wild type. Also, unlike wild type, this altered MoFe protein catalyzed proton reduction that is inhibited by carbon monoxide (CO). Because proton reduction catalyzed by a nitrogenase that has a FeMo cofactor with citrate rather than homocitrate as its organic constituent (Liang, J., Madden, M., Shah, V. K., and Burris, R. H. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 8577-8581) is also inhibited by CO, the possibility arose that changes in the polypeptide environment of FeMo cofactor might have caused a rearrangement in its molecular structure or composition. However, this possibility was ruled out by biochemical reconstitution studies (using FeMo cofactor isolated from both the